WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic crude garlic-feeding

  1. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El May Michèle V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Garlic or Allium sativum (As shows therapeutic effects such as reduction of blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia but side-effects on reproductive functions remain poorly investigated. Because of garlic's chemical complexity, the processing methods and yield in preparations differ in efficacy and safety. In this context, we clarify the mechanisms of action of crushed crude garlic on testicular markers. Methods During one month of treatment, 24 male rats were fed 5%, 10% and 15% crude garlic. Results We showed that crude garlic-feeding induced apoptosis in testicular germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids. This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase inhibitors BIRC3 and BIRC2 was increased at all doses of As while expression of XIAP and BIRC5 was unchanged. Moreover, expression of the IAP inhibitor DIABLO was increased at doses 10% and 15% of As. The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b5 and Hsd17b. Evaluation of Sertoli markers showed that TUBB3 and GSTA2 expression was unchanged. In contrast, AMH, RHOX5 and CDKN1B expression was decreased while GATA4 expression was increased. Conclusion In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers. These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  3. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  4. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Tornés, Jesús; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V.; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, María; Denaro, Renata; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A.; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Yakimov, Michail M.; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills. PMID:26119183

  5. Chronic toxicity of the `water-soluble fraction` of Norman Wells crude oil to juvenile fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, W. L.; Duncan, D. AS.; Billeck, B. N.; Danell, R. A. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Ryan, M. J. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-10-01

    Experiments with young rainbow trout exposed to Norman Wells crude oil for periods up to 55 days showed light mortality in the first few days and increased mortality at the higher exposure levels towards the end of the period. The mortality rate was aggravated in the presence of oil dispersant Corexit 7664 or 9600. Exposure to oil resulted in increased fish body water content from about 84 per cent to over 90 per cent. It is believed that the oil affected the ability of the fish to regulate their water content, however, the presence of dispersant did not appear to influence this effect. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Progress in the development of short term chronic toxicity testing methods for crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The specific concerns addressed by this research are the use of unweathered Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil instead of the more expensive, less environmentally realistic distillate ANS-521, and the appropriate laboratory preparation methodology for the water soluble fraction (WSF) used in testing. Seven-day chronic tests exposing the inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) and estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) to the water soluble fraction of unweathered ANS and ANS-521 showed that mysids responded similarly to the two types of oils while silversides were more sensitive to unweathered ANS. In the presence of a CBA and WSF, the mortality of the organisms and the mysid growth were similar in both types of oil. The NOEC for silverside growth, however, was lower in the combined exposure of a CBA with ANS-521 WSF than it was in the CBA-WSF unweathered ANS. Testing is underway to determine if the stirring time length effects the toxicity of the WSF, or the WSF and CBA combination. In chronic tests using both the silverside and mysid there were no differences in growth and mortality of the organisms tested in WSF prepared from 10 and 20 hours of stirring, however, the 5 hour stirring exposure is less toxic to both organisms

  7. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  8. Alteration of reproductive steroids of male winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) chronically exposed to low levels of crude oil in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When male winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) were held in seawater for 4 months exposed to sand treated with five low levels of crude oil, there was a significant reduction in testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone glucuronides in blood plasma. At the two higher levels of oil the concentration of plasma glucuronides were similar but very significantly lower than the controls or the three lower concentrations of oil. For both androgens the ratio of glucuronides to free steroids declined in a stepwise fashion. Free testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone plasma levels were not significantly affected by any concentration of oil in the sediment. Liver weights as a percentage of body weight were significantly increased at the two highest levels of oil in sediments, but neither body weights nor testes weights were altered by exposure to oil. It has been suggested that androgen glucuronides can function as pheromones in some fish and this is one potentially deleterious effect of exposure to oil. 33 refs., 1 tab

  9. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  10. Impact of water-accommodated fractions of crude oil on Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua following chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the long-term effects of hydrocarbon exposure on the gonadal development of fish. Mature Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to low concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an ambient flowthrough seawater system. Some PAH-exposed cod groups were depurated afterwards for 38 to 287 days. Mortality was rare, and external lesions occurred only in the PAH-exposed groups. The gonado-somatic index revealed that gonadal development was disrupted in both sexes and spawning and spermiation was delayed in the 33 depurated PAH-groups. The findings indicate that chronic exposure to WAFs in the water column may have an adverse effect on reproduction in Atlantic cod.

  11. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs

  12. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The...

  14. Crude oil desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  15. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  16. The role of benchmark crudes in crude oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the world's oil, whether sold on a spot basis or as part of a term contract, will be priced on a relationship with one or other of a small number of marker crude oils. Generally, the markers used are West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Alaskan North Slope (ANS) for crude oil coming into North and South America; Dubai or Oman for crudes being delivered into the Far Eastern markets; and Brent for any crude being delivered into Europe. For a variety of reasons, over the laster two years, Brent blend has become more predominant in the pricing process for crude oils throughout the world. This has resulted in the fact that, directly or indirectly, Brent is now used to price approximately 65% of the world's crude oil. So why is it that a crude oil with a comparatively small production base of around 700,000 barrels per day has now come to dominate the pricing of the lion's share of the world's crude oil? The answer to this question is discussed

  17. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  18. Crude incompatibility problems at heavy crude unit desalter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) is based at Rawalpindi, Pakistan and operates a 40,000 Barrels per Stream Day (BPSD) refinery. The Heavy Crude Unit (HCU) of ARL is a fully integrated two-stage 10,000 BPSD Atmospheric and 5,700 BPSD Vacuum Distillation Unit. A 3-stage desalter designed to reduce salt and BS and W content from 2,000 parts per thousand barrels (PTB) and 2% to less than 5 PTB and 0.1% respectively, is part of HCU. The feedstock is a composite blend of 14 local Heavy Crudes received at the Refinery. Although in the past this desalter had been giving good performance, over the last one year, period since August 2005, at least nine shutdowns of the unit took place due to salt slippage and consequential tube leakages at the overhead Crude-Naphtha vapor Heat Exchanger where partial condensation of naphtha takes place. Final condensation is achieved in trim condenser. High salted water carry-over with the crude caused increased hydrolysis, formation of Hydrochloric acid and increase of tail water chlorides. Salt contents at the outlet of third desalter at times increased up to 400 PTB with 3.2% BS and W during the above mentioned upsets, as compared to normal 5-10 PTB. Fallout from this loss of desalter control was the creation of large quantities of slop due to draining of strong water oil emulsion from the desalters. Individual crudes of the blend were analyzed for affinity of water and emulsion stability. It was observed that 3 of the 14 crudes formed very strong while the remaining crudes formed weak oil water emulsion, which easily separated water from oil in desalter without any operational problem. Study was further narrowed down to one crude evaluation. Alkaline earth metallic naphthenate surfactants were detected and isolated as responsible for the strong water oil and sediments emulsion. The isolated crude was next withdrawn from the Heavy Crude blend. As soon as it was isolated and its ratio in heavy crude tank came down to 0.7 %, the problem began

  19. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Text size: s m l xl Crude Oil Spills and Health Overviews Health Information Coping with Disasters ... U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife Environmental Quality: Oil Spill Preparation and ...

  20. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  1. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m3/d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m3/d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  3. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Chemical profile of crude oils in support of toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute and chronic exposure of fish to oil spills causes toxic effects at all life stages. Eighty per cent of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils are alkylated PAH compounds, requiring a specialized analysis for fingerprinting oil fractions. Fingerprinting provides important information for oil spill response to prevent exposure of fish to the most toxic oils. It helps determine the best control and remediation option. This study focused on characterizing the alkylphenanthrene class of PAH because it causes embryo-larval toxicity. The bioavailability of alkylphenanthrene was determined through a linear correlation between the capacity factor and LogP values in Mesa crude and ANS crude oils. The study makes it possible to predict the ecological risk of oil spills in aquatic ecosystems

  5. World crude oil market and its unpredictable process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functioning of the world oil market is complex and unpredictable process. This mechanism depends of following acting areas: Crude oil stocks; Demand of crude oil; Supply of crude oil; Refinery activity; Crude oil price. (Author)

  6. Environmental and safe optimization of crude oil washing on crude oil tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, Murat Hasan Ali; Özcan ARSLAN

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Crude oil is one of the most harmful substances for the environment because of its components. Pollution can be divided in two categories: sea pollution and air pollution. For that reason, discharging of crude oil and its products into the sea should be minimized by means of crude oil washing operation optimization not to destroy the environment. During the transportation of crude oil, the most difficult problem encountered is discharging of crude oil. There are some threats, advanta...

  7. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  8. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. The Pricing Of Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Dunn; James Holloway

    2012-01-01

    Arguably no commodity is more important for the modern economy than oil. This is true in terms of both production and financial market activity. Yet its pricing is relatively complex. In part this reflects the fact that there are actually more than 300 types of crude oil, the characteristics of which can vary quite markedly. This article describes some of the key features of the oil market and then discusses the pricing of oil, highlighting the important role of the futures market. It also no...

  11. Two important Saudi crude assays updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics

  12. Norne crude oil quality, transport and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Norne field is situated in the northern part of Norway and will start production of crude oil in spring 1997. Planned plateau production of this medium density crude is 170 thousand barrels per day (kbd). After stabilization and water removal, crude will be tandem loaded from the monohull ship storage to standard North Sea buoy loaders with an average cargo size of 855 kb. The cargoes will either be delivered directly to the North West European market or reloaded at Statoil's crude oil terminal at Mongstad for re-export to the Mediterranean or US/Canadian market

  13. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  14. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (j) License Exception for exports of TAPS Crude Oil. (1... code “SS-SPR” or the equivalent code as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (i) License... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section...

  15. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  16. Crude oil - global reserves, resources, and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil, the world's most significant energy source, has a share of about 40% in the commercially ascertainable world primary energy consumption. The traffic and transport and the chemical sectors are the main crude oil consumers. While crude oil is expected to keep on dominating these two sectors in the near future, its share on the power generation and heat markets will be reduced further on account of the keen competition of substitutes. An analysis of the main paths of transport shows that the crude oil trade beats the trade in other energy sources because of the wide separation of the main extraction regions from the main consumption regions. The political explosiveness of the crude-oil trade is due to the fact that the greatest reserves are found in regions which are characterized by political instabilities. Detailed data classified by conventional crude oil (including condensate/ natural gas liquids) and unconventional crude oil (oil shale, oil sand, heavy and superheavy oil) are given about deposits, extraction, reserves and resources and about the statistical range. This topical survey informs about the central fossil energy source considering its development during the past decades. (orig.)

  17. Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay; Copur, Mehmet

    2004-08-15

    This study reports experimental measurements investigating the ability of a biological (rhamnolipid) and a synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant to remove the North Sea Ekofisk crude oil from various soils with different particle size fractions under varying washing conditions. The washing parameters and ranges tested were as follows: temperature (5 to 50 degrees C), time (5 to 20 min), shaking speed (80 to 200 strokes/min), volume (5 to 20 cm3), and surfactant concentration (0.004 to 5 mass%). The contaminated soils were prepared in the laboratory by mixing crude oil and soils using a rotating cylindrical mixer. Two contamination cases were considered: (1) weathered contamination was simulated by keeping freshly contaminated soils in a fan assisted oven at 50 degrees C for 14 days, mimicking the weathering effect in a natural hot environment, and (2) nonweathered contamination which was not subjected to the oven treatment. The surfactants were found to have considerable potential in removing crude oil from different contaminated soils and the results were comparable with those reported in literature for petroleum hydrocarbons. The removal of crude oil with either rhamnolipid or SDS was within the repeatability range of +/-6%. The most influential parameters on oil removal were surfactant concentration and washing temperature. The soil cation exchange capacity and pH also influenced the removal of crude oil from the individual soils. However, due to the binding of crude oil to soil during weathering, low crude oil removal was achieved with the weathered contaminated soil samples. PMID:15271574

  18. Regionalization in the world crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, S.G. [Univ. of Houston-Downtown, TX (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The author examines the efficiency implications of the regionalization hypothesis of Weiner (1991). Cointegration analysis is used to test this hypothesis. Both spot and contract prices for fifteen crude oils are used and separated into three groups of similar quality. Each group is intended to include crude oils that buyers can substitute for each other. Bivariate and multivariate versions of cointegration tests were used. The results suggest that the world oil market is unified and that prices for same quality crude oils from different regions of the world do not deviate from each other. 8 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Multifractal Hurst analysis of crude oil prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Cisneros, Myriam; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Soriano, Angel

    2002-10-01

    Daily records of international crude oil prices are studied using multifractal analysis methods. Rescaled range Hurst analysis provides evidence that the crude oil market is a persistent process with long-run memory effects. On the other hand, height-height correlation analysis reveals evidence of multifractal structures in the sense that the crude oil dynamics displays mixing of (rough) Hurst exponents. The existence of two characteristic time scales in the order of weeks and quarters is discovered and the corresponding prices dynamics are extracted using moving-average-based filtering. These results seem to demonstrate that the crude oil market is consistent with the random-walk assumption only at time scales of the order of days to weeks. A plausible oil price formation mechanism is discussed in terms of the market dynamics at three different time scales.

  20. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil

  1. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  2. Processing experience of Bombay High crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, S.A.; Lande, W.D.

    1985-12-01

    The Visakh Refinery started processing BH crude in 1976, in the beginning in admixture with M.E. crudes and then progressively increased its capacity of processing 100% BH in all its units by the year 1983-84. The facilities provided to enable processing of BH, qualitative/quantitative analysis of the crude and its products as obtained while processing, the problems encountered during the processing, and the efforts made by the refinery in overcoming them are described. The areas where the solutions are yet to be discovered, are indicated. Finally, some suggestions as to how to go about solving some of the nagging problems and make full use of BH crude in the national interest, are made.

  3. Export crudes for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper supplies statistical data on the characteristics of Tapais blend (Malaysia), Cold Lake blend (Alta), and Arabian Light (Saudi Arabia) crude oils. Temperature range, API gravity, sulfur percentage, viscosity, nitrogen content, and other data are provided

  4. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  5. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weijian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-08

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  6. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  7. Crude oil trading using turbo certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to contribute to the debate regarding the validity of the Hubbert Crude Oil Peak Theory. Its acceptance should guide economic policies, especially over time. The other objective is to characterize modern investment tools for short-term investments, or more precisely for trading, which use the leverage effect significantly. They are so called Turbo Certificates and they are used to trade crude oil. (authors)

  8. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  9. Evaluation of cyanobacteria toxicity in tropical reservoirs using crude extracts bioassay with cladocerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Denise Tieme; Sotero-Santos, Rosana Barbosa; Takenaka, Renata Akemi; Rocha, Odete

    2007-03-01

    During a cyanobacterial bloom in a eutrophic environment, particularly at the end when decomposition occurs, toxic compounds such as the cyanotoxins and the lipopolysaccharides can be released in high concentrations into the water column damaging aquatic organisms. In this work, the effects of this release of toxic compounds during a cyanobacterial bloom were investigated. The acute and chronic toxicity of cyanobacterial crude extracts from two natural blooms in the Barra Bonita and Ibitinga reservoirs (Middle Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil) and of a toxic strain cultured in the laboratory were tested. The cladocerans Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were used as test organisms. In the chronic toxicity tests, only a native cladoceran found in Brazilian freshwaters, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, was used. Microcystins were detected in all cyanobacterial samples. The acute toxicity tests showed that the crude bloom material extract from the Ibitinga Reservoir (48-h EC(50) values between 32.6 and 35.8 microg microcystin g(-1) of freeze-dried material) exhibited higher toxicity to cladoceran than did the crude bloom material extract from Barra Bonita Reservoir (48-h EC(50) values between 46.0 and 80.2 microg microcystin g(-1) of freeze-dried material). The chronic toxicity test data showed that the three extracts reduced the fecundity of C. silvestrii, and the crude extract of Barra Bonita Reservoir bloom material also affected the survival of this cladoceran. Both acute and chronic tests effectively prognosticated possible changes in the cladoceran population, and probably other components of the biota due to cyanobacterial blooms in natural aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17131179

  10. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinnusi, Ayo (Ondo State Polytechnic, Owo (Nigeria))

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  11. Induced biochemical conversions of heavy crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products formed during multiple interactions of microorganisms with oils fall into two major categories: those formed due to the action of indigenous microorganisms under reservoir conditions over geological periods of time and those products which are generated by the action of introduced organisms. The extreme end product of the first category is the production of heavy 'biodegraded' crudes. The extreme end product of the second category is the production of reduced sulfates due to the introduction of sulfate-reducing bacteria which may lead to the souring of a field. There is, however, a select group of microorganisms whose action on the crudes is beneficial. The interactions between such microorganisms and different crude oils occur through complex biochemical and chemical reactions. These reactions depend on multiple variables within and at the interface of a multicomponent system consisting of organic, aqueous, and inorganic components. Studies, carried out in this laboratory (BNL) of biochemical and chemical reactions in crude oils which involve extremophilic organisms (organisms which thrive in extreme environments), have shown that the reactions are not random and follow distinct trends. These trends can be categorized. The use of a group of characteristic chemical markers, such as mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of light and heavy hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and organometallic compounds, as well as total trace metal and heteroatom contents of crude oils before and after the biochemical treatment allows to follow the type and the extent of chemical changes which occur during the biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils by microorganisms. The bioconversion involves multiple, simultaneous, and/or concurrent chemical reactions in which the microorganisms serve as biocatalysts. In this sense, the biocatalysts are active in a reaction medium which depends on the chemical composition of the crude and the selectivity of the biocatalyst. Thus, the

  12. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 103, 103-104 and more than 105 cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 103 for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 102 for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  13. Transportable upgraded crude : Aquaconversion technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, R.; Rojas, J.D.; Zacarias, L.; Delgado, O.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Martinez, S.; Segovia, X.; Pena, J.P.; Granadillo, F.; Jamal, A.; De Pablos, C.; Medina, H.; Delgado, A.; Obregon, Y. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Residue and Heavy Crude Processing Dept.; Argenis, H.; Breindembach, J.A.; Urbina, N. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Analytic Dept.; Negrin, M. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Pilot Plant Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The vast reserves of extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela require lower-capital-cost technologies to make them available to the oil market. Most heavy oil commercialization in Venezuela is done by dilution. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Intevep has developed Aquaconversion, a catalytic steam conversion process capable of converting residue and heavy or extra-heavy crude oil in the producing field into transportable upgraded crude, thus reducing the use of light crude as diluents which can be valued in the market. The process produces higher residue conversion at the same product stability compared with other thermal conversion process such as visbreaking. For this purpose, Aquaconversion requires the addition of a water steam and the presence of a catalytic component that can be added as homogeneous chemical additives. This paper provided background information on the Orinoco oil belt and the thermal cracking process and Aquaconversion technology. Applications of the technology were also described with particular reference to wellhead use for making transportable upgraded crude, and the refinery application to replace visbreaking units. It was concluded that Aquaconversion technology is better than the visbreaking process because it reduces dehydrogenation and condensation reactions, increasing the product stability which increases the reaction temperature and vacuum residue conversion. It also reduces viscosity. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  15. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  16. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  17. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  18. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  19. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  20. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  1. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  2. Crude oil direct fired furnace model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an accurate mathematical model was developed in order to describe the thermal behaviours of a crude oil preheat furnace and to predict the outlet temperature of the crude process at different operating conditions. Based on basic heat and mass transfer rules, and thermodynamic relations, all sub-sections of furnaces including the combustion system, the convection and radiation sections were modelled. The crude process flow was considered as the mixture of 21 different components. The empirical correlations for crude process were adopted for estimating the physical properties of components and the heat transfer coefficients of process fluid for single-phase and two-phase flow regimes at the convection and radiation sections, respectively. The effects of flame height and combustion process conditions were also considered on the furnace dynamics. Available information from operational, geometrical variables and design values were used to define the parameters of the models. In order to show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed modelling approach, the performances of the developed model were evaluated by comparing its responses with the designed values (on design simulation). Finally, sensitivity analyses were performed by perturbing the model's inputs from nominal conditions to guarantee the capability of the developed model for long-term simulations. Obtained results indicate that the developed model for a direct fired furnace can be used for transient performance analysis at different operating conditions and real-time simulation experiments in MATALB® Simulink environment. - Highlights: • A semi-empirical dynamic mathematical model was developed for a crude oil preheat furnace. • Heat transfer in single and two phase flow regimes, combustion process were considered. • The model could be used for real-time simulation in MATALB® Simulink environment. • The developed model is an appropriate tool for monitoring, fault diagnosis, and

  3. Performance of Crude Palm Oil and Crude Palm Kernel Oil Futures in Malaysian Derivatives Market

    OpenAIRE

    Noriza Binti Mohd Saad; Noraini Binti Ismail; Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad; Normaisarah Binti Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of two contracts traded that is Futures Crude Palm Oil (hereafter refers as FCPO) and Crude Palm Kernel Oil futures (hereafter refers as FPKO) in Malaysian derivatives market. The effects of contract’s settlement, volume and open interest was analyzed towards open price (hereafter refers as price) for both contract traded. Secondary data is used, which are gathered from Bloomberg, Bursa Malaysia for N=1,296 over the period between 2006 and 2010. Overall...

  4. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells ...

  5. Testing the International Crude Oil Market Integration with Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaka Aruga

    2015-01-01

    As spread between the WTI and Brent crude oil price is widening after early 2011, it could be that the price relationship between these crude oil is changing. To see if such change affected the price linkages among the international crude oil markets, this study investigates if the world's major benchmark crude oil markets are integrated using the latest data and test the globalization hypothesis when effects from structural breaks are reflected in the test model. The study reveals that while...

  6. Prospects of Viscous Crude Development in Liaohe Oilfields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiuwen; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Liaohe oil area has developed viscous crude for 20 years. The annual output reached 8.46 million tons in 1995, of which 6.77 million tons were produced by steam injection, accounting for 56% of crude output by the method in the country. As a result, Liaohe oil area is the largest crude production base in China.

  7. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  8. Quality control of the crude oil derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKTA is crude oil refinery and its primary activity is production of oil derivates and their distribution in order to fulfill Macedonian market with products in accordance with national standards that are in coordination with European standards from January 2004. Quality is multidisciplinary category consisted of many function. One of the functions of quality assurance is quality control. All employees should be concerned for the control that means also a big responsibility for them. For this reason, a competent team from several departments work and rise all knowledge and experience in providing production of final products with properties that satisfy the customer needs and are established with quality certificate. OKTA assures the established final products quality with quality control of crude oil, intermediates and final products, grants quality certificate, guarantee the quality and control the gas stations in order to satisfy the customers. (Author)

  9. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil Containing Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Casimiro, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated soil containing crude oil is a technique process whereby biological systems are harnessed to affect the clean-up of environmental pollutants. Microbial systems are most widely employed in bioremediation programs, generally in the treatment of soil and water contaminants with organic pollutants. This thesis reports the experiment of treating the soil without use of any chemicals. Four treatments were used for this experiment. All of the treatments were containing...

  10. Crude Carrier Consolidation and Capital Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T T Gilje; J Dinwoodie; J Challacombe

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of consolidation strategies amongst crude carrier operators anxious to reduce costs and attract institutional capital. Could consolidation combat erratic tonnage demand, mounting regulatory pressure to provide quality service at reduced costs, rising costs of finance and unpredictable long-term returns that deter institutional capital? A questionnaire survey of capital providers' and charterers' attitudes towards consolidation found that long-term vessel emplo...

  11. Crude Documentary to Screen at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2008-11-01

    A documentary on oil might be a bit difficult to pitch, even to your own family and friends. Marine biologist and filmmaker Richard Smith learned that lesson when in late 2005, he started working on Crude: The Incredible Journey of Oil. When Smith told acquaintances about the project, their responses were ``muted, at best,'' joked the Australian filmmaker when he received AGU's 2008 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism.

  12. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  13. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  14. Implications of globalization on pricing for Canadian crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of globalization on Canadian crude oil prices was discussed. Since deregulation in October 1985, Canadian crude oil has competed directly against international crude oil through the use of the NYMEX contract price for light sweet crude oil as the base for establishing the price for Canadian crudes. Prior to that date, Alberta crude was marketed by the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission using the old block matrix which was loosely tied to the world market price. In addition to world crude oil prices other factors that affect the price of Canadian crude oil include technology impacts and global integration. Also, when the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline (Line 9) is reversed to bring offshore crude oil into the Ontario refining community, Canadian producers can expect some adverse effects on the price they are paid for their products leading up to the reversal as refiners start to swing over to their alternate suppliers. The offshore supply is expected to be about 140,000 barrels/day of light sweet crude oil, but all grades of Canadian crude oil will be affected

  15. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  16. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  17. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  18. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  19. Zhenhai to Boost Crude on Rising Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Zhenhai Refining & Chemical plans to boost July crude throughput by at least 5 percent from June due to expectations of a rise in domestic demand, an industry official said on June 24. The forecast July level could match the refinery's April throughput at 1.06 million tons, the highest so far in 2003, an official close to the refinery's operations said, adding "China could see a big rise in demand from domestic travels next month especially after Beijing was dropped off the travel warning list."

  20. Integrated processing for heavy crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Energy based on non-renewable resources such as gas, oil, coal and nuclear fission, even with their serious problems of pollution, contributes to 86% of the global energy consumption. Oil will remain the dominant transport fuel: about 87% of transport fuel in 2030 will still be petroleum-based.Discoveries of conventional sources of light easy-to-access crude oil are becoming less common and current oil production levels are struggling to match demand, it is necessary to develop new non-conven...

  1. Personal commentary - Crude oil pricing formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Lajous, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Almost 21 years ago Pemex introduced spot-related formulas for determining the price of its crude oil exports. Other major players in the international oil market later adopted them and they continue to have a major influence on how oil prices are formed today. This might be a good time to remember the context in which they were originally developed, the objectives and constraints to which they responded and the role they played as part of the overall package of instruments of its commercial ...

  2. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  3. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  4. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than...

  5. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Zhang; Dali Hou; Kai Li

    2015-01-01

    Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both t...

  6. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil industry towards sustainability.In order to fulfill these research aimsdetailed case studies have be...

  7. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  8. Crude oil options market found to be efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the U.S. crude oil options market operates efficiently and does not overreact. The authors, with the JFK School of Government, studied the crude oil options market under a Department of Energy grant. The current market was created in November 1986 when the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced an options contract for delivery of West Texas intermediate crude futures. it has grown greatly since then

  9. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  10. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  11. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  12. The international market for crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international crude oil market has undergone many structural changes and has had to adapt to a new competitive environment. The links between the organization of the oil market and the evolution of its structure were analyzed. In the beginning, the market was dominated by Western firms. With the creation of OPEC, the petroleum industry adapted to a market regulated by supply and demand. Since then, the industry has been evolving toward a more balanced market structure in which the upstream sector is dominated by the national oil companies of the producing countries and the downstream sector is dominated by large companies in the importing nations. Price setting and corporate strategy within the new competitive market was also discussed. 25 refs., 34 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen

    2006-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  14. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  15. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  16. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  17. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. PMID:23896144

  18. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  19. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat

  20. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Strategy of the Comprehensive Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude The further study on the properties and characteristics of the naphthenic base heavy crude shows that the utilization of naphthenic acid, production of low freezing point lube stocks and a series of asphalts are important future trends for comprehensive utilization of these resources.

  1. WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN VISCOUS CRUDE PROCESSING IN SHENGLI OILFIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  2. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    adherence to undecane and hexadecane. The degradation of crude oil by these two isolates was 62% and 85%. Mixed cultures of the two isolates showed 91% degradation. It was evident from the gas chromatographic analysis that all fractions of crude oil were...

  3. THE REFINERY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WHILE TREATING MIDDLE EAST CRUDE TO RUN THE PLANT DURING 4 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Middle East crude oil is known to be a higher sulfur and metal containing crude than Far East crude. To treat higher sulfur crude requires appropriate procedures on refinery maintenance since corrosion environment of equipment can be affected by sulfur content. This paper introduces our experiences and measures in running the plant while facing corrosion and degradation by Middle East crude.

  4. 77 FR 55817 - Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Delek Crude Logistics, LLC; Notice of Petition for Waiver Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Delek Crude Logistics, LLC (``Delek Crude'') respectfully requests that the Federal... Commission's regulations with respect to the East Texas Crude Logistics crude oil pipeline system. Any...

  5. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. PMID:26586632

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    oil production. Results showed that low temperature favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 34.9 wt% at 300 C. Contrarily, at high temperature, the bio-crude oil had better qualities in terms of less oxygen content and higher heating values (HHVs). The compounds identified...... in bio-crude oil were mainly phenolics, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols, among which the relative contents of phenolics and carboxylic acids decreased with increasing temperature. In the recirculation studies, bio-crude yield was enhanced gradually with aqueous phase addition at 300 C......, and reached 38.4 wt% after three cycles. The HHVs of bio-crude oil from HTL with aqueous phase were 28.4–29.4 MJ/kg, slightly higher than those from HTL with fresh water. While no obvious differences in elemental distribution can be found after aqueous phase recirculation. In conclusion, this study gives...

  7. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  8. Characterization of crude oils by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutelet, F; Ekulu, G; Rogalski, M

    2002-09-01

    It was shown that the flocculation onset of asphaltenes in crude oils could be predicted on the basis of the inverse gas chromatography characterization of the crude oil properties. Hildebrand's solubility parameters of four crude oils were calculated from inverse chromatography data and compared with values obtained from the onset of asphaltene flocculation measurements. A good agreement was observed with three crude oils of different origin. A relation between Hildebrand's solubility parameter and linear solvation energy relationship descriptors was established and it was demonstrated that the solubility parameter of a crude oil is determined mainly with dispersion interactions and the hydrogen bond basicity. A large basicity lowers the oil solubility parameter, and increases its stability in respect to flocculation. PMID:12385392

  9. 19 CFR 19.22 - Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude metal produced from imported materials. 19.22 Section 19.22 Customs... § 19.22 Withdrawal of metal refined in part from imported crude metal and in part from crude...

  10. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  12. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  13. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  14. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  15. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  16. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B.C. [Environmental Resources Management, Houston, TX (United States); Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  17. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  19. Allergenic evaluation of Malassezia furfur crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, R F; Melo, T A; Matsumoto, F E; Pires, M F C; Croce, J; Gambale, W; Paula, C R

    2002-01-01

    Crude extracts of the lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur were obtained from 2, 6, 10 and 28 day old cultures. The in vitro cultivation periods corresponded, respectively, to the lag phase, middle of the log phase, end of log phase and the decline phase of the growth curve, which was based on viable cell counts obtained with a fluorescent viability test. Biochemical analyses showed that the protein and carbohydrate contents were greater in day 10 extracts. Seventy patients with different allergic manifestations and 30 healthy volunteers were skin prick tested using the extracts. Of these, thirteen (18.57%) patients gave positive responses. SDS PAGE gradient electrophoretic profiles of the preparations indicated that the 28 day extracts contained the greatest number of protein bands with molecular weights ranging mostly between 30 and 94 kDa. Immunoblots incubated with individual patient sera showed that four IgE binding M. furfur allergens of approximately 88, 61, 52 and 39 kDa were present in the 28 day extracts. The components identified could be used for detecting IgE mediated responses to M. furfur among individuals affected with different allergic conditions. PMID:12650593

  20. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  1. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  2. Conversion and degradation of crude oil by Bacillus SP3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Bacillus SP3 and evaluate its effect on different crude oils. Strain SP3 is a motile, gram-positive, spore-producing rod that was isolated from a reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. The cells of strain SP3 grew at high temperatures up to 58℃ at the pH range of 5.5-8.5. Strain SP3 grew facultatively and could use different organic substrates, and produce some metabolites such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl-2-nitrogen benzene and 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid bis ester. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the strain converted and degraded different components and changed the physical and chemical properties of crude oils. Strain SP3 degraded crude oil and the growth of bacteria on crude oil resulted in loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes. The bioconversion of crude oils would lead to an enrichment in lighter hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of saturate hydrocarbons. The interactions of microorganisms with crude oils are variable, depending on the microbial species and the chemical compositions of crude oils.

  3. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  4. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  5. Crude-oil foaming problems at the Sullom Voe terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in the program of commissioning the Ninian stabilization trains at Sullom Voe terminal, problems of severe foaming in the first- and second- stage separators occurred. This resulted in massive carry-over of crude into the gas lines. Injection of the conventional anti-foam compound into the crude alleviated the problem somewhat. At higher gas/oil ratios (GOR's), however, conventional anti-foam agents did not control the foaming adequately. The authors discuss how they investigated the foaming characteristics of the crude and developed, with others, a novel foam inhibitor that effectively prevented foam generation in the separators

  6. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  7. Relationship between waxy crude viscosities and wax crystal microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 张劲军; 侯磊; 王海峰

    2008-01-01

    It is important and profound to quantitatively study the relation between rheology and microstructure for development of the microstructural mechanism of crude oil rheology and even for the waxy crude oil pipelining.However,due to the high complexity and irregularity of wax crystal morphology,quantitative characterization is hard to achieve.This has hampered further study on the rheology-microstructure relationship.A new approach combined the fractal geometry and the stereology theory is presented for quantifying the intricate wax crystal morphology and structure.Based on the characterization,the effects of microstructures and oil composition on the waxy crude viscosities are analyzed quantitatively.It further validates the previous qualitative research and enriches understanding into the microstructural mechanism of waxy crude oil rheology.

  8. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  9. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  10. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  11. Cezi Island Crude Pier Put into Operation Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiangge; Liu Haijun; Diao Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ On Feb. 25th, 2006, the 300,000-ton Cezi Island Pier,a State key construction project was finished. It began to receive crude oil smoothly. Cezi Island was one of the largest crude oil piers in China at present. Its putting into operation will enable the Ningbo - Shanghai - Nanjing pipeline network double its total transmitting capacity to reach 40 million tons a year.

  12. Uncertainty and the convenience yield in crude oil price backwardations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines why firms hold stocks of crude oil, particularly during price backwardations when spot prices exceed prices for forward delivery. Using a stochastic control model, this paper shows that the equilibrium value of inventories contains: the conventional Hotelling principle; the convenience yield from the classical theory of storage; and an option value related to price uncertainty. Our empirical results suggest that a convenience yield and risk premium are important elements of crude oil price backwardations

  13. Electrocoalescence of Field Crude Oil using High voltage Direct Current

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Opara; Akuma Oji

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of crude oil from oil wells, entrained water is removed principally by using chemical demulsifiers or heat treatment. There are, however, emulsions of water in oil which have been stabilized by the presence of surface active agents in the crude and agitation during the extraction process which prove difficult tobreakup by conventional methods. High voltage direct current (HVDC) is used in this study to effect the coalescence of water molecules thereby causing separation of th...

  14. Coke formation during thermal cracking of a heavy crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Urán Castaño, Laura Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: A pseudo-mechanism for the production of coke during the thermal cracking of a Colombian heavy crude oil was proposed based on thermal cracking experiments carried out at TGA and at horizontal tube furnace at atmospheric conditions. In-situ combustion (ISC) is a thermal method that improves the recovery of heavy crude oils and involves complex phenomena such as heat and mass transfers, low-temperature oxidation of the liquid phase (LTO), and cracking reactions that yield coke, a car...

  15. Impurities of crude glycerol and their effect on metabolite production

    OpenAIRE

    Samul, Dorota; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is a valuable raw material for the production of industrially useful metabolites. Among many promising applications for the use of glycerol is its bioconversion to high value-added compounds, such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), succinate, ethanol, propionate, and hydrogen, through microbial fermentation. Another method of waste material utilization is the application of crude glycerol in blends with other wastes (e.g., tomato waste hydrolysate). However, crude glycerol, a by-product of...

  16. Strategic and Tactical Crude Oil Supply Chain: Mathematical Programming Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sahebishahemabadi, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil industry very fast became a strategic industry. Then, optimization of the Crude Oil Supply Chain (COSC) models has created new challenges. This fact motivated me to study the COSC mathematical programming models. We start with a systematic literature review to identify promising avenues. Afterwards, we elaborate three concert models to fill identified gaps in the COSC context, which are (i) joint venture formation, (ii) integrated upstream, and (iii) environmentally conscious design.

  17. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  18. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  19. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  20. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  2. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  3. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  4. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  5. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  8. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  10. Technology and Development Trends of China's Viscous Crude Surface Production Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Chengwu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Main Technical Characteristics Technique of viscous crude gathering, transportation and treatment approaches the international level (1) Diluent oil-blended gathering and transportation process, an original creation of China, plays an important and guarantee role in increasing viscous crude output,especially in the viscous crude fields with dilute crude resources nearby.

  11. Toxicity of oil dispersant, crude oil and dispersed crude oil to a marine amphipod and gastropod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, I.; Holdway, D.A. [RMIT, Melbourne (Australia). Oil Spill Research Group

    1995-12-31

    The importance of appropriate oil spill remedial action was emphasized during the recent Iron Barron oil spill off of the Tamar river in North Tasmania. One important potential oil spill response is dispersion, but little information exists on the toxicity of dispersants and dispersed oil to Australian marine species. This research was undertaken to assess the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527 (a widely used dispersant), water accommodated fractions of Bass Strait crude oil and dispersed Bass Strait crude oil, to the saltwater amphipod, Allorchestes compressa under semi-static conditions. Acute 96 h LC50`s were determined for each toxicant as well as for the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate. Sublethal bioassays were undertaken for the same 3 toxicants utilizing the marines and snail Polinices conicus as the test species. No-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) were determined using ANOVA while EC50`s and EC0`s were calculated using regression analysis. Mean acute 96 h LC50 (S.E.) values for A. compressa exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate were 3.6 mg/l (0.28) and 41.6 mg/l (9.01) respectively. EC50 (S.E.) concentrations for P. conicus exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate for 30 minutes were 44.7 mg/l and 246 mg/l respectively using burying behavior as an endpoint. These sublethal EC50`s were reduced to 20.7 mg/l for SDS and 23.5 mg/l for zinc sulfate following 24 hours of exposure.

  12. Modeling crude oil droplet-sediment aggregation in nearshore waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michael C; Bonner, James S; Page, Cheryl A; Fuller, Christopher B; Ernest, Andrew N S; Autenrieth, Robin L

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a modeling approach that simulates changes in particle size distribution and density due to aggregation by extending the Smoluchowski aggregation kinetic model to particles of different density. Batch flocculation studies were conducted for clay, colloidal silica, crude oil, clay-crude oil, and silica-crude oil systems. A parameter estimation algorithm was used to estimate homogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHOMO) for single-particle-type systems and heterogeneous collision efficiencies (alphaHET) for two-particle-type systems. Homogeneous collision efficiency values (alphaHOMO) were greater for clay (0.7) and for crude oil (0.3) than for silica (0.01). Thus, clay and crude oil were classified as cohesive particles while silica was classified as noncohesive. Heterogeneous collision efficiencies were similar for oil-clay (0.4) and oil-silica (0.3) systems. Thus, crude oil increases the aggregation of noncohesive particles. Data from the calibrated aggregation model were used to estimate apparent first-order flocculation rates (K') for oil, clay, and silica and apparent second-order flocculation rates (K'') for oil and clay in oil-clay systems and for oil and silica in oil-silica systems. For oil or clay systems, aggregation Damköhler numbers ranged from 0.1 to 1.0, suggesting that droplet coalescence and clay aggregation can occur on the same time scales as oil resurfacing and clay settling, respectively. For mixed oil-clay systems, the relative time scales of clay settling and clay-oil aggregation were also within an order of magnitude. Thus, oil-clay aggregation should be considered when modeling crude oil transport in nearshore waters. PMID:15461172

  13. Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagus, George M.

    This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

  14. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  15. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  16. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  17. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  18. Study on Mechanism for Pricing of Chinese Crudes and Recommendations on Improvement of Pricing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingfang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Crude oil is the most important basic energy in the world nowadays and is closely connected with the development of national economy, consolidation of national defense and the living standard of the people. Changes in crude price can have a decisive impact on a nation's political and economic situation. Hence the government of every country sticks great importance to control over crude oil resources and adjustment of crude price to assure the stabilization of its domestic crude oil market.

  19. Enhanced Crude Oil Biodegradation in a Two-liquid Phase Partitioning Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Z. Z.; Abdulrazzak, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The biodegradation of crude oil at relatively high concentrations in an aquatic environment is constrained by the inherent toxicity of crude oil. In this study, a new application of an aqueous- organic two-liquid phase partitioning bioreactor (TLPPB) was developed to degrade high concentrations of crude oil up to 5000 mg L–1. Silicon oil was selected as the sequestering organic phase to control the delivery of crude oil in aqueous phase by absorbing, and subsequently releasing the crude oi...

  20. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  1. CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH TEI@I METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shouyang; YU Lean; K.K.LAI

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty in crude oil price forecasting,due to inherent complexity,has attracted much attention of academic researchers and business practitioners.Various methods have been tried to solve the problem of forecasting crude oil prices.However,all of the existing models of prediction can not meet practical needs.Very recently,Wang and Yu proposed a new methodology for handling complex systems-TEI@I methodology by means of a systematic integration of text mining,econometrics and intelligent techniques.Within the framework of TEI@I methodology,econometrical models are used to model the linear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,main trends) while nonlinear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,error terms) are modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN) models.In addition,the impact of irregular and infrequent future events on crude oil price is explored using web-based text mining (WTM) and rule-based expert systems (RES) techniques.Thus,a fully novel nonlinear integrated forecasting approach with error correction and judgmental adjustment is formulated to improve prediction performance within the framework of the TEI@I methodology.The proposed methodology and the novel forecasting approach are illustrated via an example.

  2. Efficient heavy crude oil dehydration with centrifugal separation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perschke, T. [GEA Westfalia Separator Systems GmbH, Oelde (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Most conventional oil reservoirs are declining and the importance of unconventional heavy crude oil reservoirs is increasing. Unconventional heavy crude oils cannot be handled in the traditional way for dewatering and desalting. The industry mostly employs static dewatering and desalting systems using electrostatic field, chemicals and temperature. These systems have their limitations when it comes to lower API grades. High-speed centrifuges from GEA Westfalia Separator are utilized successfully in the exploration, delivery and treatment of crude oils and oily water applications as they combine efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation in a broad spectrum of highly specialized applications. This paper presented the basic function and fundamental principle behind the separation of particles, or water droplets, in a liquid using Stokes Law. The paper also presented the throughput equation and discussed heavy oil extraction. The solution was then presented. The paper also explained why disk stack centrifuges are used for heavy crude oil dehydration. The process parameters for disc stack centrifuge technology were also reviewed along with future considerations for using disc stack centrifuges for crude oil. It was concluded that the efficiencies of the respective types of equipment are preliminarily determined by the driving g-force in combination with the length of the settling path for the oil droplets. 1 fig.

  3. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered. PMID:26854134

  4. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  5. Microcalorimetry studies on the antibacterial effect of crude monkshood polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-mei; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, crude monkshood polysaccharide was isolated from Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata. The effects of crude monkshood polysaccharide on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves of the bacterial growth at various concentrations (c) of crude monkshood polysaccharide were plotted with a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter at 37 °C. The growth rate constant (μ), inhibitory ratio (I), peak-height (P(m)), and peak-time (t(m)) were calculated. From the data, the relationship between μ and c also was established. The growth rate constant μ decreased with the increasing concentrations of crude monkshood polysaccharide. Moreover, P(m) reduced and t(m) increased with increasing concentrations. The experimental results revealed that crude monkshood polysaccharide had inhibitory activity towards S. aureus and E. coli. Results obtained from our study strongly suggest that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, and more sensitive technology that can be easily performed to study the effect of drugs on bacteria. PMID:21726063

  6. Towards efficient crude oil degradation by a mixed bacterial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, K.S.M.; Thahira-Rahman, J.; Banat, I.M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Environmental Studies; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. [Bharathiar Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to assess the optimal conditions for biodegradation of Bombay High (BH) crude oil. Among 130 oil degrading bacterial cultures isolated from oil contaminated soil samples, Micrococcus sp. GS2-22, Corynebacterium sp. GS5-66, Flavobacterium sp. DS5-73, Bacillus sp. DS6-86 and Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129 were selected for the study based on the efficiency of crude oil utilisation. A mixed bacterial consortium prepared using the above strains was also used. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At 1% crude oil concentration, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 78% of BH crude oil. This was followed by 66% by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129, 59% by Bacillus sp. DS6-86, 49% by Micrococcus sp. GS2-22, 43% by Corynebacterium sp. GS5-66 and 41% by Flavobacterium sp. DS5-73. The percentage of degradation by the mixed bacterial consortium decreased from 78% to 52% as the concentration of crude oil was increased from 1% to 10%. Temperature of 30{sup o}C and pH 7.5 were found to be optima for maximum biodegradation. (Author)

  7. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  8. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids in Australian crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R.P.; Gilbert, T.D.; Friedrich, J.

    1981-07-01

    Bicyclanes previously reported only in heavily biodegraded Texas Gulf Coast crudes have been found to be ubiquitous in Australian crude oils of non-marine origin from four different basins. The compounds are present in oils, thought to be derived from the same or similar sources, that have undergone varying degrees of biodegradation. They are also found to be present in oils of different geological age. In addition a series of tricyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons was common to four oils from the Gippsland Basin. Four of these compounds had the molecular formula C/sub 20/H/sub 34/ and mass spectral fragmentation patterns suggested they were mono-unsaturated diterpenoids. The presence of unsaturated diterpenoids in crude oils appears to be a unique observation. It is proposed that the diterpenoids may be the source of the bicyclanes also observed in these oils.

  9. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids in Australian crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Philp, R.; Gilbert, Trevor D.; Friedrich, Jane

    1981-07-01

    Bicyclanes previously reported only in heavily biodegraded Texas Gulf Coast crudes have been found to be ubiquitous in Australian crude oils of non-marine origin from four different basins. The compounds are present in oils, thought to be derived from the same or similar sources, that have undergone varying degrees of biodegradation. They are also found to be present in oils of different geological age. In addition a series of tricyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons was common to four oils from the Gippsland Basin. Four of these compounds had the molecular formula C 20H 34 and mass spectral fragmentation patterns suggested they were mono-unsaturated diterpenoids. The presence of unsaturated diterpenoids in crude oils appears to be a unique observation. It is proposed that the diterpenoids may be the source of the bicyclanes also observed in these oils.

  10. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. The strategic and economic value of exploiting heavy crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-conventional oil, and particularly heavy crude varieties, will play an increasingly important role in meeting growing global energy requirements by 2030 and beyond. These heavy oils currently account for high volumes in certain areas but their proportion of global oil production remains modest for the moment, This should significantly change with the completion of several projects currently underway in Canada and Venezuela. Indeed, the technological innovations occurring over recent years have allowed for a considerable reduction in exploitation costs for these crude varieties and improved economic profitability conditions for the projects. The geographical location of resources (which are independent of the Middle East) and the fact that they are not subject to OPEC quotas also make these crude varieties particularly attractive. (authors)

  13. Biodegradation of crude oil in different types of marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An active oil-oxidizing bacterium, named Nap C was isolated from the sediment sample of Port Dickson coastal area for this study. Nap C is a gram negative, rod shape marine bacterium. It forms spore when the condition is not favorable. Three different types of treated marine sediment; sand, silt and clay were used in this study. The degradation of Malaysian Tapis A crude oil in the different types of marine sediment were assessed. Silt type of marine sediment was found to sustain highest biodegradation compared to clay type and sand type. 8.6.67% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in silt type of marine sediment within 10 days of incubation. Where as there were only 60% and 73% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in sand and clay type of marine sediment respectively. Microbial biomass estimation in the sediment was estimated by indirect phospholipid enumeration technique. (author)

  14. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  15. Physiological disturbances in Atlantic salmon exposed to crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Southern Australia, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming is undertaken in marine areas where extensive oil exploration, exploitation and transport are taking place. Pen-reared juvenile fish are at high risk of oil exposure through frequent small spills or major accidents. When exposed, commercial fisheries have to face million-dollar loses due to potential tainting of their stocks. In this study, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to Bass Strait light crude oil in a fashion simulating an accidental oil spill at sea i.e. exposure to crude oil followed by a deputation period. Temporal trends in enzymatic bioindicators of exposure were investigated through exposure and deputation periods, as well as several biochemical and chemical measurements. The main objective of the study was to relate tainting with easily measured biological indicators of exposure to crude oil. Good correlations between bioindicators of exposure and tainting could assist fish farming industry to decide on the fate of fish stocks affected by oil taint

  16. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  17. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  18. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  19. The Depandency of EU on Crude Oil and Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Afful, Cleland

    2011-01-01

    Crude Oil represents one of the most important macroeconomic factors in the world economy. Its uses range from petroleum base fertilizer and pesticide for crop production, plastic in our toothbrush, fuel for transportation to mention but a few. Crude oil is the backbone of all economies, be it from the point of view an exporter nations or the importer nation. Without free access to oil at reasonable prices, the global economy could collapse. It is statistically proven that the EU is 42.40 % d...

  20. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...

  1. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at-Risk are c......The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values...

  2. Effects of Biodegradation on Crude Oils from Karamay Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 杨坚强; 等

    1989-01-01

    Studies of biological marker compou nds in five oil samples from a profile wherenormal crude oil,low condensate oil and heavy oil are produced in the Karamay Oilfield have been carried out with great empha-sis on the biodegradation-resisting capability of 13,17 secosteranes,8,14 secohopanes,gammacerane and carotenes.Based on these studies,a sequence of biodegradation-resisting intensities has been established for saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in crude oils from the Karamay Oilfield.

  3. Stability Investigation of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman H. Nour; Rosli Mohd. Yunus

    2006-01-01

    The water in-crude oil emulsion has great importance in the oil industry. Experimental data are presented to investigate the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions in both creaming and coalescence states were measured as a function of sodium chloride concentration. Also the stability of w/o emulsion is investigated over a wide range of parameters. These parameters are salt concentration (0-5.5%), mixing speed (800-1600 rpm), water concentration (10-80%) and temperature. For economic and op...

  4. Penetapan Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas pada Crude Palm Oil (CPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Darma Ericon

    2014-01-01

    Determination of free fatty acid levels is one of the parameters of quality testing of Crude Palm Oil (CPO). Method determination of free fatty acid levels used is acid-base titration and testing norms specified by the Indonesian National Standards 01-2901-2006. Examination determination of free fatty acid has been done, the results showed that the levels of free fatty acids in Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is equal to 4,01% meet the stipulated norms of Indonesian National Standard 01-2901-2006 that i...

  5. The Effect of Crude Oil Price on the Methanol price

    OpenAIRE

    Delavari, Majid; Gandali Alikhani, Nadiya

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil as one of the main sources of energy is also the main source of income for members of OPEC. So, the volatility of crude oil price is one of the main economic variables in the world and analysis of the effect of its changes on key economic factors has been always considered as significant. The reason might be the high sensitivity of oil price to political, economic and cultural issues worldwide and consequently its volatility on the one hand, and the high influence of the volatile pr...

  6. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  7. Stability of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Using Cocamide Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Mohammed Abd; Abdurhman H. Nour; Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsion can be encountered in many stages such as drilling, transporting and processing of crude oil. To enhance and control these processes, it is necessary to understand the emulsion mechanisms. In this study, two types of Malaysian crude oil namely; heavy crude oil and light-heavy blended crude oil (40-60 vol%) were characterized physically to use as the oil phase. Cocaamide DEA was used as a natural surfactant. The stability of water-in-crude oil emuls...

  8. CNPC Sees Crude and Natural Gas Production Rising Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) firmly consolidated its dominant position in the country's oil and gas production sector in 2008. The largest oil producer in China sees an increase of 466,700 tons in its domestic crude output in the first half over the same period a year earlier.

  9. CFD modeling of fouling in crude oil pre-heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A conceptual CFD-based model to predict fouling in industrial crude oil pre-heaters. ► Tracing fouling formation in the induction and developing continuation periods. ► Effect of chemical components, shell-side HTC and turbulent flow on the fouling rate. - Abstract: In this study, a conceptual procedure based on the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique has been developed to predict fouling rate in an industrial crude oil pre-heater. According to the developed CFD concept crude oil was assumed to be composed of three pseudo-components comprising of petroleum, asphaltene and salt. The binary diffusion coefficients were appropriately categorized into five different groups. The species transport model was applied to simulate the mixing and transport of chemical species. The possibility of adherence of reaction products to the wall was taken into account by applying a high viscosity for the products in competition with the shear stress on the wall. Results showed a reasonable agreement between the model predictions and the plant data. The CFD model could be applied to new operating conditions to investigate the details of the crude oil fouling in the industrial pre-heaters.

  10. First observation of an iron porphyrin in heavy crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying one of the iron rich crudes from Orinoco river region using Moessbauer effect, an iron porphyrin was clearly identified for the first time in a heavy oil; its structure is DPEP type and the iron state is divalent (FeII) with low spin. (Auth.)

  11. Some advances in crude oil rheology and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲军; 柳歆

    2008-01-01

    Waxy crude oil exhibits complex shear-and-thermal-history-dependent non-Newtonian behaviors.In the past 10 years,driven by the petroleum industry,crude oil rheology has been an active field.Studies on crude oil rheology have been passing a way from simply relying on rheological measurements,through quantitative experimental simulation of shear and thermal history effects in pipelining,to recent development of correlation between flow properties and shear and thermal history.Currently,the study is toward quantitative inquiry of relations between the rheological behaviors and micro-structures of wax crystals as well as oil compositions.Advances achieved by the author’ team are summarized,including simulation of the thermal and shear history effects,correlations and computation of flow properties,fractal characterization of morphology and structure of wax crystals,relations of rheological behaviors to fractal dimension and oil compositions,and the most successful example of the application of rheology in crude oil pipelining.Future studies are prospected.

  12. Xinjiang Largest Crude Production Base in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lei

    2002-01-01

    @@ As of the end of March this year, the oil fields in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the northwestern part of the country, have cumulatively produced 250 million tons of crude oil in total, enabling Xinjiang to become the fourth province (region) in China with the accumulated oil production exceeding 250 million tons after Heilongjiang, Shandong and Liaoning.

  13. New inhibitor reduces corrosion in crude tower overhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, S.; Jiang, Z.; Mao, Q. (Wuhan Petrochemical Works (China))

    1994-09-19

    A Chinese refinery found its own imidazoline-type corrosion inhibitor to exhibit superior properties in laboratory and commercial testing. Tests in a crude-tower overhead system showed inhibition efficiency to be 96%. The paper discusses corrosion inhibitors used in the past, the composition of the new inhibitor, corrosion tests, commercial trials, and economics.

  14. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  15. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25828890

  16. Crude Oil Metabolites in Groundwater at Two Spill Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  17. Production of theabrownins using a crude fungal enzyme concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2016-08-10

    Theabrownins were produced from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a crude enzyme concentrate of Aspergillus tubingensis TISTR 3647. This fungus had been isolated from a solid state fermentation of Pu-erh type tea. The crude enzyme concentrate contained activities of peroxidase, catechol oxidase and laccase. The enzyme concentrate effectively oxidized the phenolic compounds in green tea infusion to theabrownins. A theabrownins concentration of 56.0g/L was obtained in 44h. The reaction mixture contained the green tea infusion and crude enzyme concentrate in the volume ratio of 1: 0.205. The tea infusion had been produced using 200g of tea leaves per liter of distilled water. The reaction was carried out in a stirred bioreactor at 37°C with an aeration rate of 1 vvm, an agitation speed of 250rpm and a controlled pH of 7.0. Peroxidase, catechol oxidase, and laccase acted synergistically to convert the phenolic compounds in green tea infusion to theabrownins. Previously, theabrownins had been produced from green tea infusions only by using live fungal cultures. Production using the microorganism-free enzyme concentrate was comparable to production using the fungus A. tubingensis TISTR 3647. The proposed novel production process using the fungal crude enzymes and green tea infusion, offers a more controlled, reproducible and highly productive option for commercial production of theabrownins. PMID:27318175

  18. Production of high purity uranium compounds from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity ammonium uranyl tricarbonate is produced from crude plant yellow cake by treatment of the yellow cake with a mineral acid, neutralization of the acidic solution with a conversion of the uranium therein to ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, precipitation of the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate with a nonsolvent, followed by separation. Optionally, the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate can be calcined to produce high purity uranium oxides

  19. China Shows Concerns Over Chinese-Russian Crude Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Russia's news media reported on September 3 that the Russian Natural Resources would finally give up the plan raised by Yugos,Russia's private oil producer, to construct the crude oil pipeline from Russia's Angarsk to China's Daqing. The Russian segment of the pipeline is about 1450 kilometers while the Chinese segment is 795 kilometers.

  20. Crude Oil Corrosion Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 5 (2015), 051401. ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * crude oil * pipeline steel * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2014 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675

  1. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  2. Rheological properties of nanofiltered Athabasca bitumen and Maya crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Bazyleva, A.; Shaw, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2009), s. 5012-5021. ISSN 0887-0624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : viscosity * rheology * Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * phase behavior * asphaltenes * nanofiltration Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2009

  3. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  4. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  5. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  6. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  7. Cracking conditions of crude oil under different geological environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are mainly 3 kinds of existing states of oil generating from source rocks,that is,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon inside of source rock,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock and concentrated liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock.Because of the differences in thermal history and medium conditions around,and the interaction of organic and inorganic matter,the liquid hydrocarbon with 3 kinds of existing state has different cracking conditions.The gas generation dynamics experiments of crude oil matching different mediums indicate that the distribution of activation energy of methane changes a lot according to medium difference.The carbonate has a main influence on oil cracking conditions and can largely reduce its activation energy,which reflects the lower cracking temperature of crude oil.The mudstone takes a second place and the sandstone is the smallest.The catalytic cracking function to the oil of the carbonate,of the mudstone and of the sandstone changes weaken in turn.The corresponding Ro values of main gas generation period in different mediums are as follows:1.5%―3.8%with pure crude oil,1.2%―3.2%with dispersive crude oil in carbonate,1.3%~3.4% with dispersive crude oil in mudstone and 1.4%―3.6%with dispersive crude oil in sandstone.The influence of pressure to crude oil cracking is relatively complicated.In the low heating speed condition, pressure restrains the oil cracking and gas generation,but in the high heating speed condition,pressure has an indistinctive influence to the oil cracking and gas generation.Pressure also makes a different effort in different evolvement stage.Taking the middle and lower Cambrian source rocks in the Tarim Basin as an example,primary oil generating quantity is 2232.24×10 8 t,residual oil and oil cracking gas quantity is 806.21×10 8 t and 106.95×10 12 m 3 respectively.

  8. Analysis of Iran's crude oil export future capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes Iran's oil export capacity and the factors affecting it. First, the local energy demand is reviewed and crude oil, with 5.7% annual growth rate, is introduced as a major source to respond to the increasing domestic energy demand. Then, the national plans for controlling the local demand and replacing oil with other types of energy carriers are reviewed to create a view over the future of local demand for crude oil in Iran. In the next step, crude oil production and exploration situation in Iran are investigated and the required increase in production to maintain the present level of export is calculated. By estimating the average capital expenditures for adding each barrel of new capacity to Iran's daily oil production, the necessary annual investment to compensate the production drop and domestic consumption growth for maintaining the export is introduced. Then, the future of oil export in Iran is predicted in three optimistic, reference, and pessimistic scenarios on the basis of the country's ability in managing the financial resources in upstream oil industry. Finally, domestic and foreign investment and the history of buyback contracts and their undeniable role in development of Iranian oil and gas projects are discussed. - Highlights: → We analyze Iran's oil export capacity and the factors affecting it. → With a focus on crude oil, local energy demand is reviewed. → Technical-economical aspects of crude oil production and exploration are investigated. → We review the investment-related activities in Iranian oil and gas industry. → Buyback contract is the most applicable financial mechanism in short to mid-term.

  9. Discriminating crude oil grades using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussein, A.; Marzouk, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of crude oil using laser-based analytical techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become of great interest to various specialists in different fields such as geology, petro-chemistry and environmental science. In this work, a detailed study is presented wherein the implementation of an efficient and simple LIBS technique to identify the elemental constituents of crude oil and to distinguish between different grades of petroleum crude oil is discussed. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) technique has been used in this work for direct measurements of atomic, ionic and molecular species in dry crude oil samples with API gravities ranging between 18 and 36. The technique was implemented using the first harmonic of a pulsed Nd-YAG laser source. Atomic and molecular emission bands were observed, consisting of characteristic spectral lines of atoms and diatomic molecular bands, namely from C, H, Si, Na, Ca, Mg, AL, Fe, Ti, Mo, C2 and CN. The intensities of high-resolution spectral lines for some atoms and molecules of elements such as Ca, Na, Fe, Mo, C2 and CN were evaluated at different wavelengths along the obtained spectra. The molecular bands and the elemental spectral lines were used to assess the possibility of adopting the LIBS technique in differentiating between crude oil samples with different American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity values. The results indicate the presence of a distinct correlation between the API gravity values of the various oil samples and the spectral line intensities of the elements and some molecular radical constituents. In addition, the possibility of identifying the API gravity values of unknown oil samples is also indicated.

  10. Russian crude-oil production and export still increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010

  11. Oil sands supply outlook : potential supply and costs of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil in Canada, 2003-2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment of the Canadian oil sands industry addressed bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs based on extraction, production and upgrading technologies. Forecasts of production under various global scenarios and energy price outlooks were also presented. It was revealed that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. Alberta's bitumen resources are one of the world's largest hydrocarbon deposits. At year-end 2002, the remaining established reserves of crude bitumen in Alberta were estimated to be 174.4 billion barrels and further growth is expected. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. This report discussed the resource base, recovery technologies, history of the oil sands industry, proposed oil sands development projects, and capital and operating costs. Supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios were included. Environmental issues were also addressed along with energy requirements, water requirements, water supply, diluent requirements, infrastructure constraints, and market constraints. The potential effect of natural gas production on the recovery of crude bitumen in the Athabasca oil sands area was also reviewed. Information on every operating, proposed and planned oil sands project in Alberta is available to organizations who provided funding for this study. 84 refs., 42 tabs., 24 figs

  12. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the...

  13. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  14. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina; Singh, Anil Kumar; Deka Boruah, Hari Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified.

  16. Model Compounds for Heavy Crude Oil Components and Tetrameric Acids: Characterization and Interfacial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgård, Erland Løken

    2009-01-01

    The tendency during the past decades in the quality of oil reserves shows that conventional crude oil is gradually being depleted and the demand being replaced by heavy crude oils. These oils contain more of a class high-molecular weight components termed asphaltenes. This class is mainly responsible for stable water-in-crude oil emulsions. Both heavy and lighter crude oils in addition contain substantial amounts of naphthenic acids creating naphthenate deposits in topside facilities.The asph...

  17. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC); An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije; Luke O. Uzoigwe; C.I.O.Kamalu

    2012-01-01

    Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC) was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 52...

  18. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.150 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording...

  19. Crude extract of maggots: Antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli, underlying mechanisms, separation and purification

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Quan-Sheng; Zhang, Hui-Min; Liu, Xia; Wang, Shou-Yu; Lv, De-Cheng; LI, Xu-dong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antibacterial effects of a crude extract of maggots against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the underlying mechanisms, and to separate and purify the crude extract of maggots to assess the antibacterial effects of the active ingredients in the crude extract.

  20. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  1. Kinetic Stability and Rheology of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stabilized by Cocamide at Different Water Volume Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Mohammed Abd; Abdurhman Hamid Nour; Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil encountered in many stages such drilling, transporting, and processing of crude oil. To enhance and control these processes, it is necessary to understand the emulsion mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate the stability and the rheology of the crude oil emulsion stabilized by Cocamide DEA. Two types of Malaysian crude oil namely; heavy crude oil, and light-heavy blended crude oil (40-60) vol. % were Physio-chemically characterized, and fractiona...

  2. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions......-, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  3. Kazakhstan seeks to step up crude oil export capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Commonwealth of Independent States' Kazakhstan republic is driving to achieve international export capability for its crude oil production. Latest official figures showed Kazakhstan producing 532,000 b/d, or a little more than 5% of the C.I.S. total of 10.292 million b/d. As part of its oil export campaign, Kazakhstan agreed with Oman to a joint venture pipeline to ship oil from Kazakh fields, including supergiant Tengiz, earmarked for further development by a Chevron Corp. joint venture. In addition, Kazakh leaders were scheduled to conduct 3 days of talks last week with Turkish officials covering construction of a crude oil pipeline to the Mediterranean Sea through Turkey

  4. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry's practice of maintaining crude stocks at ''Just in time'' inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers' information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996

  5. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5......% (v/v) crude glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive...

  6. Factors influencing crude oil biodegradation by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Felix Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is unique strictly aerobic yeast with the ability to efficiently degrade hydrophobic substrates such as n-alkenes, fatty acids, glycerol and oils. In the present work, a 2(4 full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of the independent variables of temperature, agitation, initial cell concentration and initial petroleum concentration on crude oil biodegradation. The results showed that all variables studied had significant effects on the biodegradation process. Temperature, agitation speed and initial cell concentration had positive effects, and initial petroleum concentration had a negative effect. Among the crude oil removal conditions studied, the best temperature and agitation conditions were 28ºC and 250 rpm, respectively.

  7. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  8. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  9. Coalescence kinetics of dispersed crude oil in a laboratory reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of salinity and mixing energy on the resurfacing and coalescence rates of chemically dispersed crude oil droplets. This kinetic study involved the use of mean shear rates to characterize the mixing energy in a laboratory reactor. Coagulation kinetics of dispersed crude oil were determined within a range of mean shear rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 per second, and with salinity values of 10 and 30 per cent. Observed droplet distributions were fit to a transport-reaction model to estimate collision efficiency values and their dependence on salinity and mixing energy. Dispersant efficiencies were compared with those derived from other laboratory testing methods. Experimentally determined dispersant efficiencies were found to be 10 to 50 per cent lower than predicted using a non-interacting droplet model, but dispersant efficiencies were higher than those predicted using other testing methods. 24 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Upgrading Heavy Crude Oil Potentials through Microwave Assisted Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D.Mohammed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave heating technique has shown tremendous research interest and potentials. As demand from oil is increasing worldwide, heavy crude oil are often priced at a discount to lighter ones due to low proportion of low- boiling constituents (light fractions and high concentration of impurities which create many operational and quality problems. This work aimed to introduce a novel for improving low- boiling fractions yield using microwave irradiation without addition of chemicals or additives. Microwave oven model HR-7802D was employed and a laboratory atmospheric distillation was conducted on heavy crude oil after been irradiated with microwave for few minutes at various power rates. Distillation results showed that, microwave heating is very effective at low- power rates of 480 and 560Watts, which gave a higher products yield. Microwave heating is feasible, environmentally friendly and has the potential to be used as an alternative to conventional heating.

  11. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  12. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  13. Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions: Its Stabilization and Demulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman H. Nour; R. Mohd. Yunus; H. Anwaruddin

    2007-01-01

    Traditional ways of breaking emulsions using heat and chemicals are disadvantageous from both economic and environmental perspectives. In this research, the potentials of microwave technology in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions are investigated. The study began with some characterization studies to provide understandings of fundamental issues such as formation, formulation and breaking of emulsions by both chemical and microwave approaches. The aim was to obtain optimized opera...

  14. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits

  15. China Brings in More Crude Oil in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Venezuela to increase oil export to China Venezuela plans to increase its oil sales to China by 50,000 barrels a day by the end of the year, the country's oil minister Rafael Ramirez said in mid-August. Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA, will increase sales to China to 200,000 barrels a day from the current 150,000 barrels per day. The shipments include crude and other products, such as fuel oil.

  16. Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaknis, John; Lalas, Stavros; Lazos, Evangelos S.

    1997-01-01

    Oil from hulled pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita Maxima) was extracted with hot petroleum ether, and then it was degummed, neutralized and bleached, consecutively Physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Density, refractive index, viscosity and peroxide value were not affected by purification, while decreases in acidity, colour, unsaponifiable, E1%1cm 232, an...

  17. Crude Oil, Palm Oil Stock and Prices: How They Link

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; Amna Awad Abdel Hameed

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of links or relationships between crude, palm oil prices and stocks and its short term implications on the palm oil price trend in 2013. An econometric method is used to empirically forecast the palm oil price movements in the year 2013 using monthly historical data over the period of January 2002 to December 2012. A single equation model using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) procedure was estimated to achieve the stated objective. The results provide a str...

  18. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    ADESANYA A.O.; NWAOKOCHA C.N.; AKINYEMI, O.O.

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopt...

  19. Financial Markets’ Reaction and World Crude Oil Price Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Teoh, Hooi Khim

    2005-01-01

    Recent upsurge in the world crude oil price and the significant impact of oil shocks in the past few decades on the world economy had drawn numerous research considerations, in particular the impacts on macroeconomic variables in countries such as United States, United Kingdom and Japan (Abeysinghe, 2001; Hamilton, 1983; Hamilton, 1996; Hooker, 2002; Hutchison, 1993). Nevertheless, the impact of oil shock on the stock market reactions had surprisingly received little attention so far. The mai...

  20. Differentiation of Saraca Asoca Crude Drug From Its Adulterant

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Samuel; Mathew, Gracy; Joy, P.P.; Skari, Baby P.; Joseph, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has re...

  1. Jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines by single nozzle and multi-nozzle mixers was studied by dividing the mixing domain into to three regions. the penetration. near field and farfield regions. At the penetration region the quantitative experimental data were aided by a flow visualisation study in an attempt to to form fundamental semi-empirical correlations to estimate the entrainment rate of stratified water from the bottom and the Sauter mean diameter of the e...

  2. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  3. Fatigue behaviour of X70 steel in crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2015), s. 243-246. ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2052; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * S-N curve * X70 steel * crude oil * separated water Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit152/gajdos.pdf

  4. Returns and volatility in the Kuala Lumpur crude

    OpenAIRE

    Keng Yap Liew; Robert Brooks

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of daily returns and volatility in the Kuala Lumpur crude palm oil futures market over the period 1980 to 1994. We find significant evidence of month and open interest effects in returns and also find strong evidence of daily, monthly, yearly, volume and open interest effects in volatility when ARCH/ GARCH models are used to estimate volatility. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 18:985–999, 1998

  5. Effect of Crude Leaf Extracts on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.

    OpenAIRE

    Prapassorn Bussaman; Piyarat Namsena; Paweena Rattanasena; Angsuman Chandrapatya

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. is a fungus that causes anthracnose disease in tropical fruit plants, resulting in damages of the fruit plants and low yield and quality of fruits. The use of chemical fungicides is common for management of this disease, but it also results in the development of fungal resistance to the chemicals. Therefore, this study aims to in vitro evaluate the efficacy of 14 crude leaf extracts against C. gloeosporioides. The results showed that Piper sarmento...

  6. Factors influencing crude oil biodegradation by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Felix Ferreira; Maria Alice Zarur Coelho; Maria Helena Miguez da Rocha-Leão

    2012-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is unique strictly aerobic yeast with the ability to efficiently degrade hydrophobic substrates such as n-alkenes, fatty acids, glycerol and oils. In the present work, a 2(4) full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of the independent variables of temperature, agitation, initial cell concentration and initial petroleum concentration on crude oil biodegradation. The results showed that all variables studied had significant effects on the biodegradation pr...

  7. Suitability of Sour Crude Processing and Resid Hydrotreating Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2005-01-01

    This article has analyzed the environment and tasks confronting China's petroleum refining industry, and has referred to principles for selecting the resid processing technologies and viability of various combination technologies for resid processing. Taking into account the actual commercial practice of resid hydrogenation units, this article has also discussed methods for processing high-sulfur inferior crudes as well as the suitability of resid hydrogenation technology.

  8. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed

  9. Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L.; Zhou, W.M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  10. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; SHELENKOVA,L.; ZHOU,W.M.

    1998-10-27

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  11. Electrocoalescence of Field Crude Oil using High voltage Direct Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Opara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of crude oil from oil wells, entrained water is removed principally by using chemical demulsifiers or heat treatment. There are, however, emulsions of water in oil which have been stabilized by the presence of surface active agents in the crude and agitation during the extraction process which prove difficult tobreakup by conventional methods. High voltage direct current (HVDC is used in this study to effect the coalescence of water molecules thereby causing separation of the water from the oil. The applied HVDC field was varied from 4 to 16 KV in four steps of 4KV while time of application was increased in 10 minutes steps from 10 minutes to 0 minutes. The spacing of the electrodes (plates was also varied from 61mm to 244mm. The reduction in base sediment and water (BS&W of the crude oil which was used to assess the efficacy of thetreatment method and varied from zero at 4KV and 61mm plate spacing to 68.18% at 244mm spacing and 8KV when the voltage was applied for 40 minutes.

  12. Does Portuguese economy support crude oil conservation hypothesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines cointegration relationships and Granger causality nexus in a trivariate framework among oil consumption, economic growth and international oil price in Portugal. For this purpose, we employ two Granger causality approaches: the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction model (VECM) and the Toda–Yamamoto approaches. Cointegration test proves the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among these variables and VECM and Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between crude oil consumption and economic growth (feed back hypothesis). Therefore, the Portuguese economy does not support crude oil conservation hypothesis. Consequently, policymakers should consider that implementing oil conservation and environmental policies may negatively impact on the Portuguese economic growth. - Highlights: ► We examine Granger causality among oil consumption, GDP and oil price in Portugal. ► VECM and Toda–Yamamoto tests found bidirectional causality among oil and GDP. ► Portuguese economy does not support the crude oil conservation hypothesis.

  13. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  14. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

  15. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. World market of crude oil - review of possible scenarios of forecasting for the crude oil price movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout most of 2002, crude oil prices were solidly within the range preferred by producers in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), $22 to $28 per barrel for the OPEC 'basket price' (Fig. 1). OPEC producers have been demonstrating disciplined adherence to announced cutbacks in production. Early in 2003, a dramatic upward turn in crude oil prices was brought about by a combination of two factors. First, a general strike against the Chavez regime resulted in a sudden drop in Venezuela's oil exports. Although other OPEC producers agreed to increase production to make up for the lost Venezuelan output, the obvious strain on worldwide spare capacity kept prices high. Second, price volatility was exacerbated by fears of war in Iraq. (Original)

  17. Vacuum distillation refining of crude lithium (Ⅱ)──Kinetics on vacuum distillation of crude lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为亮; 柴立元; 闵小波; 杨斌; 戴永年; 于霞; 张传福

    2002-01-01

    Kinetics on vacuum refining process of crude lithium was studied by using maximum evaporation rate, critical pressure and mean free path of elements in the crude lithium at different temperatures. Behaviors of impurities in the vacuum distillation process have been examined in detail. The results show that fractional vacuum distillation should be taken to obtain lithium with high purity; if the mass loss amount of lithium is 3%~5%, metal K, Na, Mg and Ca can be eliminated at lower temperature of 673~873K at pressure of less than 1.30Pa; the maximum rate of lithium distillation reaches 1.492×10-1~8.244×10-1 g*cm-2*min-1 at higher temperature of 973~1073K at the pressure of 3.0~3.2Pa, which ensure complete separation of lithium from Al, Si, Fe and Ni.

  18. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-07-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  19. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  20. A Method for Crude Oil Selection and Blending Optimization Based on Improved Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huihua; Ma Wei; Zhang Xiaofeng; Li Hu; Tian Songbai

    2014-01-01

    Reifneries often need to ifnd similar crude oil to replace the scarce crude oil for stabilizing the feedstock prop-erty. We introduced the method for calculation of crude blended properties ifrstly, and then created a crude oil selection and blending optimization model based on the data of crude oil property. The model is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with constraints, and the target is to maximize the similarity between the blended crude oil and the objective crude oil. Furthermore, the model takes into account the selection of crude oils and their blending ratios simultaneously, and trans-forms the problem of looking for similar crude oil into the crude oil selection and blending optimization problem. We ap-plied the Improved Cuckoo Search (ICS) algorithm to solving the model. Through the simulations, ICS was compared with the genetic algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the CPLEX solver. The results show that ICS has very good optimization efifciency. The blending solution can provide a reference for reifneries to ifnd the similar crude oil. And the method proposed can also give some references to selection and blending optimization of other materials.

  1. An empirical analysis of the risk of crude oil imports in China using improved portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantifies the diversification index of China's crude oil imports during the period 1996-2004, and explores the relationship between the monthly prices and Brent crude oil cash prices. Accordingly, we calculate the systematic and specific risks using portfolio theory of China's crude oil import over the period 1996-2004. Because China's crude oil import increased rapidly since 1996, we improve upon the traditional portfolio theory and develop a risk index model of portfolio theory for crude oil imports in order to explore objectively the changes in China's crude oil import risks. The results show that China's crude oil import risk is affected extensively by the fluctuation of international oil prices. So the traditional portfolio theory is insufficient to measure China's crude oil import risk. The improved portfolio theory risks index model reflects the effect of international oil prices, diversification, imports, and geopolitics factors etc., on crude oil import risk, and changes in crude oil import risk. Therefore, the risk index model of portfolio theory provides greater theoretical and methodological robustness as an indicator of China's crude oil import security than that offered from the application of traditional measures of dependence

  2. An empirical analysis of the risk of crude oil imports in China using improved portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantifies the diversification index of China's crude oil imports during the period 1996-2004, and explores the relationship between the monthly prices and Brent crude oil cash prices. Accordingly, we calculate the systematic and specific risks using portfolio theory of China's crude oil import over the period 1996-2004. Because China's crude oil import increased rapidly since 1996, we improve upon the traditional portfolio theory and develop a risk index model of portfolio theory for crude oil imports in order to explore objectively the changes in China's crude oil import risks. The results show that China's crude oil import risk is affected extensively by the fluctuation of international oil prices. So the traditional portfolio theory is insufficient to measure China's crude oil import risk. The improved portfolio theory risks index model reflects the effect of international oil prices, diversification, imports, and geopolitics factors etc., on crude oil import risk, and changes in crude oil import risk. Therefore, the risk index model of portfolio theory provides greater theoretical and methodological robustness as an indicator of China's crude oil import security than that offered from the application of traditional measures of dependence. (author)

  3. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS)

  4. Technology for Coking of Heavy Crude Oil with High Acid Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen; Zhao Yujun; Cheng Gang; Li Chao; Shen Haiping; Cui Long

    2005-01-01

    Sudan Khartoum Refinery Co. has selected a unique route featuring delayed coking of crude in connection with the highly sour and high-calcium heavy crude extracted from Sudanese oil block No. 6.The crude oil after pretreatment for calcium removal is subjected to coking for removal of acids and metals with the coker products being further processed. The crude oil extracted from Sudanese oil block No. 6contains as high as 13 mg KOH/g of crude in addition to a calcium content of 1600 ppm. This article makes an analysis on problems related with the operation of commercial delayed coking unit for processing of highly sour crude and bring forth measures to solve these problems. The liquid yield resulted from coking of crude oil can reach 82m%, and the petroleum coke can meet the quality requirement for class 3B petroleum coke.

  5. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  6. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites. PMID:26858133

  7. The impacts of the export ban on Alaskan crude oil trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the petroleum markets impacts of lifting the ban on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil exports. This paper reports on some aspects of this investigation. The economic analysis relied heavily on the modeling of the ANS crude trade conducted on behalf of GAO by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using the Transportation and Refining of International Petroleum model (TRIP). In contrast to previous studies, this one suggests that transportation costs may not be the only major factor in the realignment of ANS crude trade in response to lifting the ban. The differences in the yields of ANS crude and various crudes used by refiners in Pacific Rim countries on the one hand, and the product demand slates of the US West Coast and the potential buyers of ANS crude in Pacific Rim may also figure prominently in determining the reallocation of ANS crude if exports are permitted

  8. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  9. Does China factor matter? An econometric analysis of international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether China’s crude oil imports are the culprit of oil price volatility these years has not been quantitatively confirmed. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the role of China’s crude oil net imports in Brent price changes from October 2005 to November 2013 based on an econometric analysis. The results indicate that, during the sample period, China’s crude oil imports do not significantly affect Brent price changes, no matter in the long run or short run. Therefore, the blame for China’s crude oil imports to cause the dramatic fluctuations of international oil price has no solid evidence. Also, there exists significant uni-directional causality running from the Brent price to China's crude oil imports at the 5% level. Besides, the response of the Brent price to China's crude oil imports is found positive but slight, and the Brent price responds more significantly to US dollar exchange rate and OECD commercial inventory than to China’s crude oil imports in the short run. Finally, the contribution of China's crude oil imports to Brent price movement is about 10%, which is less than that of US dollar exchange rate but larger than that of Indian crude oil imports or OECD commercial inventory. - Highlights: • The paper detects the role of China’s crude oil imports in Brent oil price changes. • China’s crude imports do not matter for oil prices in the long run or short run. • The blame for China’s crude imports on oil price changes has no solid evidence. • Significant causality runs from Brent prices to China's crude oil net imports. • China's crude imports contribute less to Brent prices than US dollar exchange rate

  10. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  11. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  12. Long-term recovery of vegetation on two experimental crude oil spills in interior Alaska black spruce taiga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation was sampled on two black spruce taiga sites in interior Alaska, 15 and 20 years after crude oil was experimentally applied as low-volume sprays or high-volume point spills. Low volume spray spills that uniformly covered the ground caused initial damage to vegetation, but after 20 years recovery of the understory vegetation was almost complete, with dramatic recovery and expansion of fruticose lichens. High-volume point spills created small areas of surface oil saturation with dead vegetation and little sign of recovery but spread out mostly below ground with little or no apparent effect on the shallowly rooted vegetation above even after 15-20 years. Because winter point spills created a much greater area of surface oil, their effects were more damaging. After 15 years on the saturated surface oiled areas, only Eriophorum vaginatum tussocks survive and grow. At both sites with surface oil, black spruce mortality was high, with evidence of long-term recovery and with continuing chronic effects after 15 years. However, from a long-term perspective the black spruce taiga ecosystem appears to be able to recover from low volume spray spills and to retain large amounts of crude oil from high-volume point spills below ground with minimal damage to the vegetation. Because of the permafrost, removal of crude oil from this ecosystem by soil excavation is undesirable. In situ acceleration of oil breakdown using fertilizers and bacteria is a possible option; seeding or planting of E. vaginatum on surface-oiled areas may also provide some cover and below ground biomass. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Determination of arsenic in crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, B K; Irgolic, K J

    1989-12-01

    Total arsenic was determined in crude petroleum and liquid hydrocarbons derived from crude petroleum by extraction with boiling water or boiling aqueous nitric acid (concentration 0.25 to 2.5 M), mineralization of the extracts with concentrated nitric/sulphuric acid, and reduction of the arsenate to arsine in a hydride generator. The arsine was flushed into a helium-DC plasma. The arsenic emission was monitored at 228.8 nm. The total arsenic concentration in 53 crude oil samples ranged from 0.04 to 514 mg L(-1) (median 0.84 mg L(-1)). Arsenic was also determined in several refined liquid hydrocarbons and in a commercially available arsenic standard in an organic matrix (triphenylarsine in xylene). The method was checked with NIST 1634b "Trace Elements in Residual Fuel Oil". The arsenic concentration found in this standard agreed with the certified value (0.12±0.2 μg g(-1)) within experimental error. Viscous hydrocarbons such as the fuel oil must be dissolved in xylene for the extraction to be successful. Hydride generation applied to an aqueous not-mineralized extract from an oil containing 1.67 μg As mL(-1) revealed, that trimethylated arsenic (520 ng mL(-1)) is the predominant arsenic species among the reducible and detectable arsenic compounds. Monomethylated arsenic (104 ng ml(-1)), inorganic arsenic (23 ng mL(-1)), and dimethylated arsenic (low ng mL(-1)) were also detected. The sum of the concentrations of these arsenic species accounts for only 39% of the total arsenic in the sample. PMID:24202418

  14. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from recovery of various North American conventional crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions from crude recovery contribute significantly to the life cycle GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of transportation fuels. Recovery emissions come from drilling and land use change, crude extraction, crude oil processing, venting, flaring, and fugitives. In this study an attempt has been made to provide a transparent quantification of GHG emissions from oil well drilling and land use change, crude recovery and associated gas and water treatment, and venting and flaring for five North American conventional crudes through the development of data-intensive engineering models. Estimates of emissions from crude extraction were made from recovery efficiency, the amount of energy used, and process fuel shares in extraction techniques. Extraction emissions vary from 1.24 g-CO2eq/MJ for Bow River heavy oil to 23 g-CO2eq/MJ for California's Kern County heavy oil. The amount of gas vented and flared per m3 of crude extracted was determined to quantify venting and flaring emissions. The amount of energy required for crude oil processing was quantified based on the properties of crude oil and different techniques applied in the oil fields. Of the five crudes we studied, California's Kern County heavy oil and Mars crude oil emit the highest and lowest emissions: 23.85 g-CO2eq/MJ and 3.94 g-CO2eq/MJ, respectively. - Highlights: • Quantification of emissions associated with recovery of five North American conventional crudes. • Development of spreadsheet-based models for estimation of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • GHG emissions from the extraction of California's Kern County heavy oil is the highest among the crude oils considered. • Use of different sensitivity parameters to check the impact on total emissions

  16. Crude Oil Families in the Euphrates Graben Petroleum System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Aldahik;  

    2010-01-01

    Located in the northern part of Arabian Peninsula, Syria is one of the Middle East oil countries. The most petroliferous province in Syria is the Euphrates Graben system in the eastern part of the country. Oil and gas have been discovered in this graben in the mid 1980's by Shell E&P and its partners. Since then no comprehensive study has been performed to investigate the origin of crude oils produced from more than 60 oil fields in the area. This study deals with this issue from a petroleum ...

  17. Assessment center energy collector system of crude Puerto Escondido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of the evaluation of the energy system Collector Crude Center of Puerto Escondido in the first half of 2014. By implementing the overall strategy presented Process Analysis developed and implemented an energy assessment procedure allowed characterize current plant conditions, and raise a number of measures and recommendations that lead to improved energy use and reduced environmental impact. It also presents the computational tools used for both process simulation (Hysys v 3.2) as for technical analysis - economic and environmental (Microsoft Excel). (full text)

  18. PCR amplification of crude microbial DNA extracted from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, C; Gillings, M R; Davison, A D; Altavilla, N; Veal, D A

    1997-10-01

    A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types. DNA was extracted from 100 g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) followed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, potassium acetate precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. The crude extract could be used in PCR directed at high-copy number (bacterial small subunit rRNA) and single-copy (fungal beta-tubulin) genes. PMID:9351282

  19. Viscosity correlations for Gulf of Mexico crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, G.E. Jr.; Farshad, F.F. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In 1984, Sutton and Farshad evaluated the accuracy of several published viscosity correlations for application in the Gulf of Mexico. A total of 31 different crude oil systems from the Louisiana and Texas gulf coast were used in their analysis. The errors encountered were rather high for dead and saturated oil viscosity. New empirical viscosity correlations for estimating dead oil, saturated oil and undersaturated oil viscosities have been developed as a function of commonly available field data. Results show that these viscosities can be predicted with average absolute errors ranging from 2.91% for undersaturated oil viscosity to 14.47% for saturated oil viscosity.

  20. Crude oil prices : how high, how much harm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the issue of crude oil prices and the economy. Crude oil prices are on the rise due to the recent events in the Middle East. In early April, West Texas Intermediate crude oil climbed to nearly US$28 a barrel. Most of the increase reflects the expectation of stronger world oil demand combined with supply constraints on the part of OPEC. Although there has been some concern expressed that rising oil prices may hinder economic recovery, the authors of this report do not see evidence that rising oil prices would throw economic recovery off course, arguing that the current spike will be short-lived. They stated that even under a worse-case scenario where prices remain inflated, there is little reason to fear for the health of the Canadian economy. OPEC is expected to increase its low production quotas in June. In addition, non-OPEC nations (Russia in particular) are expected to increase oil production in the coming months. The authors also indicated that it is unlikely that conflict in the West Bank will disrupt oil supply because Israel is not an oil-exporting nation. However, oil supply could be affected if other Arab nations were drawn into the issue. It was also noted that military action against Iraq would increase oil prices, possibly as high as US$40 a barrel, but the full extent of this hike in price will probably be unsustainable. In addition, the authors emphasized that the increase in energy costs would not be enough to seriously jeopardize the economic recovery in the United States. As for Canada, it is estimated that a US$10 per barrel increase in crude oil prices would have a small, but positive impact on Canadian GDP because in contrast to the United States, Canada produces much more energy than it consumers. In 2001, Canada ran a trade surplus of $2.8 billion. The report ended by stating that although higher oil prices could add a full percentage point to headline inflation by the end of the year, core inflation is likely to remain

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF DIRECT UPGRADING PROCESS FOR HEAVY CRUDE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The direct upgrading process from heavy crude oil to sweet and light oil (IKC process) has been deve-loped for about 10 years in Idemitsu Kosan. Compared with conventional refinery scheme consisting of YR-HDS, VGOHYC and so on, the new refinery scheme combined with IKC process and Topper was always economically feasible with lower cost and smaller energy consumption. In the existing refinery of no middle distillate HDS and residue HDS of HYC plants to supplement IKC process is expected to be one of the efficient methods to cope with the environmental regulations.

  2. Informational Efficiency in Futures Markets for Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Andreas; Weber, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to test whether recent developments on world oil markets are in line with the hypothesis of efficient markets. We treat the joint hypothesis problem as stated by Fama (1970), Fama (1991), that market efficiency can only be assessed in conjunction with a price model of market equilibrium. Data on spot and futures prices for Brent crude oil in the period 2002†2008 are used in combination with a multi factor model to investigate whether futures prices are effi...

  3. Petrol and Crude Oil Prices: Asymmetric Price Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Wlazlowski, Szymon

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between crude oil prices, the dollar-pound exchange rate and petrol prices in the UK over the period 1982-2001. Quantitative methods were used to examine the existence of the long-run equilibrium and test for the presence of asymmetric patterns in the short-run responses to upstream price changes. Also the degree of asymmetry in the adjustment towards long-run equilibrium was analysed. Results confirm that short-run response is greater for increases in ups...

  4. Process for Separation of Petroleum Acids from Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for separation of petroleum acids from crude oil was proposed. The method relates to processes for treating acidic oils or fractions thereof to reduce or eliminate their acidity by addition of effective amounts of crosslinked polymeric amines such as polypropylene amine and anionic exchange resins having amino-groups. Petroleum acids contained in the mixture can be extracted by a complex solvent. The results indicate that more than 80 % of the petroleum acids are removed and the process does not cause environmental pollution because all the solvents are recovered and reused in the test.

  5. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V

    2015-01-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  6. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  7. Field bioremediation study: Spilled crude oil on Fowler Beach, Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical approach was used to determine if nutrient and/or microbial inoculation enhances the loss of crude oil experimentally released onto plots on the shoreline of Delaware Bay. Five replicates of three treatments were examined (nutrients alone, nutrients plus an inoculum of indigenous bacteria from the site, and an unamended control). Results suggested that alkanes degraded significantly faster on the treated plots compared to the unamended plots at weeks 2 and 4. No differences were detected in aromatic degradation. Bioaugmentation with indigenous microorganisms did not result in additional enhancement

  8. Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  10. Use of adsorption and gas chromatographic techniques in estimating biodegradation of indigenous crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous crude oils could be degraded and emulsified upto varying degree by locally isolated bacteria. Degradation and emulsification was found to be dependent upon the chemical composition of the crude oils. Tando Alum and Khashkheli crude oils were emulsified in 27 and 33 days of incubation respectively. While Joyamair crude oil and not emulsify even mainly due to high viscosity of this oil. Using adsorption chromatographic technique, oil from control (uninoculated) and bio degraded flasks was fractioned into the deasphaltened oil containing saturate, aromatic, NSO (nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen) containing hydrocarbons) and soluble asphaltenes. Saturate fractions from control and degraded oil were further analysed by gas liquid chromatography. From these analyses, it was observed that saturate fraction was preferentially utilized and the crude oils having greater contents of saturate fraction were better emulsified than those low in this fraction. Utilization of various fractions of crude oils was in the order saturate> aromatic> NSO. (author)

  11. Natural gas to overtake crude oil in next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival in activity in the Gulf of Mexico spurred by natural gas is apparently part of a worldwide trend that is likely to eventually put gas production above that of crude oil. From 1965 to 1992, worldwide demand for crude oil increased 100% while that for natural gas went up 170%. In a rundown of growth by regions, the Asia/Pacific is one of the hottest areas with growth rates of at least 5% per year to 11.7 tcf by the year 2005. Demand will climb to 30.4 tcf in the U.S. by 2005. Electrical power generation will play a key role in gas' penetration of the total market there. The potential in the gas business is analogous to that which prevailed in the oil industry during the 1960s and 1970s. Companies will likely view the expanding gas industry as potentially more attractive than struggling to maintain competitive positions in a slowly growing oil industry

  12. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  13. Elasticities of demand for crude oil: a note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the 25-year period 1965-89, world crude oil consumption almost exactly doubled, from 1,530.3 million tonnes to 3,097.8 mt per annum, although there were significant differences between countries, in both total and per capita terms. However, the two oil price 'shocks' during this period provided a strong incentive for the more efficient use of oil and, indeed, other energy resources, through the development and exploitation of new technology. Thus, oil consumption per unit of real GDP decreased almost universally. A number of studies, covering various time periods and employing a variety of techniques, have sought to estimate the responsiveness of crude oil demand in the United States to changing oil prices and to changing economic activity, i.e. price and income elasticities. A brief summary of a sample of such results is presented. Oil demand is shown to be very price inelastic. This study will provide yet further econometric estimates of these elasticities for the US and 22 other countries. (author)

  14. Wax crystallization and aggregation in a model crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-molecular-weight paraffinic ('wax') fraction separates from crude oils at low temperatures, a process that can lead to a sol-gel transition when the mass of wax solids exceeds 1-2%. Attractive interactions between the micron-size wax solids suspended in the non-polar medium have been suggested to be responsible for gel formation. The present study reports an optically transparent model oil system, based on a mixture of linear and branched paraffins. Rheological measurements and optical microscopy show that the model system reproduces essential features of crude oil gels. Small-angle light scattering studies conducted at temperatures intermediate between the cloud point (58 0C) and sol-gel transition (39 0C) show that phase separation and wax solid aggregation are rapid processes, leading to the formation of dynamically arrested structures well above the sol-gel transition determined rheologically. Analysis of gravity settling effects has provided a rough estimate for the yield stress of the wax particle network formed (greater than 0.7 Pa at 45 0C and 0.07 Pa at 55 0C). Clusters formed by the aggregated wax solids possess a fractal dimension of about 1.8, consistent with diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation

  15. Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Abdurahman H.; Suliman, A.; Hadow, Mahmmoud M.

    During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A) ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

  16. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeguang; Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zhang, Chengwu; Zeng, Mingtao

    2012-07-01

    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated, and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al. was established. According to Boussiba's method, alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll. However, we found that: 1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm. Interestingly, a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content, while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study. Therefore, with 530 nm as working wavelength, the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll, other carotenoids, and the unknown interference could be avoided. The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g. When compared with the measured values at 492 nm, the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%, respectively. The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples. The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  17. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills

  18. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  19. SCHISTOSOMICIDAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE EXTRACT OF ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyavichyapugdee, Narin; Sangfuang, Manaw; Chaiyapum, Saowapark; Sriburin, Suwatcharaporn; Pootaeng-on, Yupa; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee; Preyavichyapugdee, Mananya; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    Puag-Haad is a traditional anthelmintic drug used to treat taeniasis in Thailand and Lao PDR. It is derived from the aqueous extract of the plant Artocarpus lakoocha. We investigated the in vitro anthelmintic properties of Puag-Haad against Schistosoma mansoni. Adult worms were incubated in M-199 medium containing 250, 500 and 750 μg/ml of Puag-Haad or praziquantel (PZQ) at a concentration of 175 μg/ml for 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. The relative motility (RM value), survival index (SI) and tegument alterations seen under scanning electron microscope were assessed at each incubation time. The results showed the crude extract of A. lakoocha at a concentration of 250 μg/ml was more effective in causing damage than PZQ at a concentration of 175 μg/ml using RM and SI values. The major target organ affected by Puag-Haad was the tegument. The damage was greater at higher concentrations of the crude extract. It is likely tetrahydroxystilbene (THS), the main compound in Puag-Haad, caused the damage. THS could be a future candidate as a schistosomal drug. Further studies are needed to explore its mechanism, efficiency and safety in vivo. PMID:27086420

  20. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called ... some types of bacteria and fungi. This disorder leads to long- ...

  1. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Share This: People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness We've made significant progress in our national ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  2. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  3. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  4. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  5. Influence of chemical surfactants on the biodegradation of crude oil by a mixed bacterial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted in which the effects of surfactant physicochemical properties on crude oil biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture were examined. The effects of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) and molecular structure on the biodegradation of Bow River crude oil were determined. It was shown that chemical surfactants have the potential to improve crude oil biodegradation in complex microbial systems. Surfactant selection should consider factors such as molecular structure, HLB and surfactant concentration. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Bacteria in Crude Oil Survived Autoclaving and Stimulated Differentially by Exogenous Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ze-Shen; Guo, Peng; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Chen, Jian; Wang, Xing-Biao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Chun-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Autoclaving of crude oil is often used to evaluate the hydrocarbon-degrading abilities of bacteria. This may be potentially useful for bioaugmentation and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, it is not entirely clear if “endogenous” bacteria (e.g., spores) in/on crude oil survive the autoclaving process, or influence subsequent evaluation of the hydrocarbon-degradation abilities of the “exogenous” bacterial strains. To test this, we inoculated autoclaved crude oil medium with six ...

  7. Price relationships in the petroleum market : an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    OpenAIRE

    Asche, Frank; Gjølberg, Ole; Völker, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogeneous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these ref...

  8. Crude glycerin levels in pearl millet-based diets for Nellore young bulls in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werney da Silva Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to find the best level of inclusion of crude glycerin (0, 60, 120, and 240 g kg−1 of dry matter of diet in substitution of pearl millet in a feedlot diet. Twenty-eight Nellore young bulls with mean age of 18 months and average weight of 357±23.56 kg were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and seven replications. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients were similar among the dietary levels of crude glycerin. The ether extract intake decreased with increase in the levels of crude glycerol in the diets. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and extract ether was similar among the dietary crude glycerin levels. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was lower in the diets with inclusion of crude glycerin in relation the other diets. The increase in the levels of crude glycerin did not affect the total digestible nutrients content of the diets. Average daily gain increased linearly with the increase in crude glycerin. Feed conversion was not altered by the increase in the levels of crude glycerin in the diets. The dietary increase in crude glycerin level did not affect the carcass characteristics. The inclusion of up to 240 g kg−1 of crude glycerin in pearl millet grain-based diets for feedlot-finished Nellore young bulls increases average daily gain, but does not change the main carcass characteristics of economic importance.

  9. Phase Inversion, Stability and Destabilization of Model and Crude Oil Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrabino, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The demand for crude oils has constantly been increasing forcing the industry to exploit heavier crude oils. These oils are more difficult to produce and transport than classical light oils, this leads the oil industry to improve their processes. The production of oil also implies the formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The presence of dispersed water causes an increase of the viscosity and corrosion problems in the equipment that induce the production difficulties. This doctoral work ...

  10. Volatility Spillovers in U.S. Crude Oil, Ethanol, and Corn Futures Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Mindy L. Mallory; Garcia, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variability directly attributed to volatility in the crude oil market are generally between 10%- 20%, but reached nearly 45% during the financial crisis, when world demand for oil changed dramatically. Vo...

  11. SCREENING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CRUDE WATER EXTRACT OF DIFFERENT CASSAVA VARIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU; Olubunmi Omowunmi FADINA; Alex Adeoluwa ADEDAPO

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of three sources of crude cassava water extract (CCWE) was evaluated in different varieties of cassava (MS6 Manihot Selection (local variety), TMS 30555 Tropical Manihot Selection (Improved variety) and Bulk (crude cassava water from cassava processing site). Crude cassava water extract from the pulp of cassava fresh roots was prepared and the chemical composition was determined in the analytical laboratory. The result of the analysis showed that, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) ...

  12. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Saponin and Crude Extracts of Chlorophytum borivilianum

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Farshad Ashraf; Maheran Abd Aziz; Johnson Stanslas; Ismanizan Ismail; Mihdzar Abdul Kadir

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focused on antioxidant and cytotoxicity assessment of crude and total saponin fraction of Chlorophytum borivilianum as an important medicinal plant. In this study, three different antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and β -carotene bleaching (BCB) activity) of crude extract and total saponin fraction of C. borivilianum tubers were performed. Crude extract was found to possess higher free radical scaven...

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Marinescu; Mihai Toti; Veronica Tanase; Vera Carabulea; Georgiana Plopeanu; Irina Calciu

    2010-01-01

    Pollution caused by crude oil is the most prevalent problem in the environment. The release of crude oil into theenvironment by oil spills is receiving worldwide attention. The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties wasinvestigated by achieving a case study in Perisoru, Braila County. It has been achieved a profile until 120 cm and soilsamples were collected according to the methodology and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In caseof physical analysis, the values o...

  14. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    André Brisolari; Débora Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase) from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy) films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at dif...

  15. Prostaglandins and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is the basis of various chronic illnesses including cancer and vascular diseases. However, much has yet to be learned how inflammation becomes chronic. Prostaglandins (PGs) are well established as mediators of acute inflammation, and recent studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that they also function in transition to and maintenance of chronic inflammation. One role PGs play in such processes is amplification of cytokine signaling. As such, PGs can facil...

  16. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treat...

  17. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  18. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  19. Electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry of ARN naphthenic acids in crudes : preconcentration and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapolelo, M.M.; Rodgers, R.P.; Marshall, A.G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Cyclotron Resonance Program, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    2008-07-01

    The deposition of naphthenate solids and formation of sodium soaps in oil production equipment are known to create flow assurance problems for oilfield operators. Calcium naphthenate formation depends largely on tetraprotic naphthenic acids known as ARN acids in crude oil, whereas sodium naphthenates originate from less substituted lower molecular weight naphthenic acids. This study attempted to preconcentrate and quantify ARN-type acids in whole crude oils. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectroscopy (MS) provided detailed acidic speciation for all crudes and deposits analyzed. The preconcentration step involved bubbling ammonia into toluene-diluted crudes known to have ARN-type acids. ARN acids from the crystals increased from undetectable in the parent crude, to the most abundant acid species in the extract mass spectrum. A pure ARN acid standard was prepared for quantitation from successive cleaning and acid digestion of a naphthenate deposit. Analysis of the standard by negative-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) FT-ICR MS showed only ARN acid species. The paper described how API gravity, solvent systems and the paraffinic versus aromatic composition in the crude oil can influence crystal formation. Correlation of FT-ICR MS data of the respective crudes known to contain ARN acids naturally and crudes spiked with ARN acid standard were discussed and the significance of the preconcentration step was highlighted as a method to enhance the detection of ARN acids in crudes.

  20. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. PMID:27236165

  1. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE... (CBT), segregated ballast tanks (SBT), or crude oil washing (COW) meeting part 157 of this...

  2. Assessment of photoinduced toxicity of crude oil-contaminated sediments on aquatic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidental crude oil releases resulting in environmental contamination are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent occurrences. Investigations of impacts to aquatic ecosystems following crude oil spills have often uncovered alterations in invertebrate community diversity and species abundance. Crude oil is partially composed of aromatic hydrocarbons, including some phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To assess organism phototoxic response to PAHs present in crude oil, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted with porewater extracts from crude oil-contaminated sediments and reference sediments using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. Test organisms were exposed to porewater samples under artificial near-ultraviolet (UV) radiation and normal laboratory white fluorescent lighting. Controls under both lighting exposures included: culture water controls, anthracene controls (representing a known phototoxic PAH), and solvent controls. Following acute exposure periods, C. dubia mortality under near-UV light in crude oil porewater was significantly different from corresponding mortality under fluorescent light. C. dubia experienced 100% mortality in crude oil sediment porewater under near-UV light, 0% mortality in reference sediment porewater under near-UV light, and 0% mortality across corresponding treatments under fluorescent light exposures. H. azteca mortality under near-UV light in crude oil porewater was also significantly different from corresponding treatments under fluorescent light. Laboratory results suggest that PAHs in crude oil-contaminated sediments in the aquatic environment have the potential to substantially adversely affect survival of UV-exposed aquatic invertebrates

  3. Polarity characterization of crude oils predicts treatment trends in field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Bruening, I.M.R. de

    1995-11-01

    A method for determining crude oil polarity using inverse gas chromatography proved successful for classifying crudes as well as for assessing their ability to form stable emulsions with water. Polarity determinations have been applied to the formation test crude oil samples collected in Albacora and Marlim deepwater fields of the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results have been compared with the polarities of the first produced crudes of the Basin and showed that the emulsion separation problems tend to increase. Polarity results provided substantial data to help production field development decisions.

  4. Natural self cleaning and enhanced self cleaning of crude oil, crude oil emulsions and diesel from Arctic shoreline sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural removal and enhanced removal by chemical treatment of crude oil, crude oil emulsion, and diesel were studied in field and basin experiments on Spitsbergen. The beach types comprised gravel beaches, sandy beaches, and mud flats. Each shoreline was divided into nine 25-m2 plots. The chemical treatment comprised Corexit 7664 and Finasol OSR12. Oil concentrations were monitored from the time of contamination and until the end of the season. The upper and lower zones of the beach were treated separately. The decrease in oil concentration during an Arctic summer season was found to be considerable in all the experiments except in the mud flat sediments. Partitioning in the sediment depends on the water level in the sediment, thus oil retention is limited in the more or less water-saturated lower beach zone. Although the overall effect of chemical treatment can be questioned, the chemicals have an effect on oil removal from the sediment. The extensive removal of oil from the control plots indicates that a leave-alone option can be viable on these types of beaches unless extreme requirements for immediate cleanliness exist. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  6. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries – Part 1: Fractional distillation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups......This study presents detailed chemical and thermophysical analysis of bio-crude from a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction research plant. Current research on bio-crude focuses mainly on specific biomass feedstocks and conversion process conditions and resulting yields rather than on bio-crude...... properties for downstream processing. This study contributes to the next level of research, where HTL bio-crude is evaluated as a potential refinery co-processing feedstock with regard to bulk and fractional properties. The bio-crude used in the current work has been produced from a hardwood feedstock. Bio-crude...

  7. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0.17, but not...

  8. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  9. Biochemical and behavioral responses of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum to crude oil: the effect of oil layer on water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Meyersieck Jardim, Manoela; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400 km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a

  10. Natural selectivity of Nickel and Vanadium in crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Olienka Patricia De La O.

    Nickel and Vanadium have always been found in crude oil all around the world. The metal content is found mainly in porphyrin structures in the asphaltene fraction of the petroleum. In order to determine the reason for this natural preference, a set of experiments testing thermodynamics, kinetics, and other factors were performed. Candidate metalloporphyrins containing Vanadyl, Chromium, Iron, Nickel, Copper and Zinc were analyzed through chemical reactions characterized using Silica Column Chromatography, HPLC, MS and UV-Visible. Theoretical analysis of the stability of metalloporphyrins was conducted using DFT/NRLMOL for computational calculation. The analysis of all factors leads us to conclude that the presence of Nickel and Vanadium in petroleum depend on different factors, not only on the stability of the structures, but mainly on abundance in the medium rising from biological processes.

  11. Geochemical investigation of Australian and New Zealand crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R.P.; Gilbert, T.D.

    1985-02-01

    Australian and New Zealand oils are derived predominantly from terrestrial source material. Relatively sparse information exists in the geochemical literature on the distribution of biomarkers in terrestrially derived crude oils. A detailed geochemical investigation of oils from a number of basins in this region has revealed interesting and unusual distribution of biomarkers. The compound classes that were analyzed included sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and steranes. From the information obtained, it has been possible to correlate the oils from several basins, in particular the Gippsland, Surate, and Carnarvon, into a number of source-related families. Evidence was also obtained that indicated a contribution from coal-like source material for many of the New Zealand oils.

  12. Adsorption of uranium from crude phosphoric acid using activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of uranium from crude phosphoric acid has been investigated using conventional activated carbons. It was found that treatment with nitric acid oxidized the surface of activated carbon and significantly increased the adsorption capacity for uranium in acidic solutions. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) adsorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, and temperature, have been investigated. Equilibrium data were fitted to a simplified Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for the oxidized samples which indicate that the uranium adsorption onto the activated carbon fitted well with Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich isotherm. Equilibrium studies evaluate the theoretical capacity of activated carbon to be 45.24 g kg-1. (author)

  13. What about oil reserve depletion and crude oil price evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to give a synthesis of different points of view with respect to the 'Peak Oil' perspective and to the crude oil price evolution. In the first part, the authors examine the evolutions and assessments of oil reserves and productions, by discussing the different types of reserve, the optimistic and pessimistic points of views. Then, in the second part, they analyse the long term price formation, the various production technical costs (conventional oils, heavy oils and asphaltic sands, coal- and gas-based synthetic hydrocarbons, bio-fuels), the external costs (notably in relationship with greenhouse emissions), the relationship between geopolitical issues and short and middle term price formation. In the third and last part, they discuss the possible evolutions and scenarios in terms of demand, production, and prices

  14. Natural gas, NGL's and crude: supply, demand and price forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the major issues to watch in the crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL) markets in North America. The presentation began with background information concerning Purvin and Gertz, an employee-owned consulting firm whose employees are chemical engineers, holders of a Master of Business Administration (MBA), or economists. They specialize in providing strategic, commercial, and technical advice to the international energy industry. A closer look at each individual market was provided, looking at demand, supply, price drivers and others. The author concluded that world oil prices continue to be influenced by a war premium. Oil prices support natural gas, as well as the possibility of a supply issue. The gas processing margins have remained strong. The unknown quantities are the weather and economic recovery. figs

  15. Inflationary effect of crude oil prices in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Taşçı, Hakan

    2002-12-01

    It is generally acknowledged that changes in oil prices affect economic welfare in ways that are not entirely reflected in transactions in the oil market. In this article, by using the 1990 input-output table, the inflationary effects of crude oil prices are investigated for Turkey. Under fixed nominal wages, profits, interest and rent earnings, the effect of increasing prices of oil on inflation is limited. However, when wages and the other three factors of income (profit, interest and rent) are adjusted to the general price level that includes the oil price increases, the inflationary effect of oil prices becomes significant. Hence, indexation could have very severe effects on an economy when oil prices increase and, in some cases, could even lead to hyperinflation.

  16. On the predictive accuracy of crude oil futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the predictive accuracy of 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month ahead crude oil futures prices for 1991.01-2001.12. In addition to testing for unbiasedness, a naive forecasting model is constructed to generate comparable forecasts, as benchmarks. Our empirical findings reveal that futures prices and naive forecasts are unbiased at all forecast horizons. However, the 1-, and 12-month ahead futures prices are the only forecasts outperforming the naive, suggesting their potential usefulness in policy making. Continuing political instability of the Middle East and the inability of OPEC to offset market sentiment, among other factors, may in the future adversely affect the predictive accuracy of the 1- and 12-month ahead futures prices. Accordingly, caution must be exercised when utilizing such prices as a forecasting tool. (Author)

  17. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  18. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  19. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik;

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...

  20. Rising Crude Prices’ Impact – To understand the impact of the volatility of crude oil market over the Singapore economy and also on the Singapore oil companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Ee Sun

    2009-01-01

    Recent economic and geopolitical events have significantly impacted the crude oil prices worldwide with US crude reaching record highs above $78 dollars per barrel on July 14, 2006. Although the consequences and transmission mechanisms of oil price shocks have been investigated to some extent for developed economies, the impact volatility and rise of oil price on developing countries and emerging market economies (EMEs) have yet to be explored. Established in 1969, Singapore ...

  1. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  2. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  3. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  4. Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a multiple regression model derived from an adaptation of Nerlove's partial adjustment model to estimate both the short-run and long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in 23 countries. The estimates so obtained confirm that the demand for crude oil internationally is highly insensitive to changes in price. (author)

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and digestible crude protein of poultry excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the chemical composition, digestible crude protein and cell-wall constituents for two types of excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that here was significant decrease in the crude fibre (CF), NDF and ADF between the samples and the control, for the types I and II where CF, NDF and ADF values, before and after storage, decreased by 12%, 5% and 6%, respectively, ADL values decreased by 8% (I) and 3%(II). Hemicellulose and soluble carbohydrate (NFE) values increased by 5% and 7% for types I and II respectively as a result of irradiation in comparison to the control before and after storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and digested crude protein for types I and II before and after storage. Drying type I at high temperature in comparison to type II, before and after storage, decreased the crude protein values by 16%. Digested crude protein and CF, decreased 12% and NDF by 7%. Storage of excreta after drying had no effect on the chemical changes due to irradiation for types I and II. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Abundances of rare earth elements in crude oils and their partitions in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterns of the entire range of REE in crude oils and coexisting water, collected from mud volcanoes in Xinjiang Province of China, are reported here for the first time. Crude oils show light REE enriched patterns with flat or depleted patterns in heavy REE, when normalized to chondrite. The REE concentrations in crude oils are larger than those in coexisting water by a factor of more than one hundred. Considering the hydrophobicity of oil and the high ionic characteristics of REE, it is strongly suggested that REE form complexes with ligands present in the crude oils. Based on the 13C NMR spectroscopy, it is found that small amounts of phenol and carboxyl groups are contained in the crude oil samples, which could possibly provide complexing sites for REE. REE patterns of crude oils are similar to those of coexisting mud samples collected from the same mud volcanoes, which suggests that the REE in crude oils are derived from rocks and sediments where crude oils were generated. (author)

  7. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Crude Oil on Two Freshwater Lake Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Martin D.; Adams, V. Dean; Lamarra, Vincent A.

    1983-01-01

    Responses of two freshwater lake ecosystems of the Intermountain West to crude oil impaction were investigated. The research was conducted in two phases; in the first phase effects of crude oil were studied on an ecosystem established in three phase laboratory microcosms (gaseous-aqueous-sediment), which simulated the natural lakes. Notable responses of the microcosm ecosystem to oil impaction included: an increas...

  8. Effect of Light Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Growth and Germination of Festuca arundinacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Shahriari, Malek-Hossein; Savaghebi-Firoozabadi, Gholamreza

    In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil (up to 10%) on the growth and germination of Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue) was studied. Present results showed that the germination number and dry biomass of the plant decreased by increasing light crude oil concentration in the soil. The biomass was higher in 1% crude oil sample while it was lower in 10% crude oil sample. The length of leaves reduced in higher crude oil concentration in comparison with the control. Total and oil-degrading colony count of soil showed that the microbial population in 7 and 10% samples was higher than the control and low concentrations of crude oil (1 and 3% samples). The crude oil reduction in the vegetated and the non-vegetated samples was higher in 1% sample. All vegetated samples had higher crude oil reduction than non-vegetated samples. The higher reduction was occurred at 1% sample, while the lower reduction was seen at 10% sample.

  9. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  10. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  11. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  12. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  13. Value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolan; Ge, Xumeng; Cui, Shaoqing; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Crude glycerol is a low-value byproduct which is primarily obtained from the biodiesel production process. Its composition is significantly different from that of pure glycerol. Crude glycerol usually contains various impurities, such as water, methanol, soap, fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable efforts have been devoted to finding applications for converting crude glycerol into high-value products, such as biofuels, chemicals, polymers, and animal feed, to improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and overcome environmental challenges associated with crude glycerol disposal. This article reviews recent advances of biological and chemical technologies for value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers, and provides strategies for addressing production challenges. PMID:27004448

  14. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  15. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory......, a rheological model incorporating dispersion parameter was proposed to describe creep of gelled waxy crude. A discrete and numerical algorithm was proposed to solve the model. Combining with the experimental results of five kinds of waxy crude oil, the model parameters were regressed and found to change...... monotonously with test temperature. Multiple creep curves of gelled waxy crude oil at a certain temperature can be described with this model....

  16. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... in comparison with that in pure water. This observed hydrate inhibition potential shows significant variation depending on the type of crude oil. The influence of crude oil composition (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) on this behavior was probably due to the existence of a combination of different...... inhibition mechanisms and potentially a competition among inhibition-promotion mechanisms. Moreover, the hydrate formation time has been determined at different water cuts in each crude oil and it was found that the inhibition capability increases with an increase in the oil content. The effect...

  17. Comparative Study on Schizontocidal Activity of Recrystallized or Crude Daphnetin Against Malaria Parasites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN-MEI WANG; YI-CHANG NI; JIAN GUO; JIA-TONG WU; YING-JUN QIAN

    2004-01-01

    To compare the schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin against malaria parasites in vivo. Methods Schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin at various dosages was assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a "4-day suppress assay". Results The comparison of the reduction rate of parasitemia caused by either recrystallized or crude dephnetin showed that ED50 of crude daphnetin was 18.36 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 5.96-56.54 mg/kg while ED50 of recrystallized daphnetin was 11.46 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 8.63-15.22 mg/kg. Conclution The results indicate that the efficacy of recrystallized daphnetin is 37.6% higher than that of crude daphnetin.

  18. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  19. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMULCZUK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.

  20. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis of carbon and crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Bangzheng

    2014-04-01

    The complex dynamics between carbon and crude oil markets have been an increasingly interesting area of research. In this paper, we try to take a fresh look at the cross-correlations between carbon and crude oil markets as well as their dynamic behavior employing multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis. First, we find that the return series of carbon and crude oil markets are significantly cross-correlated. Second, we confirm the existence of multifractality for the return series of carbon and crude oil markets by the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Third, based on the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, we find the existence of power-law cross-correlations between carbon and crude oil markets. The cross-correlated behavior of small fluctuations is found to be more persistent than that of large fluctuations. At last, some relevant discussions and implications of the empirical results are presented.

  1. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa. A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. (author)

  2. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japper-Jaafar A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  3. DID SPECULATIVE ACTIVITIES CONTRIBUTE TO HIGH CRUDE OIL PRICES DURING 1993 TO 2008?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun ZHANG; Kin Keung LAI; Shouyang WANG

    2009-01-01

    By applying two nonlinear Granger causality testing methods and rolling window strategy to explore the relationship between speculative activities and crude oil prices, the unidirectional Granger causality from speculative activities to returns of crude oil prices during the high price phase is discovered. It is proved that speculative activities did contribute to high crude oil prices after the Asian financial crisis and OPEC's output cut in 1998. The unidirectional Granger causality from returns of crude oil prices to speculative activities is significant in general. But after 2000, with the sharp rise in crude oil prices, this unidirectional Granger causality became a complex nonlinear relationship, which cannot be detected by any linear Granger causality test.

  4. Import demand of crude oil and economic growth. Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study establishes a long-run equilibrium relationship among quantity of crude oil import, income and price of the imported crude in India for the time span 1970-1971 to 2005-2006 using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results show that the long-term income elasticity of imported crude in India is 1.97 and there exists a unidirectional long-run causality running from economic growth to crude oil import. So reduction of crude oil import will not affect the future economic growth in India in the long-run. India should take various energy efficiency and demand side management measures in transport sector along with other measures like expanding and strengthening indigenous resource-base, substituting imported fuels by domestic fuels and de-controlling the price of petroleum products to reduce its import dependence. (author)

  5. Import demand of crude oil and economic growth: Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study establishes a long-run equilibrium relationship among quantity of crude oil import, income and price of the imported crude in India for the time span 1970-1971 to 2005-2006 using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results show that the long-term income elasticity of imported crude in India is 1.97 and there exists a unidirectional long-run causality running from economic growth to crude oil import. So reduction of crude oil import will not affect the future economic growth in India in the long-run. India should take various energy efficiency and demand side management measures in transport sector along with other measures like expanding and strengthening indigenous resource-base, substituting imported fuels by domestic fuels and de-controlling the price of petroleum products to reduce its import dependence

  6. Crude glycerol-based production of amino acids and putrescine by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses genes for glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that were shown to support slow growth with glycerol only when overexpressed from a plasmid. Pure glycerol and crude glycerol from biodiesel factories were tested for growth of recombinant strains expressing glpF, glpK and glpD from Escherichia coli. Some, but not all crude glycerol lots served as good carbon sources. Although the inhibitory compound(s) present in these crude glycerol lots remained unknown, the addition of substoichiometric glucose concentrations (below 10% by weight) enabled the utilization of some of the inhibitory crude glycerol lots. Besides growth, production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine as well as of the diamine putrescine based on crude glycerol qualities from biodiesel factories was demonstrated. PMID:23562176

  7. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  8. Geospatial Hydrochemical and Microbiological Implications on the Occurrence of Crude Oil Biodegradation and Methanogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Technologies that serve as a bridge between renewable energy and fossil fuels are needed to meet growing energy demands and to mitigate climate change. Many reservoirs contain difficult to produce residual and/or heavily biodegraded (i.e., geochemically altered) crude oil, which remains a relatively untapped resource. Production of this residual crude oil via unconventional methods, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), has offset some of the decline in conventional oil production. EOR is not efficient enough to recover all of the original oil in place, and some methods are not effective for very heavy crude oils. Stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to convert the residual crude oil to natural gas (i.e., microbial methane) is one promising strategy to "extract" residual and /or heavy crude oil. Although the hydrogeochemical conditions necessary for the occurrence of both crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis in various reservoirs have been studied, there are still gaps in research. Many hydrogeochemical factors have been researched individually (not as part of a multifactor or lithologically similar system) and little work has assessed the microbiological limitations of both processes. Our goal is to determine the hydrogeochemical and microbiological conditions required for maximum crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis across a lithologically similar unit. Produced water, oil, gas, and microbial biomass samples were collected from wells completed in the Paleocene—Eocene Wilcox Group in central Louisiana. Initial results indicate potential relationships between the amount of crude oil biodegradation, indicators of microbial methanogenesis, and aqueous geochemistry. For example, produced waters with the lowest salinity had the highest crude oil biodegradation, and wells exhibiting the most microbial methane generation produce waters with hydrogeochemical conditions most fit for methanogenesis to occur. In sampled wells displaying

  9. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Rončević Nevenka; Stojadinović Aleksandra; Odri Irena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and repr...

  10. Chronic penile strangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Silvia I Lopes; Roberto N. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examin...

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    NR Anthonisen

    2007-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are...

  12. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) Phagocyte (purple) engulfing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (yellow). Credit: NIAID CGD is a genetic disorder in which white blood ...

  13. Chronic silent otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Michael M; Schachern, Patricia A; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2002-01-01

    Otitis media occurs along a continuum. For example, otitis media with effusion characterized by fluid pathology can lead to chronic otitis media plus chronic mastoiditis, characterized by the presence of intractable tissue pathology such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma or granulation tissue. The literature defines chronic otitis media as having a tympanic membrane perforation and otorrhea. Amongst many other sequelae, which can result from the continuum, an important common one is chronic silent otitis media. This overlooked entity which includes pathology beneath an intact tympanic membrane is commonly seen in our human temporal bone laboratory and in patients. The clinical pathological correlates of this important disease are discussed herein. PMID:12021496

  14. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  15. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  16. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  17. Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions: Its Stabilization and Demulsification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Abdurahman H.; Mohd. Yunus, R.; Anwaruddin, H.

    Traditional ways of breaking emulsions using heat and chemicals are disadvantageous from both economic and environmental perspectives. In this research, the potentials of microwave technology in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions are investigated. The study began with some characterization studies to provide understandings of fundamental issues such as formation, formulation and breaking of emulsions by both chemical and microwave approaches. The aim was to obtain optimized operating conditions as well as fundamental understanding of water-in-oil emulsion stability upon which further developments on demulsification processes could be developed. It was found that emulsion stability was related to some parameters such as, the surfactant concentration, water content, temperature and agitation speed. Experimental results found that microwave radiation method can enhance the demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions in a very short time compared to the conventional heating methods. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of microwave technology in demulsification of water-in-oil emulsion. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

  18. Crude oil and stock markets. Stability, instability, and bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the long-run relationship between the world price of crude oil and international stock markets over 1971:1-2008:3 using a cointegrated vector error correction model with additional regressors. Allowing for endogenously identified breaks in the cointegrating and error correction matrices, we find evidence for breaks after 1980:5, 1988:1, and 1999:9. There is a clear long-run relationship between these series for six OECD countries for 1971:1-1980.5 and 1988:2-1999.9, suggesting that stock market indices respond negatively to increases in the oil price in the long run. During 1980.6-1988.1, we find relationships that are not statistically significantly different from either zero or from the relationships of the previous period. The expected negative long-run relationship appears to disintegrate after 1999.9. This finding supports a conjecture of change in the relationship between real oil price and real stock prices in the last decade compared to earlier years, which may suggest the presence of several stock market bubbles and/or oil price bubbles since the turn of the century. (author)

  19. Numerical simualtions of fouling in crude-oil processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study are to achieve fundamental understanding of the transfer processes underlying the development of a fouling layer on the inside of heat exchangers used in crude-oil processing. The numerical models developed are based on the solution of the mass and momentum conservation equations, coupled to the energy transport equation. These are complemented by relations that capture the dependence of the layer density, viscosity, and surface tension on temperature. In order to capture ageing effects, the thermal conductivity of the layer is allowed to depend on temperature, and a functional form is chosen for its viscosity that accounts for dynamic structure-building and destruction. Importantly, a chemical equilibria model is used to model the phase behaviour of the oil, and this is also coupled to the governing equations. The turbulence in the fluid phase is modelled using large eddy simulations. Numerical solutions of the model equations are obtained in a channel geometry using a volume-of-fluid approach. Our results capture the complex fouling dynamics that include phase separation, wall-layer deposition, and removal. Skolkovo Foundation, UNIHEAT project.

  20. Effects of nitrogen source on crude oil biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of NH4Cl and KNO3 on biodegradation of light Arabian crude oil by an oil-degrading enrichment culture were studied in respirometers. In poorly buffered sea salts medium, the pH decreased dramatically in cultures that contained NH4Cl, but not in those supplied with KNO3. The ammonia-associated pH decline was severe enough to completely stop oil biodegradation as measured by oxygen uptake. Regular adjustment of the culture pH allowed oil biodegradation to proceed normally. A small amount of nitrate accumulated in all cultures that contained ammonia, but nitrification accounted for less than 5% of the acid that was observed. The nitrification inhibitor, nitrapyrin, had no effect on the production of nitrate or acid in ammonia-containing cultures. When the culture pH was controlled, either by regular adjustment of the culture pH or by supplying adequate buffering capacity in the growth medium, the rate and extent of oil biodegradation were similar in NH4Cl- and KNO3-containing cultures. The lag time was shorter in pH-controlled cultures supplied with ammonia than in nitrate-containing cultures. (author)

  1. Relative wetting properties of crude oils in Berea sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhee, J.W.; Crocker, M.E.; Donaldson, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-one oils were collected from 21 states and the wettability of each oil determined at both 25 and 60/sup 0/C. Independent wettability determinations were made on 21 samples incubated for a minimum of 1,000 hours at 60/sup 0/C. All determinations were made using Berea sandstone and a synthetic brine. The sulfur and nitrogen content, interfacial tension, and acid numbers were obtained and, while attempts wre made to correlate these parameters with wettability, no simple correlations were discovered. However, residual oil was demonstrated to be dependent upon wettability. For the range studied--that is, neutral to water-wet--residual oil saturations were observed to decrease as wettability varied from water-wet to neutral. The polar organic compounds were extracted from the crude oils, and the amount of extract was compared to the wetting properties of the oils, but considerable variance in the data was observed. However, addition of 5 percent polar extract to a mineral oil consistently lowered the wettability number of the mineral oil-brine-Berea sandstone system by an amount greater than 40 percent.

  2. Antioxidative properties of crude polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20μg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

  3. Markets panic, crude goes above $80, more trouble in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capture of two Israeli soldiers by Iranian-backed Hizbollah guerrillas operating out of Lebanon flared-up into a full-scale military confrontation, with Israeli attacks on Lebanon's energy infrastructure (see 'Looking Ahead'). Oil traders, fearing a wider Middle Eastern conflagration, bid-up the price of crude oil to new record levels. Prompt WTI futures hit $78.40/bbl on 14th July and three days later, prompt IPE Brent went to a record $78.18/bbl. The outer months rose even higher, with March, April and May WTI all above $80/bbl. Iran tried to dampen the markets by saying it would not use the oil weapon in support of its Hizbollah allies, and prices eventually eased. The seaborne trade in oil in the Eastern Mediterranean was disrupted by the closure of ports in Israel and Lebanon and a rise in insurance premiums for voyages to ports nearby. Outside the Levant, markets remained well-supplied with oil. (author)

  4. Markets panic, crude goes above $80, more trouble in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-08-15

    The capture of two Israeli soldiers by Iranian-backed Hizbollah guerrillas operating out of Lebanon flared-up into a full-scale military confrontation, with Israeli attacks on Lebanon's energy infrastructure (see 'Looking Ahead'). Oil traders, fearing a wider Middle Eastern conflagration, bid-up the price of crude oil to new record levels. Prompt WTI futures hit $78.40/bbl on 14th July and three days later, prompt IPE Brent went to a record $78.18/bbl. The outer months rose even higher, with March, April and May WTI all above $80/bbl. Iran tried to dampen the markets by saying it would not use the oil weapon in support of its Hizbollah allies, and prices eventually eased. The seaborne trade in oil in the Eastern Mediterranean was disrupted by the closure of ports in Israel and Lebanon and a rise in insurance premiums for voyages to ports nearby. Outside the Levant, markets remained well-supplied with oil. (author)

  5. Oxidation of heavy crude oil in different type of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal energy is used to extract heavy crude oil from their formations. This thermal energy can be introduced from the surface (hot injection) or it can be generated in-situ by burning a part of oil. Generation of thermal energy by burning part of oil in-situ, is known as in-situ combustion. Partial burning of oil during in-situ combustion involves various competing reactions occurring over different temperature ranges. These reactions are Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO), Medium Temperature Oxidation (MTO) and High Temperature Oxidation (HTO). Low Temperature oxidation take places when none or little carbon oxides are produced in effluent gas despite the rate of oxygen consumption being at its highest level. The result shows that the LTO reactions did not appear in consolidated formation, whereas in unconsolidated formation the LTO reactions occurred. The occurrence of LTO reaction in unconsolidated formation is attributed to increased bed thickness and better accessibility to the oil. Better accessibility and increased bed thickness favoured the LTO reactions. The presence of LTO reactions in in-situ combustion process has effected the pre-exponential constant and activation energy of the HTO reactions. With the occurrence of LTO reactions the amount and Hydrogen to carbon ratio of fuel also changed. Fassahi and direct Arrhenius methods were used to evaluate the kinetic parameters by assuming first order reaction rate with respect to carbon and oxygen concentrations. (author)

  6. Persistence of crude oil spills on open water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of reports on oil spill incidents around the world was conducted. A Microsoft access database was then compiled in which spill information parameters were identified. These include general information about when and where the spill occurred, weather, sea conditions, oil properties and cleanup methods. The available information was assessed to determine statistically significant relationships between spill persistence, spill size and spill persistence factors. The objective was to identify links between dissipation times for spills and spill size. Another objective was to determine quantitative relationships between on-water spill persistence and associated environmental factors; physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil; and, response effort parameters. A mathematical description of the persistence of crude oil spills at sea was developed using historical spill data. The results are used by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) to estimate probable durations for spill trajectories in the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. This study also refined the spill-size/spill-persistence correlation in terms of other variables such as oil type, weather and sea conditions and spill type. Correlation analyses were conducted on 3 data sets, indicating the importance of different variables and their dependencies. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs

  7. Assessing bioremediation of crude oil in soils and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard bulk property analytical methods currently being employed to evaluate crude oil bioremediation efficacy in soils provide no information concerning the mechanisms by which hydrocarbon losses are occurring (e.g., biodegradation versus leaching). Site/sample heterogeneity in field bioremediation projects may make it difficult to accurately quantify hydrocarbon losses due to biodegradation. To better understand the mechanisms by which losses are occurring and to accurately evaluate biodegradation rates, the hydrocarbon analytical methods must provide both quantitative and compositional information. In this study laboratory bioremediation experiments were used to compare the results of bulk property analytical methods with those methods used by petroleum geochemists that provide both quantitative and compositional data. A tecator extraction was used to isolate the total extractable matter (TEM) from the samples. Compositional changes were monitored by (1) column chromatography to determine class distributions, (2) high resolution gas chromatography with a flame-ionization detector (GC/FID) and (3) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Illustrations of the compositional changes detected by each method and their application to validating bioremediation are provided

  8. CRUDE PALM OIL AS A BIOADDITIVE IN POLYPROPYLENE BLOWN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  9. Ruminal kinectics of rations with different crude glycerin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Villalba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current consumption of glycerol is not enough to use all the glycerol that can be generated by high production levels of biodiesel, which could lead to irresponsible disposal of this residue in the environment. An alternative to consuming part of the glycerol produced is its use in animal feeding. An important assessment to be made before adding any ingredient in the diet of ruminants is if the new ingredient causes some change in the kinetics of ruminal organic matter. In this context, increasing levels of crude glycerin (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 g kg-1 dry matter were included in isonitrogen and isocaloric diets formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of a 300 kg beef cattle gaining 1.2 kg d -1, in order to evaluate possible effects of glycerol on the in vitro kinetics of organic matter degradation, Ph and ammonia ruminal levels, and microbial protein production. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine treatments and three replications. The maximum volume of gas produced by soluble and insoluble fractions, the rate of gas production by the degradation of the soluble fraction and insoluble fractions, the latency, the ruminal pH, the production of ammonia and of microbial protein did not differ among levels of glycerin. In contrast, the in vitro digestibility of dry matter, the organic matter and the fiber showed a linear increase with the inclusion of glycerin.

  10. Review of Alberta Crown Crude Oil Marketing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an independent evaluation of the operations of the private marketing agents that are currently marketing the Alberta Crown's share of royalty crude oil. The evaluation includes a review of pricing performance, working relationship, current issues and the overall performance of the marketing arrangements during the fiscal years of 1997 and 1998. Overall, the outsourcing of sales of Crown production to agents is judged to be successful. For example, it has been noted that agents are becoming more aggressive in maintaining and increasing their margins. On the other hand, the increased level of aggressiveness in marketing, while tending to maximize Crown revenues, is also creating a potential conflict on how margins should be shared between the Crown and its agents. Also, there has been evidence of some management issues between the agents and the Crown concerning the extent to which the Crown should share in any increased value which the agent generates by increased third party marketing activities. These differences need to be addressed in order to maintain the strong performance of the marketing program. The consultants also recommend additional guidelines on risk management issues that more clearly define the Crown's risk tolerance. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  12. Thermal coupling between crude distillation and delayed coking units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesu, V.; Bumbac, G.; Iancu, P. [University Politechnica of Bucharest (Romania). Centre for Technology Transfer in the Process Industries; Ivanescu, I. [SNP PETROM, Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, D.C. [SNP PETROM, INCERP Ploiesti Subsidiary, Ploiesti (Romania)

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents an industrial case study. Crude distillation unit (CDU) and delayed coking unit (DCU) are important plants in oil refineries, presenting huge energy consumption, especially due to high flowrates of process material streams. Any acceptable solution for energy saving is important in this context. The idea of thermal coupling between these two plants is good as they have potential to exchange energy, but the problem is to choose the most appropriate way to do it. The objective of this work is to present the possibility to exchange energy between the two plants, continuing a previous work [Energy saving by integration of CDU-delayed coke plants, third Conference, Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction - PRES 2000, P7.72], where a part of the solution was already presented. The difficulty to find a solution arisen from the fact that DCU is working semi-continuous. More insights in the process allowed finding new possibilities, more attractive for rational use of energy, with better applicability. A feasibility study will be performed to give also economic sound of all the implications for the modifications proposed. (author)

  13. Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

  14. Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Ume Kalsoom; Owais, Farah; Ahmad, Manzoor; Rizwani, Ghazala H

    2014-11-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) commonly referred as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit is used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. The study was conducted to find out the biochemical aspects of crude extract of whole fruit of M. charantia including seeds which includes blood test (Hemoglobin, RBC, Total leukocyte count, platelets count, HbA1C (Glycocylated heamoglobin Type A1C)), Lipid profile test and electrolyte balance. Hemoglobin (7.1±0.14), platelets count (827 ×109±1.95), Cholesterol level (111±2), HDL (high density lipoproteins) (20±1.22) at 10mg shows marked increase in values as compared to control. While 25 mg dose shows insignificant result. Electrolyte balance are found significant at 10mg and 25mg except bicarbonates (Na(+¬)=143±1.87, K-=3.45±0.35, Cl(-) =108±1.48). Another important property of M. charantia is the elevation of platelet counts, heamoglobin and specifically high-density lipoproteins (HDL). It also controls cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL at low dosage (10mg). Further studies can be conducted to find out which phytochemical components acts on specific biochemical activity. PMID:26045386

  15. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used. PMID:26530907

  16. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (i) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (ii) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption.

  17. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  18. Choosing how to boost waxy crude line flow depends on oil's qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Emam, N.A.; Bayoumi, A.W.A.; El-Gamal, I.M.; Abu-Zied, A. (Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-04-26

    In studies of methods for improving pipeline flow of waxy crudes, dilution by either gasoline or kerosene proved more effective than heating or the addition of flow improving chemicals. Gasoline proved the most effective diluent in the tests of three Egyptian crude oils. Another method - heating - also led to a significant improvement in the rheological properties of the tested crudes. Additionally, a computer program was developed that calculates the pressure-loss reduction resulting from the improved flow properties of the tested crudes regardless of the method used. This program led to the conclusion that dilution by gasoline is the best technique for one type of waxy crude represented by GPY-3, while heating is the best method for the other two crude types represented by M-96 and Khalda. Final selection of the suitable technique for a specific crude, however, must be decided not only on the basis of such technical considerations as are presented here, but also on the economics for each case. The paper describes the techniques; Casson equation; dilution; heating; chemical treatment; and affected pressure-loss.

  19. Physicochemical analysis and biomarker distributions in waxy crude oils from the lower Indus basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower Indus Basin, Sindh Province Pakistan, produces many small to medium petroleum reservoirs. The petroleum hydrocarbons mainly contain two types of oils, condensates (light crude oils) and waxy crude oils (higher wax contents). Condensates are highly thermal mature form of crude oils and do not contain enough molecular information for determination of biological origin. In this study only high wax contents containing crude oils were used for physicochemical analysis and biomarker were analyzed in wax fraction of crude oils. Physicochemical properties such as specific gravity, American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity, sulfur contents and pour points were analyzed from set of four crude oils. Asphaltenes were removed from crude oils and wax fraction was separated from maltenes fraction. The wax fractions were analyzed by high temperature gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HT-GC- FID). High molecular weight hydrocarbons have been reported in these wax samples up to C/sub 60/ n-alkanes. A cross plot of API gravity vs %wax content shows a decrease in API gravity with increase in wax content. Bio markers distribution indicates clearly a significant contribution of terrestrial organic matter in sediments producing these oils. (author)

  20. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: →The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. → The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. → There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  1. How crude oil consumption impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in twenty three Sub-Saharan African countries. We applied a multivariate panel Granger causality framework during 1985–2011 and we included crude oil price as the control variable of the model. The results indicate that in the short-run, there is a bi-directional causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in oil importing region and there is a uni-directional causality relationship from crude oil consumption to GDP in oil exporting region. However, in the long-run there is a bi-directional causality relationship between them in both regions. Therefore, reducing crude oil consumption without employing appropriate policies adversely impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, in order to reduce crude oil dependency of the region policymakers should pay more attention to the issue of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: ► We examined Granger causality among oil consumption and GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa. ► Crude oil price is the control variable of the model. ► There is short run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP (oil importing). ► There is short run uni-directional causality from oil to GDP (oil exporting). ► There is a long run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP in both regions

  2. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  3. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  4. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  5. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  6. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Some Polymeric Surfactants for Treating Crude Oil Emulsions Part :1 Treatment of Sandy Soil Polluted with Crude oil by Monomeric and Polymeric Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, five surfactants were prepared ; two of them were monomeric surfactants, one was anionic ( tri- ethanol ammonium salt of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid. E1) and the second was non-ionic surfactant ( nonyl phenol ethoxylate, E2 ). The other three surfactants were polymeric non-ionic surfactants ( ethoxylated phenol formaldehyde mono-ethanol amine E3, ethoxylated poly nonyl phenol formaldehyde diethanol amine E4, and ethoxylated nonyl phenol formaldehyde triethanol amine E5). The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the elemental analysis were carried out to determine the molecular weight of the polymeric surfactants. The surface properties for these surfactants were determined by measuring the surface tension, the foaming power, cloud point and the emulsification power. The polymeric surfactants were used to treat the polluted Sandy soil, which saturated with two type of crude oils ( waxy and asphaltenic). From the data obtained, it was found that the increasing of surfactant concentrations led to increase the reclamation of the waxy and asphaltinic crude oil percentages and decreased the interfacial tension. The reclaimed oil percentage increased with decreasing the HLB value of non-ionic surfactant. In general behavior, the reclamation of the asphaltenic crude oil was greater than the reclamation of the waxy crude oil. The data were discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the surfactants and composition of crude oil

  8. Managing your chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your chronic back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Managing chronic pain means finding ways to make your back pain tolerable so you can live your life. You may not be able to ...

  9. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.

  10. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle......, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who...

  11. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  12. Impact of the economic and financial crisis on the evolving trend of crude steel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Paliu-Popa, L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that the modern world cannot be conceived without the existence of the steel and its use, the crude steel consumption may be considered as an indicator characterizing the economic development of a country. The purpose of this paper is to establish the evolution of the world, regional and state consumption of crude steel, both per total, as well as per inhabitant, but also the impact of the economic and financial crisis it had on the evolving evolution of using the crude steel. Data subj...

  13. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  14. Effects of Mixing Conditions, Oil Type and Aqueous Phase Composition on Some Crude Oil Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    O. Omole; O.A. Falode

    2005-01-01

    The ease of formation of emulsions is described for some crude oil systems in which the mixing conditions, oil type, aqueous phase composition and concentration are varied. The most stable emulsions have quality that ranged between 10 and 20% while the least stable have quality that ranged between 50 and 60%. Droplet coalescence was highest at 2 min agitation and below 5000 rpm. Addition of 70% FY crude to BL crude caused 24% emulsion stability increase while a decrease of 50% in emulsion sta...

  15. Price relationships in the petroleum market. An analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes

  16. Price relationships in the petroleum market: an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  17. Causes for an asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisit the issue of asymmetries in the relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products in the United States. An econometric analysis of monthly data indicates that the asymmetric relationship between the price of crude oil and motor gasoline is generated by refinery utilization rates and inventory behavior. The asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and home heating oil probably is generated by contractual arrangements between retailers and consumers. Together, these results imply that price asymmetries may be generated by efficient markets. Under these conditions, there is little justification for policy interventions to reduce or eliminate price asymmetries in motor gasoline and home heating oil markets. (author)

  18. Impact of the economic and financial crisis on the evolving trend of crude steel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paliu-Popa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that the modern world cannot be conceived without the existence of the steel and its use, the crude steel consumption may be considered as an indicator characterizing the economic development of a country. The purpose of this paper is to establish the evolution of the world, regional and state consumption of crude steel, both per total, as well as per inhabitant, but also the impact of the economic and financial crisis it had on the evolving evolution of using the crude steel. Data subject to the study are related to the period 2004 – 2014 and concern nine regions of development and ten countries.

  19. Production and some properties of crude alkaline proteases of indigenous Central Amazonian rhizobia strains

    OpenAIRE

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira; Jerusa Souza Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Two rhizobia strains isolated from soils of the Central Amazonian floodplain produced appreciable quantities of crude alkaline protease extracts with inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources. These protease crude extracts were optimally active at pH 9.0-11.0. The optimum temperatures were 35 ºC for Rhizobium sp. strain R-986 and 55 ºC for Bradyrhizobium sp. strain R-993. Protease activities in the crude extracts were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM metal ions, such as Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+...

  20. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People About NINDS NINDS Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... en Español What is Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)? Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a neurological ...

  1. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  2. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  3. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  4. Influence of crude oil treatment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Environmental menace is linking with the unprecedented man-caused explosion and perspective global warming at the result of atmosphere pollution. If similar tendency is continued radical changing's will not happen in future which catastrophically reflects in ecology, climate of the planet, finally in the population health of the Earth. However, unfortunately one-sidedly economy increasing are chiefly directed to the oil-gas sector and from year to year amount increasing of means of transport causes man's impact to the environment. Further increasing of these processes obviously can lead to the dangerous ecological situation. In the economical and efficiency increasing process country population depend directly on the level of energy consumption. Application of nature-conservative measures and technology, promotional efficiency increasing of energy usage, its total usage decreasing, simultaneous reducing of hazardous substance lead to the considerable but cardinal results. That's why taking into consideration above mentioned circumstance, conclusion one is oil and gas saving, reducing of hazardous substance, we can greatly economize by the gradual way of natural energy replacement into renewable energy. In this connection, special interest for Azerbaijan creates high-grade potential solar radiation usage problem in several fields of national economy, especially in oil sector of the country. There is a real background for effective usage of high-grade potential solar radiation in Azerbaijan oil industry. As the process of primary crude oil treatment in the condition of oil fields for its further transportation to Oil Refining Plant the temperature is to be near 50-60 degrees to be very readily reached to various solar radiation engineering systems. On the base on the above mentioned for realizing this process we built and developed high-grade temperature solar plant with parabolic trough concentrator. Economy till 40% of national fuels (mazut, gas

  5. Characterization of crude oil-water and solid -water interfaces and adsorption / desorption properties of crude oil fractions: The effect of low salinity water and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Umer

    2010-09-15

    The reservoirs of conventional oil are rapidly depleting because of increased production and consumption of crude oil in the world. Mature and mostly depleted oil reservoirs require advanced recovery techniques to sustain the production rates. During the past years, a variety of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been developed and implemented to increase the oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an emerging EOR process of injecting water containing low concentrations (<4000 ppm) of total dissolved solids into the reservoir. This moderate cost process yields relatively higher incremental recoveries than other water based recovery methods. Investigation of mechanisms for increased recovery is quite challenging because this process depends upon complex crude oil/water/rock properties. This work was done to study the surface chemistry of typical reservoir surfaces where LSW can be used for EOR. The oil water and solid-water interfaces were characterised in low salinity aqueous solutions and investigated how the electrolytes and pH of solutions affect the interfacial and surface properties. The influence of low saline aqueous solution on the desorption behaviour of different fractions (acid-free oil and base-free oil) of crude oils was also explored. Reservoir minerals are sensitive to small changes in solution properties and therefore model, outcrop and reservoir particles were characterized in low salinity aqueous solutions. The extent of ionic adsorption on the mineral surfaces was found by various techniques. Particles were also characterized with respect to their elemental compositions. Asphaltene adsorption/desorption on reservoir rock surfaces play an important role in EOR processes. Various injection sequences of low saline aqueous solution of Na +, Ca2+ and sea water were considered to study the desorption of asphaltenes from silica surfaces. Composition of the aqueous phase influenced the interfacial properties of

  6. Effect of natural rubber processing sludge on the degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil-polluted soil (five parts of weathered crude oil per 100 parts of soil; equivalent to 50,000 mg oil kg-1 soil) samples were slurried in deionised water (300% of the water retention capacity of the soil) and treated with various amounts of natural-rubber processing sludge (nitrogen content 62.15 mgkg-1 and phosphorus contents 8.75 mgkg-1) in a well-stirred, continuously-aerated tank at 29oC. Changes in the total hydrocarbon content of the soil sample were determined, using a spectrophotometric technique, as a function of time. The extent of crude oil degradation was markedly higher (by up to 100%) in the sludge-treated soil than in the untreated soil sample. The efficiency of biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons using the slurry-phase technique was compared with that of solid-phase technique. (author)

  7. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    . For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...... 2 oils comprise crudes from the South Petén Basin. They have characteristics typical of carbonate-sourced oils, but these characteristics are less pronounced than those of Group 1 oils. A mixed marine/lacustrine source facies deposited under strongly reducing conditions in a local kitchen area...

  8. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the potential of in-situ burning (ISB), the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils (n-octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame...... height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  9. Progress and Outlook on Technologies for Processing Inferior Crude Oil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Qingtang

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth of the global petroleum refining industry and the main technologies and measures for China to process inferior crude oil were introduced. The main technologies and measures include the control over equipment corrosion induced by sour and acidic crude, in particular the corrosion of atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, the development of technology for processing inferior residue,and the development of desulfurization technology and sulfur recovery technology in the course of processing of petroleum products. In order to meet the needs for national economic development, China's refining enterprises will uninterruptedly develop and prefect technologies for processing inferior crude,enhance the process and equipment management, sum up the experience for better processing of inferior crude, so as to provide high-quality oil products and petrochemical feedstocks to public with better economic return.

  10. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: → We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. → A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. → Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  11. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  12. Estimation of crude oil grade using time-resolved fluorescence spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegazi, E.; Hamdan, A. [Laser Research Section, Center for Applied Physical Sciences Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 31261 Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-04-08

    Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) spectra of six crude oils from the eastern province of Saudi Arabia were excited using a pulsed laser radiation at 250 nm and measured at specific time gates (TG) within the leading and trailing edges of the laser temporal pulse. The spectra showed the presence of a shoulder near 380 nm that systematically decreased in intensity from high-grade to low-grade crudes, and also from earlier to later TGs. The intensities of these shoulders are shown to be useful in estimating the grades of crude oils, particularly when the TRF spectra are measured at TGs within the leading edge of the laser temporal pulse. Contour diagrams depicting the shapes of the TRF spectra as function of TG (within the leading and trailing edges) are also presented to serve as true fingerprints of the crudes.

  13. IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Golam Kibria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to observe invitro cytotoxic effect of methanolic crude extracts of Terminalia chebula (Family: Combretaceae. The bark of Terminalia chebula were soaked with methanol and then methanolic crude extract was fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions. The methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of Terminalia chebula were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate used as a positive control. From the results of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions of Terminalia chebula possess cytotoxic principles, (LC50 1.413 mg/mL, 1.492 mg/mL and 1.496 mg/mL respectively comparison with positive control, vincristine sulphate (LC50 0.563 mg/mL.

  14. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  15. Stability Study of Crude Dextransucrase from Leuconostoc citreum NRRL B-742.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Fontes, Claudia M L; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, the stability of crude dextransucrase from Leuconostoc citreum B-742 was evaluated in synthetic and in cashew apple juice culture broth. Optimum stability conditions for dextransucrase from L. citreum B-742 were different from the reported for its parental industrial strain enzyme (L. mesenteroides B-512F). Crude dextransucrase, from L. citreum B-742, produced using cashew apple juice as substrate, presented higher stability than the crude enzyme produced using synthetic culture medium, showing the same behavior previously reported for dextransucrase from L. mesenteroides B-512F. The crude enzyme presented good stability in cashew apple juice for 48 h at 25°C and pH 6.5. PMID:22654159

  16. The impact of crude oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the question of whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using cointegration tests. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined. (author)

  17. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  18. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General §...

  19. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General §...

  20. Dynamic Correlation between Stock Market Returns and Crude Oil Prices: Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike O. Kalu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the correlation of assets returns volatilities across different markets or segments of a market has practical value for portfolio selection and diversification, market regulation, and risk management. This paper therefore evaluates the nature of time-varying correlation between volatilities of stock market and crude oil returns in Nigeria using Dynamic Conditional Correlation-Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH model. Results from DCC-GARCH (1,1 model show evidence of volatility clustering and persistence in Nigeria stock market and crude oil returns. The results also show that there is no dynamic conditional correlation in ARCH effects between stock market returns and crude oil prices in Nigeria. The results further show that there is strong evidence of time-varying volatility correlation between stock market and crude oil returns volatility. The findings will help shape policy-making in risk management and market regulation in Nigeria.

  1. Measuring salinity in crude oils: Evaluation of methods and an improved procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Fortuny; Elisangela B. Silva; Agnaldo C. Filho; Rosana L.F.V. Melo; Marcio Nele; Raquel C.C. Coutinho; Alexandre F. Santos [Programa de Engenharia de Processos/Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    In this work, a novel procedure is developed to determine the amount of salt for crude oils in which the available laboratory techniques are unable to provide accurate salt content values. The technique is based on measuring the salinity of the wash water that is vigorously mixed with the crude oil (forming an emulsion) and then separating it from the water-in-oil emulsion by irradiating microwave energy during few minutes. This three step process involves the emulsification of the wash water exempt of salt in crude oil, followed by the recovery of the water by microwave heating and, finally, the analysis of the salt content using the classical Mohr's method titration procedure. The novel technique presented here was able to provide reliable information about the salt content on Brazilian crude oils, in a rapid manner, without need of unsafe time-consuming solvent extraction procedures. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. A reexamination of the crude oil price-unemployment relationship in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study begins by asking whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected employment and the rate of unemployment in the US. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between the rate of unemployment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impact of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in unemployment is exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in unemployment and the volatility of the price of crude oil and the percentage change in gross national product is examined

  3. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  5. Chronicity and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way of framing the study of ‘noncommunicable diseases’ within the more general area of chronic conditions. Focusing on Africa, it takes as points of departure the situation in Uganda, and the approach to health issues developed by a group of European and African colleagues...... over the years. It suggests a pragmatic analysis that places people's perceptions and practices within a field of possibilities shaped by policy, health care systems, and life conditions. In this field, the dimensions of chronicity and control are the distinctive analytical issues. They lead on to...... consideration of patterns of sociality related to chronic conditions and their treatment....

  6. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials: OIES paper: M39

    OpenAIRE

    Fattouh, Bassam

    2008-01-01

    We model crude oil price differentials as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using Caner and Hansen’s (2001) method. While standard unit root tests, such as the Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF), are inconclusive in some instances on whether oil price differentials follow a stationary process, the null hypothesis of unit root can be strongly rejected based on the threshold unit root test, even for crude oils with very different qualities. Our results also indicate ...

  7. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome A. Ramirez; Brown, Richard J.; Thomas J. Rainey

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can...

  8. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Maksim Belenkiy; Stefan Osborne

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuelefficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United S...

  9. Improving the Demulsification Process of Heavy Crude Oil Emulsion through Blending with Diluent

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, K. K.; Alade, A. O.; A.O. Arinkoola; A. Opawale

    2013-01-01

    In crude oil production from brown fields or heavy oil, there is production of water in oil emulsions which can either be controlled or avoided. This emulsion resulted in an increase in viscosity which can seriously affect the production of oil from sand phase up to flow line. Failure to separate the oil and water mixture efficiently and effectively could result in problems such as overloading of surface separation equipments, increased cost of pumping wet crude, and corrosion problems. Light...

  10. The composite barrel of retail prices and its relationship to crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper challenges assumptions about the relationship between refinery gate prices, retail prices paid by consumers and crude oil prices. The analysis presented here considers their relationship within the context of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's) composite barrel statistics, which includes taxes and other government policy effects on prices. Speed of adjustment and retail price response to taxes are analysed with respect to crude import prices. OPEC's composite barrel is explained and evaluated. Test results are summarized. (UK)

  11. Study on Catalytic Cracking of VGO Derived from Kazakhstan-Russian Mixed Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Yongsheng; Dong Yuancheng; Wei Gangling; Wang Jian

    2006-01-01

    The study on options for catalytic cracking of VGO derived from the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude was carried out in a small-scale riser FCC unit. The influence of several catalysts and the LCC-A additive for increasing propylene yield on the distribution and quality of FCC products was analyzed. This article sets forth the possible issues arising from processing the Kazakhstan-Russian mixed crude in FCC unit and the response measures to be adopted.

  12. Modulation of crude glycerol fermentation byClostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 towards theproduction of butanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, R.; Alves, M. M.; Rodrigues, L. R.

    2014-01-01

    High production yields and productivities are requisites for the development of an industrial butanol production process based on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. However, impurities present in this substrate and/or the concentration of glycerol itself can affect the microbial metabolism. In this work, the effect of crude glycerol concentration on the production of butanol and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 is studied. Also, the effect of acetate...

  13. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    OpenAIRE

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Lisa M. Gieg

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heav...

  14. Testing for Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Crude Oil Price Changes and Stock Market Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Anoruo, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines both the linear and nonlinear causal relationships between crude oil price changes and stock market returns for the United States. In particular, the study applied a battery of unit root tests to ascertain the time series properties of crude oil price changes and stock market returns. The linear and nonlinear causality tests were conducted through the standard VAR and the M-G frameworks, respectively. The results from both the linear and nonlinear unit root tests indicate ...

  15. The Relationships between Crude Oil Prices, Financial Performances and Share Prices of Oil and Gas Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying Gui

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationships between crude oil prices, financial performances and share prices of 233 studied oil and gas producers. Hamilton's (2003) study emphasized the significant correlation between increases in crude oil prices and US recessions. Hamilton (2010) also pointed out that almost all major economic downturns have been immediately preceded by a significant rise in oil prices. This study collects and uses all of the 233 worldwide listed oil and gas pr...

  16. A Model for the Global Crude Oil Market Using a Multi-Pool MCP Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a partial equilibrium model to describe the global crude oil market. Pricing on the global crude oil market is strongly influenced by price indices such as WTI (USA) and Brent (Northwest Europe). Adapting an approach for pool-based electricity markets, the model captures the particularities of these benchmark price indices and their influence on the market of physical oil. This approach is compared to a model with bilateral trade relations as is traditionally used in model...

  17. How toxic is oil? Investigating specific receptor-mediated toxic effects of crude and refined oils

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabie, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crude oils and refined oil products are major pollutants of the environment. Large oil spills, such as the recent blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, raise concerns about the long term health effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on wildlife and humans. In the environmental risk assessment of oils, narcosis (the disruption of an organism’s membrane structure) is the only mode of action assumed to determine the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons. However, several crude ...

  18. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Man Cai; Yong Nie; Chang-Qiao Chi; Yue-Qin Tang; Yan Li; Xing-Biao Wang; Ze-Shen Liu; Yunfeng Yang; Jizhong Zhou; Xiao-Lei Wu

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions ...

  19. Hypolipidemic activity of crude polyphenols from the leaves of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp in cholesterol fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Boruah, Dulal Chandra; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Tamuli, Sarojini; Kotoky, Jibon; Sharma, Dhirendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of crude polyphenol fraction from Clerodenrdon colebrookianum (CPCC) leaves in cholesterol fed rats. Crude polyphenol fraction was obtained from the ethyl acetate extract of Clerodenrdon colebrookianum (CC). Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral doses (0.25 g, 0.5 g and 1 g/kg b. w. /day) of the CPCC for a period of 28 days. Significant (p 

  20. Immunogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica Crude and Fractionated Antigens in Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra T. M; Arianpour N

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The immunogenicity of crude amoebic antigen and its fractions preparedfrom Entamoeba histolytica (NIH:200) was evaluated in experimental animals. Material and Methods: Forty two guinea pigs of either sex free from Entamoebainfection and aged around 3 to 4 weeks were randomly divided into 5 groups. The treatedgroups consisted of 8, 10, 6, and 8 animals and 10 animals served as controls. Crude amoebicextract and its chromatographed fractions were used to immunize the treated anima...

  1. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Teixeira Costa; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Paulo Bonomo; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Rodrigo Mateus; Roberio Rodrigues Silva; Alex Rezende Schio

    2014-01-01

    The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matt...

  2. CHANGES OF CRUDE PROTEIN CONTENT IN MALTING BARLEY INFLUENCED BY POSTHARVEST RIPENING

    OpenAIRE

    M. LÍŠKOVÁ; H FRANČÁKOVÁ; J. MAREČEK

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this experiment was to investigate to what extent post-harvest ripening and growing locality influenced changes of crude protein content in malting barley and values of Kolbach index in malt. Results revealed that already in the sixth week after harvest, amount of crude protein decreased and amount of Kolbach index increased, due to post-harvest ripening. Moreover climatic conditions during vegetation and harvest as well as the growing locality significantly influenced (P<0.001) the...

  3. ANTISEPTIC AND COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEEDS FROM NORTH EAST OF NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    NWAIWU N.E.; W. I. Ibrahim; RAUFU I.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the difference between the antimicrobial and coagulation activity of crude extracts of Moringa oleifera grown in different parts of North East, Nigeria. Moringa oleifera seeds were plucked from trees in three states of the North East Nigeria namely Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States. The results indicated that crude aqueous extracts of Borno Moringa oleifera, Yobe Moringa oleifera and Adamawa Moringa oleifera showed different degrees of growth inhibitions to ...

  4. Crude oil prices and petroleum inventories : remedies for a broken oil price forecasting model

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The empirical relationship between crude oil prices and petroleum inventories has been exploited in a number of short-term oil price forecasting models. Some of the models are based on the perception that an unexpected inventory level indicates an imminent price change, implicitly assuming that imbalances between crude oil supply and demand affect inventories before price. The last years these "relative inventory level" models have failed, in the sense that they have consistently under-pr...

  5. The crude oil market and the gold market: Evidence for cointegration, causality and price discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Jun Zhang; Yi-Ming Wei

    2009-01-01

    Given that the gold market and the crude oil market are the main representatives of the large commodity markets, it is of crucial practical significance to analyze their cointegration relationship and causality, and investigate their respective contribution, from the perspective of price discovery, to the common price trend so as to interpret the dynamics of the whole large commodity market and forecast the fluctuation of crude oil and gold prices. Empirical analysis indicates that, firstly, ...

  6. Study on Process for Manufacturing Heavy Traffic Asphalt from Gudong Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zijun; Long Jun; She Yucheng

    2004-01-01

    The Gudong crude from Gudao oil-bearing region in the Shengli oilfield was used as the target for studying the process of manufacturing heavy traffic road asphalt. The heavy traffic road asphalt products can be made from Gudong crude through blending residuum from mild thermal conversion of vacuum resid with extract, blending the deoiled asphalt from VR propane deasphalting with vacuum resid and the extract, and blending of oxidizedhard asphalt originated from VR with the extract.

  7. Mercury in extraction and refining process of crude oil and natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Subirachs Sanchez, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil and natural gas are predominantly composed by hydrocarbon atoms, water and a wide spectrum of elements at low levels such as arsenic, vanadium and mercury. The presence of mercury in crude oil and natural gas varies in each stage of extraction and transformation process because it distributes unequally among the vapour, condensate and aqueous phase in function of the pressure and temperature. Mercury causes a wide range of problems for refiners as for example: equipment degradati...

  8. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  9. Characterization and Classification of Crude Oils Using a Combination of Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Peinder, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to the utility of chemometric models to predict long residue (LR) and short residue (SR) properties of a crude oil directly from its absorption or magnetic resonance spectrum. Such a combined spectroscopic-chemometric approach might offer a fast alternative for the elaborate crude oil assays that are currently used in petrochemical industries. Six different spectroscopic techniques have been explored: infrared (IR), near IR (NIR), Raman, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR and 13C-NM...

  10. Interaction of different crude oils with model shoreline surfaces : Adsorption and wettability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kjemperud, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    To improve shoreline cleanup operations in the current oil spill response systems, a better understanding of the interactions between the spilled crude oil and the shoreline surfaces is required. The objective of this study was to investigate how the interactions between model shorelines and different crude oils are affected by the difference in chemical composition between the oils. How long the oil has been at sea before the interaction, the weathering of the oil, was also studied. The effe...

  11. Unbiasedness and time varying risk premia in the crude oil futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some empirical evidence on market efficiency and unbiasedness in the crude oil futures market and some related issues. On the basis of monthly observations on spot and futures prices of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil, several tests are carried out on the relevant hypotheses. The evidence suggests that futures prices are neither unbiased nor efficient forecasters of spot prices. Furthermore, a GARCH-M(1,1) model reveals the existence of a time varying risk premium. (author)

  12. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B.; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C; Burback, Brian L.; Graves, Steven W.; Psurny, Edward; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent patte...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora leaves against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana S. Fiuza; Sabóia Morais, Simone M.T.; José R. Paula; Leonice M.F. Tresvenzol; Carmo Filho, José R.; Fabiana C Pimenta

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. leaves against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 72 P. aeruginosa isolated from patients of three hospitals in Goiânia and 8 standard strains were selected to test antimicrobial activity. The bacteria susceptibility profile against 15 antimicrobial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the crude ethanol extract and the et...

  14. Forecasting Crude Oil Price and Stock Price by Jump Stochastic Time Effective Neural Network Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wang; Huopo Pan; Fajiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    The interacting impact between the crude oil prices and the stock market indices in China is investigated in the present paper, and the corresponding statistical behaviors are also analyzed. The database is based on the crude oil prices of Daqing and Shengli in the 7-year period from January 2003 to December 2009 and also on the indices of SHCI, SZCI, SZPI, and SINOPEC with the same time period. A jump stochastic time effective neural network model is introduced and applied to...

  15. PAH uptake by juvenile rainbow trout exposed to dispersed crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, S.D.; Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2003-07-01

    Oil spills on water are sometimes treated with dispersants which may pose an increased risk to aquatic organisms by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This study examined the effects of dispersant Corexit EC9500, on the exposure of fish to 3 kinds of crude oil of varying viscosities These included Mesa sour crude, Terra Nova crude, and Scotian Light crude. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 48 hours to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction (CEWAF) of each crude oil. The fish livers were then removed and assayed for cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme activity, a reliable indicator of exposure to low concentrations of PAH. The study demonstrated an increase in exposure of fish to hydrocarbons with dispersion for all 3 oils. Results confirm that PAHs are primarily responsible for CYP1A induction in fish. Less CEWAF is needed to increase PAH concentrations in water compared to WAF. It was concluded that the risk to pelagic fish species from PAH toxicity could be enhanced by chemical dispersion. Mesa sour crude was considered to have the greatest potential sublethal effect on fish. Future tests will focus on determining the toxicity to pelagic embryos and larvae. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新

    2008-01-01

    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  17. Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-liang; WU Yue-ting; QIAN Xin-ping; MENG Qin

    2005-01-01

    The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain ofPseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, 1 g/L glycerol or 0.22 g/L rhamnolipid was initially added into the medium to facilitate the biodegradation of crude oil. In both situations, more than 58% of crude oil was degraded and further converted into accumulated cell biomass and rhamnolipids. These results suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa could degrade most of crude oil with direct or indirect addition of rhamnolipid. And this conclusion was further supported by another adsorption experiment, where the adsorption capacity of crude oil by killed cell biomass was negligible in comparison with the biologic activities of live cell biomass.

  18. Non-Newtonian steady shear flow characteristics of waxy crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄树新; 陈鑫; 鲁传敬; 侯磊; 范毓润

    2008-01-01

    The experimental research on the non-Newtonian flow characteristic of a waxy crude oil was conducted through a rotational parallel-plates rheometer system.The test temperature is about 6.5 ℃ higher than its gel point.The shear stress and viscosity of the waxy crude oil show sophisticate non-Newtonian characteristics in the shear rate of 10-4-102 s-1,in which the shear stress can be divided into three parts qualitatively,i.e.stress-up region,leveling-off region,and stress-up region.This indicates that there is a yielding process in shearing for the waxy crude oil at the experimental temperature,which is similar to the yield phenomenon in thixotropy-loop test discussed by CHANG and BOGER.Furthermore,the steady shear experiment after the pre-shear process shows that the stress leveling-off region at low shear rate disappears for the waxy crude oil and the stress curve becomes a monotonic climbing one,which demonstrates that the internal structure property presenting through yielding stress at low shear rate can be changed by shearing.The experimental results also show that the internal structure of waxy crude oil presenting at low shear rate has no influence on the shear viscosity obtained at the shear rate higher than 0.1 s-1.The generalized Newtonian model is adopted to describe the shear-thinning viscosity property of the waxy crude oil at high shear rate.

  19. Aminated Copolymers as Flow Improvers for Super-viscous Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Shen Benxian

    2007-01-01

    The new flow improvers for super-viscous crude oils were developed via esterification of polybasic high carbon alcohol with methacrylate and copolymerization of monomers followed by amination of copolymers.The structure of the synthesized polymer flow improver additive was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of the flow improver additives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.The structure of wax crystals was also studied at the same time.The results showed that the wax crystal structure was closely related with the crystal structure of the flow improver,which could change the pour point depression and viscosity reduction behavior of the crude oil.When the wax crystal structure matched well with that of the additive,the Wax crystals were dispersed satisfactorily,resulting in favorable effects in terms of pour point depression and viscosity reduction.The new synthesized aminated polymer flow improver additive was most efficient for treating super-viscous crude oils.The super-viscous crude oil had a high content of resins and asphaltenes,which might aggregate onto the surface of wax crystals to form blocks to limit the crude oil fluidity.However,amination of copolymers having similar structure with the resins and asphaltenes contained in crude oil could dissolve the huge polar groups to make the deposit formation difficult.

  20. Forecasting crude oil price with an EMD-based neural network ensemble learning paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based neural network ensemble learning paradigm is proposed for world crude oil spot price forecasting. For this purpose, the original crude oil spot price series were first decomposed into a finite, and often small, number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then a three-layer feed-forward neural network (FNN) model was used to model each of the extracted IMFs, so that the tendencies of these IMFs could be accurately predicted. Finally, the prediction results of all IMFs are combined with an adaptive linear neural network (ALNN), to formulate an ensemble output for the original crude oil price series. For verification and testing, two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price and Brent crude oil spot price, are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed EMD-based neural network ensemble learning methodology. Empirical results obtained demonstrate attractiveness of the proposed EMD-based neural network ensemble learning paradigm. (author)

  1. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time. PMID:26615815

  2. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  3. A new continuous-time formulation for scheduling crude oil operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's competitive business climate characterized by uncertain oil markets, responding effectively and speedily to market forces, while maintaining reliable operations, is crucial to a refinery's bottom line. Optimal crude oil scheduling enables cost reduction by using cheaper crudes intelligently, minimizing crude changeovers, and avoiding ship demurrage. So far, only discrete-time formulations have stood up to the challenge of this important, nonlinear problem. A continuous-time formulation would portend numerous advantages, however, existing work in this area has just begun to scratch the surface. In this paper, we present the first complete continuous-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for the short-term scheduling of operations in a refinery that receives crude from very large crude carriers via a high-volume single buoy mooring pipeline. This novel formulation accounts for real-world operational practices. We use an iterative algorithm to eliminate the crude composition discrepancy that has proven to be the Achilles heel for existing formulations. While it does not guarantee global optimality, the algorithm needs only MILP solutions and obtains excellent maximum-profit schedules for industrial problems with up to 7 days of scheduling horizon. We also report the first comparison of discrete- vs. continuous-time formulations for this complex problem. (Author)

  4. Western Canadian crude oil supply and markets 2002-2010 : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forecast of crude supply developed by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) indicates that additional pipeline capacity from western Canada to existing new markets will be required. A crude market study was undertaken to investigate and assess the potential development of the North American crude markets along with expected western Canadian crude supply growth. The results revealed that additional crude export capacity from Alberta will be required by 2006 or 2007. An analysis of three export pipeline scenarios was carried out: (1) Hardisty to Chicago, with a further extension to Cushing, Oklahoma, (2) Edmonton to the west coast of British Columbia, Prince Rupert, and (3) Hardisty to California. The most attractive aggregate benefits to heavy crude producers would result from a western export pipeline to British Columbia or California. A superior alternative is a pipeline to a deepwater tanker terminal on the coast of British Columbia. The Chicago pipeline option would become more attractive if Midwestern refiners were to expand their capacity to process heavy oil. Declining netbacks associated with sustained growth that is introduced into the market place are reflected in all scenarios over the forecast period until 2010. 1 tab., 23 figs

  5. EFFECT OF BUNGARUS MULTICINCTUS CRUDE VENOM AND ITS COMPONENTS ON TUMOR CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 刘洁生; 高洁; 杨维东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To confirm whether Bungarus multicinctus crude venom induces the apoptosis of K562 tumor cells and to find out the components inducing apoptosis of K562 cells from the crude venom. Methods: the crude venom separated and purified by cation exchange chromatography, and the effect of venoms on K562 was studied by MTT method and flow cytometry. Results: The crude venom began to kill K562 cells at than 8(103ng/ml (the survival rate was 82.5%) concentration and the effect was more significant in 24 h when administrating 8(105ng/ml (the survival rate was 29.4%) crude venom. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the K562 tumor cells by fluorescent microscopy after administration of 5 (g/ml cycloheximide (CHX) or the peak VI solution at about 8(105 ng/ml. The same results were detected by the flow cytometry. A sub-G1 peak appeared after administration of CHX or the sixth peak solution. Conclusion: The authors found that the venom can kill K562 tumor cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. However, the killing effect of the venom is not apoptosis. What's more, the peak VI solution, a component of the crude venom can induce the apoptosis of K562 tumor cells.

  6. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The rheological properties of heavy crude oil have a significant impact on the production, refining and transportation. In this paper, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the effects of the addition of light crude oil and emulsification on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil. The simulation results reflected that the addition of light crude oil reduced the viscosity effectively. The shear thinning behaviour of crude oil mixtures were becoming less distinct as the increase of the mass fraction of light crude oil. According to the statistics, the shear had an influence on the aggregation and spatial orientation of asphaltene molecules. In addition, the relationship between the viscosity and the oil mass fraction was investigated in the simulations of emulsion systems. The viscosity increased with the oil mass fraction slowly in oil-in-water emulsions. When the oil mass fraction was higher than 50%, the increase became much faster since systems had been converted into water-in-oil emulsions. The equilibrated morphologies of emulsion systems were shown to illustrate the phase inversion. The surfactant-like feature of asphaltenes was also studied in the simulations.

  7. Characterization and evaporation of Pina crude oil spilled at sea and on beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical and chemical properties of Pina crude oil are analyzed, and the evaporation of this same crude oil spilled at sea and on calcareous type beach sand is described. The properties were analyzed for future uses in simulations of oil spills at sea. Among the parameters used in the characterization are specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, hydrocarbon groups, sulphur content, distillation, and interfacial and surface tension. In the evaporation process, the influence of layer thickness of crude oil and the influence of the height of the air chamber for the same thickness of crude oil at different wind velocities and conditions was of particular interest. The evaporated fraction was also correlated with the time and qualitative and quantitative variation of the components of the crude oil were studied by gas chromatography. The maximum per cent of evaporation over a 28 day period was 39 per cent at sea and 35.4 per cent when the same crude was spilled on sand. 5 refs., 6 figs

  8. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  9. Crude-oil and natural-gas stocks in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order that Western-European countries (WECs) can remain economically stable, they must maintain uninterrupted and adequate supplies of energy: at present, these largely take the form of crude oil and natural gas. The analysis of stocks held by WECs and movements of crude oil and natural gas from other regions to Western Europe have highlighted the need for a well-defined Western European security energy-supplies policy embracing all WECs. If an energy crisis then occurred, resources could be pooled so that no single country, within the European Community, could be held to ransom. The detailed movements of crude oil and natural gas from exporting countries to individual WECs have been established, along with the crude-oil and natural-gas movements within the European Community itself. Stock levels for crude oil and natural gas for WECs have also been itemised along with estimated days-forward consumption for each country. As a result, the requirements to be included in a security policy for crude oil and natural gas for Western Europe have become much easier to determine. (Author)

  10. Naphthenic acid characterization and distribution in crude oils; Caracterizacao e distribuicao de acidos naftenicos em petroleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Naphthenic acid corrosion was observed for the first time during the distillation process of some kind of crude oils in 1920. Recent reports about naphthenic acid corrosion have been found in China, India, Venezuela, Eastern Europe, Russia and the USA. In Brazil, heavy and acid crude oil processing is rising. Some brazilian crude oils have TAN around 3,0 mg KOH/g. The presence of relatively high levels of naphthenic acids in crude oils is a bane of petroleum refiners; and more recently, of producers as well, who have reported problems during production with calcium and sodium naphthenate . Essentially, these acids which are found to greater or lesser extent in virtually all crude oils are corrosive and tend to cause equipment failures, lead to high maintenance costs and may pose environmental disposal problems. In order to give these information to PETROBRAS, The Research and Development Center of PETROBRAS (CENPES) has been working in house and with brazilian universities developing analytical technicians to know better molecular structures and distribution of these acids compounds in crude oils. This work presents the actual methods and some results from these developments. (author)

  11. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  12. Anemia of chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  13. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Already a member? Log In or Sign Up Home About Us Support the ACPA Contact Us Shop ... for Understanding Pain September is Pain Awareness Month Home Pain Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? ...

  14. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  15. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after a period of time the spinal cord has changed, after a period of time there are ... absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological basis even when we ...

  16. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... acute pain and both naturally expect that some cause will be found, and when it’s found, it ... pain even in the absence of an apparent cause. But chronic pain has a physiological or neurological ...

  17. Chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney W; Lee, Robert J; Schleimer, Robert P; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of medical conditions associated with chronic sinonasal inflammation, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and cystic fibrosis. In particular, CRS can be divided into 2 major subgroups based on whether nasal polyps are present or absent. Unfortunately, clinical treatment strategies for patients with chronic sinonasal inflammation are limited, in part because the underlying mechanisms contributing to disease pathology are heterogeneous and not entirely known. It is hypothesized that alterations in mucociliary clearance, abnormalities in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, and tissue remodeling all contribute to the chronic inflammatory and tissue-deforming processes characteristic of CRS. Additionally, the host innate and adaptive immune responses are also significantly activated and might be involved in pathogenesis. Recent advancements in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis are highlighted in this review, with special focus placed on the roles of epithelial cells and the host immune response in patients with cystic fibrosis, CRS without nasal polyps, or CRS with nasal polyps. PMID:26654193

  18. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very commonly used to treat chronic hypertension. This drug class can cause problems in the fetus, in- cluding an increased risk of birth de- fects 4 and kidney failure. Angiotensin II receptor blockers also should be avoided ...

  19. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  20. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...