WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic crude garlic-feeding

  1. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  2. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  3. The IgG antibody reactivity of sera from patients with active chronic hepatitis to a crude liver antigen and liver specific protein (LSP): analysis by ELISA and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, U; Heigl, Z; Sundqvist, K G

    1988-11-01

    The antibody reactivity to liver specific protein (LSP) and a crude liver antigen of sera from patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) were studied along with other related diseases and healthy individuals. CAH sera containing liver reacting antibodies were selected using an ELISA with a crude liver preparation as antigen and subsequently the specificity was analysed by immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE-separated LSP. The incidence of IgG antibodies to the crude liver antigen and LSP in sera from 15 patients with CAH was 94% and 55% respectively. In the healthy control group (n = 30) the corresponding figures were 3% and 17%. Sera from patients with other autoimmune conditions with considerable reactivity in the crude liver ELISA test were those with antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) and thyroid gland antigens, while the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) group as a whole did not differ from the control group. In immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE-separated crude liver and LSP antigens, the IgG binding pattern of ELISA IgG positive CAH sera and sera from patients with thyroid disease was distinct, with bands corresponding to antigens of molecular weights of 38, 45 and 50 kD which were not observed in ELISA negative CAH sera or in sera from patients with other diseases and among healthy controls.

  4. Chronic effects of non-weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on development of larvae of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Chris J; Stefansson, Emily S; Pargee, Suzanne M; Blunt, Susanna M; Gage, Susan J; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae to the water-accommodated fractions of fresh and weathered oils collected from the Deepwater Horizon incident, with and without additions of the dispersant Corexit 9500A, as well as to solutions of Corexit alone. Both shell growth of larvae exposed to test materials for a period of 10 d and larval settlement after 28 d of exposure were the most sensitive endpoints, with the 10-d growth endpoint being less variable among replicates. Growth and settlement endpoints were more sensitive than larval survival and normal development after 10 d and 28 d. Acute-to-chronic ratios calculated in the present study suggest that acute toxicities of oils and dispersant for oysters are not predictive of chronic effect levels for growth and settlement; therefore, chronic bioassays are necessary to assess these sublethal effects, in addition to standard 48-h acute toxicity tests. Comparison of 10% effective concentration (EC10) values for chronic 10-d growth and 28-d settlement endpoints with concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (a marker for Corexit) in seawater samples, collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, indicated it was unlikely that elevated concentrations of water-soluble fractions of oil and dispersant in the nearshore environment had significant adverse effects on the growth and settlement of eastern oyster larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2029-2040. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  6. Crude glycerin in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  7. Crude glycerin for monogastrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  8. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  9. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  10. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Text size: s m l xl Crude Oil Spills and Health Overviews Health Information Coping with Disasters ... U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife Environmental Quality: Oil Spill Preparation and ...

  11. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  12. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.1010 Section 29.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a...

  13. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  14. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  15. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  16. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  17. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  18. 7 CFR 29.6009 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.6009 Section 29.6009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6009 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. (See Rule 15.)...

  19. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  20. New crude oils from Caspian Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmykhova, N.M.; Krylova, S.M.; Arenbrister, L.P.; Kolevatova, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    In this article the authors are reporting data on the characteristics of crude oils from new fields of the North Emba oil district (Zhanazhol, Kozhasaya, Karachaganak) and old fields in this same district (Kenkiyak, Kara-Tyube), and also the Tengiz field, which was discovered in the South Emba district. During the last few years, twenty samples of crude oils and condensates from these fields have been investigated at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Processing (VNII NP). Characteristics of some of these crudes are listed.

  1. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  2. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  3. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  4. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  5. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Motoyoshi; Sekita, Setsuko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 5} cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 10{sup 3} for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 10{sup 2} for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  7. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  8. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... alcohol abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute ... chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be a factor in some cases. ...

  9. CNPC's Crude Production Maintained Steady Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Mature oilfields report steady output rises despite reserves decline Ghina's largest oil base Daqing Oilfield has fulfilled its production target by stabilizing its crude oil output above 40 million tons in the past year,although its reserves have been on the decline.Its 2008 crude oil production stood at 40.2 million tons,which was the smallest in three years if compared to the 41.7 million tons in 2007 and 43.41 million tons in 2006.But its 2008 natural gas output hit 2.76 billion cubic meters,up 8.241 percent from the 2.55 billion cubic meters in 2007.

  10. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  11. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  12. Utilization of crude glycerin in nonruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refined glycerin is a colorless, viscous liquid, containing approximately 99% glycerin; and a metabolizable energy per kilogram of approximately 3,850 and 3,700 kcal for swine and poultry, respectively. The crude glycerin co-product generated from biodiesel production facilities, in contrast, ranges...

  13. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  14. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  15. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  16. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  17. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  18. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  19. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  20. Use programmable controllers on crude trunklines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. (Square D Co. (US))

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the use of programmable controllers on a 530-mi. 10-in., bidirectional crude oil trunkline linking Midland and Port Arthur, Texas. It has 14 pump stations and one control center. Amdel, constructed in 1926, allows injection/exit points at Port Arthur, Hearne, Bronte, Forsan, big Spring and Midland, Texas. A 6 MHz analog microwave backbone supplies the communications between the remote pump stations and the control center.

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CRUDE OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌杰; 李新宇

    1994-01-01

    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  2. Understanding crude oil import demand behaviour in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marbuah, George

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil importation is a major drain on the economy of Ghana, yet no study has attempted to analyse the determinants of crude oil imports. This paper brings to the fore an understanding of the key drivers of crude oil import demand. Using the autoregressive distributed lag modelling framework (ARDL), we estimate variant short-run and long-run import demand models for crude oil using time series data over the period 1980-2012. The results show that demand for crude oil is price inelastic in ...

  3. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  4. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  5. Properties of Tahe crude oil and influence of separation components on crude oil viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaogang, Chen; Hongjun, Deng [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Meiqin, Lin [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email: guojx002@163.com

    2010-07-01

    The Tahe oil field in Xinjiang produces oil from depths of 5500m to 7000m whose temperatures range from 128 to 140 Celsius. The formation waters have a high salinity. To determine the major factors that contribute to the viscosity of the oil, such as saturate, aromatic resin, and asphaltene, a variety of techniques were used. Measurements were done using IR, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis (EDX), elemental analysis, and ICP techniques. It was found, as predicted, that the viscosity of the crude oil decreased with increase of the temperature. However, different types of crude oil have various levels of temperature-sensitive turning points. The Tahe oil fields have a higher turning point due to the asphaltene and resins. To conduct the experiment the Tahe crude AD11 was separated into oil fractions using toluene as the solvent. It was concluded that the asphaltene has the greatest impact on viscosity.

  6. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  7. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  8. Kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, T.; Hussein, I.A.; Fogler, H.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils was investigated using n-alkane precipitants. Recent studies have shown that there is a kinetic phenomenon associated with asphaltene precipitation. This study showed that the time needed to precipitate the asphaltenes can vary from a few minutes to several months, depending on the amount of n-alkane precipitant added. As such, the onset of asphaltene precipitation is a function of the concentration of precipitant and time. A technique to quantify the amount of asphaltenes precipitated as a function of time and precipitant concentration was presented. This study also investigated the kinetic effects caused by various precipitants. Optical microscopy was used to monitor the growth of asphaltene aggregates with time. Refractive index measurements provided further insight into the kinetics of asphaltene precipitation. Polarity based fractionation and dielectric constant measurements were used to compare the nature of asphaltenes precipitated early in the precipitation process with the asphaltenes precipitated at later times. It was concluded that asphaltenes precipitating at different times from the same crude oil-precipitant mixture are different from one another. 3 refs.

  9. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. (Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  10. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  11. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  12. Yemen's light, sweet Alif crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-23

    Crude oil from Yemen's Alif field has been assayed. The light sweet crude, also known as Marib, is part of the Marib al-Jawf concession in northern Yemen. Alif field was discovered in 1984 by Hunt Oil Co. The field was declared commercial in November 1985. Alif production averaged 118,500 b/d in 1992. Physical and chemical properties are listed for the whole crude and its fractions.

  13. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  14. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  15. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  16. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen

    2006-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  17. Calcium Uptake in Crude Tissue Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Philip A.; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The various isoforms of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) are responsible for the Ca2+ uptake from the cytosol into the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). In some tissues, the activity of SERCA can be modulated by binding partners, such as phospholamban and sarcolipin. The activity of SERCA can be characterized by its apparent affinity for Ca2+ as well as maximal enzymatic velocity. Both parameters can be effectively determined by the protocol described here. Specifically, we describe the measurement of the rate of oxalate-facilitated 45Ca uptake into the SR of crude mouse ventricular homogenates. This protocol can easily be adapted for different tissues and animal models as well as cultured cells. PMID:26695031

  18. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption.

  19. Building a Consensus Forecast for Crude Oil Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    recommendations for follow-on research. 4 II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter begins with a review of the history of crude oil production beginning...import supply curves Domestic crude oil production Domestic natural gas liquids production Domestic gas-to-liquids production Domestic coal-to-liquids

  20. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat

  1. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  2. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  3. WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN VISCOUS CRUDE PROCESSING IN SHENGLI OILFIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  4. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Strategy of the Comprehensive Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude The further study on the properties and characteristics of the naphthenic base heavy crude shows that the utilization of naphthenic acid, production of low freezing point lube stocks and a series of asphalts are important future trends for comprehensive utilization of these resources.

  5. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  6. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  7. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  9. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  10. Waxes and asphaltenes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, N.X. [Branch of Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Ho Chi Min City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Geochemistry; Hsieh, M.; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1999-07-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons (> C{sub 40}) and asphaltenes are important constituents of petroleum, and can cause problems related to crystallization and deposition of paraffin waxes during production and transportation, as well as in the formation of tar mats. However, traditional methods to isolate asphaltene fractions, by adding 40 volumes in excess of low boiling point solvents such as pentane, hexane or heptane, can produce asphaltene fractions which are contaminated with a significant amount of microcrystalline waxes (> C{sub 40}). The presence of these microcrystalline waxes in the asphaltene fractions has the potential to provide misleading and ambiguous results in modeling and treatment programs. The sub-surface phase behaviour of an asphaltene fraction will be quite different from that of a wax-contaminated asphaltene fraction. Similarly accurate modelling of wax drop-out requires information on pure wax fractions and not asphaltene-dominated fractions. Hence the aim of this paper is to describe a novel method for the preparation of wax-free asphaltene fractions. In addition, this method provides a quantitative subdivision of the wax fraction into pentane soluble and insoluble waxes which, when correlated with physical properties of crude oil such as viscosity, pour point, cloud point, etc., may help explain causes of wax deposition during production, transportation and storage of petroleum. (author)

  11. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  12. Use of a statistical model to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity of dermally administered crude oil and relation to reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Nicolich, Mark; Roy, Timothy; White, Russell; Daughtrey, Wayne C

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum (commonly called crude oil) is a complex substance primarily composed of hydrocarbon constituents. Based on the results of previous toxicological studies as well as occupational experience, the principal acute toxicological hazards are those associated with exposure by inhalation to volatile hydrocarbon constituents and hydrogen sulfide, and chronic hazards are associated with inhalation exposure to benzene and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds. The current assessment was an attempt to characterize the potential for repeated dose and/or developmental effects of crude oils following dermal exposures and to generalize the conclusions across a broad range of crude oils from different sources. Statistical models were used to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity from compositional information. The model predictions indicated that the empirical data from previously tested crude oils approximated a "worst case" situation, and that the data from previously tested crude oils could be used as a reasonable basis for characterizing the repeated dose and developmental toxicological hazards of crude oils in general.

  13. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  14. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  15. Morpho-anatomical diagnostic of medical plants and medicinal crude

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila M. Seraya

    2012-01-01

    The main conclusions of the investigations of macro- and microscopically features of the plants and herbal drug crude of Ukraine are represented in the works of the author and the main publications are quoted.

  16. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  17. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  18. Relationship between waxy crude viscosities and wax crystal microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 张劲军; 侯磊; 王海峰

    2008-01-01

    It is important and profound to quantitatively study the relation between rheology and microstructure for development of the microstructural mechanism of crude oil rheology and even for the waxy crude oil pipelining.However,due to the high complexity and irregularity of wax crystal morphology,quantitative characterization is hard to achieve.This has hampered further study on the rheology-microstructure relationship.A new approach combined the fractal geometry and the stereology theory is presented for quantifying the intricate wax crystal morphology and structure.Based on the characterization,the effects of microstructures and oil composition on the waxy crude viscosities are analyzed quantitatively.It further validates the previous qualitative research and enriches understanding into the microstructural mechanism of waxy crude oil rheology.

  19. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  20. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  1. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  2. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  3. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  4. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  5. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  6. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  7. Influence of pollution history on the response of coastal bacterial and nanoeukaryote communities to crude oil and biostimulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Caroline; Christaki, Urania; Moutsaki, Paraskevi; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Gogou, Alexandra; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2012-08-01

    Pollution history has often been proposed to explain site-dependent bioremediation efficiencies, but this hypothesis has been poorly explored. Here, bacteria and their heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) predators originating from pristine and chronically oil-polluted coastal sites were subjected to crude oil ± nutrients or emulsifier amendments. The addition of crude oil had a more visible effect on bacteria originating from the pristine site with a higher increase in the activity of given OTU and inactivation of other petroleum-sensitive bacteria, as revealed by DNA and RNA-based comparison. Such changes resulted in a delay in microbial growth and in a lower bacterial degradation of the more complex hydrocarbons. Biostimulation provoked a selection of different bacterial community assemblages and stirred metabolically active bacteria. This resulted in a clear increase of the peak of bacteria and their HNF predators and higher oil degradation, irrespective of the pollution history of the site.

  8. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystitis - chronic ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. These ...

  9. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  10. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  11. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  12. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  13. Technology and Development Trends of China's Viscous Crude Surface Production Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chengwu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Main Technical Characteristics Technique of viscous crude gathering, transportation and treatment approaches the international level (1) Diluent oil-blended gathering and transportation process, an original creation of China, plays an important and guarantee role in increasing viscous crude output,especially in the viscous crude fields with dilute crude resources nearby.

  14. Study on Mechanism for Pricing of Chinese Crudes and Recommendations on Improvement of Pricing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingfang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Crude oil is the most important basic energy in the world nowadays and is closely connected with the development of national economy, consolidation of national defense and the living standard of the people. Changes in crude price can have a decisive impact on a nation's political and economic situation. Hence the government of every country sticks great importance to control over crude oil resources and adjustment of crude price to assure the stabilization of its domestic crude oil market.

  15. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  16. [Synthesis of biodiesel from crude oil by immobilized lipase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junkui; Lu, Jike; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2009-06-01

    We used immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from crude oil and methanol. We studied the effects of phospholipids on activity of immobilized lipase, reaction velocity, stability of immobilized lipase and the stability of immobilized lipase in crude and refined oil. Results showed that the activity of the lipase immersed in petroleum ether with 1% phospholipids dropped more quickly than the lipase in petroleum ether without phospholipids. When soybean oil was used without phospholipids as material, the FAMEs yield of 15 min was 26.2%, whereas the yield decreased to 12.4% when there were 5% phospholipids in the soybean oil. However when the phospholipids content was below 1%, the stability of the lipase did not change obviously. The lipase was stable when used to catalyze crude soybean oil and crude jatropha oil, after 10 cycles the FAMEs yield was still above 70%. This lipase showed great potential for industrial production of biodiesel from crude oil.

  17. CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH TEI@I METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shouyang; YU Lean; K.K.LAI

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty in crude oil price forecasting,due to inherent complexity,has attracted much attention of academic researchers and business practitioners.Various methods have been tried to solve the problem of forecasting crude oil prices.However,all of the existing models of prediction can not meet practical needs.Very recently,Wang and Yu proposed a new methodology for handling complex systems-TEI@I methodology by means of a systematic integration of text mining,econometrics and intelligent techniques.Within the framework of TEI@I methodology,econometrical models are used to model the linear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,main trends) while nonlinear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,error terms) are modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN) models.In addition,the impact of irregular and infrequent future events on crude oil price is explored using web-based text mining (WTM) and rule-based expert systems (RES) techniques.Thus,a fully novel nonlinear integrated forecasting approach with error correction and judgmental adjustment is formulated to improve prediction performance within the framework of the TEI@I methodology.The proposed methodology and the novel forecasting approach are illustrated via an example.

  18. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  19. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  20. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  1. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  2. Northwest Australia's Saladin crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-10-18

    High-quality Saladin crude oil from offshore Western Australia has been assayed. The 48.2[degree] API, 0.02 wt % sulfur crude's characteristics--determined in 1990--are presented here for the first time. The estimated 30--40 million bbl field, south of Barrow Island, is produced from two platforms in 58 ft of water in block TP 3. Production began in late 1989 from three platforms with three wells each and from two wells drilled directionally from Thevenard Island. The paper lists data on the following properties: API gravity, density, sulfur content, pour point, flash point, viscosity, salinity, heat of combustion, ash content, asphaltene content, wax content, and metal content for the whole crude and various fractions.

  3. Colombian coal liquefaction and its coprocessing with Venezuelan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Nagaishi, H. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Ishiguro, H. [Nippon Kokan K.K. Kawasaki (JP)] (and others)

    1999-09-01

    Titiribi coal from Colombia shows an excellent reactivity to liquefaction and coprocessing. Anthracene oil was excellent as a vehicle oil to facilitate the liquefaction reaction during the initial stage at 400{sup o}C. In the case of coprocessing with Morichal crude oil and red-mud/sulfur catalyst, the maximum conversion of Titiribi coal was ca. 79 wt% daf at 400{sup o}C and ca. 93 wt% daf at 450{sup o}C. The hydrogen consumption in the presence of Morichal crude oil is lower than that in the presence of anthracene oil. It is considered to be the effect of hydrogen sulfide and the hydrogen donor ability of Morichal crude oil. (author)

  4. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  5. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks.

  8. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  9. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  10. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  11. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  12. Analysis of OPEC's Monopoly in Crude Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly and historically reviews the polices of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and analyzes the factors that facilitate or hinder OPEC's monopoly in the crude oil market. The industrial concentration ratio is chosen to measure OPEC's monopoly power based on the data from 1986 to 2004. It is concluded that OPEC possesses a long-standing cartel foundation and a rather strong monopoly in the world crude oil market. At the same time, there are unstable factors that influence and even weaken OPEC's monopoly.

  13. Effects of Biodegradation on Crude Oils from Karamay Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 杨坚强; 等

    1989-01-01

    Studies of biological marker compou nds in five oil samples from a profile wherenormal crude oil,low condensate oil and heavy oil are produced in the Karamay Oilfield have been carried out with great empha-sis on the biodegradation-resisting capability of 13,17 secosteranes,8,14 secohopanes,gammacerane and carotenes.Based on these studies,a sequence of biodegradation-resisting intensities has been established for saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in crude oils from the Karamay Oilfield.

  14. Bioconversion of heavy crude oils: A basis for new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.

    1995-10-01

    Systematic studies of chemical mechanisms by which selected microorganisms react with crude oils have led to the identification of biochemical markers characteristic of the interactions of microbes with oils. These biomarkers belong to several groups of natural products ranging from saturate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons containing heterocyclics to organometallic compounds. The biochemical conversions of oils can be monitored by these chemical markers, which are particularly useful in the optimization of biochemical processing, cost efficiency, and engineering studies. Recent results from these studies will be discussed in terms of biochemical technology for the processing of crude oils.

  15. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  16. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  17. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  18. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional correla

  19. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  20. Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay

    2004-12-01

    An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil-water, water-oil and oil-soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) at varying concentrations. Results showed that the biosurfactants were able to remove significant amount of crude oil from the contaminated soil at different solution concentrations for instance rhamnolipid and SDS removed up to 80% oil and lecithin about 42%. The performance of water alone in crude oil removal was equally as good as those of the other biosurfactants. Oil removal was due to mobilization, caused by the reduction of surface and interfacial tensions. Solubilization and emulsification effects in oil removal were negligible due to the low crude oil solubilization of 0.11%. Therefore, these studies suggest that knowledge of surfactants' behaviour across different systems is paramount before their use in the practical application of oil removal.

  1. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  2. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  3. The stability of potassium iodate in crude table salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARROYAVE, G; PINEDA, O; SCRIMSHAW, N S

    1956-01-01

    An experiment carried out by the authors confirms that the addition, under commercial conditions, of potassium iodate to crude sea salt is a reliable method for the iodization of salt, a fact of particular significance to countries in which iodization by potassium iodide is unsatisfactory owing to adverse environmental conditions.

  4. Some advances in crude oil rheology and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲军; 柳歆

    2008-01-01

    Waxy crude oil exhibits complex shear-and-thermal-history-dependent non-Newtonian behaviors.In the past 10 years,driven by the petroleum industry,crude oil rheology has been an active field.Studies on crude oil rheology have been passing a way from simply relying on rheological measurements,through quantitative experimental simulation of shear and thermal history effects in pipelining,to recent development of correlation between flow properties and shear and thermal history.Currently,the study is toward quantitative inquiry of relations between the rheological behaviors and micro-structures of wax crystals as well as oil compositions.Advances achieved by the author’ team are summarized,including simulation of the thermal and shear history effects,correlations and computation of flow properties,fractal characterization of morphology and structure of wax crystals,relations of rheological behaviors to fractal dimension and oil compositions,and the most successful example of the application of rheology in crude oil pipelining.Future studies are prospected.

  5. Cracking conditions of crude oil under different geological environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are mainly 3 kinds of existing states of oil generating from source rocks,that is,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon inside of source rock,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock and concentrated liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock.Because of the differences in thermal history and medium conditions around,and the interaction of organic and inorganic matter,the liquid hydrocarbon with 3 kinds of existing state has different cracking conditions.The gas generation dynamics experiments of crude oil matching different mediums indicate that the distribution of activation energy of methane changes a lot according to medium difference.The carbonate has a main influence on oil cracking conditions and can largely reduce its activation energy,which reflects the lower cracking temperature of crude oil.The mudstone takes a second place and the sandstone is the smallest.The catalytic cracking function to the oil of the carbonate,of the mudstone and of the sandstone changes weaken in turn.The corresponding Ro values of main gas generation period in different mediums are as follows:1.5%―3.8%with pure crude oil,1.2%―3.2%with dispersive crude oil in carbonate,1.3%~3.4% with dispersive crude oil in mudstone and 1.4%―3.6%with dispersive crude oil in sandstone.The influence of pressure to crude oil cracking is relatively complicated.In the low heating speed condition, pressure restrains the oil cracking and gas generation,but in the high heating speed condition,pressure has an indistinctive influence to the oil cracking and gas generation.Pressure also makes a different effort in different evolvement stage.Taking the middle and lower Cambrian source rocks in the Tarim Basin as an example,primary oil generating quantity is 2232.24×10 8 t,residual oil and oil cracking gas quantity is 806.21×10 8 t and 106.95×10 12 m 3 respectively.

  6. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  7. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  8. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  9. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  10. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  11. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  12. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman; Sairah Hafeez Kamran; Mobasher Ahmad; Usman Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum) in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg) showed significant (p

  13. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  14. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  15. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...

  16. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  17. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  18. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  19. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  20. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  1. Efficient Atomization and Combustion of Emulsified Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    data acquisition system. The venturis and regulators are mounted on the side and the peristaltic pump is at the bottom of the rack...liquid flows out of the first orifice , the air cross streams o fragment the liquid surface and then entrain and carry the atomized liquid out of the...been used with jet fuel and crude oil in commercial spray burner applications [3,6], but the pressure drop across the nozzle orifice resulted in an

  2. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  3. A new method for petroleum fractions and crude oil characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, F. (Univ. of Barcelono (ES)); Miquel, J. (Politechnic Univ. of Catalunya (ES)); Hernandez, J. (Repsol S.A. Co. (ES))

    1992-05-01

    In this paper a new procedure for petroleum fraction and crude oil characterization is proposed that is based on pseudocomponent breakdown by the integral method. The method requires only the atmospheric true-boiling-point (TBP) distillation curve and whole-fraction density. The pseudocomponents are obtained by sequentially applying an optimization procedure in which the mass balance is accomplished exactly and the molar-balance error is minimized.

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  5. Crude Imports Triggers Investment Fever of Oil Wharves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's record high crude import of 80 million tons in 2003 has triggered a fever of oil wharf construction along the country's eastern coastal regions. Reportedly, the coastal harbor cities, such as Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Nantong, Ningbo,Zhoushan, Maoming and Zhanjiang, have stepped up the efforts for construction of wharves, the large-scale berths for oil products in particular, so as to stimulate the rapid development of the local petrochemical and commodity flow industries.

  6. Suitability of Sour Crude Processing and Resid Hydrotreating Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2005-01-01

    This article has analyzed the environment and tasks confronting China's petroleum refining industry, and has referred to principles for selecting the resid processing technologies and viability of various combination technologies for resid processing. Taking into account the actual commercial practice of resid hydrogenation units, this article has also discussed methods for processing high-sulfur inferior crudes as well as the suitability of resid hydrogenation technology.

  7. China Brings in More Crude Oil in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Venezuela to increase oil export to China Venezuela plans to increase its oil sales to China by 50,000 barrels a day by the end of the year, the country's oil minister Rafael Ramirez said in mid-August. Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA, will increase sales to China to 200,000 barrels a day from the current 150,000 barrels per day. The shipments include crude and other products, such as fuel oil.

  8. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Hydrogen isotope type-curves of very hot crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, József; Sajgó, Csanád; Demény, Attila

    2011-01-15

    Several crude oil accumulations in the Pannonian Basin are trapped in uncommonly hot (>170°C) reservoirs. Their maturities range from mature to very mature on the basis of cracking parameters of their biological marker homologous series (ratio of products to reactants). A stable carbon isotopic study of these oils, poor in biological markers commonly used for correlation purposes, did not provide a reliable oil-to-oil correlation. As an alternative tool, the hydrogen isotope compositions of oil fractions separated on the basis of different polarities were measured, and hydrogen isotope type-curves were generated for a set of mature to very mature crude oil samples. This method of presenting hydrogen isotope composition of fractions as type-curves is novel. Nineteen samples (17 crude oils from SE-Hungary, 1 oil condensate and 1 artificial oil) were chosen for the present study. The aim was to examine the applicability of hydrogen isotope type-curves in oil-to-oil correlation and to test the simultaneous application of carbon and hydrogen isotope type-curves in the field of petroleum geochemistry. We have shown that, although the conventionally used co-variation plots proved to be inadequate for the correlation of these hot and mature oils, the simultaneous use of carbon and the newly introduced hydrogen isotope type-curves allows us to group and distinguish oils of different origins.

  10. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  11. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  12. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period.

  13. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 mu g-oil mu g-C-copepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 mu l L-1) and copepod abundances in high...... of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open...

  14. Vacuum distillation refining of crude lithium (Ⅱ)──Kinetics on vacuum distillation of crude lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为亮; 柴立元; 闵小波; 杨斌; 戴永年; 于霞; 张传福

    2002-01-01

    Kinetics on vacuum refining process of crude lithium was studied by using maximum evaporation rate, critical pressure and mean free path of elements in the crude lithium at different temperatures. Behaviors of impurities in the vacuum distillation process have been examined in detail. The results show that fractional vacuum distillation should be taken to obtain lithium with high purity; if the mass loss amount of lithium is 3%~5%, metal K, Na, Mg and Ca can be eliminated at lower temperature of 673~873K at pressure of less than 1.30Pa; the maximum rate of lithium distillation reaches 1.492×10-1~8.244×10-1 g*cm-2*min-1 at higher temperature of 973~1073K at the pressure of 3.0~3.2Pa, which ensure complete separation of lithium from Al, Si, Fe and Ni.

  15. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  16. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  17. Hidden Markov Model and Forward-Backward Algorithm in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib Bon, Abdul; Isah, Nuhu

    2016-11-01

    In light of the importance of crude oil to the world's economy, it is not surprising that economists have devoted great efforts towards developing methods to forecast price and volatility levels. Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile such as economic, political and social. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid unforeseen circumstances towards economic activity. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2nd January to 29th May 2015. We used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Forward-Backward Algorithm to forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using Maple software. Based on the study, we concluded that model (0 3 0) is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  18. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  19. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  20. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  1. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)

    2009-02-15

    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  2. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  3. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing. You may also have other tests. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition that keeps coming back or never goes away completely. If you smoke, it is important to quit. Treatment can help with your symptoms. It often includes ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DIRECT UPGRADING PROCESS FOR HEAVY CRUDE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The direct upgrading process from heavy crude oil to sweet and light oil (IKC process) has been deve-loped for about 10 years in Idemitsu Kosan. Compared with conventional refinery scheme consisting of YR-HDS, VGOHYC and so on, the new refinery scheme combined with IKC process and Topper was always economically feasible with lower cost and smaller energy consumption. In the existing refinery of no middle distillate HDS and residue HDS of HYC plants to supplement IKC process is expected to be one of the efficient methods to cope with the environmental regulations.

  5. Process for Separation of Petroleum Acids from Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for separation of petroleum acids from crude oil was proposed. The method relates to processes for treating acidic oils or fractions thereof to reduce or eliminate their acidity by addition of effective amounts of crosslinked polymeric amines such as polypropylene amine and anionic exchange resins having amino-groups. Petroleum acids contained in the mixture can be extracted by a complex solvent. The results indicate that more than 80 % of the petroleum acids are removed and the process does not cause environmental pollution because all the solvents are recovered and reused in the test.

  6. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  7. A Heuristic Approach for International Crude Oil Transportation Scheduling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Izuno, Tsukasa

    In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm to solve a practical ship scheduling problem for international crude oil transportation. The problem is considered as a vehicle routing problem with split deliveries. The objective of this paper is to find an optimal assignment of tankers, a sequence of visiting and loading volume simultaneously in order to minimize the total distance satisfying the capacity of tankers. A savings-based meta-heuristic algorithm with lot sizing parameters and volume assignment heuristic is developed. The proposed method is applied to solve a case study with real data. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm compared with that of human operators.

  8. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  9. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  10. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  11. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  12. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of crude extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jawad; Ullah,Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) for phenolic contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to rationalize its use in neurological disorders. Methods Plant crude extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions: n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq) and saponins (Ph.Sp) were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)...

  13. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  14. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3 in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  15. Determination of impurities in crude light pyridine bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, E.G.; Tsaur, A.G.; Lisina, L.A.; Dybkin, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and phenols are always products of coal pyrolysis. In addition the coke oven gas contains carbon disulfide. The simultaneous presence of ammonia and carbon disulfide leads inevitably to the formation of thiocyanates in the entire recovery system before the saturator, and particularly in the ammonia liquor. All these compounds may be expected to be present in the crude light pyridine bases (CLPB). This causes corrosion of the equipment and reduces the photostability of the final process products. The ability of the phenols to form high boiling point azeotropes with the bases reduces the ..beta..-picoline fraction yield. For these reasons the presence of the stated impurities in the CLPB is undesirable. In the present work an estimate has been made of the average annual concentration of phenols, cyanides, thiocyanates and chlorides in the crude light pyridine bases of all the plants supplying this material in the Eastern USSR. The table shows only the mean values of the concentrations for each component in the samples of the individual plants, and also those for water.

  16. Dispersion Properties of NMR Relaxation for Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ranhong; Xiao Lizhi

    2007-01-01

    Special requirements for design of tools used for wireline NMR logging and NMR logging while drilling and for interpretation model are demanded due to the dispersion properties of NMR relaxation for crude oil.NMR longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) of the dead oil samples with different viscosities were measured by NMR spectrometers with a Larmor frequency of 2 MHz and 23 MHz at five different temperatures respectively.The results showed that T1 was obviously dependent on the Larmor frequency of NMR spectrometer.The degree of T1 dispersion became stronger with the increasing crude oil viscosity,Larmor frequency and the viscosity/temperature ratio.T2 was independent of NMR spectrometer measuring frequency.It is suggested that the resonance frequency should be selected lower than 2 MHz when measuring T1 in logging while-drilling and that T1 dispersion should be corrected when Larmor frequency is higher than 2 MHz.

  17. Effect of biodegradation on steranes and terpanes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, W.K.; Moldowan, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Steranes and terpanes biodegrade at a slower rate than isoprenoids and survive moderate biodegradation. Heavy biodegradation results in destruction of regular steranes, survival of diasteranes (20R better than 20S) and tricyclic terpanes and transformation of hopanes to Ring A/B demethylated hopanes. These survivors can be used as source fingerprints in biodegraded crudes. The structure of predominant steranes in undegraded to moderately degraded fossil fuels was proven to be 14..beta..,17..beta..(H) (20R + S) by molecular spectroscopy. These compounds plus the 20S epimers of regular 5..cap alpha..-steranes (20R) were identified as major constituents and their 5..beta..-counterparts as minor components in a cholestane isomerizate (300/sup 0/C, Pt on C), allowing assessment of relative thermodynamic stabilities. An observed increase of optical activity in heavily degraded crudes from three different basins is interpreted to be the result of bacterial transformation of terpanes and steranes to new optically active species plus enrichment of the latter by n + isoparaffin depletion rather than total bacterial synthesis. Diagnostic ion profiling by GC-MS-C is a convenient tool for surveying the relative abundance of individual diasteranes and regular steranes plus distinguishing epimeric and ring skeletal isomeric series in complex fossil fuel mixtures. A new practical method of determining the absolute quantities of individual steranes by spiking with 5..beta..-cholane and integration of mass chromatograms is described. 6 tables; 6 figures.

  18. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeguang; Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zhang, Chengwu; Zeng, Mingtao

    2012-07-01

    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated, and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al. was established. According to Boussiba's method, alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll. However, we found that: 1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm. Interestingly, a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content, while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study. Therefore, with 530 nm as working wavelength, the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll, other carotenoids, and the unknown interference could be avoided. The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g. When compared with the measured values at 492 nm, the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%, respectively. The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples. The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  19. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Pollution-reduced Kjeldahl method for crude protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexroad, P R; Cathey, R D

    1976-11-01

    Pollution from the Kjeldahl method for crude protein has been reduced by substituting a low level of copper (0.04 g CuSO4) for the mercury (0.7 g HgO) specified in the AOAC official method, 2.049. Adjustments were made in the salt-acid ratio so the new system could handle hard-to-digest samples in a reasonable time. The new method was rugged for lysine. HCl. It is designed to be used for crude protein in feeds or similar Kjeldahl work. Precision and accuracy were equal to or better than that for the official method in a study of 17 samples analyzed in duplicate on 3 different days. The following samples were used in the study: lysine. HCl, tryptophan, NBS standards, urea, meals, mixed feeds, grains, and forage. The average per cent nitrogen found was 9.52 by the official method and 9.53 by the copper method. The average standard deviation was 0.038 by the official method and 0.033 by the copper method, giving the corresponding relative standard deviations of 0.40 and 0.35%.

  1. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  2. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.ed [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Yu, Cindy L., E-mail: cindyyu@iastate.ed [Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Hayes, Dermot J., E-mail: dhayes@iastate.ed [Department of Economics and Department of Finance, Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  3. Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid β(1-42) levels in an Alzheimer's mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Chang, Wen-Han; Black, Richard M; Liu, Jia-Ren; Sompol, Pradoldej; Chen, Yumin; Wei, Huilin; Zhao, Qiuyan; Cheng, Irene H

    2012-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a chronic neurodegenerative disorder associated with the abnormal accumulations of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide and oxidative stress in the brain, is the most common form of dementia among the elderly. Crude caffeine (CC), a major by-product of the decaffeination of coffee, has potent hydrophilic antioxidant activity and may reduce inflammatory processes. Here, we showed that CC and pure caffeine intake had beneficial effects in a mouse model of AD. Administration of CC or pure caffeine for 2months partially prevented memory impairment in AD mice, with CC having greater effects than pure caffeine. Furthermore, consumption of CC, but not pure caffeine, reduced the Aβ(1-42) levels and the number of amyloid plaques in the hippocampus. Moreover, CC and caffeine protected primary neurons from Aβ-induced cell death and suppressed Aβ-induced caspase-3 activity. Our data indicate that CC may contain prophylactic agents against the cell death and the memory impairment in AD.

  4. Modeling the global market for crude oil and forecasting the price: a comprehensive study

    OpenAIRE

    Behmiri, Niaz Badhiri

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil prices before 1970 were under control by multinational monopolist oil companies; from 1970 to 1986 OPEC administered pricing system determined crude oil prices; and from 1986 to the present, crude oil prices are determined by a market-linked pricing mechanism or demand-to-supply ratio, taking in account a set of many other factors, such as economic, political, financial, technological, meteorological and oil reserves. As in a market-linked pricing mechanism, the main determinant fac...

  5. What does the convenience yield curve tell us about the crude oil market?

    OpenAIRE

    Alquist, Ron; Gregory H. Bauer; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Using the prices of crude oil futures contracts, we construct the term structure of crude oil convenience yields out to one-year maturity. The crude oil convenience yield can be interpreted as the interest rate, denominated in barrels of oil, for borrowing a single barrel of oil, and it measures the value of storing crude oil over the borrowing period. We show that the convenience yield curve is well explained by a level and a slope factor. Consistent with the theory of storage, convenience y...

  6. Market structure and exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas and crude oil in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czastkiewicz, Carolina

    Using a dataset of natural gas and crude oil production in the state of California, evidence shows overextraction incentives among market participants that shared a common pool. Due to these incentives the supply of gas and crude oil extraction tends to become more inelastic as the number of firms in the pool increases. Using an instrumental variables estimation of the supply function, the results show that the common pool externality caused an average overproduction rate of 11% and 4% over the 1977--2001 period, in natural gas and crude oil, respectively. These figures imply 1 year and 4 years of additional production for natural gas and crude oil, respectively.

  7. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil.

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  9. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... of the biodegradable commercial kinetic inhibitor (Luvicap-Bio) on natural gas hydrate formation with and without crude oil (30%) was investigated. The strength of kinetic inhibitor was not affected by salts, but decreased significantly in the presence of crude oil. Data for hydrate formation at practical conditions...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  10. Crude oil biodegradation by a mixed bacterial culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hamme, J.D.

    2000-07-01

    Mixed cultures with broad substrate specificity usually form the basis for biological methods used for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated wastes. Bow River crude oil was used as a model substrate for the study of microbe-microbe and microbe-substrate interactions in batch fermentation systems. Substrate availability limited the mixed-bacterial culture due to hydrocarbon insolubility. A method of improving biodegradation through the use of chemical surfactants was tested. A hydrophile-lipophile balance of 13 led to optimum enhancement at supra-critical micellization concentrations not exceeding a critical level, as indicated by the results of a detailed study with nonylphenol ethoxylates. A broad variety of trypticase soy agar-culturable bacteria was contained in the culture. Initially, Pseudomonas Flavimonas and Stenotrophomonas spp. dominated in the fermentations with different hydrocarbon mixtures. The lag time of Stenotrophomonas sp. and exposure to Bow River saturates selected for an Acinetobacter calcoacetius strain were increased by a chemical surfactant. Following prolonged incubation, a greater variety of mainly non-hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated in each case. Low molecular weight volatile hydrocarbons were degraded in closed systems and the greatest activity from the culture occurred against the saturate and aromatic fractions. To monitor volatile hydrocarbon degradation in live cultures at 30 degrees Celsius, a rapid and sensitive solid phase microextraction methodology was developed. Only the cultures grown on crude oil in sealed flasks, or in open flasks amended with yeast extract retained their volatile hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities. Correlated with reduced proportions of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in biodegradation flasks, metabolic capacity decreased with inoculum age. The degradation hierarchy and chemical surfactant effects were confirmed by pure and co-culture studies. The presence of a chemical surfactant

  11. Benzene exposure on a crude oil production vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkeleit, J; Riise, T.; Bratveit, M.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Public Health and Primary Health Care

    2006-07-01

    Objectives: The aim was to describe the personal exposure to benzene on a typical crude oil production vessel and to identify factors influencing the exposure level. Methods: The study population included process operators, deck workers, mechanics and contractors on a production vessel in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The personal exposure to benzene during ordinary activity, during a short shutdown and during tank work was monitored using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges (3MTM3500). Information on the tasks performed on the day of sampling was recorded. Exposure was assessed by grouping the measurements according to job category, mode of operation and the tasks performed on the sampling day. Univariate analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the groups. Results: Forty-two workers participated in the exposure assessment, comprising a total of 139 measurements. The arithmetic and geometric mean of benzene exposure for all measurements was 0.43 and 0.02 p.p.m., respectively. Twenty-five measurements (18%) were below the limit of detection (0.001 p.p.m.), while ten samples (7%) exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 0.6 p.p.m. The geometric mean exposure was 0.004 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.003-0.006) during ordinary activity, 0.01 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.005-0.02) during shutdown and 0.28 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.16-0.49) during tank work. Workers performing annual cleaning and maintenance of tanks containing crude oil or residues of crude oil had higher levels of exposure than workers performing other tasks, including work near open hydrocarbon-transport systems (all P < 0.001). However, because of the mandatory use of respirators, the actual personal benzene exposure was lower. The job categories explained only 5% of the variance in exposure, whereas grouping by mode of operation explained 54% of the variance and grouping by task 68%. Conclusion: The results show that, although benzene exposure during ordinary and high activity seems to be low in

  12. Geochemical characteristics of crude oils from the Cuyo Basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, H.J. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Puettmann, W. (RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle)

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils from the Triassic Cuyo Basin are thought to be derived from a fresh-water lacustrine source rock, mainly the Upper Triassic organic-rich shales of Cacheuta Fm. By means of GC and GC-MS methods, the oils were analysed for characteristics compounds which may reflect biological input to the source sediments and maturity variations. Pristane/phytane ratios, distributions of n-alkanes, and the presence of significant amounts of bacteriohopanoid-derived compounds (hopanes, 8,14-secohopanes, 8,14-monoaromatic secohopanoids, benzohopanes) together with bicyclic sesquiterpanes in all the samples studied, are taken as an indication of possible reworking of algal organic matter by bacteria. Sterane distributions were consistent with a lacustrine origin of the oils. (author)

  13. Extreme-volatility dynamics in crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Based on concepts and methods from statistical physics, we investigate extreme-volatility dynamics in the crude oil markets, using the high-frequency data from 2006 to 2010 and the daily data from 1986 to 2016. The dynamic relaxation of extreme volatilities is described by a power law, whose exponents usually depend on the magnitude of extreme volatilities. In particular, the relaxation before and after extreme volatilities is time-reversal symmetric at the high-frequency time scale, but time-reversal asymmetric at the daily time scale. This time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by exogenous events. However, the dynamic relaxation after exogenous events exhibits the same characteristics as that after endogenous events. An interacting herding model both with and without exogenous driving forces could qualitatively describe the extreme-volatility dynamics.

  14. Formation of chocolate mousse from Statfjord crude oil and seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thingstad, T.; Pengerud, B.

    1983-06-01

    Physical factors affecting the formation of water-in-oil emulsions ('chocolate mousse') from crude Statfjord oil was investigated in the laboratory. Irradiation by visible light and mechanical agitation are shown to be essential. It is suggested that photochemical oxidation of oil components leads to the formation of surface-active, oil-soluble compounds. When these reach a sufficient concentration in the oil, water will be retained within the oil during physical mixing. The plausibility of such a mechanism is investigated further using additions of tetradecanal as an oil-soluble, surface-active agent and ..beta..-carotene as an inhibitor of photooxidation. The use of additives to stop 'mousse' formation is suggested.

  15. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  16. Tidal interactions - crude body model in dynamical investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Gabryszewski, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations of small bodies dynamics in a vicinity of giant planets. We used the most simple body model: gravitationally bounded, rotating contact binary affected by the tidal force acting from a planet. Spin variations of such binaries were extensively studied during planetary close encounters. Two main types of dynamical behaviour were observed: (i) huge but interim fluctuations of the angular velocity and (ii) permanent changes of a rotation during a close approach. The first type is observed mainly for fast rotators, while the second one was encountered in a population of slowly spinning objects with periods longer than 12 hours. Conclusions on usability of such crude physical body models in dynamical investigations and a comparison to previous results were attached. The results allow us to formulate a thesis explaining the phenomenon of creation of the extremely slow rotators and an observational excess of such type of objects.

  17. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  18. Waxes in asphaltenes of crude oils and wax deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia M. Ganeeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Composition and molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes in asphaltenes of crude oils of different ages and in wax deposits formed in the borehole equipment were studied. In asphaltenes, n-alkanes from C12 to C60 were detected. The high molecular weight paraffins in asphaltenes would form a crystalline phase with a melting point of 80–90 °C. The peculiarities of the redistribution of high molecular paraffin hydrocarbons between oil and the corresponding wax deposit were detected. In the oils, the high molecular weight paraffinic hydrocarbons C50–C60 were found, which were not practically detected in the corresponding wax deposits.

  19. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  20. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yeguang; MIAO Fengping; GENG Yahong; LU Dayan; ZHANG Chengwu; ZENG Mingtao

    2012-01-01

    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated,and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al.was established.According to Boussiba's method,alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll.However,we found that:1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm.Interestingly,a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content,while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study.Therefore,with 530 nm as working wavelength,the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll,other carotenoids,and the unknown interference could be avoided.The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g.When compared with the measured values at 492 nm,the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%,respectively.The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples.The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  1. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P. [ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  2. Influence of crude oil and pulp and paper mill effluent on mixed infections of Trichodina cottidarium and T. saintjohnsi (Ciliophora) parasitizing Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus and M. scorpius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.A.; Barker, D.E.; Williams-Ryan, K.; Hooper, R.G. (Memorial Univ., St. John' s, NF (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Samples of longhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) were exposed to sediment contaminated with crude oil or pulp and paper mill effluent for periods up to 13 months in the laboratory. Other samples were collected at sites where crude oil or effluent from a pulp and paper mill are discharged. The intensity of gill infections of Trichodina spp. on exposed fish was significantly higher than on controls 5, 9, and 13 months after exposure. The intensity of the ciliates was also greater on sculpins collected near an oil-receiving terminal than on those sampled 5 km from the polluted site. Field collections of longhorn and shorthorn (Myoxocephalus scorpius) sculpins at and distant from a pulp and paper mill had high and low intensities of the ciliates, respectively. Similarly, the intensity of trichodinid ciliates was also significantly greater in longhorn sculpins exposed to effluent-contaminated sediment than in controls 5 months after exposure. The results suggest that the intensity of gill-inhibiting species such as trichodinids in susceptible fish hosts increases after chronic exposure to crude oil and to pulp and paper mill effluent, and the parasites may serve as indicators of pollution. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2011-08-01

    Weathered crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico can result from oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 or from natural seeps. Adult waterbirds of the Gulf Coast region may become exposed to weathered crude oil while foraging, wading, or resting, and residues can then be transferred to nests, eggs, and hatchlings. Although the toxicity of many types of crude oil to avian embryos has been thoroughly studied, the effects of weathered crude oil on developing avian embryos are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model species. Weathered crude oil was applied to fertilized mallard duck eggs by paintbrush in masses ranging from 0.1 to 99.9 mg on day 3 of incubation. Mortality occurred as early as day 7 and the conservatively derived median lethal application of weathered crude oil was 30.8 mg/egg (0.5 mg/g egg) or 30.7 µl/egg (0.5 µl/g egg). Body mass, liver and spleen mass, crown-rump and bill lengths, and frequency of deformities were not significantly different among hatchlings from oiled and control eggs. In comparison to published reports of fresh crude oil embryotoxicity, weathered crude oil was considerably less toxic. We conclude that avian toxicity varies according to the degree of crude oil weathering and the stage of embryonic development at the time of exposure. Results indicate bird eggs exposed to weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico during summer 2010 may have had reduced hatching success.

  4. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  5. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  6. [Comparative study on decoction and dissolution of crude and processed corni fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han-Yu; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Cheng-Rong; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-11-01

    To compare and study the decoction and dissolution of active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus. HPLC, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction method and the dissolution methods were adopted to compare and study the decoction yield and dissolution rate of loganin and morroniside, active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus. The results showed that the content of active constituents loganin and morroniside in crude and processed Corni Fructus did not change significantly; compared with crude Corni Fructus, processed Corni Fructus (decoction) contained much higher loganin, with no obvious change in morroniside; compared with crude Corni Fructus, processed Corni Fructus (extracts) showed no significant difference in loganin dissolution, but notable increase in morroniside dissolution in intestinal fluid; in gastric fluid, processed Corni Fructus showed significant increase in loganin and morroniside dissolutions. However, in comprehensive consideration of the decoction dose in clinical administration, and calculated on the basis of the formula of the decoction yield x dissolution rate = decoction-dissolution product, it showed increase in the decoction-dissolution products of both of the active constituents loganin and morroniside, with significant difference. This suggested that processed Corni Fructus is superior to crude Corni Fructus in clinical application. In this article, we proposed to compare the changes in decoction and dissolution of active constituents in crude and processed Corni Fructus, study the decoction-dissolution product, and then apply it in the quality evaluation of crude and processed Corni Fructus.

  7. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  8. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  9. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  10. Maximising profitability through the use of simulation for new market crudes evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Maryro P. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There is nothing that contributes more to the cost of production for a refinery than the cost of crude oil and other feedstocks. The efficient and effective evaluation and selection of crude oil to a refinery will have a very significant impact on its profitability. The crude oil selected will impact the utilization and output from different process units, has the potential to impact maintenance and energy costs, and will impact product properties from the refinery. The tools and knowledge necessary for a good new crude evaluation program are addressed as part of this paper. The work process is outlined in detail. Finally, we address some of the risk management issues inherent in processing high margin crudes. Innovative simulation tools like Petro-SIM offer the platform to evaluate opportunities to capture the value that the sour/sweet crude differential and that the new crudes coming in to the market have to offer for a given refinery configuration. The paper provides comments on how KBC's methodology has helped refiners to check their ability to run new challenging crudes. (author)

  11. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  12. Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Crude Glycerin Originating from Different Sources in Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) of various crude glycerins from different biodiesel production facilities were empirically determined in nursery pigs (10.4 kg initial body weight) in order to predict the DE and ME based on crude glycerin composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a...

  13. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  14. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  15. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory, a rh...

  16. Crude glycerol-based production of amino acids and putrescine by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses genes for glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that were shown to support slow growth with glycerol only when overexpressed from a plasmid. Pure glycerol and crude glycerol from biodiesel factories were tested for growth of recombinant strains expressing glpF, glpK and glpD from Escherichia coli. Some, but not all crude glycerol lots served as good carbon sources. Although the inhibitory compound(s) present in these crude glycerol lots remained unknown, the addition of substoichiometric glucose concentrations (below 10% by weight) enabled the utilization of some of the inhibitory crude glycerol lots. Besides growth, production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine as well as of the diamine putrescine based on crude glycerol qualities from biodiesel factories was demonstrated.

  17. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  18. Mixed Multifractal Analysis of Crude Oil, Gold and Exchange Rate Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Gao, Jianyu; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    The multifractal analysis of one time series, e.g. crude oil, gold and exchange rate series, is often referred. In this paper, we apply the classical multifractal and mixed multifractal spectrum to study multifractal properties of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series and their inner relationships. The obtained results show that in general, the fractal dimension of gold and crude oil is larger than that of exchange rate (RMB against the US dollar), reflecting a fact that the price series in gold and crude oil are more heterogeneous. Their mixed multifractal spectra have a drift and the plot is not symmetric, so there is a low level of mixed multifractal between each pair of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series.

  19. Comparative Study on Schizontocidal Activity of Recrystallized or Crude Daphnetin Against Malaria Parasites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN-MEI WANG; YI-CHANG NI; JIAN GUO; JIA-TONG WU; YING-JUN QIAN

    2004-01-01

    To compare the schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin against malaria parasites in vivo. Methods Schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin at various dosages was assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a "4-day suppress assay". Results The comparison of the reduction rate of parasitemia caused by either recrystallized or crude dephnetin showed that ED50 of crude daphnetin was 18.36 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 5.96-56.54 mg/kg while ED50 of recrystallized daphnetin was 11.46 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 8.63-15.22 mg/kg. Conclution The results indicate that the efficacy of recrystallized daphnetin is 37.6% higher than that of crude daphnetin.

  20. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japper-Jaafar A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  1. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  2. Analysis of the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fundamental energy sources and important chemical raw materials, crude oil is crucially important to every country. Especially, the price shock of crude oil will bring about hidden dangers in energy security and economic security. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of frequent price shocks of crude oil markets seems to be crucial and necessary. In order to make the conclusions more reliable and valid, we use two different representations of the price shocks (inter-event times and series of counts) to study the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets, such as coefficient of variation, Allan Factor, Fano Factors, Rescaled Range analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We find evidence that the time dynamics of the price shock sequences can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of time-clusterization of the events. It could give us some useful information to better understand the nature and dynamics of crude oil markets.

  3. DID SPECULATIVE ACTIVITIES CONTRIBUTE TO HIGH CRUDE OIL PRICES DURING 1993 TO 2008?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun ZHANG; Kin Keung LAI; Shouyang WANG

    2009-01-01

    By applying two nonlinear Granger causality testing methods and rolling window strategy to explore the relationship between speculative activities and crude oil prices, the unidirectional Granger causality from speculative activities to returns of crude oil prices during the high price phase is discovered. It is proved that speculative activities did contribute to high crude oil prices after the Asian financial crisis and OPEC's output cut in 1998. The unidirectional Granger causality from returns of crude oil prices to speculative activities is significant in general. But after 2000, with the sharp rise in crude oil prices, this unidirectional Granger causality became a complex nonlinear relationship, which cannot be detected by any linear Granger causality test.

  4. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-11-01

    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  5. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMULCZUK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.

  6. Bohai crude oil identification by gas chromatogram fingerprinting quantitative analysis coupled with cluster analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; BAO Mutai; GAO Zhenhui; LI Mei; ZHAO Yuhui; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    By gas chromatogram, six crude oils fingerprinting distributed in four oilfields and four oil platforms were analyzed and the corresponding normal paraffin hydrocarbon (including pristane and phytane) concentration was obtained by the internal standard method. The normal paraffin hydrocarbon distribution patterns of six crude oils were built and compared. The cluster analysis on the normal paraffin hydrocarbon concentration was conducted for classification and some ratios of oils were used for oils comparison. The results indicated: there was a clear difference within different crude oils in different oil fields and a small difference between the crude oils in the same oil platform. The normal paraffin hydrocarbon distribution pattern and ratios, as well as the cluster analysis on the normal paraffin hydrocarbon concentration can have a better differentiation result for the crude oils with small difference than the original gas chromatogram.

  7. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The specific triggers ...

  9. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  10. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  11. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  12. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedregal, D.J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  13. Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-02-01

    The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation.

  14. Thermodynamic Properties for the Simulation of Crude Oil Primary Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gutierrez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, the use of simulators in the industry is performed without having a proper theoretical support. Sometimes this situation is a consequence of both, lack of time and the dairy dynamism required in the refinery industries. Particularly, the application of thermodynamic models is often not properly considered for the specific process under analysis. An undesirable fact can appear, for example, when a wrong properties package is chosen or even more when this selection step is completely ignored. The aim of this article is to prove that the habitual selection of the thermodynamic models is appropriate or not for the primary refining process. For the purpose, two available simulation softwares and thermodynamic models have been analyzed. The research paper focuses on establishing a guide for plant operators with information that has been previously proven, with theoretical support. In particular, for the oil crude atmospheric distillation (Topping, engineers use almost by default the Peng– Robinson thermodynamic package in Aspen Hysys simulator and Chao–Seader in Aspen Plus. Although the use of the thermodynamic property packages involves a whole theoretical support, this is not considered at the time of their election.

  15. Crystallization of proteins from crude bovine rod outer segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bo Y; Gulati, Sahil; Shi, Wuxian; Wang, Benlian; Stewart, Phoebe L; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining protein crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies comprises the greatest challenge in the determination of protein crystal structures, especially for membrane proteins and protein complexes. Although high purity has been broadly accepted as one of the most significant requirements for protein crystallization, a recent study of the Escherichia coli proteome showed that many proteins have an inherent propensity to crystallize and do not require a highly homogeneous sample (Totir et al., 2012). As exemplified by RPE65 (Kiser, Golczak, Lodowski, Chance, & Palczewski, 2009), there also are cases of mammalian proteins crystallized from less purified samples. To test whether this phenomenon can be applied more broadly to the study of proteins from higher organisms, we investigated the protein crystallization profile of bovine rod outer segment (ROS) crude extracts. Interestingly, multiple protein crystals readily formed from such extracts, some of them diffracting to high resolution that allowed structural determination. A total of seven proteins were crystallized, one of which was a membrane protein. Successful crystallization of proteins from heterogeneous ROS extracts demonstrates that many mammalian proteins also have an intrinsic propensity to crystallize from complex biological mixtures. By providing an alternative approach to heterologous expression to achieve crystallization, this strategy could be useful for proteins and complexes that are difficult to purify or obtain by recombinant techniques.

  16. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  17. CRUDE PALM OIL AS A BIOADDITIVE IN POLYPROPYLENE BLOWN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  18. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Crude oil geochemistry of the southern Songliao Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Taiming; Rullkoetter, J.; Radke, M.; Schaefer, R.G.; Welte, D.H.

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-three crude oils from the southern Songliao Basin, Heilongjiang Province (People's Republic of China), were characterized by various organic geochemical techniques to have a very uniform bulk and molecular composition in terms of source characteristics (type I kerogen) but to vary significantly in thermal maturity. Two middle Cretaceous source rocks, i.e. the Members 1 of the Qingshankou (Qn/sub 1/) and Nenjiang (Nen/sub 1/) Formations, were considered to be the most likely origin of the oils investigated, but a Jurassic source cannot be fully excluded for the Nang'An oils. Molecular maturation indicators including carbon preference indices, sterane isomerisation, conversion of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, relative concentration of diasteranes and the 18..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane/17..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorhopane ratio showed that there is a positive correlation between thermal maturity of the oils and the age of their reservoirs. This was interpreted as an indication of limited cross-stratigraphic migration and further evidence for the generation in the Qn/sub 1/ and Nen/sub 1/ source rocks.

  20. Crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Paul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression and study of recombinant proteins in mammalian culture systems can be complicated during the cell lysis procedure by contaminating proteins from cellular compartments distinct from those within which the protein of interest resides and also by solubility issues that may arise from the use of a single lysis buffer. Partial subcellular fractionation using buffers of increasing stringency, rather than whole cell lysis is one way in which to avoid or reduce this contamination and ensure complete recovery of the target protein. Currently published protocols involve time consuming centrifugation steps which may require expensive equipment and commercially available kits can be prohibitively expensive when handling large or multiple samples. Findings We have established a protocol to sequentially extract proteins from cultured mammalian cells in fractions enriched for cytosolic, membrane bound organellar, nuclear and insoluble proteins. All of the buffers used can be made inexpensively and easily and the protocol requires no costly equipment. While the method was optimized for a specific cell type, we demonstrate that the protocol can be applied to a variety of commonly used cell lines and anticipate that it can be applied to any cell line via simple optimization of the primary extraction step. Conclusion We describe a protocol for the crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cells that is both straightforward and cost effective and may facilitate the more accurate study of recombinant proteins and the generation of purer preparations of said proteins from cell extracts.

  1. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  2. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  3. Fat, meat quality and sensory attributes of Large White × Landrace barrows fed with crude glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belen Linares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative raw materials like crude glycerine in animal feed to reduce final costs could be of interest as the sector seeks to increase its competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine on back-fat thickness and the proximate composition of pork and to examine the effect on pork quality of using growing-finishing feeds with different percentages of crude glycerine added. For this purpose 60 crossbreed (Large White × Landrace barrows were subdivided into three groups according to the crude glycerine concentration administered in feed: C, control diet, no crude glycerine; and G2.5 and G5 with 2.5% and 5% added crude glycerine, respectively. This study evaluated proximate composition, pH, cooking losses, texture, colour coordinates, fatty acid profile, and sensorial analysis. No differences were found in any of the three groups studied (C, G2.5, G5 for measurements performed both before (with ultrasound equipment and after slaughter (millimetre ruler. The proximate composition and the physical-chemical parameters of longissimus dorsi were similar between groups. There were no differences detected (p>0.05 between the three groups as regards the CIELab coordinates, textural profile and sensory attributes. Therefore, 5% crude glycerine to replace corn could be used as an ingredient in pig feed without appreciably affecting the back-fat and meat quality characteristics.

  4. Toxicity of crude and detoxified Tityus serrulatus venom in anti-venom-producing sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marina G.; Duarte, Clara G.; Oliveira, Maira S.; Castro, Karen L. P.; Teixeira, Maílson S.; Reis, Lílian P. G.; Zambrano, José A.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Michel, Ana Flávia R. M.; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Specific anti-venom used to treat scorpion envenomation is usually obtained from horses after hyperimmunization with crude scorpion venom. However, immunized animals often become ill because of the toxic effects of the immunogens used. This study was conducted to evaluate the toxic and immunogenic activities of crude and detoxified Tityus serrulatus (Ts) venom in sheep during the production of anti-scorpionic anti-venom. Sheep were categorized into three groups: G1, control, immunized with buffer only; G2, immunized with crude Ts venom; and G3, immunized with glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom. All animals were subjected to clinical exams and supplementary tests. G2 sheep showed mild clinical changes, but the other groups tolerated the immunization program well. Specific antibodies generated in animals immunized with either Ts crude venom or glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom recognized the crude Ts venom in both assays. To evaluate the lethality neutralization potential of the produced sera, individual serum samples were pre-incubated with Ts crude venom, then subcutaneously injected into mice. Efficient immune protection of 56.3% and 43.8% against Ts crude venom was observed in G2 and G3, respectively. Overall, the results of this study support the use of sheep and glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom for alternative production of specific anti-venom. PMID:27297422

  5. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  6. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  7. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v. to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom. Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity.

  8. Element and chemical compounds transfer in bio-crude from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zeyu; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-02-01

    In this study, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) experiments of Nannochloropsis and Spirulina were carried out at different temperatures (220-300 °C) to explore the effects of temperature on bio-crude yield and properties. The optimal temperature for bio-crude yield was around 260-280 °C. Transfers of element and chemical compounds in bio-crude were discussed in detail to deduce the reaction mechanism. The hydrogen and carbon recoveries were consistent with the results of bio-crude yields at every temperature point. The relative percentage of fatty acid in bio-crude decreased and the amine and amide increased for both microalgae with temperature rising. The N-heterocyclic compounds in bio-crude increased with temperature rising for Nannochloropsis, while decreased when temperature increased from 220 °C to 280 °C for Spirulina. Bio-crude gained at higher temperature or from microalgae with high protein content may contain high heteroatom compounds.

  9. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  10. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  11. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude...

  12. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified. PMID:23405324

  14. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  15. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  16. Impact of the economic and financial crisis on the evolving trend of crude steel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paliu-Popa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that the modern world cannot be conceived without the existence of the steel and its use, the crude steel consumption may be considered as an indicator characterizing the economic development of a country. The purpose of this paper is to establish the evolution of the world, regional and state consumption of crude steel, both per total, as well as per inhabitant, but also the impact of the economic and financial crisis it had on the evolving evolution of using the crude steel. Data subject to the study are related to the period 2004 – 2014 and concern nine regions of development and ten countries.

  17. Influence of incipient chain dimension of EVA flow improver on the rheological behaviour of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.W.; Qi, G.R.; Han, D.L.; Yang, S.L. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    1996-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of Daqing crude oil with different incipient chain dimensions of the same ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, prepared with different solvents, solution concentrations and temperatures was studied. It was shown that the EVA flow improver with a compact incipient shape before addition to the oil is preferable for reduction of apparent viscosity, pour point and wax crystallization temperature of crude oil. The compact dimension effect is probably due to strongly selective action in the flow of crude oil. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Dynamic Jump Intensities and Risk Premiums in Crude Oil Futures and Options Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Li, Bingxin

    2016-01-01

    and dynamic jump intensities in these markets. Allowing for jumps is crucial for modeling crude oil futures and futures options, and we find evidence in favor of time-varying jump intensities. During crisis periods, jumps occur more frequently. The properties of the jump processes implied by the option data......Options on crude oil futures are the most actively traded commodity options. We develop a class of computationally efficient discrete-time jump models that allow for closed-form option valuation, and we use crude oil futures and options data to investigate the economic importance of jumps...

  19. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in blood glucose as compared to control. Liver function test also showed significant changes (p<0.001 as compared to alloxan-treated group. The results of this study showed that crude P. lentiscus gum have considerable efficacy in curing diabetes and have hepatoprotective effect.

  1. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries – Part 1: Fractional distillation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    -crude assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups....... Results show a highly promising bio-crude quality, with a higher heating value of 40.4 MJ/kg, elemental oxygen content of 5.3 wt.%, a specific gravity of 0.97 and a distillation recovery of ∼53.4 wt.% at an atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET) of 375 °C, . Results show that only minor upgrading...

  2. Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Udemezue

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

  3. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  4. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bio-crudes from induction-heating pyrolysis of biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Chang, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Shyh-Yu; Chang, Jeng-Hung

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare the bio-crudes from agricultural wastes (i.e., rice straw, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell) by using induction-heating pyrolysis at specified conditions. The quantitative analysis of 21 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bio-crudes examined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that the PAHs in bio-crudes were primarily dominant in the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, including naphthalene (1.10-2.45 mg/L) and acenaphthene (0.72-7.61 mg/L). However, by considering carcinogenic potency, the bio-crudes from rice husk and sugarcane bagasse contained higher contents of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.52 and 0.92 mg/L, respectively) as compared to those from rice straw and coconut shell.

  6. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  7. The geochemical characteristics and origin of crude oils in the Kekeya Oilfield, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Youjun; ZAN Ling; HOU Dujie; XIAO Zhongyao

    2008-01-01

    GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques were employed to describe the characteristics of biomarker assemblages in two sets of hydrocarbon source rocks, Jurassic and Permian, in southwestern Tarim, and the parameters for the classification of the two sets of hydrocarbon source rocks have been established. It is found that diahopane and C30-unknown terpane are abundant in Permian samples, the contents of diahopane in Jurassic samples are relatively low, and terpenoids have been detected in Jurassic samples but not in Permian source rock samples. Kekeya crude oils are abundant in diahopane and C30-unknown terpane. The results of fine oil-rock correlation indicated that Kekeya crude oils were derived mainly from the Permian hydrocarbon source rocks. However, a small amount of diterpenoid was detected in the crude oils, indicating that the Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks also made a certain contribution to Kekeya crude oils.

  8. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  9. Systematically structural identification of nitric compounds in crude oil with chemometric resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; ZHANG Tai-ming; LIANG Yi-zeng; CUI Hui

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of classification of non-hydrocarbons of crude oil, the theoretical standpoint that the polarity of a compound depends on the whole structure and composition of molecule instead of a kind of heteroatom or its functional group was presented. A method was established for the systematically structural identification of nitric compounds in crude oil. The pre-fractionation of a crude oil sample into 7 fractions was performed by djadsorption column chromatography with neutral aluminum oxide and silica gel. Subsequently, the individual components were obtained by using capillary column gas chromatography, and the types of compounds were detected by a mass spectrometer. In combination with a chemometric resolution, the compounds of fraction were further identified. This method can relieve the difficulty of classical analysis in identifying those species with very low contents or without being completely separated. The structures of 168 nitric compounds in a crude oil sample were determined by this method.

  10. Progress and Outlook on Technologies for Processing Inferior Crude Oil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Qingtang

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth of the global petroleum refining industry and the main technologies and measures for China to process inferior crude oil were introduced. The main technologies and measures include the control over equipment corrosion induced by sour and acidic crude, in particular the corrosion of atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, the development of technology for processing inferior residue,and the development of desulfurization technology and sulfur recovery technology in the course of processing of petroleum products. In order to meet the needs for national economic development, China's refining enterprises will uninterruptedly develop and prefect technologies for processing inferior crude,enhance the process and equipment management, sum up the experience for better processing of inferior crude, so as to provide high-quality oil products and petrochemical feedstocks to public with better economic return.

  11. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  12. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanelov, Valeri, E-mail: valeri.natanelov@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Alam, Mohammad J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Bangladesh); McKenzie, Andrew M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, AR (United States); Van Huylenbroeck, Guido [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: > We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. > A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. > Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  13. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stripping suction device. (iv) Number and location of COW machines operating simultaneously in each cargo... crude oil. (13) The procedure for draining and stripping the pumps and piping of the COW system,...

  14. Factors Affecting the Stability of Crude and Transmission Oil Emulsion Swith Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Martínez Martín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil emulsions with surfactant solutions are used to transport this for piping systems. The applicationof this technique requires that the emulsions remain stable during the pumping period and haveseparated after transporting the crude. In this paper, experimental assays were performed using differentconcentrations of surfactant, and mixing types settling conditions. They were employed as the continuousphase two substances: oil transmission and Cuban crude oil. The strong infl uence of the concentrationand type of mixing on the stability of the emulsions was observed. The results demonstrate the similaritiesin thermalhydraulic fl uid parameters objects of study. Allowing infer the approximate behavior of theCuban crude oil from experimental work with transmission oil.

  15. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  16. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  17. Study on Catalytic Cracking of VGO Derived from Kazakhstan-Russian Mixed Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yongsheng; Dong Yuancheng; Wei Gangling; Wang Jian

    2006-01-01

    The study on options for catalytic cracking of VGO derived from the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude was carried out in a small-scale riser FCC unit. The influence of several catalysts and the LCC-A additive for increasing propylene yield on the distribution and quality of FCC products was analyzed. This article sets forth the possible issues arising from processing the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude in FCC unit and the response measures to be adopted.

  18. Experimental model of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis using crude Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin and Pasteurella multocida given endobronchially.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, W. B.; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and characterize a swine pneumonic pasteurellosis model by concurrent introduction of Pasteurella multocida type A and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin. After a series of preliminary experiments, a combination of 4 x 10(9) P. multocida and 4,000 toxic units of A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin was determined to produce optimal results. A total of 48 pigs were divided into four groups of 12 pigs each. The control group received buffered salin...

  19. Aqueous-phase reforming of crude glycerol : effect of impurities on hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boga, Dilek A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325929521; Liu, Fang|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370533828; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of a crude glycerol that originates from an industrial process and the effect of the individual components of crude glycerol on APR activity have been studied over 1 wt% Pt/Mg-Al) O, 1 wt% Pt/Al2O3, 5 wt% Pt/Al2O3 and 5 wt% Pt/C catalysts at 29 bar and 225 degrees C

  20. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  1. A study on chaos in crude oil markets before and after 2008 international financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate existence of chaos in crude oil markets (Brent and WTI) before and after recent 2008 international financial crisis. Largest Lyapunov exponent is estimated for prices, returns, and volatilities. The empirical results show strong evidence that chaos does not exist in prices and returns in both crude oil markets before and after international crisis. However, we find strong evidence of chaotic dynamics in both Brent and WTI volatilities after international financial crisis.

  2. Study on Process for Manufacturing Heavy Traffic Asphalt from Gudong Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zijun; Long Jun; She Yucheng

    2004-01-01

    The Gudong crude from Gudao oil-bearing region in the Shengli oilfield was used as the target for studying the process of manufacturing heavy traffic road asphalt. The heavy traffic road asphalt products can be made from Gudong crude through blending residuum from mild thermal conversion of vacuum resid with extract, blending the deoiled asphalt from VR propane deasphalting with vacuum resid and the extract, and blending of oxidizedhard asphalt originated from VR with the extract.

  3. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Safarkhani; Ali Akbar MiranBeigi; Amir Vahi; Abolghasem Mirhoseini

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs) have been modified. Improve and reform the electro...

  4. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P  0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples.

  5. Modernization or Conservation: The Role of Export Duty on Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Idrisov; Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the consequences of the abolition of export duties on crude oil and petroleum products as a necessary measure to create incentives to improve energy efficiency of the Russian economy and the elimination of underdevelopment caused by the unprecedented long-term subsidies to inefficient Russian oil refining. The authors consider three possible scenarios for the abolition of export duties on crude oil and domestic market and the conservation of tax revenues ...

  6. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  7. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  8. Naphthenic acid characterization and distribution in crude oils; Caracterizacao e distribuicao de acidos naftenicos em petroleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Naphthenic acid corrosion was observed for the first time during the distillation process of some kind of crude oils in 1920. Recent reports about naphthenic acid corrosion have been found in China, India, Venezuela, Eastern Europe, Russia and the USA. In Brazil, heavy and acid crude oil processing is rising. Some brazilian crude oils have TAN around 3,0 mg KOH/g. The presence of relatively high levels of naphthenic acids in crude oils is a bane of petroleum refiners; and more recently, of producers as well, who have reported problems during production with calcium and sodium naphthenate . Essentially, these acids which are found to greater or lesser extent in virtually all crude oils are corrosive and tend to cause equipment failures, lead to high maintenance costs and may pose environmental disposal problems. In order to give these information to PETROBRAS, The Research and Development Center of PETROBRAS (CENPES) has been working in house and with brazilian universities developing analytical technicians to know better molecular structures and distribution of these acids compounds in crude oils. This work presents the actual methods and some results from these developments. (author)

  9. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time.

  10. Characteristics of Newly Isolated Geobacillus sp. ZY-10 Degrading Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yumei; Ning, Zhanguo; Yang, Fan; Li, Xianzhen

    2015-01-01

    An obligately thermophilic strain ZY-10 was isolated from the crude oil in a high-temperature oilfield, which was capable of degrading heavy crude oil. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolate should be grouped in the genus Geobacillus, which shared thd highest similarity (99%) of the 16S rDNA sequence to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the major cellular fatty acid iso-15:0 (28.55%), iso-16:0 (24.93%), iso-17:0 (23.53%) and the characteristics including indole production, tolerance to NaN3 and carbohydrate fermentation showed some difference from the recognized species in the genus Geobacillus. The isolate could use tridecane, hexadecane, octacosane and hexatridecane as sole carbon source for cell growth, and the digesting rate of long-chain alkane was lower than that of short-chain alkane. When the isolate was cultured in the heavy crude oil supplement with inorganic salts and trace yeast extract, the concentration of short-chain alkane was significantly increased and the content of long-chain alkane was decreased, suggesting that the larger hydrocarbon components in crude oil were degraded into shorter-chain alkane. Strain ZY-10 would be useful for improving the mobility of crude oil and upgrading heavy crude oil in situ.

  11. Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-liang; WU Yue-ting; QIAN Xin-ping; MENG Qin

    2005-01-01

    The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain ofPseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, 1 g/L glycerol or 0.22 g/L rhamnolipid was initially added into the medium to facilitate the biodegradation of crude oil. In both situations, more than 58% of crude oil was degraded and further converted into accumulated cell biomass and rhamnolipids. These results suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa could degrade most of crude oil with direct or indirect addition of rhamnolipid. And this conclusion was further supported by another adsorption experiment, where the adsorption capacity of crude oil by killed cell biomass was negligible in comparison with the biologic activities of live cell biomass.

  12. Contents of four active components in different commercial crude drugs and preparations of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; YU Chen; JIA Jing-Ying; Susan Wai Sum LEUNG; Yaw Loong SIOW; Ricky Ying Keung MAN; ZHU Da-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To detect the contents of four active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in various commercially available danshen crude drugs and preparations. METHODS: Commercially available danshen crude drugs from different sources, as well as danshen pills and intravenous injection preparations containing danshen alone or in combination with other herbs were collected. The composition of these danshen samples was analyzed using HPLC. Specifically,the amounts of magnesium tanshinoate B (MTB), danshensu, isotanshinone ⅡA, and cryptotanshinone were determined.In some of these samples, the content of MTB was further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS)/MS method. RESULTS: There were great variations in the amount of the four active ingredients in the commercially available danshen crude drugs and drug preparations in this study. The amount of MTB was the highest among the four components measured in the crude drugs. However, the amounts of MTB in all danshen preparations were much lower than those in crude drugs. The 2 lipophilic components, isotanshinone ⅡA and cryptotanshinone, were very low or not detectable in both injection and oral preparations. CONCLUSION:MTB can be used to standardize the various forms of danshen crude drugs and drug preparations from different sources. In view of the variation in the amounts of MTB and other components, improvement in the production methods of danshen preparations is essential to ensure consistent amount of its active ingredients and reproducible pharmacological actions.

  13. Non-Newtonian steady shear flow characteristics of waxy crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄树新; 陈鑫; 鲁传敬; 侯磊; 范毓润

    2008-01-01

    The experimental research on the non-Newtonian flow characteristic of a waxy crude oil was conducted through a rotational parallel-plates rheometer system.The test temperature is about 6.5 ℃ higher than its gel point.The shear stress and viscosity of the waxy crude oil show sophisticate non-Newtonian characteristics in the shear rate of 10-4-102 s-1,in which the shear stress can be divided into three parts qualitatively,i.e.stress-up region,leveling-off region,and stress-up region.This indicates that there is a yielding process in shearing for the waxy crude oil at the experimental temperature,which is similar to the yield phenomenon in thixotropy-loop test discussed by CHANG and BOGER.Furthermore,the steady shear experiment after the pre-shear process shows that the stress leveling-off region at low shear rate disappears for the waxy crude oil and the stress curve becomes a monotonic climbing one,which demonstrates that the internal structure property presenting through yielding stress at low shear rate can be changed by shearing.The experimental results also show that the internal structure of waxy crude oil presenting at low shear rate has no influence on the shear viscosity obtained at the shear rate higher than 0.1 s-1.The generalized Newtonian model is adopted to describe the shear-thinning viscosity property of the waxy crude oil at high shear rate.

  14. Aminated Copolymers as Flow Improvers for Super-viscous Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Shen Benxian

    2007-01-01

    The new flow improvers for super-viscous crude oils were developed via esterification of polybasic high carbon alcohol with methacrylate and copolymerization of monomers followed by amination of copolymers.The structure of the synthesized polymer flow improver additive was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of the flow improver additives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.The structure of wax crystals was also studied at the same time.The results showed that the wax crystal structure was closely related with the crystal structure of the flow improver,which could change the pour point depression and viscosity reduction behavior of the crude oil.When the wax crystal structure matched well with that of the additive,the Wax crystals were dispersed satisfactorily,resulting in favorable effects in terms of pour point depression and viscosity reduction.The new synthesized aminated polymer flow improver additive was most efficient for treating super-viscous crude oils.The super-viscous crude oil had a high content of resins and asphaltenes,which might aggregate onto the surface of wax crystals to form blocks to limit the crude oil fluidity.However,amination of copolymers having similar structure with the resins and asphaltenes contained in crude oil could dissolve the huge polar groups to make the deposit formation difficult.

  15. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新

    2008-01-01

    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  16. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  17. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  18. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  19. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss.

  20. Performance and carcass traits of finishing heifers fed crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-02-01

    Crossbred heifers (n = 373; 421.6 kg +/- 28.9) were fed finishing diets containing 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16% crude glycerin (DM basis). Diets consisted of steam-flaked corn with 6% alfalfa hay and 1.2% urea and provided 300 mg of monensin, 90 mg of tylosin, and 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate per animal daily. Cattle were stratified by BW and allocated randomly, within strata, to concrete-surfaced feedlot pens each containing 6 to 7 heifers, with 9 pens per dietary treatment. Cattle were transitioned from the control diet to diets containing increasing proportions of glycerin over a period of 10 d. Cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and diets were delivered once daily throughout the 85-d trial period. As the concentration of glycerin increased, DMI decreased linearly (P glycerin had ADG of 1.19, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25, 1.17, and 1.03 kg, respectively (linear, P = 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.010). Feeding glycerin had a quadratic effect on G:F, and G:F was optimal when glycerin was fed at 2% of the diet (quadratic, P = 0.046). Glycerin increased the final BW by 12.7, 8.1, and 5.3 kg when fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but reduced the final BW by 1.9 and 14.3 kg when included at 12 and 16% of the diet (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Similarly, HCW increased by 8.1, 5.1, and 3.3 kg when glycerin was fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but were 1.2 and 9.1 kg less than controls when glycerin was fed at 12 and 16%, respectively (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Longissimus muscle area decreased linearly as glycerin concentrations increased (P glycerin resulted in linear decreases in subcutaneous fat over the 12th rib and marbling scores (P = 0.045). Glycerin tended to decrease the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (P = 0.084) and increase the percentage of cattle grading USDA Select. Adding glycerin to cattle-finishing diets improved BW gain and feed efficiency, particularly when added at concentrations of 8% or less on a DM

  1. Molecular characterization of organically bound sulphur in crude oils. A feasibility study for the application of Raney Ni desulphurization as a new method to characterize crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Lijmbach, G.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Five crude oils with varying sulfur contents (0.1 – 4.7%) were characterized on a molecular level for organically-bound sulfur. Aromatic fractions were analyzed by GC-(MS) and asphaltene and polar fractions were analyzed by flash pyrolysis-GC-(MS). The polar fractions were also desulfurized with Ran

  2. Effect of active species in crude oil on the interfacial tension behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liwei; Hou Jirui; Yue Xiang'an; Zhao Ji

    2008-01-01

    The effect of active species present in crude oil on the interfacial tension (IFT) behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems was studied. The system consisted of heavy alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydrate and Daqing crude oil. Experimental results indicated that active species would diffuse from oil/aqueous interface to aqueous phase and finally an equilibrium could be reached in the system with increasing contact time. Moreover, the minimum IFT and equilibrium IFT values increased with increasing contact time and a linear relationship existed between dynamic IFT and t-1/2 when IFT value approaching the minimum and after the minimum IFT was reached. This indicated that the dynamic IFT-time behavior was diffusion controlled. The oil and aqueous phases were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. IR spectra of oil and aqueous phases illustrated that the content of active species in the oil phase decreased, but the content of active species in the aqueous phase increased after alkali reacted with crude oil. This indicated that the active species present in oil played an important role in reducing IFT.

  3. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  4. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  5. Wettability Behavior of Crude Oil-Silica Nanofluids-Sandstone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Pales, Ashley; Huibers, Britta; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Mobilizing and recovering crude oils from geological formations is critical for the management and exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Nanoparticles, with their unique physico-chemical properties can increase the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by decreasing interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and aqueous phase systems, and altering rock wettability. Our research examines the potential use of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide (SIO2) nanoparticles on the wettability and interfacial tension of different crude oil-silica nanofluids-sandstone systems. We designed nanofluid treatments to manipulate changes in wettability of Berea and Boise sandstones simulating petroleum reservoir. Experiments were performed to measure the IFT and wettability involving different concentrations of nanoparticles with and without the addition of surfactant to determine which nanofluids produced the most favorable wettability changes for optimal EOR with light crude oil (e.g., West Texas, API: 40), medium crude oil (Prudhoe Bay, API: 28), and heavy crude oil (e.g., Lloydminster, API: 20). We investigated the addition of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant to the nanoparticle dispersions - made from SiO2 nanoparticles - that allows the optimum mobility in porous media through optimization of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle, and conducted tests. Batch studies were conducted to measure the IFT and wettability of the nanofluids of different range of nanoparticle concentrations (0-0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions, i.e. brine and brine-surfactant systems made with 5% brine and 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactants. The dynamic behavior of IFT was monitored using a pendant drop method. Five percent brine-nanoparticle systems containing 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles resulted in a significant decrease of IFT for light and medium crude oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for heavy crude oil was observed with 0.1 wt

  6. Fungal contamination of crude herbal remedies as a possible source of mycotoxin exposure in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OGOyero; AOBOyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The documented evidence of toxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites on medicinal plants,coupled with the ability of these toxins to resist decomposition and temperature treatments necessitated this study,with a view of surveying for a possible carry over into the final medicinal products.As such popular indigenous crude herbal prepa-rations widely consumed for various ailments in south-western Nigeria,were screened for fungal contamination,my-coflora enumeration,flora mycotoxin productibility,detection and quantification of a potent human carcinogen (afla-toxin).Methods:Fungal contamination was assessed on acidified potato dextrose agar using the plate count method, while mycotoxin detection,extraction and quantification were achieved by the thin -layer chromatography and chem-ical confirmation techniques.Mycoflora were characterized by standard procedures.Results:The total plate count ranged from 1.80 ×104 CFU /ML to 1.10 ×105 CFU /ML and 2.00 ×103 CFU /ML to 1.38 ×105 CFU /ML for water and dry gin extracted preparations respectively.The mycoflora consisted of six genera (Aspergillus,Penicillium,Fu-sarium,Mucor,Alternaria and Rhizopus).Thirty-four percent (34 %)of the potential toxigenic species (Aspergil-lus,Penicillium and Fusarium)produced mycotoxins in culture,while further characterization indicated production of aflatoxin B1 (42 %),ochratoxin A (50 %)and penicillic acid (8 %)by the mycotoxigenic strains respectively. The aflatoxin content of the herbal medicines ranged between 0.004 μg/kg and 0.345 μg/kg.Conclusion:The study confirmed the carry over of the fungal contaminants and their toxic metabolites into the final herbal medicines in quantities that exceeded some of the available limits.The implication of this is that the chronic exposure to mycotox-ins particularly aflatoxins as a result of long term consumption of these preparations,could lead to impaired growth, nutritional interference,immunologic suppression and hepatocellular

  7. Formulation of best-fit hydrophile/lipophile balance-dielectric permittivity demulsifiers for treatment of crude oil emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ojinnaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The commerce of crude oil depends heavily on its water and salt contents usually referred to as Basic Sediments and Water (BS&W, which is co-produced with the crude oil in the form of emulsion. The lower the BS&W, the higher the market value of the crude. The presence of water in crude oil causes corrosion, lowers capacity utilization of production and processing plant parts and pipelines, reduces oil recovery and increases the oil content of the effluent water. The stabilizing factors of crude oil emulsions vary from one oil field to the other and with time in the same well as co-produced water increases, or after a well treatment and Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations (EOR. Periodical assessment and possible change of demulsifiers employed is therefore necessary at certain stages of crude oil productions, but this is not encouraged due to lack of general formulation procedures and the rigorous nature of bottle test method that is currently being used for assessment and selection. In this paper, the factors that affect the stability of crude oil emulsions are presented. Efforts of researchers in formulating demulsifiers based on these factors and their screening methods were reviewed. The context sets the stage for further exploration of possible relationship(s between the physical parameters of the crude oil and the demulsifiers, and exploiting same in the formulation of new demulsifiers capable of resolving crude oil emulsions using chemicals with improved surface activity and crude extracts of indigenous plants.

  8. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  9. Distribution and Recovery of Crude Oil in Various Types of Porous Media and Heterogeneity Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, G. R.; Ghosh, J.; Greenberg, R. R.; Akyol, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    A series of pore-scale experiments were conducted to understand the interfacial processes contributing to the removal of crude oil from various porous media during surfactant-induced remediation. Effects of physical heterogeneity (i.e. media uniformity) and carbonate soil content on oil recovery and distribution were evaluated through pore scale quantification techniques. Additionally, experiments were conducted to evaluate impacts of tetrachloroethene (PCE) content on crude oil distribution and recovery under these same conditions. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXM) was used to obtain high-resolution images of the two-fluid-phase oil/water system, and quantify temporal changes in oil blob distribution, blob morphology, and blob surface area before and after sequential surfactant flooding events. The reduction of interfacial tension in conjunction with the sufficient increase in viscous forces as a result of surfactant flushing was likely responsible for mobilization and recovery of lighter fractions of crude oil. Corresponding increases in viscous forces were insufficient to initiate and maintain the displacement of the heavy crude oil in more homogeneous porous media systems during surfactant flushing. Interestingly, higher relative recoveries of heavy oil fractions were observed within more heterogeneous porous media indicating that wettability may be responsible for controlling mobilization in these systems. Compared to the "pure" crude oil experiments, preliminary results show that crude oil with PCE produced variability in oil distribution and recovery before and after each surfactant-flooding event. Such effects were likely influenced by viscosity and interfacial tension modifications associated with the crude-oil/solvent mixed systems.

  10. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  11. Three essays in corporate finance: Examining the influence of government ownership and evaluating crude oil arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kateryna

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold: first, to evaluate how governments influence firms in which they invest (chapters one and two), and second, to examine arbitrage in the crude oil market by investigating the relationship between crude oil inventories, physical prices, and financial prices (chapter three). In the first chapter (The Wealth Effects of Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I study how government share ownership affects shareholder wealth. I find that government investments with higher likelihood of political interference have a negative influence on shareholder wealth, while the opposite is true for government investments with economic objectives. In the second chapter (Government Ownership and the Cost of Debt: Evidence form Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I investigate how government share ownership affects the cost of debt of publicly traded firms. I find that government ownership generally leads to a higher cost of debt, except for times of economic and firm distress, when the value of the implicit government guarantee is associated with a reduction in the cost of debt. In the third chapter (Financial Trading, Spot Oil Prices, and Inventory: Evidence from the U.S. Crude Oil Market), I confirm the existence of an active cash and carry market in crude oil in Cushing, OK, the main U.S. crude oil futures settlement location. In other words, crude oil inventories in Cushing, but not in any other U.S. crude oil storage locations, are explained by the spread between the financial and the physical price of oil in addition to operational factors.

  12. Catalytic effect of ultrananocrystalline Fe₃O₄ on algal bio-crude production via HTL process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Frias-Flores, Cecilia B; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Das, K C; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M

    2015-11-14

    We report a comprehensive quantitative study of the production of refined bio-crudes via a controlled hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process using Ulva fasciata macroalgae (UFMA) as biomass and ultrananocrystalline Fe3O4 (UNCFO) as catalyst. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy were applied to elucidate the formation of the high-quality nanocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and CHNS analyses showed that the bio-crude yield and carbon/oxygen ratios increase as the amount of UNCFO increases, reaching a peak value of 32% at 1.25 wt% (a 9% increase when compared to the catalyst-free yield). The bio-crude is mainly composed of fatty acids, alcohols, ketones, phenol and benzene derivatives, and hydrocarbons. Their relative abundance changes as a function of catalyst concentration. FTIR spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the as-produced bio-crudes are free of iron species, which accumulate in the generated bio-chars. Our findings also indicate that the energy recovery values via the HTL process are sensitive to the catalyst loading, with a threshold loading of 1.25 wt%. GC-MS studies show that the UNCFO not only influences the chemical nature of the resulting bio-crudes and bio-chars, but also the amount of fixed carbons in the solid residues. The detailed molecular characterization of the bio-crudes and bio-chars catalyzed by UNCFO represents the first systematic study reported using UFMA. This study brings forth new avenues to advance the highly-pure bio-crude production employing active, heterogeneous catalyst materials that are recoverable and recyclable for continuous thermochemical reactions.

  13. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  14. Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil from hulled pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita Maxima was extracted with hot petroleum ether, and then it was degummed, neutralized and bleached, consecutively Physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Density, refractive index, viscosity and peroxide value were not affected by purification, while decreases in acidity, colour, unsaponifiable, E1%1cm 232, and oxidative stability, and increases in smoke point and E1%1cm 270 were observed. Purification did not affect the fatty acid and sterol profiles. GLC analysis for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil showed that the predominant unsaturates were linoleic (42% and oleic (38%, while the major saturates were palmitic (12,7% and stearic (6%. Only α-tocopherol was detected at a level of 126 mg/kg, which reduced to 78 mg/kg after purification. The main sterols of pumpkin seed oil unsaponifiable were Δ7.22,25 -stigmastatrien-3β-ol, α-spinasterol, Δ7,25_stigmastadienol and Δ7-avenasterol, followed by stigmasterol, 24-methylcholest-7-enol and Δ7-stigmastenol, and also trace to minor amounts of cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, Δ5-avenasterol, erythrodiol and uvaol were found.

    Aceite de semillas de calabaza descascarada (Cucurbita pepo YCucurbita maxima fue extraído con éter de petróleo caliente, y luego desgomado, neutralizado y decolorado consecutivamente. Las características físicas y químicas de aceites crudo y purificado fueron determinadas. La densidad, el índice de refracción, la viscosidad y el índice de peróxido no se afectaron por la purificación, mientras que se observó una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificable, E1%1cm 232, y estabilidad oxidativa, y un aumento en el punto de humo y de E1%1cm270. La purificaci

  15. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  16. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  17. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and ...

  18. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  19. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  20. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintaining good health. Can chronic pancreatitis give my child cancer? If your child has chronic pancreatitis, he or she will be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the general population. The degree of ...

  1. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goals Ending Chronic Homelessness Share This: Ending Chronic Homelessness Last updated on January 19, 2017 We can ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  2. Integrated biomarker response index used in laboratory exposure of the mussel Mytilus edulis to water accommodated fractions of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhang, Xinxin; Hu, Shunxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and to set up a quantitative evaluation method in monitoring the environmental pollution is of great importance. Individuals of Mytilus edulis, collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, were thus exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil under controlled lab conditions. Mussels were exposed to different concentrations of WAFs for 96h acute toxicity experiment and 15d chronic toxicity experiment, a 7d restoration experiment was conducted after toxicity experiment as well. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST, GPx and GR) were measured in gills of mussels. The purpose of the study was to screen out a series of sensitive biomarkers and set up an Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) for marine oil pollution monitoring. Results showed: (1) WAFs exposure induced the increased activities of CAT, GST, GPx and GR in gills, revealing a stimulation effect on the antioxidant system. Activities of enzymes were more significantly altered in response to higher concentrations of WAFs (2.3 and 5.0 mg.L-1) than lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.1 mg.L-1). After restoration experiment, the activities decreased to the initial levels. (2) IBR was set up base on the laboratory experiment, which showed a positive relationship with WAFs exposure concentrations. Therefore, IBR was suggested to be a potentially useful tool in assessing the oil pollution.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis against some pathogens

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    Yibeltal Merawie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in vitro antimicrobial activities of leaves and heartwood crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae (W. ugandensis on some pathogens. Methods: Crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood of W. ugandensis were prepared. Six bacteria [Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa, Shigella boydii (S. boydii, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia] and one fungus (Candida albicans were tested by agar well diffusion and broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results: S. boydii and S. aureus were found to be the most susceptible bacterial isolated in agar well diffusion and broth dilution method of both the crude and petroleum ether extracts, while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant bacterium isolated under the same condition except in chloroform fraction. K. pneumoniae had shown MIC value of 10 mg/mL in the leaves and heartwood in both the crude and petroleum ether extract. S. boydii and S. aureus had shown the MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL in the crude extract for the both leaves and heartwood; Whereas the petroleum ether semi-purified fraction had shown 0.5 mg/mL in the heartwood. In the crude extract, E. coli and P. aeruginosa exhibits similar MIC value of 1.75 mg/mL. In semi purified petroleum ether extract, E. coli had MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL; Whereas P. aeruginosa had shown no change in crude extract. Candida albicans revealed equal MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL for the both crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood. Conclusions: The crude and semi-purified fractions of W. ugandensis have considerable effect on pathogens. Semi-purified petroleum ether fraction has better antimicrobial activity in both agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. This study further shows the potential of W. ugandensis for further study in order to be use as a modern

  4. Antimicrobial activity of crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis against some pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibeltal Merawie; Samuel Sahile; Feleke Moges; Azamal Husen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro antimicrobial activities of leaves and heartwood crude and semi-purified fractions of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) (W. ugandensis) on some pathogens.Methods:were prepared. Six bacteria [Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (E. coli),Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood of W. ugandensis (P. aeruginosa), Shigella boydii (S. boydii), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pneumonia] and one fungus (Candida albicans) were tested by agar well diffusion and broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results: S. boydii and S. aureus were found to be the most susceptible bacterial isolated in agar well diffusion and broth dilution method of both the crude and petroleum ether extracts, while K. pneumoniae was the most resistant bacterium isolated under the same condition except in chloroform fraction. K. pneumoniae had shown MIC value of 10 mg/mL in the leaves and heartwood in both the crude and petroleum ether extract. S. boydii and S. aureus had shown the MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL in the crude extract for the both leaves and heartwood; Whereas the petroleum ether semi-purified fraction had shown 0.5 mg/mL in the heartwood. In the crude extract, E. coli and P. aeruginosa exhibits similar MIC value of 1.75 mg/mL. In semi purified petroleum ether extract, E. coli had MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL; Whereas P. aeruginosa had shown no change in crude extract. Candida albicans revealed equal MIC value of 1.0 mg/mL for the both crude and semi-purified fractions of the leaves and heartwood.Conclusions:The crude and semi-purified fractions of W. ugandensis have considerable effect on pathogens. Semi-purified petroleum ether fraction has better antimicrobial activity in both agar well diffusion and broth dilution method. This study further shows the potential of W.ugandensis for further study in order to be use as a modern drug.

  5. Regulatory volume decrease in isolated nematocytes is affected by crude venom from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

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    Rossana Morabito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Crude venom from nematocysts of the Scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca possesses hemolytic and cytotoxic power on cultured cells and elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions in vivo. The ability of regulating their volume after exposure to an anisosmotic solution is a fundamental feature common to cells from vertebrates and invertebrates, including Cnidarians. The aim of the present work i s to assay whether crude venom from Pelagia noctiluca may affect the regulatory volume decrease (RVD of nematocytes isolated from the Anthozoan Aiptasia mutabilis, here employed as a cell model. For this purpose, nematocytes were isolated by 605 mM NaSCN plus 0.01 mM Ca2+ application on acontia of Aiptasia mutabilis, while crude venom was obtained by sonication of a population of, respectively, 10, 25 and 50 nematocysts/µL (n/µL. Isolated nematocytes were pre-treated for 30 min with crude venom, submitted to hypotonic stress and their osmotic response and RVD were measured optically. Our results show that, after exposure to crude venom, nematocytes were morphologically intact, as shown by the Trypan blue exclusion test, but did not exhibit RVD. This effect was dose-dependent and reversed by the ionopho re gramicidin. The last observation suggests an inhibitory effect of venom on cell membrane ion transport mechanisms involved in RVD. Further studies are needed to verify this hypothesis and ascertain if a similar effect could be observed in human cells.

  6. The Effects of Biodiesel and Crude Oil on the Foraging Behavior of Rusty Crayfish, Orconectes rusticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcak, Ana M; Gauthier, Steven J; Moore, Paul A

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants, such as crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, inhibit and limit an organism's ability to perceive a chemical stimulus. Despite the increased use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, there have been few studies investigating the impact of these chemicals on the behavior of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the sublethal effects of biodiesel and crude oil exposure on chemically mediated behaviors in a freshwater keystone species. Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) were tested on their ability to respond appropriately to a positive chemical stimulus within a Y-maze choice paradigm. Behavior was quantified by measuring time spent finding an odor source, duration of time spent at the odor source, percentage of crayfish that found the odor source, and percentage of crayfish that chose the correct arm of the arena. Results indicated negative impacts of both biodiesel and crude oil on the ability of crayfish to locate the food source. However, there were no significant differences between behavioral performances when crayfish were exposed to crude oil compared with biodiesel. Thus, biodiesel and crude oil have equally negative effects on the chemosensory behavior of crayfish. These findings indicate that biodiesel has the potential to have similar negative ecological impacts as other fuel source toxins.

  7. Detection of salivary antibodies to crude antigens of Opisthorchis viverrini in opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2011-08-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini; known as human liver fluke) is a major health problem in the northeastern region of Thailand. Infection with O. viverrini is the cause of hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Previous studies demonstrated specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in serum from O. viverrini-infected patients. However, no studies have measured specific antibodies to O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. The objective of the study was to detect specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA, and to evaluate their use for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection. Saliva samples from 23 control subjects, 30 opisthorchiasis patients, and 38 CCA patients were collected. ELISA was established for detection of salivary IgA and IgG to crude O. viverrini antigens. ANOVA was used to compare salivary IgA and IgG levels among groups. Salivary IgA to crude O. viverrini antigens in CCA patients was significantly higher than controls (p = 0.007). Salivary IgG in CCA patients was significantly higher than opisthorchiasis patients and controls (p = 0.010 and p viverrini infection than salivary IgA. In conclusion, specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens were detected in saliva of patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. Salivary antibodies reflect serum immune response to O. viverrini infection, and salivary IgG tends to be a good candidate for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection.

  8. Performance of juvenile mojarra supplied with feed containing varying levels of crude protein

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    Ricardo Henrique Bastos de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of the Brazilian aquaculture has stimulated the development of the productive chain of native species, including marine environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of juvenile mojarra fish (Diapterus rhombeus fed diets containing different concentrations of crude protein (32, 36, 40 and 44 g 100 g-1. The 80 juvenile mojarra (7.2±1.5 g were kept in 16 circular tanks (150 L. The study design used was completely randomized with four treatments and four repetitions. The fish were fed four times a day. At the end of the experiment (60 days the final weight, feed intake, weight gain (WG, feed:gain ratio (FGR, protein efficiency rate (PER, energy efficiency rate, specific growth, survival rate and, body composition were evaluated. It was verified significant effect of protein level on the WG, with the best value at the level of 38.20 g 100 g-1 of crude protein. For FGR, the best estimated value occurred with 38.06 g 100 g-1 of crude protein, similar to that reported for the PER (38.91 g 100 g-1. The other performance parameters and body composition were not influenced by crude protein levels. Diet crude protein concentrations between 38.06 and 38.91 g 100 g-1 provide the best performance indices for juvenile mojarra.

  9. The Reasons and the Impacts of Crude Oil Prices on World Economy

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    Jitka Heydová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how crude oil prices affect the world economy. It discusses crude oil and its everyday usage and necessity in today‘s world. This paper also discusses the historical supply and demand of oil and gives the numbers for the world proven reserves. Furthermore, it explains the history of crude oil prices, maps factors that influenced price and highlights impacts on the world economy. It characterizes the main factors influencing the impact of crude oil price changes to a country’s economy in OECD countries. It contains detailed information about each country of OECD and calculates the results of the main macroeconomic figures and influencing factors. It analyzes and compares country’s differences and point out the danger of dependency on imported sources of oil. Crude oil price is influencing of our everyday life and understanding the problem can improve our awareness of energy sources and perhaps prevent another oil crisis. ThepaperwasprocessedwithintheframeworkoftheResearch Project of MSM 6046070906 "Theeconomicsof Czech agriculturalresources and theireffective use withintheframeworkofmultifunctionalagri-food systems".

  10. Effect of Alkali on Daqing Crude Oil/Water Interfacial Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jixiang; Li Mingyuan; Lin Meiqin; Wu Zhaoliang

    2007-01-01

    Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding using sodium hydroxide as the alkali component to enhance oil recovery in Daqing Oilfield,northeast China has been successful,but there are new problems in the treatment of produced crude. The alkali added forms stable water-in-crude oil emulsion,hence de-emulsification process is necessary to separate oil and water. The problems in enhanced oil recovery with ASP flooding were investigated in laboratory by using fractions of Daqing crude oil. The oil was separated into aliphatics,aromatics,resin and asphaltene fractions. These fractions were then mixed with an additive-free jet fuel to form model oils. The interfacial properties,such as interfacial tension and interfacial pressure of the systems were also measured,which together with the molecular parameters of the fractions were all used to investigate the problems in the enhanced oil recovery. In our work,it was found that sodium hydroxide solution reacts with the acidic hydrogen in the fractions of crude oil and forms soap-like interfacially active components,which accumulate at the crude oil-water interface.

  11. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

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    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  12. Tracking Catalytic Esterification of Naphthenic Acids in Crude Oil by ESI FT-ICR MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaohui; Wu Bencheng; Zhu Jianhua; Tao Xiujuan

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic esterification reaction was used to decrease total acid number (TAN) of crude oil by converting naphthenic acids to naphthenic acid esters in the presence of Zn-Al hydrotalcite used as the catalyst and glycol used as the reactant. The crude oil and its corresponding esterified oil were characterized by the negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Six acidic class species, O2, O1, N1, N2, N1O1 and N1O2 were assigned in the negative-ion spectrum both in the crude oil and its esterified oil. Among the identified acidic compounds, the O2 class was dominant. The relative abundance of O2 class species was much higher than other acidic class species in crude oil, while it was significantly decreased after esterification. The most abundant O2 class species had a car-bon number of 30-34 and a double-bond equivalence (DBE) value of 5 before and after esterification. It could be concluded that the naphthenic acids in crude oil can be esterified to lower its TAN value, and each of them seems to exhibit identical esterification efficiency approximately due to the similar DBE versus the -carbon number distribution before and after es-terification.

  13. Biological and Enzymatic Characterization of Proteases from Crude Venom of the Ant Odontomachus bauri

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    Mariana Ferreira Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera venoms constitute an interesting source of natural toxins that may lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents. The present study investigated the enzymatic and biological characteristics of the crude venom of the ant Odontomachus bauri. Its crude venom presents several protein bands, with higher staining for six proteins with gelatinolytic activity (17, 20, 26, 29, 43 and 48 kDa. The crude venom showed high proteolytic activity on azocasein at optimal pH 8.0 and 37 °C. In the presence of protease inhibitors as aprotinin, leupeptin and EDTA, the azocaseinolytic activity was reduced by 45%, 29% and 9%, respectively, suggesting that the enzymes present in the crude venom belong to the three classes of proteases, with the serine proteases in greater intensity. The crude venom degraded the fibrinogen α-chain faster than the β-chain, while the fibrinogen γ-chain remained unchanged. In biological assays, O. bauri venom showed hemolytic and coagulant activity in vitro, and defibrinating activity in vivo. In addition, the venom showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as antiparasitic activity on Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro. In that sense, this study sheds perspectives for pharmacological applications of O. bauri venom enzymes.

  14. Biological and Enzymatic Characterization of Proteases from Crude Venom of the Ant Odontomachus bauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Mota, Caroline Martins; Miranda, Vanessa dos Santos; Cunha, Amanda de Oliveira; Silva, Maraísa Cristina; Naves, Karinne Spirandelli Carvalho; de Oliveira, Fábio; Silva, Deise Aparecida de Oliveira; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Santiago, Fernanda Maria

    2015-11-30

    Hymenoptera venoms constitute an interesting source of natural toxins that may lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents. The present study investigated the enzymatic and biological characteristics of the crude venom of the ant Odontomachus bauri. Its crude venom presents several protein bands, with higher staining for six proteins with gelatinolytic activity (17, 20, 26, 29, 43 and 48 kDa). The crude venom showed high proteolytic activity on azocasein at optimal pH 8.0 and 37 °C. In the presence of protease inhibitors as aprotinin, leupeptin and EDTA, the azocaseinolytic activity was reduced by 45%, 29% and 9%, respectively, suggesting that the enzymes present in the crude venom belong to the three classes of proteases, with the serine proteases in greater intensity. The crude venom degraded the fibrinogen α-chain faster than the β-chain, while the fibrinogen γ-chain remained unchanged. In biological assays, O. bauri venom showed hemolytic and coagulant activity in vitro, and defibrinating activity in vivo. In addition, the venom showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as antiparasitic activity on Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro. In that sense, this study sheds perspectives for pharmacological applications of O. bauri venom enzymes.

  15. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  16. Systematic Engineering of Escherichia coli for d-Lactate Production from Crude Glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zei Wen; Saini, Mukesh; Lin, Li-Jen; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2015-11-04

    Crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel production is an abundant and renewable resource. However, the impurities in crude glycerol usually make microbial fermentation problematic. This issue was addressed by systematic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of d-lactate from crude glycerol. First, mgsA and the synthetic pathways of undesired products were eliminated in E. coli, rendering the strain capable of homofermentative production of optically pure d-lactate. To direct carbon flux toward d-lactate, the resulting strain was endowed with an enhanced expression of glpD-glpK in the glycerol catabolism and of a heterologous gene encoding d-lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, the strain was evolved to improve its utilization of cruder glycerol and subsequently equipped with the FocA channel to export intracellular d-lactate. Finally, the fed-batch fermentation with two-phase culturing was carried out with a bioreactor. As a result, the engineered strain enabled production of 105 g/L d-lactate (99.9% optical purity) from 121 g/L crude glycerol at 40 h. The result indicates the feasibility of our approach to engineering E. coli for the crude glycerol-based fermentation.

  17. Energy balance of biofuel production from biological conversion of crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, Jose R

    2016-04-01

    Crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, has gained significant attention as a carbon source for biofuel production. This study evaluated the energy balance of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol production from 3.48 million L of crude glycerol (80% w/v). The conversion efficiency (energy output divided by energy invested) was 1.16, 0.22, 0.27, and 0.40 for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, biogas, and ethanol respectively. It was found that the use of crude glycerol for biodiesel production was an energy gain process, with a positive energy balance and conversion efficiency of greater than 1. The energy balance revealed a net energy gain of 5226 GJ per 1 million kg biodiesel produced. Production of hydrogen, biogas and ethanol from crude glycerol were energy loss processes. Therefore, the conversion of crude glycerol to lipids and subsequently to biodiesel is suggested to be a better option compared to hydrogen, biogas, or ethanol production with respect to energy balance.

  18. Effects of Iranian crude oil on the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem); Nissenbaum, A.; Eisler, R.

    1977-03-01

    Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of Iranian crude oil on colonies of the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens were studied under static and continuous flow assay conditions. Static toxicity bioassays conducted in 3 litre jars at 41/sup 0///sub 00/ salinity showed that the concentration of crude oil fatal to 50 percent of the test colonies in 96 h was 12 ml/litre. Colonies surviving exposure to high sublethal levels of crude oil were adversely affected both during treatment and afterwards. Tank tests conducted in 1500 litre, deep (2 m) containers and flowing sea water demonstrated that Heteroxenia were more resistant to crude oil than when assayed in jars; no deaths were observed in tanks during exposure for 168 h to initial concentrations of 10 ml/litre (15 litres added at surface). The number of colonies exhibiting signs of stress decreased with increasing distance from the oil film at the surface. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that petroleum derived hydrocarbons were incorporated into tissues. The highest level of pollutant hydrocarbons found in these colonies was about 1 percent of their endogenic hydrocarbon content. It is concluded that while crude oil may not be acutely toxic to Heteroxenia, exposure to high sublethal oil levels may result in long term deleterious effects.

  19. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  20. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons.

  1. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  2. Microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation; from microbial consortia to heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Ian M.; Maguire, Michael J.; Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell; Gray, Neil D.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Martin Jones, D.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Larter, Stephen R. [Petroleum Research Group, Geosciences, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Biodegraded petroleum reservoirs are one of the most dramatic indications of the deep biosphere. It is estimated that heavy oil and oil sands will account for a considerable amount of energy production in the future. Carbon, a major resource for deep subsurface microorganisms, and energy are contained in large quantities in petroleum reservoirs. The aerobic to anaerobic paradigm shift is explained. A key process for in-situ oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs is methanogenesis. New paradigms for in-reservoir crude oil biodegradation are discussed. Variations in anaerobic degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are also discussed. A graph shows the different patterns of crude oil biodegradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Alternative anaerobic alkane activation mechanisms are also shown. From the study, it can be concluded that methanogenic crude oil degradation is of global importance and led to the establishment of the world's enormous heavy oil deposits.

  3. Determining Optimal Crude Oil Price Benchmark in Nigeria: An Empirical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibu Olufemi Muibi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to on-going empirical search for an appropriate crude oil price benchmark that ensures greater financial stability and efficient fiscal management in Nigeria. It adopted the seasonally adjusted ARIMA forecasting models using monthly data series from 2000m01 to 2012m12 to predict future movement in Nigeria crude oil prices. The paper derived a more robust and dynamic framework that accommodates fluctuation in crude oil price and also in government spending. The result shows that if the incessant withdrawal from the ECA fund and the increasing debt profile of government in recent times are factored into the benchmark, the real crude oil numerical fiscal rule is (US$82.3 for 2013 which is higher than the official benchmark of $75 used for 2013 and 2014 budget proposal. The paper argues that the current long run price rule based on 5-10 year moving average approach adopted by government is rigid and inflexible as a rule for managing Nigerian oil funds. The unrealistic assumption of the extant benchmark accounted for excessive depletion and lack of accountability of the excess crude oil account. The paper concludes that except the federal government can curtail its spending profligacy and adopts a more stringent fiscal discipline rules, the current benchmark is unrealistic and unsuitable for fiscal management of oil revenue in the context of Nigerian economic spending profile.

  4. Mathematical Model of Sorption Kinetics of Crude Oil by Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres

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    Felix A. AISIEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an insight into how rubber particles from scrap tyres can be utilized to clean up oil spillages as well as how the process of sorption of crude oil by rubber particles can be stimulated based on sorption kinetics. Crude oil sorption tests using recycled rubber particles (a model absorbent were designed for investigating crude oil concentration profiles. The model based on a linear driving force (LDF was developed using a set of experimental data and multiple regression analysis. The crude oil sorption performance tests were conducted under various operating conditions by varying parameters such as rubber particle size and absorption temperature. The predictive capacity of the kinetic model was evaluated under conditions significantly different from those that have already been measured. The experimental results obtained previously were correlated with the first order sorption kinetics model developed. The results showed that the first order kinetics model accurately correlate the experimental data generated. Also, satisfactory results were obtained from simulation of other operating conditions; hence the crude oil sorption kinetics is first order.

  5. Production of fumaric acid from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhizopus arrhizus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqing; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shihong; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    This work investigated the capability of Rhizopus arrhizus to assimilate biodiesel-derived crude glycerol and convert it into fumaric acid. After optimizing the initial glycerol concentration, spore inoculum and yeast extract concentration, smaller pellets (0.7 mm) and higher biomass (3.11 g/L) were obtained when R. arrhizus grew on crude glycerol. It was found that crude glycerol was more suitable than glucose for smaller R. arrhizus pellet forming. When 80 g/L crude glycerol was used as carbon source, the fumaric acid production of 4.37 g/L was obtained at 192 h. With a highest concentration of 22.81 g/L achieved in the co-fermentation of crude glycerol (40 g/L) and glucose (40 g/L) at 144 h, the fumaric acid production was enhanced by 553.6%, compared to the fermentation using glycerol (80 g/L) as sole carbon source. Moreover, the production cost of fumaric acid in co-fermentation was reduced by approximately 14% compared to glucose fermentation.

  6. The application of event-tree based approach in long-term crude oil scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of optimal operation in long-term crude oil scheduling,which involves unloading crude oil from vessels,transferring it to charging tanks and feeding it to the distillation units.The application of a new approach for modeling and optimization of long-term crude oil scheduling is presented and the event-tree based modeling method that is very different from mathematical programming is employed.This approach is developed on the basis of natural language modeling and continuous time representation.Event triggered rules,decomposition strategy,depth-first search algorithm and pruning strategy are adopted to improve the efficiency of searching the optimum solution.This approach is successfully applied to an industrial-size problem over a horizon of 4 weeks,involving 7 vessels,6 storage tanks,6 charging tanks,2 crude oil distillation units,and 6 crude oil types.The CPU (AMD 3000+,2.0GHz) solving time is less than 70 seconds.

  7. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  8. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marinescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution caused by crude oil is the most prevalent problem in the environment. The release of crude oil into theenvironment by oil spills is receiving worldwide attention. The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties wasinvestigated by achieving a case study in Perisoru, Braila County. It has been achieved a profile until 120 cm and soilsamples were collected according to the methodology and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In caseof physical analysis, the values obtained for granulometric fractions were not influenced by the presence of crude oil.Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. Organic carbon increased from 2.23% for anunpolluted soil to 5.51% in polluted soil. C/N ratios increased from 13.01 for an unpolluted soil to 20.54 in pollutedsoil. Mobile phosphorous and potassium registered in polluted soil similar values with the one characteristic forunpolluted soil. Crude oil at high pollution levels inhibited the growth of crops.

  9. Co-digestion of swine excreta associated with increasing levels of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Previdelli Orrico Junior

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of swine excreta associated with increasing doses of crude glycerin and different hydraulic retention times (HRT. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement composed of three HRT (10, 17, and 24 days and four crude glycerin doses (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g of total solids [TS], with four replications per treatment. The assessed parameters were: biogas production potential, reductions of volatile solids (VS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms. The biogas production per added VS presented quadratic effect at 17 and 24 days of HRT, with ideal doses of 5.5 and 5.9 g of crude glycerin/100 g TS, respectively. There was no difference among glycerin doses at 10-day HRT for VS reductions; however, at HRT of 17 and 24 days, there were differences, with greater reduction of 61.1% for 5 g of crude glycerin/100 g TS at 24-day HRT. The COD reduction values showed an effect among retention times, in which the 24-day HRT provided the best results. Reductions in coliforms were greater than 99%, with no difference among treatments. Addition of 5 to 6 g of crude glycerin/100 g TS with a 24-day HRT is more effective in biogas production and reduction of VS, COD, and coliforms from co-digestion of swine excreta.

  10. Projections of Demand for Waterborne Transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 5. Group III. Crude Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Petroleum Administration for Defense District II (PADD II), which includes major crude oil production areas in the Ohio fiver Basin, reported an excess of...the total disappearance of local movements. This occurred partly because of the decrease in crude oil production in the PSAs, but mostly because of...Production, on the other hand, decreased rapidly and steadily throughout the period. In 1976, crude oil production in the study area was estimated at only 48

  11. Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state

    OpenAIRE

    Ekundayo, F. O.; Olukunle, O.F.; Ekundayo, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This present investigation was conducted to determine the capability of fungi isolated from soil samples collected from two automobile workshopsto bioremediate Bonnylight crude oil.Methodology and Results: The fungi present on the soil samples collected from two automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria were investigated using standard microbiological techniques. These fungal isolates were screened for the ability to degrade Bonnylight crude oil. The bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil w...

  12. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  13. Biochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of crude and purified sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria fisheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imjongjairak, Siriluck; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Pason, Patthra; Waeonukul, Rattiya

    2016-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from Gracilaria fisheri of Thailand, which were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water showed the highest content of phenolic compounds compared with those extracted at high temperature (55 °C). Crude SP antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the DPPH free radical scavenging effect which is directly related to the level of phenolic compounds. The sulfate content, total sugar, and SPs yield were also directly related to the extraction temperature. All extracts contained galactose as a major monosaccharide. High antioxidant activity of crude SP, positively correlated with the phenolic compound contents (R(2) = 0.996) contributed by the existence of sulfate groups and phenolic compounds. In purified SP, F1 fraction exhibited strong radical scavenging ability, but it was not significantly different compared to crude SP extracted at 25 °C. This indicated that the appropriate density and distribution of sulfate groups in the SP extract showed the best antioxidant activity.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS and V-SANS) study of asphaltene aggregates in crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headen, Thomas F; Boek, Edo S; Stellbrink, Jörg; Scheven, Ulrich M

    2009-01-06

    We report small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on two crude oils. Analysis of the high-Q SANS region has probed the asphaltene aggregates in the nanometer length scale. We find that the radius of gyration decreases with increasing temperature. We show that SANS measurements on crude oils give similar aggregate sizes to those found from SANS measurements of asphaltenes redispersed in deuterated toluene. The combined use of SANS and V-SANS on crude oil samples has allowed the determination of the radius of gyration of large scale asphaltene aggregates of approximately 0.45 microm. This has been achieved by the fitting of Beaucage functions over two size regimes. Analysis of the fitted Beaucage functions at very low-Q has shown that the large scale aggregates are not simply made by aggregation of all the smaller nanoaggregates. Instead, they are two different aggregates coexisting.

  15. Toxicopathology and immunotoxicology of multiple exposures to diesel and crude oils in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziwenka, M.M.; Coppock, R.W.; Khan, A.A.; Hiltz, M.N. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada); Nation, P.N.; Field, C.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The subchronic toxicology of crude and refined petroleum in cattle was examined during the course of a large study in which 40 cattle were gavaged with potable water, winter diesel fuel and crude oil for a period of up to 48 days. Blood samples for clinicopathologic parameters were collected weekly. The cattle were necropsied 22 days following the last dose. Representative tissues were taken from all organ systems for histopathology. It was shown that repeated oral exposure to petroleum products resulted in significant changes in the clinicopathologic and immunopathologic parameters of the cattle without producing significant macro- or microscopic tissue lesions. The liver was a target organ for subchronic crude and diesel toxicity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  16. Screening of Taiwanese crude drugs for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C P; Lin, C C; Namba, T

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary antibacterial screening of local crude drugs was carried out using the cariogenic bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. Of 79 aqueous extracts tested, 6 crude drugs were shown to have significant antibacterial activity with minimal inhibitory concentration equal to or lower than 7.8 mg/ml (expressed in terms of dry starting material). Of these effective crude drugs, Morus australis, Ludwigia octovalvis and Thuja orientalis were very effective in inhibiting the growth of serotypes c and d of S. mutans (MIC less than or equal to 2.0-7.8 mg/ml). Elephantopus scaber, Artemisia vulgaris, Mosla chinensis and Orthosiphon aristatus also exhibited considerable antibacterial activity (MIC = 7.8-23.4 mg/ml) against both serotypes. In the presence of 5% sucrose, the antibacterial potency of the majority of the extracts did not change for type c, while the potency decreased about one-half for type d.

  17. Production of 2-butanol from crude glycerol by a genetically-engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Rock; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Mok; Hong, Won-Kyung; Park, Jang Min; Jung, You Ree; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae was engineered to produce 2-butanol from crude glycerol as a sole carbon source by expressing acetolactate synthase (ilvIH), keto-acid reducto-isomerase (ilvC) and dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (ilvD) from K. pneumoniae, and α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase (kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA) from Lactococcus lactis. Engineered K. pneumonia, ∆ldhA/pBR-iBO (ilvIH–ilvC–ilvD–kivd–adhA), produced 2-butanol (160 mg l−1) from crude glycerol. To increase the yield of 2-butanol, we eliminated the 2,3-butanediol pathway from the recombinant strain by inactivating α-acetolactate decarboxylase (adc). This further engineering step improved the yield of 2-butanol from 160 to 320 mg l−1. This represents the first successful attempt to produce 2-butanol from crude glycerol.

  18. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  19. Crude oil ''Windfall Profit'' Tax Act of 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Administrative problems and compliance planning opportunities are the focus of this overview of the windfall profit tax on crude oil, which is actually an excise tax of a portion of domestic crude oil revenues that is tied to the removal of existing price controls on domestic crude oil. The retroactive effective date of the statute meant that the Internal Revenue Service had to draft and issue interim rules in haste, and now has to mesh the interim and final regulations with the petroleum industry's regular business practices. Producers, purchasers, and other who are affected by the tax should be alert to potential problems as well as planning opportunities that may develop during this process. The author provides a roadmap through the existing interim regulations to help interpret new changes. 204 references.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  1. Non-Newtonian Viscosity Modeling of Crude Oils—Comparison Among Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-González, Patsy V.; Aguayo, Juan Pablo; Quiñones-Cisneros, Sergio E.; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2009-04-01

    The presence of precipitated wax or even just low temperatures may induce non-Newtonian rheological behavior in crude oils. Such behavior can be found at operating conditions, for instance, in reservoirs at deep-water conditions. Therefore, reliable rheological models for crude oils applicable over the wide range of conditions the fluid may encounter are essential for a large number of oil technology applications. Such models must also be composition dependent, as many applications require predicting the rheological behavior of the fluid under strong compositional changes, e.g., recovery applications such as vapor extraction (VAPEX) processes or blending of fluids for improved rheological characteristics for piping, among many other applications. In this study, a comparative analysis between some published models applicable to the description of the non-Newtonian behavior of crude oils is carried out. Emphasis is placed on the stability of the model predictions within the wide range of conditions that may be encountered.

  2. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  3. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards.

  4. Treatment of oil refinery wastewater using crude Coprinus cinereus peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, K.; Buchanan, I. D.; Smith, D. W. [University of Alberta, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    Enzymatic treatment of oil refinery wastewater was investigated using crude peroxidase derived from the fungus Coprinus cinereus (CIP), and hydrogen peroxide. Further objectives were to investigate the effects of residual organic compounds in the crude enzyme, and compare the performance of CIP to those of purified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) in the treatment of a strong refinery wastewater. Phenols in the wastewater were converted to coloured polymeric products and then removed by coagulation with alum. As a result of the enzymatic treatment and alum coagulation of the wastewater containing 6.4 mM total phenol, the chemical oxygen demand and the 5-d biochemical oxygen demand were reduced by 52 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. Reduction of the oxygen demands notwithstanding, the dissolved organic materials in the crude CIP were not affected by either of these processes and tended to remain in the treated wastewater. 31 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  5. Biological evaluation of crude and degummed oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela de Fátima Andrade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the oil extracted from Moringa oleifera (fam. Moringaceae seeds from the nutritional standpoint. Nutritional evaluation of crude or degummed moringa oil or soybean oil (as a control involved the determination of the Food Efficiency (FE in male Fisher rats and the fatty acid composition of the moringa oil. Hepatic and renal functions were assessed by measuring serum transaminases activity and urea and creatinine concentrations, respectively. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumine were also measured. Results showed that FE was slightly increased by the crude moringa oil while no differences were found between the soybean and degummed moringa oil regarding this parameter. Renal or hepatic injures as well as major alterations in serum proteins were not induced by the tested oils. These results suggested that degummed M. oleifera oil possessed adequate biological quality as compared to the crude oil.

  6. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  7. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Per

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Sterane and terpane in the crude oil and source rock of the Beijing and Tianjin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.; Zeng, X.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the study of the chromatogram of terpane m/e 191 fragment, the 5 types of crude oil from the Beijing and Tianjin region are divided into two groups, one with abundant terpane and the other with only a small amount of terpane. It is believed that the oil in the third member of Shahejie Formation (Es/sub 3/) comes primarily from the Es/sub 3/ source rock, and the crude oil in the fourth member of Shahejie (Es/sub 4/)-Kongdian Formation and the buried hill comes from Es/sub 4/-Kongdian source rock. By using the parameters of sterane isomers, 4 sources are determined for the crude oil of the region, among which 4 are of a single origin and 1 of mixed origin.

  9. Parasitosis gastrointestinal and hematocrit value in ewe fed with different levels of crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the parasitological behavior of sheep females fed with different levels of crude protein, by the value of hematocrit and egg counts per gram of feces (EPG in identifying severely infected animals. Were used 47 female sheep of Santa Ines, Texel and Ile de France, aged between eight and 12 months, wormed 30 days before the first data of crops, which were held every two weeks. Within each race, the animals were divided into two treatments, deferred by 12% or 16%, crude protein in the diet. It is obtained, laboratory, the value of hematocrit of each animal and the amount of EPG. The value of hematocrit showed a variation (28.5 a 34.0 throughout the experimental period, arising from changes (800 a 5400 of EPG values. No differences were identified for EPG and hematocrit levels between 12 and 16% of PB. Diet recommendation with 12% crude protein, by inferring lower commercial cost in feed.

  10. Crude oil price shocks and stock returns. Evidence from Turkish stock market under global liquidity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Istemi [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Aydogan, Berna [Izmir Univ. of Economics (Turkey). Dept. of International Trade and Finance

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of crude oil price variations on the Turkish stock market returns. We have employed vector autoregression (V AR) model using daily observations of Brent crude oil prices and Istanbul Stock Exchange National Index (ISE- 1 00) returns for the period between January 2, 1990 and November 1, 2011. We have also tested the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns under global liquidity conditions by incorporating a liquidity proxy variable, Chicago Board of Exchange's (CBOE) S and P 500 market volatility index (VIX), into the model. Variance decomposition test results suggest little empirical evidence that crude oil price shocks have been rationally evaluated in the Turkish stock market. Rather, it was global liquidity conditions that were found to account for the greatest amount of variation in stock market returns.

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  13. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding time and rumination and on decrease of idle time with the inclusion of crude glycerin levels (p 0.05. Crude glycerin did not drastically affect the feeding behavior of dairy cows.

  14. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  15. Cross-correlations between Baltic Dry Index and crude oil prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xinsheng; Qin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of Baltic Dry Index (BDI) and crude oil prices using cross-correlation statistics test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between BDI and crude oil prices are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a "crossover", we find that the cross-correlations are strongly persistent in the short term and weakly anti-persistent in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations are persistent in the short time while cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the long term. We have also verified that the multifractality of the cross-correlations of BDI and crude oil prices is both attributable to the persistence of fluctuations of time series and fat-tailed distributions.

  16. Biodegradation of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209 by Crude Enzyme Extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation effect and mechanism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209 by crude enzyme extract from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The results demonstrated that crude enzyme extract exhibited obviously higher degradation efficiency and shorter biodegradation time than Pseudomonas aeruginosa itself. Under the optimum conditions of pH 9.0, 35 °C and protein content of 2000 mg/L, 92.77% of the initial BDE-209 (20 mg/L was degraded after 5 h. A BDE-209 biodegradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the biodegradation products identified by GC-MS analysis. The biodegradation mechanism showed that crude enzyme extract degraded BDE-209 into lower brominated PBDEs and OH-PBDEs through debromination and hydroxylation of the aromatic rings.

  17. Compositional heterogeneity of crude oil and its origin in the Linnan subsag, Linyi County, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; DUAN Yunge; CHEN Qingchun; MA Lixin

    2008-01-01

    The Linnan subsag is the main oil producer of the Linpan oil zone. Based on the oil group composition, gas chromatography data and biomarker analysis, it was indicated that crude oils from different oilfields varied greatly in group composition and showed obvious heterogeneities in the aspects of precursor type, crude oil maturity and hydrocarbon depositional environment. According to the characteristics of source rocks, three oil populations can be distinguished, i.e., the southern, northern and transitional oil populations. Furthermore, on the basis of post-reservoir reworking processes, the medium conditions of hydrocarbon-generating environment and differences in maturity, six oil families and twelve sub-families were distinquished. An integrated study suggested that the factors leading to such heterogeneities in crude oil composition mainly include different source rocks, multi-stage oil/gas charging, geo-chromatographic effects during oil/gas migration, reservoir heterogeneities and various post-reservoir secondary alterations.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods.

  19. Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  20. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  1. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants.

  2. Biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)], E-mail: Elshafie@squ.edu.om; AlKindi, Abdulaziz Yahya [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Busaidi, Sultan [Oman Refinery Company Laboratories, LLC, P.O. Box 3568 Ruwi PC112 (Oman); Bakheit, Charles [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Albahry, S.N. [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)

    2007-11-15

    Ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of Oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. The abilities of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (C13-C18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. Significant differences were found in the utilization of C15, C16, C17 and C18 by the three fungi. Similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass produced by the three fungi growing on C13, C17, C18 and crude oil. The correlation coefficient of biomass and oil utilization was not statistically significant for Aspergillus niger, significant for Aspergillus terreus and highly significant for P. chrysogenum.

  3. Wellhead application of new heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process in heavy crude upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh, Jamshid; Samimi, A. Kh. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the decline of light crude oil reserves and the price differential between intermediate and heavy oils have made upgrading processes attractive. A new nano catalytic process, the heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH), which converts heavy residue to light product has been developed. HRH is flexible as to feed type and catalyst is mainly recovered and recycled in the process. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of HRH to produce syncrude from heavy crude oil. Three cases of stand-alone HRH plants were investigated: a 20,000 bbl/d plant producing hydrogen from natural gas, another producing hydrogen from residue and a third with a high capacity of 30,000 bbl/d. Results showed that in all three cases the stand-alone HRH plant was economically feasible. This study demonstrated that stand-alone HRH plants are a good alternative for producing syncrude from heavy crude oils.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (Pglycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  5. Crude glycerol as feedstock for the sustainable production of p-hydroxybenzoate by Pseudomonas putida S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Suzanne; Gao, Nisi; Ruijssenaars, Harald J; de Winde, Johannes H

    2014-01-25

    Crude glycerol is a promising renewable feedstock in bioconversion processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Impurities present in crude glycerol can however, negatively impact the fermentation process. Successful crude glycerol utilization requires robust microbial production hosts that tolerate and preferably, can utilize such impurities. We investigated utilization of crude, unpurified glycerol as a substrate for the production of aromatic compounds by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. In high-cell density fed-batch fermentations, P. putida S12 surprisingly performed better on crude glycerol than on purified glycerol. By contrast, growth of Escherichia coli was severely compromised under these high cell density cultivation conditions on crude glycerol. For P. putida S12 the biomass-to-substrate yield, maximum biomass production rate and substrate uptake rate were consistently higher on crude glycerol. Moreover, production of p-hydroxybenzoate by engineered P. putida S12palB5 on crude glycerol showed a 10% yield improvement over production on purified glycerol. P. putida S12 is a favorable host for bioconversion processes utilizing crude glycerol as a substrate. Its intrinsic stress-tolerance properties provide the robustness required for efficient growth and metabolism on this renewable substrate.

  6. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  7. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    OpenAIRE

    Sizhong Yang; Xi Wen; Liang Zhao; Yulan Shi; Huijun Jin

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ biore...

  8. Antifouling activity of crude extracts isolated from two Red Sea puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosry A. Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts were isolated from the ovary and mucus of the puffer fish Amblyrhynchotes hypselogenion and Lagocephalus sceleratus. The crude toxin extracts (from the ovaries of L. sceleratus puffer fish (4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 g crude extract/100 g paint and only one concentration (3.0 g crude extract/100 g paint from the skin mucus of A. hypselogenion puffer fish were mixed with an inert simple paint formulation (consists of (vinyl chloride–vinyl acetate copolymer using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. The viscosity of paints was adjusted using a blend of solvents consisting of methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene applied to poly vinyl chloride (PVC plates and exposed to Suez Gulf water for about 24 weeks. Percentage covers of fouling organisms on plates were estimated for coated panels over six weeks, and the wet weight (gram/plate of fouling organisms on experimental plates was recorded till about 24 weeks. The percentage of plates coated by formulation with (2007 for 24 weeks the crude toxic extracts from the ovaries of L. sceleratus and the mucus of A. hypselogenion ranged from 22% to 24% and 11% to 12%, respectively. The wet weights of the plates covered by formulation with the same crude toxic extracts of the previous two species were 124–147 g and 82–93 g, respectively. Antifouling properties were observed for the extracts of the two species under investigation, however, extracts from A. hypselogenion showed better properties.

  9. Nitrogen and Crude Proteins in Beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva under Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko PETEK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to determine the influence of different organic and mineral fertilization treatments and post-harvest treatments on the content of nitrogen and crude proteins in the edible part of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva. A field trial (2003-2005 was set up in a hilly part of Croatia according to the Latin square method with four types of fertilization (control, 50 t ha-1 stable manure, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30, while treatments involved harvested fresh beetroot and stored fresh beetroot. The highest dry weight (DW content was determined in climatologically favourable 2004 (average 14.8% DW and in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (15.6% DW in harvested beetroot. In 2004 and 2005, the highest levels of nitrogen and crude proteins in harvested beetroot were determined in the treatment with 1000 kg ha-1 NPK 5-20-30 (2.41 and 2.43 g N kg-1 in fresh weight and 15.07 and 15.21 g crude proteins kg-1 in fresh weight, respectively. Regardless of fertilization treatment or studied year, nitrogen and crude protein contents were higher in stored than in harvested beetroot, by 12% on average. The lowest crude protein content was determined in treatment with stable manure what confirmed that protein content decreased by organic fertilization. It can be concluded that beetroot lost some water during the storage period, which increased its content of nitrogen and crude proteins in fresh weight and thus increased the nutritional quality of beetroot as a functional food.

  10. Changes in the Chemical Components of Light Crude Oil During Simulated Short Term Weathering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To unambiguously identify spilled oils and to link them to the known sources are extremely important in settling questions of environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behavior of spilled oils in the environment depend on a number of physicochemical and biological factors. This paper presents the results regarding changes in chemical composition of light crude oil during simulated short-term weathering based on natural environmental conditions. The results show that the saturated hydrocarbons of the light crude oil mainly distribute between n-C8 and n-C23 and the most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C10 to n-C16. The main chemical components of the light crude oil are n-alkanes and isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical components. Under the conditions of the weathering simulation experiment, n-alkanes less than n-C12, toluene and 1,3-dimethyl benzene are lost after 1 d weathering, the n-C13, n-C14, naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering, and n-C15 alkane components show certain weatherproof capability. The ratios n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane are unaltered and can be used to identify the source of the light crude oil during the first 8 d of weathering. After 21 d, the ratio pristine/phytane can not provide much information on the source of the spilled light crude oil. Triterpanes (m/z 191) as biomarker compounds of light crude oil are more valuable.

  11. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  12. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Using Bacterium from the Coastal Sediments of Kish Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam SADEGHI HADDAD ZAVAREH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the environment is affected by petroleum contamination. It imposes serious health problems for humans as well as serious environmental impact. Bioremediation is an important consideration for removing environmental pollutants because, compared with other technologies, it incurrs lower costs and is environmentally compatible.Methods: Crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated using serial dilutions of a bacterial consortium. The Taguchi experimental design L16 (45 was used to optimize the biodegradation process of crude oil by the isolated strain. This investigation applied the parameters of temperature, salinity, pH, NH4Cl and FeSO4.7H2O. Modeling the kinetics of crude oil biodegradation included five batch cultivation experiments (2.5 ml/L to 40 ml/L using crude oil as a single limiting substrate.Results: Halomonas sp. MS1 was identified using identification tests. Maximum biodegradation efficiency was predicted to occur at pH=9, temperature=30 ˚C, salinity=2%, NH4Cl concentration=0.4 g/L and FeSO4.7H2O=0.04 g/L. After optimization, biodagradation was significantly (P<0.05 higher (i.e. 90.65% than it results under the original conditions. Furthermore, growth kinetics modelling of bacteria in various concentrations of crude oil showed a positive correlation between increased concentration, up to 10 ml/L and bacterial growth, but this was not evident at higher concentrations (20-40 mL/LConclusion: Overall, bacteria in surface sediment samples from Kish Island have been determined as having good potential for application in oil biodegradation. Optimum amounts of the studied factors were determined successfully by applying the Taguchi experimental design and the models of Teissier and Haldane are suggested as kinetic models to describe the batch crude oil degradation behavior of MS1. Keywords: Bioremediation, Halomonas sp, Taguchi, Growth kinetics, Iran

  13. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Said Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT and dibenzothiophene (DBT in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2 and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP. Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 µmol/g Dry Cell Weight (DCW/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 µmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams.

  14. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Usup, Gires [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  15. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  16. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  17. Physical properties of wax deposits on the walls of crude pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Qiyu; Wang Jifeng; Zhang Jinjun

    2009-01-01

    Wax deposits on the wall of a crude oil pipeline are a solid wax network of fine crystals, filled with oil, resin, asphaitene and other impurities. In this paper, a series of experiments on wax deposition in a laboratory flow loop were performed under different conditions (flow rate, temperature differential between crude oil and pipeline wall, and dissolved wax concentration gradient), and the wax deposits were analyzed, so quantitative relationships among wax content, wax appearance temperature (WAT), shear stress, and radial concentration gradient of dissolved wax at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. Finally, a model was established to predict WAT and the wax content of the deposit.

  18. Influence of Sweet Crude Oil on Nucleation and Corrosion Resistance of Calcareous Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinieh, S. M.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Farrokhi Rad, M.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of sweet crude oil on calcareous scale deposition under cathodic protection of carbon steel in artificial seawater was investigated using chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In the presence of crude oil, calcareous deposit formation is influenced in terms of both kinetic and nucleation mostly in high volume concentrations. It is indicated that the CaCO3 deposition is hindered by absorption of active surface compounds present in oil on to the surface mainly due to strong covalent bonding of aromatic compounds.

  19. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  20. Toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R. (National Marine Water Quality Lab., Narragansett, RI); Kissil, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Toxicities were determined for two crude oils, one from the Persian Gulf (Iran) and one from the Sinai Peninsula (Gulf of Suez), to rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, an economically important species of teleost from the Red Sea. Also tested for toxicity were ST 5, a chemical oil dispersant, and oil-ST 5 mixtures in the ratio 10:1 vol/vol. Static tests conducted in small (3-liter) jars at 41 /sup 0///sub 00/ salinity and 23/sup 0/C produced LC/sub 50/ (168 h) values of 0.74 ml/liter for Iranian crude, 14.5 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and 0.010 ml/liter for ST 5; LC/sub 50/ values for oil-ST 5 mixtures reflected biocidal properties of ST 5 alone. Iranian oil became less toxic with increasing time in seawater over a period of 168 hours; the reverse was observed for Sinai crude. ST 5 exhibited a dramatic reduction in lethality after 2 hours in the assay medium. The most toxic component tested of Iranian crude was the lowest-boiling fraction; with Sinai crude it was the highest-boiling fraction; with ST 5 the volatile surfactant component accounted for almost all deaths. Liver enlargement in rabbitfish was linked with exposure to comparatively high concentrations of crude oil. High sublethal levels of ST 5 caused reductions in blood hematocrit. Rabbitfish survival at a given petrochemical concentration was highest at intermediate salinities of 30-50 /sup 0///sub 00/ in the salinity range tested of 20 to 60 /sup 0///sub 00/. Rabbitfish were more resistant to crudes and oil-dispersant mixtures in continuous flow bioassays conducted in large tanks than in static jar bioassays. Tank tests also suggested that mortalities were higher among toxicant-stressed fish confined 0.2 to 1.0 meters from the surface than among fish held 1.0 to 1.8 m from the surface. (auth)

  1. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses,Murilo de Almeida; Silva,Fabiano Ferreira da; Schio, Alex Resende; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antônio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 g crude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feedi...

  2. Experience in design and startup of distillation towers in primary crude oil processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Y.N.; D' yakov, V.G.; Mamontov, G.V.; Sheinman, V.A.; Ukhin, V.V.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes a refinery in the city of Mathura, India, with a capacity of 7 million metric tons of crude per year, designed and constructed to include the following units: AVT for primary crude oil processing; catalytic cracking; visbreaking; asphalt; and other units. A diagram of the atmospheric tower with stripping sections is shown, and the stabilizer tower is illustrated. The startup and operation of the AVT and visbreaking units are described, and they demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of the equipment.

  3. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald

    2002-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of

  4. Biodegradation of crude oil and origin of thick oil in Liaohe Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.; Gao, J.; Chen, Y.; Song, S.

    1986-01-01

    The saturated hydrocarbon of crude oil in the Western Depression, Liaohe Basin have been analyzed by computerized GC-MS. The hopanes, regular steranes, diasteranes, specifically, 25-norhopanes were identified. Heavy biodegradation results in destruction of regular steranes and transformation of regular hopanes to 25-norhopanes. Diasteranes and 25-norhopanes survive heavy biodegradation and they can be used as source fingerprints for biodegraded crudes. The existence of the diasteranes and 25-norhopanes in the thick oil shows that the biodegradation plays important part in origin of the thick oil

  5. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind K Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly N and P, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N&P are not limiting. Crude oil degradation was limited by both N&P availability. When N was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 3.94±0.46 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day. However when the same levels of N were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment maximum rates of measured CO2 production more than doubled (11.52±0.72 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for N (in the form of sodium nitrate when P was not limiting were 1.57±0.56 µmol/g wet sediment and 10.57±0.63 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 80 nmol/g wet sediment and 8.76±1.15 µmol CO2 /g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P< 0.05. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that Alcanivorax spp. were selected in these marine sediments with increasing inorganic nutrient concentration, whereas Cycloclasticus spp. were more prevalent at lower inorganic nutrient concentrations. These data suggest that simple empirical estimates of the proportion of nutrients added relative to crude oil concentrations may not be sufficient to guarantee successful crude oil bioremediation in oxic beach sediments. The data we present also help define the maximum rates and hence timescales required for bioremediation

  6. Determination of petroleum sulfonates in crude oil by column-switching anion-exchange chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhao; Xu Long Cao; Hong Yan Wang; Xia Liu; Sheng Xiang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    A column-switching anion-exchange chromatography method was described for the separation and determination of petroleum monosulfonates (PMS)and petroleum disulfonates (PDS)in crude oil that was simply diluted with the dichloromethane/methanol (60140).The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)system consisted of a clean-up column and an analytical column,which were connected with two six-port switching valves.Detection of petroleum sulfonates was available and repeatable.This method has been successfully applied to determine PMS and PDS in crude oil samples from Shengli oil field.

  7. Comparison and Combination of Solvent Extraction and Adsorption for Crude Glycerol Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsom, Mali; Saila, Payia; Chaiyakam, Penpisuth; Kositnan, Winata

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of enrichment of crude glycerol via solvent extraction and adsorption was performed at a laboratory scale at ambient temperature (30 oC). Effect of various parameters on the properties of the obtained glycerol including glycerol-, ash- and contaminant contents and color, was explored. The results showed that the enrichment of glycerol by solvent extraction was significantly affected by the solvent type and ratio of solvent to pre-treated crude glycerol. The use of n-C3H7OH...

  8. STRUCTURAL BREAKS, COINTEGRATION, AND CAUSALITY BY VECM ANALYSIS OF CRUDE OIL AND FOOD PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This papers investigated form of the linkage beetwen crude oil price index and food price index, using Johansen Cointegration test, and Granger Causality by VECM. Empirical results for monthly data from 1990:01 to 2011:08 indicated that evidence for breaks after 2008:08 and 2008:11. We find a clear long-run relationship between these series for the full and sub sample. Cointegration regression coefficient is negative at the 1990:01-2008:08 time period, but adversely positive at the 2008:11-2011:08 time period. This results represent that relation between crude oil and food price chanced.

  9. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  10. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.

  11. The effect of asphaltene-paraffin interactions on crude oil stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.C. del; Carbogani, L. [PDVSA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2000-08-01

    The effect of asphaltene-paraffin complexes on crude oil stability, in terms of wax crystallization and asphaltene deposits solubility, was studied. The influence of flocculated asphaltenes on the wax crystallization tendency of a paraffinic crude oil was evaluated by means of Polarized Light Microscopy. Heavy linear paraffins (nC24+ paraffins) were added to the crude oil in a controlled fashion in order to evaluate its effect on the cloud point and the effectiveness of a maleic anhydride copolymer derivative paraffin inhibitor. Experiments done in the presence and absence of asphaltene fraction allowed to demonstrate that flocculated asphaltenes provide wax crystallization sites whose presence increases the cloud point of crude oil and also interferes with crystal inhibition mechanism. The existence of asphaltene-paraffins complexes and some structural effects were further assessed by HPLC kinetic dissolution studies of composite materials formed by combinations of such hydrocarbon types. Commercial macrocrystalline and microcrystalline waxes were used in these experiments. Different types of asphaltenes were probed as well, covering varying ranges of aromaticities and stability. (au)

  12. Phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil using nut grass, Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Bordoloi, Sabitry

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cyperus rotundus (nut grass), that could be effective in phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil. A net house experiment was conducted with different concentrations (2.05, 4.08, 6.1, 8.15 and 10.2%) of crude oil-contaminated soil for 180 days. Plant growth, biomass, total oil and grease (TOG) degradation and microbial numbers were analyzed at different intervals i.e. 60,120 and 180 days in different percentages of crude oil contaminated soil. In presence of crude oil, plant biomass and heights reduced up to 26 and 21.9% respectively. Concerning TOG content in soil, C. rotundus could decrease up to 50.01, 46.1, 42.6, 38.8 and 32.6% in treatment I, II, III, IV and V respectively in vegetated pots during 180 days. In case of unvegetated pots, the reductions of TOG were 4.4, 5.6, 6.6, 7.6 and 9.6% in treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively. However, there was significant degradation (P = 0.05) of TOG in vegetated pots in comparison to unvegetated pots thereby proving the efficacy of this plant species for use in phytoremediation.

  13. Diagnosis of asphaltene stability in crude oil through “two parameters” SVM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamkalani, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Eslamimanesh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    is determined using the existing SARA fractions experimental data for this purpose. The powerful Least-Square modification of Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) strategy is applied to develop a computer program, by which the asphaltene stability region can be determined for various crudes. The developed two...

  14. Removal of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via organoclay-microbe-oil interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-05-01

    Clay minerals are quite vital in biogeochemical processes but the effect of organo-clays in the microbial degradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is not well understood. The role of organo-saponite and organo-montmorillonite in comparison with the unmodified clays in crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal via adsorption and biodegradation was studied by carrying out microcosm experiments in aqueous clay/oil systems with a hydrocarbon degrading microbial community that is predominantly alcanivorax spp. Montmorillonite and saponite samples were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organo-montmorillonite and organo-saponite used in this study. Obtained results indicate that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as montmorillonite produced organo-clay (organomontmorillonite) that was not stimulatory to biodegradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds, especially the low molecular weight (LMW) ones, such as dimethylnaphthalenes. It is suggested that interaction between the organic phase of the organo-clay and the crude oil PAHs which is hydrophobic in nature must have reduced the availability of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for biodegradation. Organo-saponite did not enhance the microbial degradation of dimethylnaphthalenes but enhanced the biodegradation of some other PAHs such as phenanthrene. The unmodified montmorillonite enhanced the microbial degradation of the PAHs and is most likely to have done so as a result of its high surface area that allows the accumulation of microbes and nutrients enhancing their contact.

  15. Preliminary isolation and in vitro antiyeast activity of active fraction from crude extract of Gracilaria changii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Sreenivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate the active fraction from crude extract of Gracilaria changii and to determine its in vitro antifungal activity. Materials and Methods: The active fraction was isolated from the crude extract of G. changii by various purification procedures such as column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, bioauthograph etc. The in vitro antifungal activity (Candida albicans of the active fraction (1.00, 0.50, and 0.25 mg/ml was studied by disc diffusion method and the effect of the active fraction on the morphology of yeast was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM studies. Results: An active fraction with remarkable antifungal activity was separated from the crude extract. The active fraction was effective as a fungicide against C. albicans and showed a dose-dependent antifungal activity. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM study confirmed the fungicidal effect of G. changii active fraction on C. albicans, by changing the normal morphology of C. albicans. Conclusion: From G. changii crude extract, an active fraction with remarkable in vitro antifungal activity has been isolated.

  16. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  17. Effect of crude glycerol-derived inhibitors on ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Sung Bong; Kang, Seong Woo; Han, Sung Ok; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2012-01-01

    In this study, ethanol production from pure and crude glycerol using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 was evaluated under anaerobic culture conditions. Inhibitory effects of substrate concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations were investigated based on crude glycerol components. Ethanol production was performed with pure glycerol concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 g/L to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration and osmotic pressure. The consumed glycerol was 5-14.33 g/L, and the yield of ethanol was higher than 0.75 mol ethanol/mol glycerol after 24 h of cultivation. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of salts (NaCl and KCl), experiments were performed with 0-20 g/L of each salt. Inhibitory effects of salts were strongest at high salt concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pH was performed in the pH range 4-10, and cell growth and ethanol production were highest at pH 5-6. Also, ethanol production was slightly inhibited at low concentration of crude glycerol comparison with pure glycerol. However, significant inhibitory effects were not observed at 1.5 and 2% crude glycerol which showed higher ethanol production compared to pure glycerol.

  18. Study on Hydrocracking of VGO Derived from Kazakhstan-Russian Mixed Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yuancheng; Duan Yongsheng; Zou Yhiying; Wang Jian; Ye Xingbin; Yang Jianxin

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of the property of VGO derived trom the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude on the hydrocracking catalyst. The influence of reaction temperature, reaction pressure, space velocity and hydrogen/oil ratio on the distribution and quality of products was analyzed with the optimal process regime determined, when the VGO was hydrocracked in the presence of the FC-16 catalyst.

  19. Accumulation of Hydrocarbons by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Changjun; Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chen; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This study has investigated the use of screened maize for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil. Pots experiment was carried out for 60 days by transplanting maize seedlings into spiked soils. The results showed that certain amount of crude oil in soil (≤2 147 mg·kg(-1)) could enhance the production of shoot biomass of maize. Higher concentration (6 373 mg·kg(-1)) did not significantly inhibit the growth of plant maize (including shoot and root). Analysis of plant shoot by GC-MS showed that low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in maize tissues, but PAHs concentration in the plant did not increase with higher concentration of crude oil in soil. The reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon in planted soil was up to 52.21-72.84%, while that of the corresponding controls was only 25.85-34.22% in two months. In addition, data from physiological and biochemical indexes demonstrated a favorable adaptability of maize to crude oil pollution stress. This study suggested that the use of maize (Zea mays L.) was a good choice for remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum within a certain range of concentrations.

  20. The Relationship between Crude Oil Spot and Futures Prices: Cointegration, Linear and Nonlinear Causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekiros, S.D.; Diks, C.G.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the linear and nonlinear causal linkages between daily spot and futures prices for maturities of one, two, three and four months of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil. The data cover two periods October 1991-October 1999 and November 1999-October 2007, with the la

  1. The relationship between crude oil spot and futures prices: cointegration, linear and nonlinear causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekiros, S.D.; Diks, C.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the linear and nonlinear causal linkages between daily spot and futures prices for maturities of one, two, three and four months of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil. The data cover two periods October 1991-October 1999 and November 1999-October 2007, with the la

  2. Terverticillate Penicillia studied by direct electrospray mass spectrometric profiling of crude extracts: I. Chemosystematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsgaard, Jørn; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1997-01-01

    A chemosystematic study of 339 isolates from all known terverticillate Penicillium taxa was performed using electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of extractable metabolites. The mass profiles were made by injecting crude plug extracts made from cultures grown on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (C...... to known secondary metabolites were, however, found in all mass profiles. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  3. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  4. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  5. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  6. Aphrodisiac properties of Montanoa tomentosa aqueous crude extract in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, M; Cervantes, E; Cervantes-Méndez, M; Rodríguez-Manzo, G

    2004-05-01

    Cihuapatli, the Mexican zoapatle (Montanoa tomentosa) has an extensive ethnomedical history of use as a traditional remedy for reproductive impairments. During the study of the ejaculatory function in rats and by testing a set of Mexican plants with medicinal properties, we observed that crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitated ejaculation. Thus, we decided to analyze the possibility that this plant possessed sexual stimulant properties. To that aim, copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats receiving doses of 38, 75 and 150 mg/kg of the aqueous crude extract of M. tomentosa, as it is prepared in traditional medicine, was assessed. In addition, we evaluated the effect of the 75-mg/kg dose of the extract on males with anesthetization of the genital area and on sexual behavior of sexually inactive male rats (noncopulators). Results showed that acute oral administration of crude extracts of M. tomentosa facilitates expression of sexual behavior in sexually active male rats, significantly increases mounting behavior in genitally anesthetized animals and induces the expression of sexual behavior in noncopulating males. Altogether, these data reveal a facilitatory action of this extract on sexual activity and particularly on sexual arousal. Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract preparation of M. tomentosa, used as a traditional remedy, possesses aphrodisiac properties.

  7. Crude Protein and Non-protein Nitrogen Content in Dairy Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruska Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is of prime economic importance for farmers. Milk total proteins are composed of casein, whey proteins and non-protein nitrogen. The objective of this work was to establish milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen (NPN and urea content in dairy cow milk produced in different farms in Latvia. Cow milk samples (n=30 were collected in September 2012 from four different farms breeding diverse cow breeds. Average crude protein, casein and urea content in milk varied significantly among farms. NPN content in cow milk varies among farms - from 0.194% to 0.232%. Average crude protein and casein content was significantly higher (p<0.05 for Latvia Brown breed cows, while NPN content did not differ significantly among breeds. Regression between NPN and urea content in milk was R² = 0.458. Correlation between NPN and urea content was significant (r = 0.677. This study allowed establishing that crude protein and NPN content in milk varied significantly (p<0.05 in farms with differing dairy cow housing and feeding technologies

  8. Dynamic Correlation between Stock Market Returns and Crude Oil Prices: Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike O. Kalu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Modeling the correlation of assets returns volatilities across different markets or segments of a market has practical value for portfolio selection and diversification, market regulation, and risk management. This paper therefore evaluates the nature of time-varying correlation between volatilities of stock market and crude oil returns in Nigeria using Dynamic Conditional Correlation-Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH model. Results from DCC-GARCH (1,1 model show evidence of volatility clustering and persistence in Nigeria stock market and crude oil returns. The results also show that there is no dynamic conditional correlation in ARCH effects between stock market returns and crude oil prices in Nigeria. The results further show that there is strong evidence of time-varying volatility correlation between stock market and crude oil returns volatility. The findings will help shape policy-making in risk management and market regulation in Nigeria.

  9. Microbial utilization of crude glycerol for the production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Rosemary; Gray, Vincent; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Energy fuels for transportation and electricity generation are mainly derived from finite and declining reserves of fossil hydrocarbons. Fossil hydrocarbons are also used to produce a wide range of organic carbon-based chemical products. The current global dependency on fossil hydrocarbons will not be environmentally or economically sustainable in the long term. Given the future pessimistic prospects regarding the complete dependency on fossil fuels, political and economic incentives to develop carbon neutral and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels have been increasing throughout the world. For example, interest in biodiesel has undergone a revival in recent times. However, the disposal of crude glycerol contaminated with methanol, salts, and free fatty acids as a by-product of biodiesel production presents an environmental and economic challenge. Although pure glycerol can be utilized in the cosmetics, tobacco, pharmaceutical, and food industries (among others), the industrial purification of crude glycerol is not economically viable. However, crude glycerol could be used as an organic carbon substrate for the production of high-value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol, organic acids, or polyols. Microorganisms have been employed to produce such high-value chemicals and the objective of this article is to provide an overview of studies on the utilization of crude glycerol by microorganisms for the production of economically valuable products. Glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production could be used a feedstock for the manufacture of many products that are currently produced by the petroleum-based chemical industry.

  10. Production of Low-carbon Light Olefins from Catalytic Cracking of Crude Bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ni Yuan; Tie-jun Wang; Quan-xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Low-carbon light olefins are the basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry.Catalytic cracking of crude bio-oil and its model compounds (including methanol,ethanol,acetic acid,acetone,and phenol) to light olefins were performed by using the La/HZSM-5 catalyst.The highest olefins yield from crude bio-oil reached 0.19 kg/(kg crude bio-oil).The reaction conditions including temperature,weight hourly space velocity,and addition of La into the HZSM-5 zeolite can be used to control both olefins yield and selectivity.Moderate adjusting the acidity with a suitable ratio between the strong acid and weak acid sites through adding La to the zeolite effectively enhanced the olefins selectivity and improved the catalyst stability.The production of light olefins from crude bio-oil is closely associated with the chemical composition and hydrogen to carbon effective ratios of feedstock.The comparison between the catalytic cracking and pyrolysis of bio-oil was studied.The mechanism of the bio-oil conversion to light olefins was also discussed.

  11. Finding the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices using a wavelet-based network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoliang; An, Haizhong; Sun, Xiaoqi; Huang, Xuan; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-04-01

    The globalization and regionalization of crude oil trade inevitably give rise to the difference of crude oil prices. The understanding of the pattern of the crude oil prices' mutual propagation is essential for analyzing the development of global oil trade. Previous research has focused mainly on the fuzzy long- or short-term one-to-one propagation of bivariate oil prices, generally ignoring various patterns of periodical multivariate propagation. This study presents a wavelet-based network approach to help uncover the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices in a joint time-frequency period. The weekly oil spot prices of the OPEC member states from June 1999 to March 2011 are adopted as the sample data. First, we used wavelet analysis to find different subseries based on an optimal decomposing scale to describe the periodical feature of the original oil price time series. Second, a complex network model was constructed based on an optimal threshold selection to describe the structural feature of multivariable oil prices. Third, Bayesian network analysis (BNA) was conducted to find the probability causal relationship based on periodical structural features to describe the various patterns of periodical multivariable propagation. Finally, the significance of the leading and intermediary oil prices is discussed. These findings are beneficial for the implementation of periodical target-oriented pricing policies and investment strategies.

  12. Dielectrophoretic manipulation and solubility of protein nanofibrils formed from crude crystallins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domigan, Laura; Andersen, Karsten B.; Sasso, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Protein nanofibrils and nanotubes are now widely accepted as having potential for use in the field of bionanotechnology. For this to be a feasible alternative to existing technologies, there is a need for a commercially viable source. Previous work has identified amyloid fibrils formed from crude...

  13. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Bioconversion from crude glycerin by Xanthomonas campestris 2103: xanthan production and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The production and rheological properties of xanthan gum from crude glycerin fermentation, a primary by-product of the biodiesel industry with environmental and health risks, were evaluated. Batch fermentations (28 °C/250 rpm /120 h were carried out using crude glycerin, 0.01% urea and 0.1% KH2PO4, (% w/v, and compared to a sucrose control under the same operational conditions, using Xanthomonas campestris strain 2103 isolate from Brazil. Its maximal production by crude glycerin fermentation was 7.23±0.1 g·L-1 at 120 h, with an apparent viscosity of 642.57 mPa·s, (2 % w/v, 25 °C, 25 s-1, 70% and 30% higher than from sucrose fermentation, respectively. Its molecular weight varied from 28.2 to 36.2×10(6 Da. The Ostwald-de-Waele model parameters (K and n indicated a pseudoplastic behavior at all concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 %, w/v and temperatures (25-85 °C, while its consistency index indicated promising rheological properties for drilling fluid applications. Therefore, crude glycerin has potential as a cost-effective and alternative substrate for non-food grade xanthan production.

  15. Use of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based growing diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn (SFC) based beef cattle growing diets. Experiment 1 utilized 50 crossbred steers (initial body weight (BW) = 282 +/- 2 kg) to determine the effects glycerin concentration (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% dry ma...

  16. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Determination of cadmium, zinc, copper chromium and arsenic in crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.B.; Haan, H.P.M. de; Guicherit, R.

    1998-01-01

    One of the sources of trace heavy metal elements in air are emissions by the oil industry, either directly through stack emissions from refineries or indirectly from emissions of combustion of hydrocarbons. Emission estimates are based mainly on the trace metal content of the crude oil processed. Fr

  18. Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline in Interests of Two Countries - CNPC Boss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In an interview by reporters from ITAR-TASS and Russian News Agency on February 10, President of CNPC Ma Fucai answered the questions concerning the Chinese-Russian crude oil pipeline project and the prospect for oil and gas cooperation with five Central Asian countries.

  19. Crude oil market efficiency and modeling. Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Alvarez, Jesus [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Solis, Ricardo [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Empirical research on market inefficiencies focuses on the detection of autocorrelations in price time series. In the case of crude oil markets, statistical support is claimed for weak efficiency over a wide range of time-scales. However, the results are still controversial since theoretical arguments point to deviations from efficiency as prices tend to revert towards an equilibrium path. This paper studies the efficiency of crude oil markets by using lagged detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to detect delay effects in price autocorrelations quantified in terms of a multiscaling Hurst exponent (i.e., autocorrelations are dependent of the time scale). Results based on spot price data for the period 1986-2009 indicate important deviations from efficiency associated to lagged autocorrelations, so imposing the random walk for crude oil prices has pronounced costs for forecasting. Evidences in favor of price reversion to a continuously evolving mean underscores the importance of adequately incorporating delay effects and multiscaling behavior in the modeling of crude oil price dynamics. (author)

  20. Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sustained oil prices significantly above world market levels that would cause sustained material adverse... caused sustained material oil supply shortage or sustained oil prices significantly above world market... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...

  2. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 157.10c(b)(2) does not have segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks that meet § 157... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations §...

  3. Crude glycerin in supplement to primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture: nutritional and productive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida de Santana Júnior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and productive characteristics of primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture, using different levels of crude glycerin in the supplement. The experiment was conducted at Rancho Santana farm, located in Jequié city, Bahia, Brazil, in the period from December 21, 2010 to March 16, 2011. Ten ¾ Holstein × ¼ Dairy Gyr lactating primiparous cows, with 109±24 days of lactation and a mean age of 30±6 months and mean body weight of 426.2±68.29 kg were distributed into five treatments, using two simultaneous 5 × 5 latin squares. Treatments consisted of inclusion levels (0, 94, 191, 289, 389 g/kg dry matter basis of crude glycerin in the supplement. Intake, digestibility, milk production and composition were measured. Results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and regression at 0.05 probability. For all consumption variables no significant differences were found between the levels of crude glycerin. Except for the digestibility of ether extract, all digestibility values were similar between treatments. The fat content and yield showed quadratic effect between treatments. No significant differences were observed for protein, lactose, total solids, nonfat dry extract, fat:protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen and somatic cell count between treatments. For primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture, up to 389 g of crude glycerin/kg of dietary supplement can be included without nutritional and productive interference.

  4. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  5. FY16/Q2 status report on initial dispersion calculations for tight crude oils project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to assess dispersion distances of a vapor mixture of species released from a railcar containing a tight crude oil. Tight crude oils can have higher levels of light ends as compared to conventional crude oils [1], which if released and dispersed could pose a potential hazard with regards to a flash fire, explosion, and/or asphyxiation. A historical accident involving rail transport in Viareggio, Italy illustrates how the spillage of LPG can lead to severe damage as a result of a propagating vapor cloud [2]. One of 14 railcars was punctured after derailment, releasing about 110 m3 of LPG into a densely populated area (2000 persons/km2 ). The resulting vapor cloud propagated and infiltrated nearby buildings and houses which were an average of 10 m in height. Ignition of the cloud occurred approximately 100 to 300 seconds after the start of the spill. A flash fire and explosions resulted, killing 31 people. Evidence suggests that most deaths occurred due to the asphyxiation and thermal hazards from the flash fire. Thus, the motivation for this work is to assess if significant vapors can develop from a railcar carrying a tight crude oil and if this cloud could disperse potentially to nearby populations.

  6. Analyzing and Forecasting Volatility Spillovers and Asymmetries in Major Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermedi

  7. Forecasting volatility and spillovers in crude oil spot, forward and future markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCrude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermedi

  8. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawotola, A.W.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of cr

  9. A Microfluidic Method to Assess Emulsion Stability in Crude-Oil/Water Separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The control of emulsion stability and droplet size is of crucial importance for oil production, especially for the processes of crude/oil water separation and cleanup of produced water. To recover pure oil and water, coalescence between droplets needs to take place, the extent of which will depend o

  10. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...

  11. Harvest Regimens to Maximize Sericea Lespedeza Crude Protein and Condensed Tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is sold as hay or pellets for its crude protein (CP) and condensed tannin (CT) content, the latter to promote rumen bypass protein, depress methane emissions in livestock, and suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants. Maximizing these forage c...

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Aerial Part Crude Extracts from the Saharan plant Anabasis aretioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of several crude extracts from the aerial parts of Anabasis aretioides was investigated by the disc diffusion method. The S. aureus, C. albicans and S. cereviceae Bacteria showed good efficiency in bacterial activity with most of the tested extract.

  13. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  14. Strategic and tactical mathematical programming models within the crude oil supply chain context : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahebi, H.; Nickel, S.; Ashayeri, J.

    2014-01-01

    In today's business world, oil companies cannot be productive and competitive, and, thus, will not survive without taking the supply chain management concepts into account. Consequently, the management of a Crude Oil Supply Chain (COSC) is increasingly receiving substantial importance. The growing n

  15. Solubility and effects of natural gas and air in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, D.B.; Calkin, L.P.

    1926-02-01

    This document includes data obtained in investigating the effect of pressure and temperature on the amounts of natural gas and air that can be held in solution in different crude and refined oils, as well as the effect on gravity and volume.

  16. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.

  17. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Gill, J. A.; Baldwin, David H.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; French, Barbara L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory.

  18. Research on Calibration Transfer across Infrared Spectrometric Instruments for Fast Evaluation of Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jingyan; Chu Xiaoli; Tian Songbai

    2015-01-01

    The spectral analysis method is suitable for the process control and the process analysis such as the fast evalua-tion of crude oils. In this study, model transfer between the same type of spectrometer and different type of spectrometers was discussed respectively, and the results have shown that the transfer of calibration model can satisfy the demand of rapid analysis.

  19. Colombian (Titiribi) coal liquefaction and its co-processing with Venezuelan (Morichal) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Ishiguro, H.; Maekawa, Y.; Mondragon, F. (Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The reactivity in the liquefaction of Titiribi coal from Colombia was studied without a vehicle oil and with Morichal crude oil from Venezuela and anthracene oil derived from coal as a vehicle oil in a batch autoclave in order to obtain fundamental data on the liquefaction and co-processing characteristics. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. How toxic is oil? Investigating specific receptor-mediated toxic effects of crude and refined oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crude oils and refined oil products are major pollutants of the environment. Large oil spills, such as the recent blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, raise concerns about the long term health effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on wildlife and humans. In the environmental r

  1. Characterization and Classification of Crude Oils Using a Combination of Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peinder, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to the utility of chemometric models to predict long residue (LR) and short residue (SR) properties of a crude oil directly from its absorption or magnetic resonance spectrum. Such a combined spectroscopic-chemometric approach might offer a fast alternative for the elab

  2. ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE FUNGAL (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) EXTRACT AND IT'S COMPONENTS FOR ALLERGENICITY. M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, L B Copeland1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, USA. Metarhizium anisopli...

  3. The potential of cyanobacterium Schizothrix vaginata ISC108 in biodegradation of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safari

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: It was found that cyanobacterium Schizothrix vaginata ISC108 has great potential in biodegradation of crude oil. Therefore, since oil is a product toxic to biological systems and is one of the main pollutants of bioecosystem, it has a great potential to be used as an indicator to eliminate pollution in contaminated areas.

  4. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  5. APLIKASI CRUDE ENZIM SELULASE DARI TONGKOL JAGUNG (Zea mays L PADA PRODUKSI ETANOL DENGAN METODE SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ery Susiany Retnoningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol jagung yang melimpah sebagai produk samping dari hasil pengolahan industri jagung pipilan, memberikan peluang untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai substrat dalam produksi crude enzim selulase. Crude enzim selulase dari tongkol jagung selanjutnya diaplikasikan pada produksi etanol dengan memanfaatkan tongkol jagung juga dengan metode simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh volume crude enzim selulase terhadap kadar etanol, kinerja crude enzim selulase dalam memproduksi etanol dan membandingkan kinerjanya dengan crude enzim komersial. Penelitian ini terbagi dalam dua tahap yaitu : pretreatment tongkol jagung, dan fermentasi. Tongkol jagung yang sudah dikeringkan, dihaluskan hingga menjadi serbuk dengan ukuran 12 mesh, dan diberi perlakuan hidrolisis dengan uap panas (steam explosion selama 60 menit. Serbuk tongkol jagung difermentasi,dengan penambahan nutrisi, crude enzim selulase dan jamur Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proses fermentasi dilakukan pada suhu 30oC selama 120 jam, sedangkan pengamatan dilakukan setiap 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan produksi etanol yang dihasilkan dengan menggunakan crude enzim selulase dan crude enzim komersial berturut-turut adalah 1,28 dan 2,89 %.

  6. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Salim Al Hashmi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  7. Biofuel Co-products as Swine Feed Ingredients: Combining Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Crude Glycerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of combining corn DDGS with crude glycerin on growth performance and carcass traits to determine if a high level of crude glycerin supplementation could counteract the impact of corn DDGS on fatty acid profile of pork adipose. The experimental d...

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  9. 78 FR 38058 - Guidance for Industry on Heparin for Drug and Medical Device Use: Monitoring Crude Heparin for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... risks of crude heparin contaminants and to recommend strategies to ensure that the heparin supply chain... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER... ruminant materials. The control of the quality of crude heparin is important to ensure the safety of...

  10. Chronic Inflammatory Polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen children with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy monitored between 1975 and 2005 are reported from Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

  11. Citric acid production by Candida species grown on a soy-based crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid was produced by five species of the yeast Candida after growth on a medium containing soy biodiesel-based crude glycerol. After growth on a medium containing 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 and C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced the highest citric acid levels. On 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C, the citric acid level produced by C. parapsilosis ATCC 7330 was 1.8 g L(-1) or 11.3 g L(-1), respectively, while C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 produced citric acid concentrations of 3.0 g L(-1) or 10.4 g L(-1), respectively. Biomass production by C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol for 168 hr at 30°C was highest at 1.2 g L(-1) or 6.9 g L(-1), respectively. The citric acid yields observed for C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 after growth on 10 g L(-1) or 60 g L(-1) crude glycerol (0.35 g g(-1) or 0.21 g g(-1), respectively) were generally higher than for the other Candida species tested. When similar crude glycerol concentrations were present in the culture medium, citric acid yields observed for some of the Candida species utilized in this study were about the same or higher compared to citric acid yields by Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Based on the findings, it appeared that C. guilliermondii ATCC 9058 was the most effective species utilized, with its citric acid production being similar to what has been observed when citric acid-producing strains of Y. lipolytica were grown on crude glycerol under batch conditions that could be of significance to biobased citric acid production.

  12. Solubility of crude oil in methane as a function of pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L.C.; Wenger, L.M.; Ging, T.; Blount, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of a 44?? API (0.806 sp. gr.) whole crude oil has been measured in methane with water present at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 740 to 14,852 psi, as have the solubilities of two high molecular weight petroleum distillation fractions at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 4482 to 25,266 psi. Both increases in pressure and temperature increase the solubility of crude oil and petroleum distillation fractions in methane, the effect of pressure being greater than that of temperature. Unexpectedly high solubility levels (0.5-1.5 grams of oil per liter of methane-at laboratory temperature and pressure) were measured at moderate conditions (50-200??C and 5076-14504 psi). Similar results were found for the petroleum distillation fractions, one of which was the highest molecular weight material of petroleum (material boiling above 266??C at 6 microns pressure). Unexpectedly mild conditions (100??C and 15,200 psi; 200??C and 7513 psi) resulted in cosolubility of crude oil and methane. Under these conditions, samples of the gas-rich phase gave solubility values of 4 to 5 g/l, or greater. Qualitative analyses of the crude-oil solute samples showed that at low pressure and temperature equilibration conditions, the solute condensate would be enriched in C5-C15 range hydrocarbons and in saturated hydrocarbons in the C15+ fraction. With increases in temperature and especially pressure, these tendencies were reversed, and the solute condensate became identical to the starting crude oil. The data of this study, compared to that of previous studies, shows that methane, with water present, has a much greater carrying capacity for crude oil than in dry systems. The presence of water also drastically lowers the temperature and pressure conditions required for cosolubility. The data of this and/or previous studies demonstrate that the addition of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, or butane to methane also has a strong positive effect on crude oil

  13. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  14. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P cinder, zeolite, desulfurization gypsum under salinization condition. The crude oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  15. [Identification of two Fusarium isolates and their crude toxin allelopathic effect on Cucumis melo seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Xue, Quan-Hong; Du, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Jiao-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Eight fungi isolates were obtained from Fusarium-infected Cucumis melo (melon) plants and their rhizosphere soils. Taking melon cultivar 'Xitian 1' as test material, the re-inoculation and seed germination experiments were conducted to investigate the pathogenicity and growth inhibition effect of these fungi isolates on melon. Through the determination of the induced enzyme activities, resistant substance contents, and cell membrane permeability of potted melon roots, the allelopathic effect of the crude toxins of two harmful fungi was studied, and according to the morphological characteristics and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequencing, the two harmful fungi were identified. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi TF and HF had strong inhibition effects on the germination and growth of the melon seeds. The MDA and soluble protein contents and the cell membrane permeability of the 'Xitian 1' seedlings roots all increased, among which, the MDA content and cell membrane permeability increased by 108.6% and 40.6%, respectively when treated with the stock solution of TF toxin, compared with the control. The crude toxins of the two harmful fungi improved the induced enzyme activities of the melon roots, with the increment of the PAL and POD activities under the treatment of 10-fold dilution of TF crude toxin increased by 25.6% and 23.2%, respectively. When treated with the stock solution of HF toxin, the PAL activity significantly increased by 30.0%. The two harmful fungi TF and HF were primarily identified as Fusarium equisti and F. proliferatum, respectively. This study showed that the two Fusarium isolates could not infect melon via re-inoculation, but could negatively affect the melon's normal growth and normal physiological and biochemical metabolism via toxins excretion, and in the meantime, improve the root protective enzyme activities, with the effects of both benefit and harmfulness on melon plants. The allelopathic hazard of the crude toxins of the

  16. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation.

  17. Atomic absorption techniques for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizzle, P.L.; Wilson, C.A.; Ferrero, E.P.; Coleman, H.J.

    1977-05-01

    Four different techniques for sample preparation were evaluated for determining vanadium and nickel in crude oils by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy: (1) The flame-analyzed dilution method which consists of direct-flame AA analysis after diluting the sample with a suitable organic solvent; (2) the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing method in which the sample is combusted and the residue is then dissolved before flame analysis; (3) the flameless, dilution method which involves flameless AA analysis of the sample following dilution with a suitable organic solvent; and (4) the direct, flameless method in which the crude oil or residue is directly analyzed by flameless AA. The flame-analyzed dilution method yielded erratic and inaccurate analytical results for samples of crude oils as well as for a residual sample containing standard amounts of vanadium and nickel; hence, it is unsatisfactory for oil-identification. Similarly, the direct, flameless method is unsatisfactory owing to the small concentration range available for analysis (less than approximately 15 ppM). Both the flame-analyzed, wet-ashing and flameless-dilution methods yield reliable and reproducible (better than 10%) quantitative data for nickel and vanadium in crude oils and crude oil residues. Results demonstrate that the error associated with the loss of volatile metal containing compounds upon wet-ashing is within the reproducibility of the technique. Although wet-ashing may be slightly more reproducible, the flameless-dilution method is much simpler and faster and is recommended as the better of the two procedures for routine determinations of trace metals for oil identification.

  18. Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; De Buck, A.; Afman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G.J. [Carbon Matters, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The production of unconventional crudes in Canada and Venezuela and exports of these crudes to the EU are investigated. In addition the potential economic and environmental impact of the proposed EU FQD measures (Fuel Quality Directive) on the production of crudes from tar sands and on new tar sand exploration projects are examined. CE Delft has analysed the impact by using a dedicated cost model. For existing projects, the model determines the effect on the basis of marginal production costs. For planned projects the model used the net present value (NPV) of proposed investments. The impacts were determined for a range of crude oil prices and FQD price effects. Combined, for existing and new projects together, the maximum effect would be at a price level at 60 USD/bbl, with savings of up to 19 Mt CO2/y at an FQD price differential of 3 euro/bbl. This overall effect would be substantial and come on top of the total emission reduction effect of the FQD of 60 Mt CO2/y, which will be achieved mostly by the blending of low-carbon fuels and reduced flaring and venting. As part of the reduction of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the revised FQD obliges fuel suppliers to reduce these emissions by 6% by 2020 on a well-to-wheel basis. The EU is currently developing a methodology to differentiate fossil fuels on the basis of feedstock and GHG emissions. In the proposal, diesel produced from tar sands, has been given a default emission value of 108.5 gCO2 eq/MJ, while diesel from conventional crude was set at 89.1 gCO2 eq/MJ. The Commission's proposal is currently undergoing an impact assessment and is expected to be resubmitted to the Council later this year (2013)

  19. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  20. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Safarkhani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs have been modified. Improve and reform the electrochemical deposition of metal salts is done. Ionic liquid 1 - Hydro One Atyl2- methyl imidazolium de cyanimide [HEMIM] [DCA] is inherently hydrophilic as Scavenger H2S was added to the crude oil. Two types of metal salts of Fe (acac 3 and Cu (SO4 electrochemical deposition method for producing metal nanoparticles in the ionic liquid [HEMIM] [DCA] was used. Suitable concentrations of ionic liquids for the complete removal of hydrogen sulfide from crude oil were determined by two methods: static and dynamic methods. Dynamic method to determine the required dose used to remove H2S. Static method using response surface and through statistical experimental design for modeling and assessment CCD H2S was removed parameters. Three factors, namely Scavengerdose, contact time and the reaction temperature were studied. The interaction between these factors on the concentration of H2S in the crude oil was studied. 3 important statistical models for ionic liquids and ionic liquid containing two types of metal nanoparticles were developed. This model has an index of noncompliance was not important. The ionic liquid modified with nanoparticles , activity and H2S removal capacity is significantly increased , to the extent that the effect of one or two major factors were considered too small or unimportant . Copper metal nanoparticles showed better performance for the removal of H2S to iron

  1. Effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd on human sperm in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi QIU; Lei-guang WANG; Yi-fang JIA; Dan-tong YANG; Mei-hua ZHANG; Yan-ping ZHANG; Li-hong ZHANG; Ling GAI

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze sperm membrane changes and the spermicidal effect in treatment with the crude extract from Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PTW) in vitro. The root of PTW was extracted in distilled water. Normal human spermatozoa were used to assess the spermicidal activity (Sander-Cramer assay) of the extract from the PTW root. The hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and the eosin Y (EY) staining were used to detect the integrity of sperm membrane and vitality. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test was performed to determine sperm DNA integrity. N-9 was used as a reference standard and semen added to physiological saline was used as the control. Semen samples were donated by 42 healthy fertile men. The crude extract from the root of PTW could immobilize and kill 100% spermatozoa within 20 s in vitro at the concentrations of 20.0 and 10.0 mg/ml; at the concentration of 5.0 mg/ml, spermatozoa were immobilized in (39.5卤3.2) s. In the groups of the crude extract from the root of PTW and N-9 solution, the rate of the normal HOS (tails swollen) and the white head (unstained) was 0%, and the rate of the abnormal HOS (tails unswollen) and red head (stained) was 100%. Sperm DNA fragmentation showed no change in exposure to the crude extract from the root of PTW and N-9 solution. The sperm revival test did not show any spermatozoa that recovered their motilities. The rapid spermicidal activity of the crude extract from the root of PTW in vitro may occur by the disruption of the sperm membrane integrity.

  2. Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gong

    Full Text Available Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR. However, it is not entirely clear if "endogenous" bacteria (e.g., spores in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the "exogenous" bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six exogenous bacterial strains (three Dietzia strains, two Acinetobacter strains, and one Pseudomonas strain. The survival of the spore-forming Bacillus and Paenibacillus and the non-spore-forming mesophilic Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Alcaligenes, and Microbacterium was detected using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis. However, neither bacteria nor bacterial activity was detected in three controls consisting of non-inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium. These results suggest that detection of endogenous bacteria was stimulated by the six inoculated strains. In addition, inoculation with Acinetobacter spp. stimulated detection of Bacillus, while inoculation with Dietzia spp. and Pseudomonas sp. stimulated the detection of more Pseudomonas. In contrast, similar exogenous bacteria stimulated similar endogenous bacteria at the genus level. Based on these results, special emphasis should be applied to evaluate the influence of bacteria capable of surviving autoclaving on the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of exogenous bacteria, in particular, with regard to bioaugmentation and MEOR. Bioaugmentation and MEOR technologies could then be developed to more accurately direct the growth of specific endogenous bacteria that may then improve the efficiency of treatment or recovery of crude oil.

  3. The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721.

  4. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  5. Inclusion of crude glycerin with different roughages changes ruminal parameters and in vitro gas production from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Regina Paschoaloto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing availability of crude glycerin from biodiesel production has generated great stock in the industries. To solve this problem, crude glycerin is being used as an energy source to replace corn in livestock diets. This study evaluated the effects of the association of crude glycerin (10% on DM of diets with different roughages in Nellore cattle diets on ruminal pH and ammonia, degradability, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, and greenhouse gas production. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design. The following treatments were evaluated: Hydrolyzed Sugarcane associated or not with crude glycerin, Corn Silage associated or not with crude glycerin or Tifton-85 Hay associated or not with crude glycerin. Association of crude glycerin with roughages did not affect the rumen ammonia concentration and pH and dry matter intake, but reduced the intake of NDF for diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane and Corn Silage and reduced the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CNF and starch and decreased the effective degradation at the rate of 8% h-1 for diets with Tifton-85 Hay. The association crude glycerin with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane reduced the production of CH4 and CO2 in mL g-1 of DM. The inclusion of crude glycerin affects differently nutrient utilization in diets with Corn Silage, Hydrolyzed Sugarcane or Tifton-85 hay. Moreover, promotes mitigation of greenhouse gases in diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane. Association of crude glycerin with Corn Silage in Nellore cattle diets showed better conditions of ruminal fermentation and utilization of nutrients.

  6. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  7. Chronic Postoperative Roseomonas Endophthalmitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; WU, WEI-CHI; CHEN, TUN-LU

    2008-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  8. Chronic postoperative Roseomonas endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Tun-Lu

    2009-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  9. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  10. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle, and health...... behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  11. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies.

  12. Digestible and metabolizable energy content of crude glycerin originating from different sources in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Dozier, W A; Kidd, M T

    2009-12-01

    The energy value of crude glycerin from different biodiesel production facilities was determined in nursery pigs (initial BW of 10.4 kg) to predict apparent DE and ME based on the composition of crude glycerin. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet, or diets containing crude glycerin from various biodiesel production facilities supplemented in the diet at approximately 9.1%. Because of bulk density differences, 2 glycerin products were supplemented at either 7.7 or 6.9%. In addition, soybean oil and lard were included at 6.7% as 2 dietary treatments to serve as positive controls. Each diet was fed twice daily to pigs in individual metabolism crates. After a 6-d adjustment period, a 4-d balance experiment was conducted. During the collection period, feces and urine were collected daily and stored at 0 degrees C until analysis. The GE of each test ingredient and diet and of urine and fecal samples from each pig were determined by isoperibol bomb calorimetry. The DE and ME values of crude glycerol were estimated by difference, whereby the DE and ME content of the basal diet was subtracted from the complete diet containing the test ingredient. Gross energy, DE, and ME of US Pharmacopeia grade glycerin were determined to be 4,325, 4,457, and 3,682 kcal/kg, respectively. In contrast, GE of the crude glycerin samples ranged from 3,173 to 6,021 kcal/kg, DE ranged from 3,022 to 5,228 kcal/kg, and ME ranged from 2,535 to 5,206 kcal/kg, reflecting the content of glycerol, methanol, and FFA in the crude glycerin. The GE, DE, and ME of soybean oil and lard were determined to be 9,443, 8,567, and 8,469 kcal/kg, and 9,456, 8,524, and 8,639 kcal/kg, respectively. The stepwise regression prediction of the ME in crude glycerin exhibited R(2) of only 0.41 [ME, kcal/kg (as-is basis) = (37.09 x % of glycerin) + (97.15 x % of fatty acids)], whereas prediction of GE achieved an R(2) of 0.99 [GE, kcal/kg (as-is basis) = -236 + (46.08 x % of glycerin) + (61.78 x % of methanol

  13. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...... from which he eventually died. The glomerulonephritis was of unknown origin, and a possible relationship between CGD and glomerulonephritis is discussed....

  14. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  15. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  16. Apparent metabolizable energy of crude glycerin originating from different sources in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Branton, S L

    2011-11-01

    An energy balance experiment was conducted to determine the AME(n) of various crude glycerin samples, and to generate an equation to predict AME(n) of crude glycerin based on its chemical composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet with no added glycerin and a basal diet supplemented with 6% glycerin. Crude glycerin samples were obtained from biodiesel production facilities throughout the United States, which use a variety of lipid products as their initial feedstock. Two identical energy balance trials were conducted. In each trial, 864 male broilers (Ross × Ross 708) were fed a common starter diet until 17 d of age when they were switched to 1 of 12 experimental diets (6 replicates per treatment) from 17 to 22 d of age, with a 48-h collection period on d 21 and 22. Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values of crude glycerin samples were estimated by difference, whereby AME(n) of the basal diet was subtracted from the complete diet containing the test ingredient. The AME(n) of the basal diet and US Pharmacopeia-grade glycerin were determined to be 3,085 and 3,662 kcal/kg, respectively, whereas the AME(n) of the 10 crude glycerin samples ranged from 3,254 to 4,134 kcal/kg. Two crude glycerin samples had high levels of fatty acids compared with the other samples (24 and 35% vs. glycerin samples (3,806 vs. 3,611 kcal/kg, P glycerin samples, the stepwise regression equation to predict AME(n) was determined to be: [AME(n) (kcal/kg) = 1,605 - (19.13 × % methanol) + (39.06 × % fatty acid) + (23.47 × % glycerin)]; (R(2) = 0.25; SE = 379; P ≤ 0.01). These data indicate that glycerin is a good source of energy for broilers, and the AME(n) of glycerin is dependent on fatty acid, methanol, and water contents.

  17. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Soysa T Yvanka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane

  18. Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Modhar A.; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni M. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Chemical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (author)

  19. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusup, Suzana; Khan, Modhar [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (author)

  20. Changes of NF-KB activity in colon carcinoma cells treated with different crude extracts of abrotani herba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Pan; Yuying Chen; Li Yang; Zhiheng Bian; Houjie Liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study changes of NF-KB activity in colon carcinoma cell lines treated with different crude extracts of abrotani herba obtained through solvent extraction methods.Methods: Crude extracts of abrotani herba were extracted with ligarine, chloroform, acetoacetate and n-butanol in separating funnel.Exposure concentration of crude extracts were obtained through detecting viability of HT-29 cells by MTT.Then HT-29 cells and Lovo cells were treated with different crude extracts respectively.Changes of NF-KB activity in HT-29 cells and Lovo cells using different crude extracts were observed by EMSA.Results: Successfully extracted different crude extracts of abrotani herba and called them ligarine extract, chloroform extract,acetoacetate extract, n-butanol extract and remaining extract for short.NF-KB activity was significantly inhibited in HT-29 cells treated with chloroform extract, there were no significant differences in other groups compared with the control.The same change of NF-KB activity was observed in Lovo calls using different crude extracts of abrotani herba.Conclusion: NF-KB activity can be inhibited in colon carcinoma HT-29 calls and Lovo cells treated with chloroform extract obtained from abrotani herba through the method of solvent extraction.