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Sample records for chronic constriction injury

  1. Baclofen reversed thermal place preference in rats with chronic constriction injury.

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    Salte, K; Lea, G; Franek, M; Vaculin, S

    2016-06-20

    Chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve was used as an animal model of neuropathic pain. Instead of frequently used reflex-based tests we used an operant thermal place preference test to evaluate signs of neuropathic pain and the effect of baclofen administration in rats with neuropathy. Chronic constriction injury was induced by four loose ligations of the sciatic nerve. Thermal place preference (45 °C vs. 22 °C and 45 °C vs. 11 °C) was measured after the ligation and after the administration of baclofen in sham and experimental rats. Rats with the chronic constriction injury spent significantly less time on the colder plate compared to sham operated animals at the combination 45 °C vs. 11 °C. After administration of baclofen (10 mg/kg s.c.), the aversion to the colder plate in rats with chronic constriction injury disappeared. At the combination 45 °C vs. 22 °C, no difference in time spent on colder and/or warmer plate was found between sham and experimental animals. These findings show the importance of cold allodynia evaluation in rats with chronic constriction injury and the effectiveness of baclofen in this neuropathic pain model. PMID:26447518

  2. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

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    Kaur, Gurpreet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. PMID:25673470

  3. Silencing of Id2 Alleviates Chronic Neuropathic Pain Following Chronic Constriction Injury.

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    Jiang, Liuming; Wu, Qun; Yang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (Id2) belongs to a helix-loop-helix family of proteins. Recent studies have showed that Id2 plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival and neuroprotection. However, under neuropathic pain conditions, the role of Id2 is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Id2 on neuropathic pain in a rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Our results demonstrated that Id2 was upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in a CCI rat in a time-dependent manner. Intrathecal short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Id2 attenuates mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats, and inhibits the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the DRG in CCI rats. Furthermore, knockdown of Id2 reduces the expression of NF-κB p65 in the DRG of CCI rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that knockdown of Id2 may alleviate neuropathic pain by inhibiting the NF-κB activation to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, Id2 may provide an important target of neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:26768262

  4. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan; Palanichamy Shanmugam; Uma M. Krishnan; Arunachalam Muthuraman; Nirmal Singh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reac...

  5. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo-Yi Li; Lan Meng; Nan Ji; Fang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models,but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined.We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI).Methods:The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL).Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group.The contralateral SN served as a control.The MWT and TWL were determined again 2,4,6,8,10,12,and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment.On day 14,ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy.Results:Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P =0.000).In the PRF group,MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P =0.000),while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05).Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group.Conclusions:Hyperalgesia is relieved,and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  6. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

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    Duo-Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI. Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL. Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000. In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000, while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05. Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  7. The Effect of Alternating Current Iontophoresis on Rats with the Chronic Constriction Injury to the Infraorbital Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Shimada; Haruhisa Fukayama; Masahiro Umino; Yoko Yamazaki

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of AC iontophoresis on rats with the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the infraorbital nerve by animal experiments. CCI model rats were divided into four groups, namely, rats that received general anesthesia for 60 min except AC IOP (CCI: n = 5), AC IOP with 0.9% physiological saline for 60 min (CCI + saline AC IOP: n = 5), AC IOP with 4% lidocaine hydrochloride for 60 min (CCI + lidocaine AC IOP: n = 5), and attachment of two electrodes soaked with ...

  8. Etanercept decreases HMGB1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neuron cells in a rat chronic constriction injury model

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, RUI-KE; Zhang, Qin-Qin; PAN, YUN-DAN; Guo, Qu-Lian

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of etanercept on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron cells in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, with the aim of exploring the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of etanercept on sciatica-related nociception and the potential interaction between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and HMGB1 in DRG neuron cells. A rat CCI model was employed and the anima...

  9. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

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    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  10. Expression changes of parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 induced by chronic constriction injury in rat dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ming-hui; JI Feng-tao; LIU Ling; LI Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Parvalbumin (PV), as a mobile endogenous calcium buffer, plays an important role in affecting temporospatial characteristics of calcium transients and in modulating calcium homeostasis. PV is expressed in neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn and may be involved in synaptic transmission through regulating cytoplasm calcium concentrations. But the exact role of PV in peripheral sensory neurons remains unknown.Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), belonging to structural microtubule-associated protein family, is especially vulnerable to acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, and there will be rapid loss of MAP-2 at the injury site. The present study investigated the changes of PV expressing neurons and the MAP-2 neurons in the DRG after an operation for chronic constriction injury to the unilateral sciatic nerve (CCI-SN), in order to demonstrate the possible roles of PV and MAP-2 in transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive information.Methods Seventy-two adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 180-220 g, were randomly divided into two groups (36 rats in each group), the sham operation group and chronic constriction injury (CCI) group. Six rats in each group were randomly selected to receive mechanical and thermal sensitivity tests at one day before operation and 1,3, 5,7, and 14 days after surgery. After pain behavioral test, ipsilateral lumbar fifth DRGs were removed and double immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression changes of PV and of MAP2 expressing neurons in the L5 DRG before or after surgery.Results The animals with CCI-SN showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Both the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia decreased to their lowest degree at 7 days after surgery compared to the baseline before surgery (P<0.01). In normal rats before surgery, a large number of neurons were MAP-2 single labeled cells, and just a small number of PV

  11. The effect of alternating current iontophoresis on rats with the chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yoko; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Shimada, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of AC iontophoresis on rats with the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the infraorbital nerve by animal experiments. CCI model rats were divided into four groups, namely, rats that received general anesthesia for 60 min except AC IOP (CCI: n = 5), AC IOP with 0.9% physiological saline for 60 min (CCI + saline AC IOP: n = 5), AC IOP with 4% lidocaine hydrochloride for 60 min (CCI + lidocaine AC IOP: n = 5), and attachment of two electrodes soaked with 4% lidocaine hydrochloride to the facial skin for 60 min (CCI + attach lidocaine: n = 5). In the CCI + lidocaine AC IOP group, an elevated withdrawal threshold was observed after AC IOP, and the duration of efficacy was longer compared with that in the CCI + saline AC IOP and CCI + attached lidocaine groups. A significant decrease in the number of Fos-like immunoreactive (LI) cells was observed in the CCI + lidocaine AC IOP group compared with that in the CCI group. These findings suggest that the effect of CCI + lidocaine AC IOP group may be caused by active permeation of lidocaine into the facial skin and electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nucleus. PMID:22675357

  12. JAB1 is Involved in Neuropathic Pain by Regulating JNK and NF-κB Activation After Chronic Constriction Injury.

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    Chen, Yan; Chen, Xiangdong; Yu, Jiang; Xu, Xingguo; Wei, Xiaojia; Gu, Xiaoling; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Dongmei; Xu, Zhongling

    2016-05-01

    Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system, is a severe debilitating condition with which clinical treatment remains challenging. Jun activation domain-binding protein (JAB1) is a multifunctional protein that participates in several signaling pathways, controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the expression and possible function of JAB1 in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of JAB1. Here, employing a neuropathic pain model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) on rats, we reported the role of JAB1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. By western blot, we found that CCI markedly up-regulated JAB1 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord. Immunofluorescent assay demonstrated that JAB1 was extensively localized in IB4-, CGRP- and NF200-positive neurons in the injured L5 DRG, and mainly co-localized with NeuN in spinal cord. In addition, we showed that CCI induced phosphorylation of p65 and JNK in vivo. Intrathecal injection of JAB1 siRNA significantly attenuated the CCI-induced JNK and p65 phosphorylation and alleviated both mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in rats. Taken together, these results suggested that JAB1 promotes neuropathic pain via positively regulating JNK and NF-κB activation. PMID:26700435

  13. Calbindin-D-28K like immunoreactivity in superficial dorsal horn neurons and effects of sciatic chronic constriction injury.

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    Stebbing, M J; Balasubramanyan, S; Smith, P A

    2016-06-01

    The neuropathic pain that results from peripheral nerve injury is associated with alterations in the properties of neurons in the superficial spinal laminae. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the rat sciatic nerve increases excitatory synaptic drive to excitatory neurons in the substantia gelatinosa while limiting that to inhibitory neurons. Since the calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K has been associated with excitatory neurons, we examined whether CCI altered the properties of neurons expressing calbindin-like immunoreactivity (Cal+). These account for 30% of the neurons in lamina I and II. Calbindin did not co-localize with any particular electrophysiological phenotype of neuron; in substantia gelatinosa, it was found in some tonic, delay, irregular, phasic and transient firing neurons and in some cells that displayed central, radial or vertical morphology. When neuronal phenotype was defined more precisely in terms of both morphology and electrophysiological properties, no strong correlation with calbindin expression was found. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) in calbindin negative (Cal-) neurons was greater than that in Cal+ neurons. CCI did not alter the proportion of Cal+ neurons in the dorsal horn. Although CCI promoted a fourfold increase in sEPSC frequency in Cal+ neurons, sEPSC amplitude was reduced by 22% and charge transfer per second was unchanged. Since synaptic drive to Cal+ neurons is weak and there is no firm correlation between neuronal phenotype and calbindin expression, it is doubtful whether these neurons play a major role in the generation of central sensitization. PMID:26975894

  14. Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury

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    Jurairat Khongrum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ (single injection, 65 mg kg-1 BW, i.p. Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  15. Enhanced Expression of TREK-1 Is Related with Chronic Constriction Injury of Neuropathic Pain Mouse Model in Dorsal Root Ganglion.

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    Han, Hyo Jo; Lee, Seung Wook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kwon, Byeonghun; Kang, Dawon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Seo, Kwang-Suk

    2016-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex state showing increased pain response with dysfunctional inhibitory neurotransmission. The TREK family, one of the two pore domain K⁺ (K2P) channel subgroups were focused among various mechanisms of neuropathic pain. These channels influence neuronal excitability and are thought to be related in mechano/thermosensation. However, only a little is known about the expression and role of TREK-1 and TREK-2, in neuropathic pain. It is performed to know whether TREK-1 and/ or 2 are positively related in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of a mouse neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Following this purpose, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were performed using mouse DRG of CCI model and compared to the sham surgery group. Immunofluorescence staining of isolectin- B4 (IB4) and TREK were performed. Electrophysiological recordings of single channel currents were analyzed to obtain the information about the channel. Interactions with known TREK activators were tested to confirm the expression. While both TREK-1 and TREK-2 mRNA were significantly overexpressed in DRG of CCI mice, only TREK-1 showed significant increase (~9 fold) in western blot analysis. The TREK-1-like channel recorded in DRG neurons of the CCI mouse showed similar current-voltage relationship and conductance to TREK-1. It was easily activated by low pH solution (pH 6.3), negative pressure, and riluzole. Immunofluorescence images showed the expression of TREK-1 was stronger compared to TREK-2 on IB4 positive neurons. These results suggest that modulation of the TREK-1 channel may have beneficial analgesic effects in neuropathic pain patients. PMID:27133259

  16. Loss of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in synapses of tonic firing substantia gelatinosa neurons in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.

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    Chen, Yishen; Derkach, Victor A; Smith, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Synapses transmitting nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn undergo enduring changes following peripheral nerve injury. Indeed, such injury alters the expression of the GluA2 subunit of glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the substantia gelatinosa and this predicts altered channel conductance and calcium permeability, leading to an altered function of excitatory synapses. We therefore investigated the functional properties of synaptic AMPA receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons following 10-20d chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve; a model of neuropathic pain. We measured their single-channel conductance and sensitivity to a blocker of calcium permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs), IEM1460 (50μM). In putative inhibitory, tonic firing neurons, CCI reduced the average single-channel conductance of synaptic AMPAR from 14.4±3.5pS (n=12) to 9.2±1.0pS (n=10, pnerve injury acting at synapses of inhibitory neurons to reduce their drive and therefore inhibitory tone in the spinal cord, therefore contributing to the central sensitization associated with neuropathic pain. PMID:26948545

  17. Morin Mitigates Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI)-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Induced PARP Over-Activation and Neuroinflammation.

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    Komirishetty, Prashanth; Areti, Aparna; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is initiated or caused due to the primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system and is proposed to be linked to a cascade of events including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress aggravates the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration through poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) overactivation. Hence, the present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the phytoconstituent; morin in chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathy. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction of the left sciatic nerve in rats, and the effect of morin (15 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated by measuring behavioural and biochemical changes. Mechanical, chemical and thermal stimuli confirmed the CCI-induced neuropathic pain and treatment with morin significantly improved these behavioural deficits and improved the sciatic functional index by the 14th day after CCI induction. After 14 days of CCI induction, oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammatory markers were elevated in rat lumbar spinal cord. Oxidative stress induced PARP overactivation resulted in depleted levels of ATP and elevated levels of poly (ADP) ribose (PAR). Treatment with morin reduced the levels of nitrites, restored glutathione levels and abrogated the oxidant induced DNA damage. It also mitigated the increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Protein expression studies confirmed the PARP inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity of morin. Findings of this study suggest that morin, by virtue of its antioxidant properties, limited PARP overactivation and neuroinflammation and protected against CCI induced functional, behavioural and biochemical deficits. PMID:27084773

  18. Novel Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Derivative as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Reducing Neuropathic Pain after Chronic Constriction Nerve Injury in Mice

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    Xifró, Xavier; Vidal-Sancho, Laura; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Turrado, Carlos; Alberch, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Verdú, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral nerve injury and often fails to respond to ordinary medication. Here, we investigated whether the two novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) polyphenolic derivatives, compound 23 and 30, reduce the neuropathic pain in mice chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI). First, we performed a dose-response study to evaluate nociceptive sensation after administration of EGCG and its derivatives 23 and 30, using the Hargreaves test at 7 and 21 days after injury (dpi). We daily administered EGCG, 23 and 30 (10 to 100 mg/Kg; i.p.) during the first week post-CCI. None of the doses of compound 23 caused significant pain diminution, whereas 50mg/kg was optimal for both EGCG and 30 to delay the latency of paw withdrawal. With 50 mg/Kg, we showed that EGCC prevented the thermal hyperalgesia from 7 to 21 dpi and compound 30 from 14 to 56 dpi. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underpinning why EGCG and compound 30 differentially prevented the thermal hyperalgesia, we studied several biochemical parameters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at 14 and 56 dpi. We showed that the effect observed with EGCG and compound 30 was related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a known target of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, we observed that EGCG and compound 30 reduced the expression of CCI-mediated inflammatory proteins and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B at 14 dpi, but not at 56 dpi. We also strongly detected a decrease of synaptic plasma membrane levels of N-methyl-D-asparte receptor 2B in CCI-mice treated with compound 30 at 56 dpi. Altogether, compound 30 reduced the chronic thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI better than the natural compound EGCG. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for the preclinical development of compound 30 as an agent to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:25855977

  19. Preemptive analgesic effects of low-dose ketamine on growth-associated protein expression in dorsal root ganglion of chronic constriction injury model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyong Lin; Chen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and plays an important role in the treatment of pain.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preemptive analgesic effects of different doses of ketamine on growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in dorsal root ganglion in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury, and to study the differences between high-dose and low-dose ketamineDESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical College of Shantou University. MATERIALS: Thirty-five adult male Sprague Dawley rats were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ketamine hydrochloride injection was provided by Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jiangsu. METHODS: This study was performed at the Immunological Laboratory, Medical College of Shantou University from September to December 2006. Model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury: after anesthesia, the right sciatic nerve was exposed and ligated 1-cm distal to the ischiadic tuberosity with a No. 3-0 cat gut suture. Grouping and intervention: 35 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (n = 5), chronic constriction injury (CCI) group (n = 10), low-dose ketamine group (n = 10), and high-dose ketamine group (n = 10). Rats in the normal control group did not undergo any surgery or drug intervention. Rats in the CCI group received intraperitoneal injection of saline (1 mL), and their sciatic nerves were ligated after 10 minutes. Rats in the low-dose ketamine group underwent intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (25 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve; while, rats in the high-dose ketamine group were given intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve. On the third and the seventh days after surgery, dorsal root ganglion were resected from the sciatic nerve and cut into sections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GAP-43

  20. Comorbid anxiety-like behavior and locus coeruleus impairment in diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A comparative study with the chronic constriction injury model.

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    Alba-Delgado, Cristina; Cebada-Aleu, Alberto; Mico, Juan Antonio; Berrocoso, Esther

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety frequently appears in patients with diabetic neuropathic pain, a highly prevalent clinical condition. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly known. Anxiogenic phenotype has been associated with alterations of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) after peripheral nerve entrapment. We have examined the sensorial (pain) and affective (anxiety) behaviors, and the LC activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A comparative study with the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of sciatic nerve was also carried out. Diabetic nociceptive hypersensitivity was observed to appear gradually, reaching their maximum at fourth week. In contrast, CCI displayed a sharp decrease in their sensorial threshold at seventh day. In both models, anxiety-like phenotype was evident after four weeks but not earlier, coincident with the LC alterations. Indeed, STZ animals showed reduced LC firing activity, tyrosine hydroxylase, pCREB and noradrenaline transporter levels, contrary to observed in CCI animals. However, in both models, enhanced LC alpha2-adrenoceptor sensitivity was presented at this time point. This study demonstrated that diabetes induced anxiety-like behavior comorbid with LC impairment at long-term. However, the nociceptive sensitivity time-course, as well as the LC functions, showed distinct features compared to the CCI model, indicating that specific neuroplastic mechanisms are at play in every model. PMID:27328428

  1. Effect of Intrathecal Transplantation of Adrenal Medullary Tissue on the Sciatic Nerve Regeneration Following Chronic Constriction Injury in the Rat

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    Homa Manaheji

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been demonstrated that the adrenal medullary transplants into the spinal subarachnoid space can alleviate neuropathic pain behaviors. The aim of the present study was to test the possibility that histological changes of the sciatic nerve in a neuropathic model as well as sensory dysfunction are repaired by adrenal medullary transplantation. Material and Methods: Left sciatic nerve was ligated in three groups of rats by 4 loose ligatures (CCI. After one week of nerve constriction, rats of first group were implanted with adrenal medullary tissue (CCI + adrenal medulla and rats of the second group with striated muscle at the level of L1-L2 (CCI + muscle. The third group received only left ligature (CCI and in the fourth group the sciatic nerve was exposed and then muscle and skin sutured (sham. Behavioral assessment was evaluated before surgery and 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 days after the onset of experiment. According to behavioral results, 4 rats in each group were anesthetized and then the distal part of sciatic nerve were isolated and prepared for histological quantitative investigation of nerve regeneration. Results: The results showed that CCI was accompanied with hyperalgesia and morphological changes in the distal part of sciatic nerve. In animals with adrenal medullary transplantation, not only hyperalgesia was markedly reduced or even eliminated, but also the number of myelinated fibers in the distal segment of nerve increased to nearly normal. Conclusions: Our findings showed that the implantation of adrenal medullary tissue might have caused regeneration of ligated nerves as well as alleviation of pain behavior.

  2. Bilateral changes of TNF-α and IL-10 protein in the lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following a unilateral chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svíženská Ivana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing body of evidence that unilateral nerve injury induces bilateral response, the mechanism of which is not exactly known. Because cytokines act as crucial signaling molecules for response of peripheral nerves to injury, they may be induced to mediate the reaction in remote structures. Methods We studied levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 10 (IL-10 proteins using ELISA in the ipsilateral and contralateral lumbar (L4-L5 and cervical (C7-C8 dorsal root ganglia (DRG from naïve rats, rats operated on to create unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve, and sham-operated rats. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in the ipsilateral and contralateral hind and forepaws. Results The ipsilateral hind paws of all rats operated upon for CCI displayed decreased withdrawal thresholds for mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, while no significant behavioral changes were found in the contralateral hind paws and both forepaws. Significantly lower baseline levels of TNF-α and IL-10 protein were measured by ELISA in the lumbar than cervical DRG of naïve rats. Bilateral elevation of TNF-α was induced in both the lumbar and cervical DRG by unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve for 7 and 14 days, while the level of IL-10 protein was increased bilaterally in the lumbar DRG 1 and 3 days after operation. IL-10 levels declined bilaterally even below baseline level in both cervical and lumbar DRG 7 days from CCI and normalized after 14 days. In contrast to no significant changes in TNF-α, level of IL-10 protein was significantly increased in the ipsilateral lumbar DRG after 3 days and bilaterally in the lumbar DRG after 14 days from sham operation. Conclusions The results of our experiments show a bilateral elevation of TNF-α and IL-10 not only in the homonymous DRG but also in the heteronymous DRG unassociated with the injured

  3. Intrathecal Administration of Tempol Reduces Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats by Increasing SOD Activity and Inhibiting NGF Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Wang, Zixin; Tan, Yonghong; Song, Xingrong

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal and intraperitoneal tempol administration in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and explore the underlying antinociceptive mechanisms of tempol. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 per group): sham group, CCI group, Tem1 group (intrathecal injection of tempol), and Tem2 group (intraperitoneal injection of tempol). Neuropathic pain was induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve. Tempol was intrathecally or intraperitoneally administered daily for 7 days beginning on postoperative day one. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were tested on preoperative day 3 and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Structural changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, toluidine blue staining, and electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using the thiobarbituric acid and nitroblue tetrazolium methods, respectively. Nerve growth factor (NGF) expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol produced a persistent antinociceptive effect. Intraperitoneal injection of tempol did not result in high enough concentration of tempol in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol inhibited CCI-induced structural damage in the spinal cord reduced MDA levels, and increased SOD activities in the spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal, but not intraperitoneal, injection of tempol further downregulated the expression of NGF in the spinal cord following CCI, and this effect was blocked by p38MAPK inhibitor. Intrathecal injection of tempol produces antinociceptive effects and reduces CCI-induced structural damage in the spinal cord by increasing SOD activities and downregulating the expression of NGF via the p38MAPK pathway. Intraperitoneal administration of tempol does

  4. Changes in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in rat trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yuanyin; Wang, Liecheng; Wang, Xuxia

    2016-08-17

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), especially the tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav1.3 and Nav1.7, and the tetrodotoxin-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9, have been implicated in acute and chronic neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of VGSC Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 after nerve injury and their roles in the development of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). We used the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury model of TN in the rat. The time course of changes in the mechanical pain threshold was examined. In addition, real-time PCR and double immunofluorescence staining of VGSC α subunits were used to evaluate messenger RNA and protein expression, respectively, in the trigeminal ganglion. Behavioral tests showed that the mechanical pain threshold decreased significantly 4-42 days after surgery and reached the lowest observed value by day 12. Compared with sham-operated controls, we found that trigeminal ganglion in rats subjected to an infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury showed upregulation of Nav1.3 and downregulation of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 messenger RNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that VGSC may participate in the regulation of TN. PMID:27327156

  5. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway

  6. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ya-Qiong [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Jin, Shao-Ju [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China); Liu, Ning [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Li, Yu-Xiang [College of Nursing, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Zheng, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Ma, Lin [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Zhao, Cheng-Jun [Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Niu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Sun, Tao [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Yu, Jian-Qiang, E-mail: Yujq910315@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway.

  7. Curcumin exerts antinociceptive effects by inhibiting the activation of astrocytes in spinal dorsal horn and the intracellular extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in rat model of chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Feng-tao; LIANG Jiang-jun; LIU Ling; CAO Ming-hui; LI Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of glial cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain.Curcumin can alleviate the symptom of inflammatory pain by inhibiting the production and release of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor.However,whether curcumin affects neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and the possible mechanism involved are still unknown.This study investigated the effects of tolerable doses of curcumin on the activation of astrocytes and ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn in rat model of neuropathic pain.Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:a control (sham operated) group,and chronic constriction injury groups (to induce neuropathic pain) that were either untreated or treated with curcumin.Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia thresholds were measured.The distribution and morphological changes of astrocytes were observed by immunofluorescence.Western blotting was used to detect changes in the expression of glial flbrillary acid protein (GFAP) and phosphorylated ERK.Results Injured rats showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia.The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes,and the fluorescence intensity of GFAP were significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of injured compared with control rats.The soma of astrocytes also appeared hypertrophied in injured animals.Expression of GFAP and phosphorylated ERK was also significantly increased in the spinal dorsal hom of injured compared with control rats.Curcumin reduced the injury-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia,the increase in the fluorescence intensity of GFAP and the hypertrophy of astrocytic soma,activation of GFAP and phosphorylation of ERK in the spinal dorsal horn.Conclusions Curcumin can markedly alleviate nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.The analgesic effect of curcumin may be attributed to its inhibition of

  8. [An operative case of chronic constrictive pericarditis with silicosis and lumbar caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Y; Katada, H; Kasuga, H; Sawaki, M; Narita, N; Kushibe, K; Kawachi, K; Kitamura, S; Masuhara, K

    1990-03-01

    We reported a case of chronic constrictive pericarditis complicated with silicosis and lumbar caries, who was improved by the operation. The patient was a 65 year old man whose past occupation was a mason. He was admitted to our hospital with chronic heart failure on March, 1986. Atypical silicosis was diagnosed from the occupational history and the histopathological silicotic changes in mediastinal lymph nodes and fibrosis of alveolar wall. The diagnosis of chronic constrictive pericarditis was made from chest roentgenogram and intracardiac catheterization. The symptoms of chronic constrictive pericarditis was improved by the pericardial resection. The exact pathogenesis of the chronic constrictive pericarditis could not be identified from the histology of pericardial tissue, but tuberculosis was suspected because of the past history of tuberculous pleurisy and the recurrence of lumbar caries. PMID:2352410

  9. 抗神经生长因子抗体对大鼠慢性坐骨神经压迫损伤模型的脊髓胶质细胞激活的抑制作用%Anti-nerve Growth Factor Antibody Inhibits the Spinal Cord Glial Cell Activation in Rats Model of Chronic Constriction Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李棋; 麻伟青; 王慧明; 董发团; 杨云丽; 李文锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of anti-nerve growth factor antibody (anti-NGF) on the pain behavior and the spinal astrocyte activation in rats model of chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI) . Methods Chronic sciatic nerve compression injury (chronic constriction injury, CCD model was prepared by surgery in rats. The experimental rats were randomly divided into four groups: the CCI + anti- NGF group (n = 8) . rats were given daily single intraperitoneal injection of anti-NGF (10 mg/kg) at 7th day after surgery; the CCI model + saline group (n = 8) : rats were given daily single intraperitoneal injection of saline at 7th day after surgery; sham operation anti-NGF group (n =8) and sham operation saline group (n =8) . Mechanical and thermal pain behavior were observed in every another day after surgery within 15 days. 15 days after surgery, rats in each group was perfused by 4% paraformaldehyde, the expression of astrocyte cell marker GFAP in rats'L4- 5- segment spinal cord was observed by immunohistochemical staining. Results Within 3 days after surgery, the CCI model + saline group's mechanical and thermal pain threshold decreased significantly and reached its peak after 7 days. At 7th day after surgery, a single dose of anti- NGF antibody intraperitoneal injection shortly alleviated the mechanical and thermal pain threshold decrease in CCI rats, continuously injection of anti-NGF 7 days significantly improved the mechanical and thermal pain threshold of CCI rats, which was higher than rats in CCI + saline group. The spinal GFAP expression in CCI + anti-NGF group was significantly lower than the CCI + saline group at 15th day after surgery. Conclusions Inrraperitoneal injection of anti-NGF antibody can effectively reverse the pain behavior of the CCI rat model. Continuous injection of anti-NGF can significantly improve the pain behavior in the CCI rat models. In the spinal cord of rats in CCI + anti- NGF group, GFAP expression is significantly lower

  10. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.)

  11. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  12. ERK signaling mediates enhanced angiotensin Ⅱ-induced rat aortic constriction following chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xue-ling; DENG Yan; SHANG Jin; LIU Kui; XU Yong-jian; LIU Hui-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for systemic hypertension.The study investigated the functional consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on aortic constriction induced by angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and the possible signaling involving ERK1/2 and contractile proteins such as myosin light chain kinase (MLCK),myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC).Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into CIH group and normoxia group and exposed to either CIH procedure or air-air cycles.Phosphorylation of ERK1/2,MYPT1 and MLC was assessed by Western blotting following constrictor studies in the presence or absence of PD98059 (10 μmol/L).Results CIH-exposure resulted in more body weight gain and elevated blood pressure,which could be attenuated by pretreatment with PD98059.Endothelium-removed aortic rings from CIH rats exhibited higher constrictor sensitivity to Ang Ⅱ (Emax:(138.56±5.78)% versus (98.45±5.31)% of KCI; pD2:7.98±0.14 versus 8.14±0.05,respectively).CIH procedure exerted complex effects on ERK expressions (total ERK1/2 decreased whereas the ratio of phosphorylated to total ERK1/2increased).CIH aortas had higher MLCK mRNA and basal phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC.In parallel to greater increases in phosphorylation of ERK1/2,MYPT1 and MLC,Ang Ⅱ-induced aortic constriction was significantly enhanced in CIH rats,which was largely reversed by PD98059.However vascular constriction of normoxia rats remained unchanged despite similar but smaller changing tendency of proteins phosphorylation.Conclusion These data suggest that CIH exposure results in aortic hyperresponsiveness to Ang Ⅱ,presumably owing to more activated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  13. A case of radiation-induced chronic constrictive pericarditis developing 16 years after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported a 51-yr-old female with radiation-induced chronic constrictive pericarditis. At age 29, she had received mastectomy and postoperative irradiation because of left breast cancer. At age 45, she had syncope and was diagnosed with complete atrioventricular block and a pacemaker was implanted. At that time, pericardial thickening with effusion was noted. The following year, tricuspid regurgitation was noted. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of the right ventricular pressure curve appeared. At age 50, tricuspid regurgitation worsened due to the lead wire of the pacemaker compressing the leaflet, and the pacemaker was reimplanted. However, the following year, she complained of general fatigue and dyspnea and was admitted to our hospital. On 67Ga study, diffuse accumulation in the cardiac region appeared. There was no perfusion defect detected in the myocardium, but right myocardial damage was suspected by thallium study. In 99mTc-HSA RI angiography, right atrium dilatation appeared and a pericardial halo around the ventricles was seen. She underwent pericardectomy, tricuspid replacement and pacemaker reimplanted, but she died. On autpsy, pericardial thickening and adhesion, right myocardial fibrosis, the fibrotic change of the bundle branches were seen. We reported a case of radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. Radionuclide studies were useful in diagnosing and following the patient. (author)

  14. A case of chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis with slight myocardial involvement caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 25-year-old female was admitted with shortness of breath and abdominal swelling. Six years before the admission, she had received resection of 7th to 9th left ribs and subsequent radiation of 5,000 rads to the thorax for the treatment of rib osteoblastoma. One year after the radiation, marked pericardial effusion associated with acute pericarditis was observed and was improved by digitalization and diuretic therapy. Since two years after the radiation, she had felt easy fatigability, swelling of face and foot, and transient faintness on more than 10 meters running. On admission, chest X-ray photograph showed increased pulmonary vascularity without cardiac enlargement. Electrocardiogram indicated systolic right ventricular strain, mitral P, and nonspecific S-T segment depression in left precordial leads. Two-dimensional echocardiography presented pericardial effusion with posterior pericardial thickening, while M-mode echocardiography showed diastolic posterior movement of interventricular septum and diastolic flattening of left ventricular posterior wall. Cardiac catheterization revealed marked elevation of mean right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure, right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, accompanied with their equalization. In addition, pressure waves of right and left ventricle showed diastolic dip and plateau. Phono-cardiogram and apexcardiogram presented pericardial knock sound and systolic retraction, respectively. Cardiac angiography showed diastolic restriction of left ventricle without any stenosis of coronary artery. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed thickening of anterior and left lateral pericardium with expansion of inferior vena cava, and abdominal CT revealed ascites with slight enlargements of liver and spleen. From above obtained data, chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis, which was attributed to radiation, was strongly suggested. (J.P.N.)

  15. 体视学研究坐骨神经慢性限制性损伤对大鼠脊髓背角内突触数量的可塑性改变及COX-2抑制剂的作用%Stereological investigation on plasticity in synaptic number associated with chronic constriction injury in the rat spinal dorsal horn and effects of COX-2 inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商义; 张才全; 彭彬; 林菁艳; 杨正伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨坐骨神经慢性限制性损伤(CCI)所致神经病理性疼痛是否伴有脊髓背角神经元和突触数量的可塑性变化以及帕瑞昔布干预的作用.方法:正常成年SD大鼠随机分为假手术组、CCI组及帕瑞昔布组.术后28d取第5腰段脊髓作石蜡包埋切片,分别用尼氏染色和突触素的免疫组织化学显色显示神经元和突触,采用体视学新技术--光学体视框估计脊髓背角内神经元和突触的数量.结果:与对侧未手术侧相比,CCI组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了86%、98%;帕瑞昔布组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了78%、68%.与假手术组手术侧相比,CCI组手术侧单位长度脊髓背角内的突触数及突触数与神经元数之比分别增加了78%、73%;帕瑞昔布组则分别增加了81%、71%.结论:CCI所致神经病理性疼痛伴有脊髓背角内突触数量增加的可塑性变化,COX-2抑制剂帕瑞昔布对CCI致突触数量的增加无作用.%Objective: To determine whether neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is associated with a plasticity change in the number of synapses in the spinal dorsal horn and the effects of COX-2 inhibitor on it. Methods: 17 normal adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group, CCI group and parecoxib group. 28 days after operation, L5 segment of the spinal cord was removed, and paraffin-embedded sections were prepared and stained with Nissl's method and synaptophysin immunohistochemistry. The numbers of neurons and synapses in the spinal dorsal horn were estimated using a contemporary stereological technique - the optical disector. Results: In the CCI group, the number of synapses and the ratio between the numbers of synapses and neurons on the operated side increased significantly by 86%and 98%, respectively, compared to the non-operated side

  16. Chronic injuries of the cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of cruciate ligament injuries as a result of acute knee trauma with hemartrosis and abuse of diagnostic arthroscopies call for a suitable radiological imaging of the central pivot. Computed Arthrotomography (CAT) was used to examine the knee joint in 20 cases of clinically suspected chronic cruciate ligament injury. The images were correlated with arthroscopic and/or arthrotomic findings. Thirteen lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (65%) were found, plus 1 lesion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (5%), 2 associated lesions of ACL + PCL (10%), and 4 normal cases. Confirmation of pathology was available in all cases but one by arthroscopy and/or surgery. The central pivot diseases were classified as follows: absence, detachement, partial or complete tear. CAT findings of cruciate ligament injuries are emphasized and the role of the technique as compared to arthroscopy is discussed. CAT is useful in 3-D evaluation of central pivot and detection of different cruciate ligament injuries, with high sensitivity-specifity for ACL and high specifity-moderate sensitivity for PCL. In the evaluation of the chronic unstable knee, CAT is highly accurate and gives the surgeon useful information towards the planning of therapeutic procedures. CAT is almost non-invasive, well tolerated and easy to perform in out-patients, which make it a first-choice procedure in the screening of chronic ligament injuries

  17. Chronic complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer, Nebahat; Akkuş, Selami; Uğurlu, Fatma Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition that causes functional, psychological and socioeconomic disorder. Therefore, patients with SCI experience significant impairments in various aspects of their life. The goals of rehabilitation and other treatment approaches in SCI are to improve functional level, decrease secondary morbidity and enhance health-related quality of life. Acute and long-term secondary medical complications are common in patients with SCI. However, chronic com...

  18. Role of TRPM8 in dorsal root ganglion in nerve injury-induced chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channel has been proposed to be an important molecular sensor for cold. Here we investigate the role of TRPM8 in the mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve. Results Mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats began on the 4th day following surgery and maintained at the peak during the period from the 10th to 14th day after operation. The level of TRPM8 protein in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury was significantly increased on the 4th day after CCI, and reached the peak on the 10th day, and remained elevated on the 14th day following CCI. This time course of the alteration of TRPM8 expression was consistent with that of CCI-induced hyperalgesic response of the operated hind paw. Besides, activation of cold receptor TRPM8 of CCI rats by intrathecal application of menthol resulted in the inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and the enhancement of cold hyperalgesia. In contrast, downregulation of TRPM8 protein in ipsilateral L5 DRG of CCI rats by intrathecal TRPM8 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Conclusions TRPM8 may play different roles in mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia that develop after nerve injury, and it is a very promising research direction for the development of new therapies for chronic neuroapthic pain.

  19. Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    deAlmeida, Angela C.; van Oort, Ralph J.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.

    2010-01-01

    Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the mouse is a commonly used experimental model for pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.1 TAC initially leads to compensated hypertrophy of the heart, which often is associated with a temporary enhancement of cardiac contractility. Over time, however, the response to the chronic hemodynamic overload becomes maladaptive, resulting in cardiac dilatation and heart failure.2 The murine TAC model was first validated by Rockman et ...

  20. Chronic alcohol ingestion delays skeletal muscle regeneration following injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeyser, Graham J; Clary, Caroline R; OTIS, JEFFREY S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol ingestion may cause severe biochemical and pathophysiological derangements to skeletal muscle. Unfortunately, these alcohol-induced events may also prime skeletal muscle for worsened, delayed, or possibly incomplete repair following acute injury. As alcoholics may be at increased risk for skeletal muscle injury, our goals were to identify the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on components of skeletal muscle regeneration. To accomplish this, age- and gender-match...

  1. Psychological effects of chronic injury in elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuer, M L; Dietrich, M S

    1997-01-01

    Many athletes train in a constant state of pain or injury while meeting the demands of an elite level program. It is hypothesized that the emotional distress experienced by athletes with chronic injuries is not inconsequential. A self-report battery, the Impact of Event Scale, was administered to 280 inter-collegiate athletes at a division I institution in an attempt to examine their response to chronic injury. Of the 280, 134 (48%) had been injured by study definition, with 117 (42%) meeting...

  2. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: The Neuropathological Legacy of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Johnson, Victoria E; Smith, Douglas H; Stewart, William

    2016-05-23

    Almost a century ago, the first clinical account of the punch-drunk syndrome emerged, describing chronic neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae occurring in former boxers. Thereafter, throughout the twentieth century, further reports added to our understanding of the neuropathological consequences of a career in boxing, leading to descriptions of a distinct neurodegenerative pathology, termed dementia pugilistica. During the past decade, growing recognition of this pathology in autopsy studies of nonboxers who were exposed to repetitive, mild traumatic brain injury, or to a single, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury, has led to an awareness that it is exposure to traumatic brain injury that carries with it a risk of this neurodegenerative disease, not the sport or the circumstance in which the injury is sustained. Furthermore, the neuropathology of the neurodegeneration that occurs after traumatic brain injury, now termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, is acknowledged as being a complex, mixed, but distinctive pathology, the detail of which is reviewed in this article. PMID:26772317

  3. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  4. Chronic post-traumatic headache after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dorte; Forchhammer, Hysse; Teasdale, Tom;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aetiology behind chronic post-traumatic headache (CPTH) after mild head injury is unclear and management is complicated. In order to optimize treatment strategies we aimed to characterize a CPTH population. METHODS: Ninety patients with CPTH and 45 patients with chronic primary he...... levels of disability for the CPTH patients suggests directions for further research into what important factors are embedded in the patients' PTSD symptoms and might explain their prolonged illness....

  5. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...

  6. Chronic cerebrovascular dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullienne, Amandine; Obenaus, Andre; Ichkova, Aleksandra; Savona-Baron, Catherine; Pearce, William J; Badaut, Jerome

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) often involve vascular dysfunction that leads to long-term alterations in physiological and cognitive functions of the brain. Indeed, all the cells that form blood vessels and that are involved in maintaining their proper function can be altered by TBI. This Review focuses on the different types of cerebrovascular dysfunction that occur after TBI, including cerebral blood flow alterations, autoregulation impairments, subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasms, blood-brain barrier disruption, and edema formation. We also discuss the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions, focusing on the cellular components of cerebral blood vessels (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, astrocytes, pericytes, perivascular nerves) and their known and potential roles in the secondary injury cascade. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117494

  7. The paradox of chronic neuroinflammation, systemic immune suppression and autoimmunity after traumatic chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Jan M.; Zhang, Yi; Kopp, Marcel A; Brommer, Benedikt; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2014-01-01

    During the transition from acute to chronic stages of recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), there is an evolving state of immunologic dysfunction that exacerbates the problems associated with the more clinically obvious neurologic deficits. Since injury directly affects cells embedded within the “immune privileged/specialized” milieu of the spinal cord, maladaptive or inefficient responses are likely to occur. Collectively, these responses qualify as part of the continuum of “SCI disease” ...

  8. Pilot study: bone marrow stem cells as a treatment for dogs with chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Bocabello, Renato Zonzini; Mess, Andrea Maria; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Spinal Cord injury is a common, severe, and medically untreatable disease. Since the functional outcomes of acute and experimental chronic spinal cord injury have been shown to improve with stem cell therapy, a case study was conducted to test if the application of stem cell also regenerates chronic SCI dysfunction. Transplantation of foetal bone marrow stem cells was applied in seven dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Magnetic resonance images and assessments of symptom...

  9. MRI and clinical symptoms in chronic cervical cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Shuichi; Maruiwa, Hirofumi; Yokoi, Masahiro; Saitoh, Seiya (Tsukigase Rehabilitation Center, Shizuoka (Japan)); Yamauchi, Kenji

    1992-08-01

    To assess the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine the prognosis of spinal cord injury in the chronic stage and to detect the injured myelomere, 39 patients were examined with MR images obtained by T1-weighted spin echo method 5 months to 4 years and 8 months (mean, one year and 5 months) after they had sustained spinal cord injury. According to hypointensity area of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, MR images were classified as non-hypointensity (I), discrete (II), central (III), large cavity (IV), and transverse (V). The most common type was III (25%), followed by IV (26%), II (18%), V (15%), and I (13%). In 21 patients with bone injury, 14 (67%) had type IV or V, in contrast to 2 (11%) of 18 patients without bone injury. Increased hypointensity on MR images was associated with severer injury of the spinal cord. When hypointensity accounted for less than 1/2 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, walking ability was recovered in more than 80% of the patients. When less than 1/3 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord was seen as hypointensity, arm function was well preserved, and the anterior horn of gray matter was found less injured. In 60% of the patients, there was difference in the injured level of myelomere between MR images and the neurological examination; the injured level of myelomere tended to be more cephalad level in the neurological examination than MR appearance.(N.K.).

  10. MRI and clinical symptoms in chronic cervical cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine the prognosis of spinal cord injury in the chronic stage and to detect the injured myelomere, 39 patients were examined with MR images obtained by T1-weighted spin echo method 5 months to 4 years and 8 months (mean, one year and 5 months) after they had sustained spinal cord injury. According to hypointensity area of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, MR images were classified as non-hypointensity (I), discrete (II), central (III), large cavity (IV), and transverse (V). The most common type was III (25%), followed by IV (26%), II (18%), V (15%), and I (13%). In 21 patients with bone injury, 14 (67%) had type IV or V, in contrast to 2 (11%) of 18 patients without bone injury. Increased hypointensity on MR images was associated with severer injury of the spinal cord. When hypointensity accounted for less than 1/2 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord, walking ability was recovered in more than 80% of the patients. When less than 1/3 of the ventrodorsad diameter of the spinal cord was seen as hypointensity, arm function was well preserved, and the anterior horn of gray matter was found less injured. In 60% of the patients, there was difference in the injured level of myelomere between MR images and the neurological examination; the injured level of myelomere tended to be more cephalad level in the neurological examination than MR appearance.(N.K.)

  11. Establishing a cat model of chronic optic nerve compression injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yu; Shaoji Yuan; Rongwei Zhang; Yicheng Lu; Meiqing Lou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:An animal model of chronic optic nerve injury is necessary to further understand the pathological mechanisms involved.OBJECTIVE:To establish a stabilized,chronic,optic nerve crush model,which is similar to the clinical situation to explore histopathological and optic electrophysiological changes involved in this injury.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized and controlled animal trial was performed at Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery from May to October 2004.MATERIALS:A BAL3XRAY undetachable balloon and Magic-BD catheter were provided by BLAT,France;JX-2000 biological signal processing system by Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA,China;inverted phase contrast microscopy by Olympus,Japan.METHODS:A total of twenty normal adult cats were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) and model (n = 15) groups,according to different doses of contrast agent injected through balloons as follows:0.2 mL injection,0.25 mL injection,and 0.35 mL injection,with each group containing 5 animals.Imitating the clinical pterion approach,the optic nerves were exposed using micro-surgical methods.An engorged undetachable balloon was implanted beneath the nerve and connected to a catheter.Balloon size was controlled with a contrast agent injection (0.1 mL/10 min) to form an occupying lesion model similar to sellar tumors.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The visually evoked potential examination was used to study optical electrophysiology changes in pre-post chronic optical nerve injury.Ultrastructural pathological changes to the optic nerve were analyzed by electron microscopy.RESULTS:During the early period (day 11 after modeling),visually evoked potential demonstrated no significant changes.In the late period (day 51 after modeling),recorded VEP demonstrated that P1 wave latency was prolonged and P1 wave amplitude was obviously reduced.Following injury,the endoneurium,myelin sheath,lamella,axolemma,and axon appeared disordered.CONCLUSION:Results demonstrated that the chronic

  12. The paradox of chronic neuroinflammation, systemic immune suppression, autoimmunity after traumatic chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jan M; Zhang, Yi; Kopp, Marcel A; Brommer, Benedikt; Popovich, Phillip G

    2014-08-01

    During the transition from acute to chronic stages of recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), there is an evolving state of immunologic dysfunction that exacerbates the problems associated with the more clinically obvious neurologic deficits. Since injury directly affects cells embedded within the "immune privileged/specialized" milieu of the spinal cord, maladaptive or inefficient responses are likely to occur. Collectively, these responses qualify as part of the continuum of "SCI disease" and are important therapeutic targets to improve neural repair and neurological outcome. Generic immune suppressive therapies have been largely unsuccessful, mostly because inflammation and immunity exert both beneficial (plasticity enhancing) and detrimental (e.g. glia- and neurodegenerative; secondary damage) effects and these functions change over time. Moreover, "compartimentalized" investigations, limited to only intraspinal inflammation and associated cellular or molecular changes in the spinal cord, neglect the reality that the structure and function of the CNS are influenced by systemic immune challenges and that the immune system is 'hardwired' into the nervous system. Here, we consider this interplay during the progression from acute to chronic SCI. Specifically, we survey impaired/non-resolving intraspinal inflammation and the paradox of systemic inflammatory responses in the context of ongoing chronic immune suppression and autoimmunity. The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) and "neurogenic" spinal cord injury-induced immune depression syndrome (SCI-IDS) are discussed as determinants of impaired "host-defense" and trauma-induced autoimmunity. PMID:25017893

  13. Neurotherapy for chronic headache following traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David V Nelson; Mary Lee Esty

    2015-01-01

    Background:Chronic headache following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in military service, while common, is highly challenging to treat with existing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, and it may be complicated by co-morbid posttraumatic stress. Recently, a novel form of brainwave-based intervention known as the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS), which involves minute pulses of electromagnetic energy stimulation of brainwave activity, has been suggested as a means to address symptoms of TBI. This study reports on a clinical series of patients with chronic headache following service-connected TBI treated with FNS. Methods: Nine veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq with moderate to severe chronic headaches following service-connected TBI complicated by posttraumatic stress symptoms were treated in 20 individual FNS sessions at the Brain Wellness and Biofeedback Center of Washington (in Bethesda, Maryland, USA). They periodically completed measures including the Brief Pain Inventory-Headache (BPI-HA), previous week worst and average pain ratings, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Military version (PCL-M), and an individual treatment session numerical rating scale (NRS) for the degree of cognitive dysfunction. Data analyses included beginning-to-end of treatmentt-test comparisons for the BPI-HA, PCL-M, and cognitive dysfunction NRS. Results: All beginning-to-end of treatmentt-test comparisons for the BPI-HA, PCL-M, and cognitive dysfunction NRS indicated statistically significant decreases. All but one participant experienced a reduction in headaches along with reductions in posttraumatic stress and perceived cognitive dysfunction, with a subset experiencing the virtual elimination of headaches. One participant obtained modest headache relief but no improvements in posttraumatic stress or cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions: FNS may be a potentially efficacious treatment for chronic posttraumatic headache sustained in military

  14. Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee: role of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee are common lesions in sports-related trauma, especially among adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging may prove useful in detecting and characterizing such lesions, and has several advantages with regard to other imaging modalities. We review, illustrate, and discuss the MR imaging features of some of the more frequent avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee, including avulsion fractures of the cruciate ligaments, avulsion fractures of lateral and medial stabilizers, avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the extensor mechanism, and avulsive cortical irregularities of the distal femur. The role of MR imaging in evaluating such lesions is emphasized. (orig.)

  15. Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee: role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Calmet, J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee are common lesions in sports-related trauma, especially among adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging may prove useful in detecting and characterizing such lesions, and has several advantages with regard to other imaging modalities. We review, illustrate, and discuss the MR imaging features of some of the more frequent avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee, including avulsion fractures of the cruciate ligaments, avulsion fractures of lateral and medial stabilizers, avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the extensor mechanism, and avulsive cortical irregularities of the distal femur. The role of MR imaging in evaluating such lesions is emphasized. (orig.)

  16. Chronic spinal cord injury impairs primary antibody responses, but spares existing humoral immunity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oropallo, Michael A.; HELD, KATHERINE S.; Goenka, Radhika; Ahmad, Sifat A.; O’Neill, Patrick J.; Steward, Oswald; Lane, Thomas E.; Cancro, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immune depression. To better understand how injury inhibits humoral immunity, the effects of chronic thoracic SCI on B cell development and immune responses to thymus-independent (TI) type-2 and thymus-dependent (TD) antigens were determined. Mice received complete crush injury or control laminectomy at either thoracic level 3 (T3), which disrupts descending autonomic control of the spleen, or at T9, which conserves most splenic sympathetic activity. Althou...

  17. Radiographic changes of lumbar spine and pelvis in chronic spinal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Shariatpanahi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The most frequent cause of chronic spinal injuries of our patients has been the injury by quiver, it seems our results may not be extended to all patients with spinal cord injury. In lumbar spine radiography of the patients, osteophytes, the quiver and psoriasis like ossifications were mostly seen. In the pelvis x-rays the most changes were hip joint narrowing, sacroiliitis and the heterotopic ossification.

  18. Chronic Multiple Knee Ligament Injuries: Epidemiological Analysis of More Than One Hundred Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalvo Zosimo Bispo Júnior; Cezar Teruyuki Kawano; Alexandre Vieira Guedes

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis and treatment of multiple ligament injuries of the knee remain a real challenge for most surgeons. OBJECTIVE: To find out the epidemiological profile of patients surgically treated at a Reference Service with more than one chronic ligament injury in the knee joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of a total of 978 operated patients, 109 presented at least two associated ligament injuries in the same knee. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated. RESULTS: The anterior ...

  19. The prevalence of chronic knee injury in triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, K.; Yates, B.; Curran, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To add to the area of triathlon research by providing much needed prevalence data on knee injury in triathletes. METHOD: An incidental "in field" sampling technique was used to interview 58 triathletes aged between 15 and 55 years about knee injury during a triathlon event. The sample comprised 46 men and 12 women. RESULTS: Most knee injuries occurred during the running event (72%) and affected the lateral side of the knee (38%). In all, 78% of the sample sought treatment fr...

  20. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Martina, J.D.; Heugten, C.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic

  1. Potential flow through channel constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Potential flow through an eccentric, normal constriction of zero thickness in an infinitely long, straight channel of constant width and unit depth is studied by use of a Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The transformation is integrated by a direct approach. Parametric equations for streamlines are obtained and used to compute an average streamline length for a potential-flow field. -from ASCE Publications Information

  2. Does hypokalemia contribute to acute kidney injury in chronic laxative abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoon, Hyaejin; Yi, Joo-Hark; Jung, Woon-Yong; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged hypokalemia from chronic laxative abuse is recognized as the cause of chronic tubulointerstitial disease, known as “hypokalemic nephropathy,” but it is not clear whether it contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). A 42-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney disease as a result of chronic laxative abuse from a purging type of anorexia nervosa (AN-P), developed an anuric AKI requiring hemodialysis and a mild AKI 2 months later. Both episodes of AKI involved severe to moderat...

  3. [Arthroscopically assisted techniques for treatment of acute and chronic acromioclavicular joint injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Imhoff, A B; Martetschläger, F

    2015-05-01

    Acute and chronic acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is frequently encountered in the routine clinical practice. This injury can lead to significant impairment of shoulder girdle function. Therapy based on the severity of injury is recommended to re-establish correct shoulder function. The static radiographic Rockwood classification is used to define the degree of dislocation but the clinical aspects and functional x-ray imaging of horizontal AC joint instability should also be considered for selection of the appropriate procedure. Rockwood grades I and II injuries are treated non-operatively with early functional exercise. The approach for Rockwood grade III injuries should be individual and patient-specific, with non-surgical procedures for low functional requirement patients with a high risk for surgical interventions. For patients with high demands on shoulder function surgery is recommended. A detailed diagnostic assessment frequently reveals Rockwood grade III injuries to be type IV injuries. Rockwood types IV and V AC joint dislocations require surgery for sustained stability. Treatment of acute injuries is recommended within 1-3 weeks after trauma but there is no clear evidence of a cut-off for the presence of chronic injuries. Various surgical techniques have been described in the literature. This article presents an arthroscopically assisted technique that addresses both vertical and horizontal instability of the AC joint. PMID:25964020

  4. Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation improves sympathetic skin responses in chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zuncheng; Liu, Guifeng; Chen, Yuexia; Wei, Shugang

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three patients with chronic spinal cord injury for over 6 months were transplanted with bryonic olfactory ensheathing cells, 2–4 × 106, into multiple sites in the injured area under the surgical microscope. The sympathetic skin response in patients was measured with an electromyography/evoked potential instrument 1 day before transplantation and 3–8 weeks after transtion. Spinal nerve function of patients was assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale. The sy...

  5. Arthroscopic excision of heterotopic calcification in a chronic rectus femoris origin injury: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    El-Husseiny, M; Sukeik, M.; Haddad, FS

    2012-01-01

    Rectus femoris origin injuries in adult athletes are uncommon. In the acute phase, conservative treatment seems to have a favourable outcome, with surgical repair reserved for unsuccessful cases only. However, a group of patients may develop chronic pain and disability after recovery from the acute phase due to heterotopic calcification occurring at the site of injury. Open and arthroscopic excision of such calcifications has been described in the literature although arthroscopic excision of ...

  6. Sleep Onset Insomnia Symptoms during Hospitalization for Major Burn Injury Predict Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael T; Klick, Brendan; Kozachik, Sharon; Edwards, Robert E.; Holavanahalli, Radha; Wiechman, Shelley; Blakeney, Patricia; Lezotte, Dennis; Fauerbach, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Both cross-sectional studies of chronic pain and sleep deprivation experiments suggest a bi-directional relationship between sleep and pain. Few longitudinal studies, however, have assessed whether acute-insomnia following traumatic injury predicts the development of persistent pain. We sought to evaluate: 1) whether in-hospital insomnia independently predicts long-term pain after burn injury and 2) whether in-hospital pain predicts future insomnia symptoms. We analyzed data on 333 subjects h...

  7. Effects of Sodium Citrate on Salt Sensitivity and Kidney Injury in Chronic Renal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sejoong; Yang, Jin Young; Jung, Eun Sook; Lee, Jeonghwan; Heo, Nam Ju; Lee, Jae Wook; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis, which is observed in salt-sensitive hypertension, is also associated with kidney injury. Alkali therapy in chronic renal failure (CRF) may ameliorate the progression of kidney disease; however, few studies have examined the effects of alkali therapy on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in CRF. We randomly administered standard diet (SD), sodium chloride with 20% casein diet (NACL), or sodium citrate with 20% casein diet (NACT) to Sprague-Dawley rats after a CRF or a sham ...

  8. Chronic Spinal Injury Repair by Olfactory Bulb Ensheathing Glia and Feasibility for Autologous Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; Santos-Benito, Fernando F.; Llamusí, M. Beatriz; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory bulb ensheathing glia (OB-OEG) promote repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats after transplantation at acute or subacute (up to 45 days) stages. The most relevant clinical scenario in humans, however, is chronic SCI, in which no more major cellular or molecular changes occur at the injury site; this occurs after the third month in rodents. Whether adult OB-OEG grafts promote repair of severe chronic SCI has not been previously addressed. Rats with complete SCI that were transplanted with OB-OEG 4 months after injury exhibited progressive improvement in motor function and axonal regeneration from different brainstem nuclei across and beyond the SCI site. A positive correlation between motor outcome and axonal regeneration suggested a role for brainstem neurons in the recovery. Functional and histological outcomes did not differ at subacute or chronic stages. Thus, autologous transplantation is a feasible approach as there is time for patient stabilization and OEG preparation in human chronic SCI; the healing effects of OB-OEG on established injuries may offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic SCI patients. PMID:19915486

  9. Protective mechanisms of garlic and wolfberry derivatives on acute and chronic liver injury animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jia; 肖佳

    2012-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in the body that maintains the homeostasis of metabolism, immunity, detoxification and hematopoiesis. A large number of acute and chronic intoxications and diseases can influence the normal functions of the liver, leading to irreversible liver damage and even cancer. Currently, applying herbs or herbal derivatives in the prevention and therapy of acute and chronic liver injury receive numerous attentions since they hold great potentials as food supple...

  10. Constrictive Pericarditis: A Diagnostic Perplexity

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Jared; Azuma, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is only diagnosed once in every 10,000 admissions. It is characterized by inflammation and fibrous scarring of the pericardium resulting in a thickened, rigid sac that impairs diastolic filling. Approximately 50% of cases are idiopathic, while post cardiac surgery and post radiation therapy account for 37% and 9% respectively. The scarcity of presenting symptoms and the rarity of diagnosis make it a challenge to recognize.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, Haruki; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Yano, Hideo; Touyama, Tetsuo; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Suyama, Naoto; Yoshino, Yasumasa (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.).

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.)

  13. Injury to Allografts: innate immune pathways to acute and chronic rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emerging body of evidence suggests that innate immunity, as the first line of host defense against invading pathogens or their components [pathogen-associated molecular patterns, (PAMPs)], plays also a critical role in acute and chronic allograft rejection. Injury to the donor organ induces an inflammatory milieu in the allograft, which appears to be the initial key event for activation of the innate immune system. Injury-induced generation of putative endogenous molecular ligand, in terms of damaged/danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as heat shock proteins, are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors on cells of innate immunity. Acute allograft injury (e.g. oxidative stress during donor brain-death condition, post-ischemic reperfusion injury in the recipient) includes DAMPs which may interact with, and activate, innate TLR-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) which, in turn, via direct allo-recognition through donor-derived DCs and indirect allo-recogntion through recipient-derived DCs, initiate the recipient's adaptive alloimmune response leading to acute allograft rejection. Chronic injurious events in the allograft (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidemia, CMV infection, administration of cell-toxic drugs [calcineurin-inhibitors]) induce the generation of DAMPs, which may interact with and activate innate TLR-bearing vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells) which, in turn, contribute to the development of atherosclerosis of donor organ vessels (alloatherosclerosis), thus promoting chronic allograft rejection. (author)

  14. Improving Population Health by Incorporating Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention Into Value-Based Care Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ruth; Rushing, Jill; Nelson, Sharon; Rhyne, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Today's health system transformation provides a prime opportunity to leverage the capacity of public health to reduce the burden of chronic disease and injury, improve population health, and contain health care costs. Health care settings and organizations should support public health capacity as a key investment in population health. PMID:27422946

  15. Systematic review of the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, Alison K; Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment (CCI) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) using a previously published search strategy and predefined crit...

  16. Chronic ibuprofen administration worsens cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kevin D; Iwata, Akira; Putt, M E; Smith, Douglas H

    2006-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce progressive neurodegeneration in association with chronic inflammation. Since chronic treatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen, improves functional and histopathologic outcome in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated whether it would also improve long-term outcome following TBI. Anesthetized adult rats were subjected to fluid percussion brain injury. Over the following 4 months the injured animals received ibuprofen per os (formulated in feed) at the approximate doses of 20 mg/kg body wt/day (n=13), 40 mg/kg body wt/day (n=13), or control (feed only, n=12). Sham animals underwent surgery without injury or ibuprofen treatment (n=9). At 4 months post-injury, a Morris water maze task revealed a profound learning dysfunction in all three injured groups compared to the sham group. Surprisingly, the learning ability of injured animals treated with either chronic ibuprofen regimen was significantly worsened compared to non-treated injured animals. However, there was no difference in the extent of progressive atrophy of the cortex or hippocampus between treated and non-treated injured animals. These data may have important implications for TBI patients who are often prescribed NSAIDs for chronic pain. PMID:16764859

  17. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  18. Systems biomarkers as acute diagnostics and chronic monitoring tools for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin K. W.; Moghieb, Ahmed; Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhiqun

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant biomedical problem among military personnel and civilians. There exists an urgent need to develop and refine biological measures of acute brain injury and chronic recovery after brain injury. Such measures "biomarkers" can assist clinicians in helping to define and refine the recovery process and developing treatment paradigms for the acutely injured to reduce secondary injury processes. Recent biomarker studies in the acute phase of TBI have highlighted the importance and feasibilities of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. However, much less is known about the subacute and chronic phases of TBI. We propose here that for a complex biological problem such as TBI, multiple biomarker types might be needed to harness the wide range of pathological and systemic perturbations following injuries, including acute neuronal death, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration to systemic responses. In terms of biomarker types, they range from brain-specific proteins, microRNA, genetic polymorphism, inflammatory cytokines and autoimmune markers and neuro-endocrine hormones. Furthermore, systems biology-driven biomarkers integration can help present a holistic approach to understanding scenarios and complexity pathways involved in brain injury.

  19. Functional brain study of chronic traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosive aggressive behaviour is a significant clinical and medico-legal problem in patients suffering from head injury. However, experts in neuropsychiatry have proposed a specific category for this disorder: the organic aggressive syndrome:. The basic reason for proposing this diagnosis is that it describes the specificity of the violent conduct secondary to 'brain damage' with greater precision. Early diagnosis and treatment of the injury is critical. The impact of hnetium-99m-hexamethylpropuleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was examined for measuring brain damage in correlation to neuropsychological performance in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We thus report the case of a twelve-year-old child with a history of CET, who presents with serious episodes of heteroaggressiveness and suggest the usefulness of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) to establish the validity of this psychiatric diagnosis. The appearance of modern functional neuro-image techniques (SPECT) may help to increase the validity of clinical diagnoses in the field of psychiatry in general and of forensic psychiatry in particularly, as the related findings may be used as demarcation criteria to establish syndromic diagnoses (Au)

  20. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. (Technion Medical School, Haifa (Israel))

    1993-01-15

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.

  1. Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency

  2. Influence of KeGan Capsule to Mice with CC14 Chronic Hepatic Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYufang

    2004-01-01

    To study the action of KeGan capsule to resist injury of hepatic cells and fibrosis of liver. Methods Rephcate model of chronic hepatic injury with CC14, at the beginning of which KeGan capsule was applied; finishing experiment, respectively tested the level of liver fimction, TP,ALB, A/G, L-hydroxyproline and liver index and do pathologic examination to fiver. Results KeGan capsule can obviously reduce the degree of fibrosis of liver and the level of L - hydroxyproline, improve the fiver function. The histological examination showed that capsule has the action of protecting hepatic cells from injury and resisting fibrosis of fiver either. Conclusion For KeGan capsule has the action of resisting injury of liver cells and fibrosis of liver, it' s hoped to be applied in precaution and treatment of fibrosis of fiver.

  3. X-ray diagnosis in acute and chronic sport injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress X-ray and arthrography are of importance in the diagnosis of joint injuries. Stress X-rays are of great value to testify instability of acromioclavicular joint, metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb, but also the knee and the ankle joint. With arthrography it is possible to show up a rupture of the rotator cuff of the shoulder and also a lesion of the triangular disc of the wrist. Indication, technique and the interpretation of the stress X-rays and the arthrogramms are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Family needs in the chronic phase after severe brain injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doser, Karoline; Norup, Anne

    2014-01-01

    caregiving for the patient was completed. The relatives completed the revised version of the Family Needs Questionnaire, a questionnaire consisting of 37 items related to different needs following brain injury. Results: Significant changes in status were found in employment (z = -3.464, p = 0.001) and co-habitation...... were only met in 41-50% of the total sample. Conclusion: Occupational and co-habitation status of the relatives was significantly affected by brain injury. A high number of relatives reported family needs not satisfied in the chronic phase. This requires an interventional approach for families to get...

  5. Accuracy of MRI findings in chronic lateral ankle ligament injury: Comparison with surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in chronic lateral ankle ligament injury in comparison with that of surgical findings. Materials and methods: Forty-eight cases (25 men, 23 women, mean age 36 years) of clinically suspected chronic ankle ligament injury underwent MRI studies and surgery. Sagittal, coronal, and axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo, proton density and T2-weighted, fast spin-echo images with fat saturation were obtained in all patients. MRI examinations were read in consensus by two fellowship-trained academic musculoskeletal radiologists who evaluated the lateral ankle ligaments, including the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) without clinical information. The results of the MRI studies were then compared with the surgical findings. Results: The MRI findings of ATFL injury showed a sensitivity of detection of complete tears of 75% and specificity of 86%. The sensitivity of detection of partial tears was 75% and the specificity was 78%. The sensitivity of detection of sprains was 44% and the specificity was 88%. Regarding the MRI findings of CFL injury, the sensitivity of detection of complete tears was 50% and the specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of detection of partial tear was 83% and the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of detection of sprains was 100% and the specificity was 90%. Regarding the ATFL, the accuracies of detection were 88, 58, 77, and 85% for no injury, sprain, partial tear, and complete tear, respectively, and for the CFL the accuracies of detection were 90, 90, 92, and 96% for no injury, sprain, partial tear, and complete tear, respectively. Conclusions: The diagnosis of a complete tear of the ATFL on MRI is more sensitive than the diagnosis of a complete tear of the CFL. MRI findings of CFL injury are diagnostically specific but are not sensitive. However, only normal findings and complete tears were statistically significant between ATFL and CFL (p

  6. Accuracy of MRI findings in chronic lateral ankle ligament injury: Comparison with surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.-J. [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, S.-D. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Rho, M.-H., E-mail: parkhiji@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwag, H.-J. [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, N.-H. [Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in chronic lateral ankle ligament injury in comparison with that of surgical findings. Materials and methods: Forty-eight cases (25 men, 23 women, mean age 36 years) of clinically suspected chronic ankle ligament injury underwent MRI studies and surgery. Sagittal, coronal, and axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo, proton density and T2-weighted, fast spin-echo images with fat saturation were obtained in all patients. MRI examinations were read in consensus by two fellowship-trained academic musculoskeletal radiologists who evaluated the lateral ankle ligaments, including the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) without clinical information. The results of the MRI studies were then compared with the surgical findings. Results: The MRI findings of ATFL injury showed a sensitivity of detection of complete tears of 75% and specificity of 86%. The sensitivity of detection of partial tears was 75% and the specificity was 78%. The sensitivity of detection of sprains was 44% and the specificity was 88%. Regarding the MRI findings of CFL injury, the sensitivity of detection of complete tears was 50% and the specificity was 98%. The sensitivity of detection of partial tear was 83% and the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of detection of sprains was 100% and the specificity was 90%. Regarding the ATFL, the accuracies of detection were 88, 58, 77, and 85% for no injury, sprain, partial tear, and complete tear, respectively, and for the CFL the accuracies of detection were 90, 90, 92, and 96% for no injury, sprain, partial tear, and complete tear, respectively. Conclusions: The diagnosis of a complete tear of the ATFL on MRI is more sensitive than the diagnosis of a complete tear of the CFL. MRI findings of CFL injury are diagnostically specific but are not sensitive. However, only normal findings and complete tears were statistically significant between ATFL and CFL (p

  7. Does hypokalemia contribute to acute kidney injury in chronic laxative abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoon, Hyaejin; Yi, Joo-Hark; Jung, Woon-Yong; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged hypokalemia from chronic laxative abuse is recognized as the cause of chronic tubulointerstitial disease, known as "hypokalemic nephropathy," but it is not clear whether it contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). A 42-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney disease as a result of chronic laxative abuse from a purging type of anorexia nervosa (AN-P), developed an anuric AKI requiring hemodialysis and a mild AKI 2 months later. Both episodes of AKI involved severe to moderate hypokalemia (1.2 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively), volume depletion, and mild rhabdomyolysis. The histologic findings of the first AKI revealed the remnants of acute tubular necrosis with advanced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and ischemic glomerular injury. Along with these observations, the intertwined relationship among precipitants of recurrent AKI in AN-P is discussed, and then we postulate a contributory role of hypokalemia involved in the pathophysiology of the renal ischemia-induced AKI. PMID:26484031

  8. Treatment of chronic radiation injury over the shoulder with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our experiences in treating chronic radiation injury about the shoulder, a complication of radiation after mastectomy. Left untreated, these can result in chronic infection and/or amputation. The coverage of a large shoulder area presents certain unique problems, which severely limit the usefulness of traditional procedures. We have found that the remarkable size and versatility of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap enables one to use it with relative simplicity and safety. A further great advantage is that it brings new permanent blood supply into this ischemic area, thus favoring rapid healing and durable coverage

  9. Late results of mucosal proctectomy and colo-anal sleeve anastomosis for chronic irradiation rectal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with severe chronic irradiation injury to the rectum were treated by mucosal proctectomy and colo-anal sleeve anastomosis. The indications were: recurrent rectal bleeding (five), stricture (three), fistula (one) and intractable pain (one). Overall follow-up has ranged from 8 to 77 months (mean 40 months). In the present survivors (n=7) the follow-up ranges from 18 to 77 months (mean 52 months). Six patients have been followed up for more than 3 years and four for more than 5 years. There was no operative mortality. Three anastomotic strictures occurred but the protecting stoma could be closed in all but one patient. Continence was acceptable although urgency and frequency of defaecation were troublesome symptoms. The operation is recommended for life-threatening, haemorrhagic chronic irradiation injury to the rectum. (author)

  10. Neuroprotective effect of estrogen after chronic spinal cord injury in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, there is still lack of effective drugs for chronic spinal cord injury, whereas it is found recently that estrogen has a neuroprotective effect on brain and spinal cord injuries.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of estrogen on the apoptosis of nerve cells after gradual chronic spinal cord injury in ovariectomized rats.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal trial.SETTING: Institute of Orthopaedics, the Second Hospital of Lanzhou University.MATERIALS: Sixty-five female Wistar rats of common degree, weighing 220 - 250 g, were provided by the experimental animal center of Lanzhou University. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (n =5), estrogen-treated group (n =30) and saline control group (n =30), and the latter two groups were observed at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 60 days respectively, and 5 rats for each time point.METHODS: All the rats were treated with bilateral oophorectomy 2 weeks before the experiment. T10 vertebral lamina was revolved into using plastic screw. The spinal canal impingement was not induced initially. After that, the original incision was opened to expose the screw every 7 - 10 days.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The apoptosis and Caspase-3 positive cells in the damaged spinal cord were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and Caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 60 days after chronic spinal cord injury respectively.RESULTS: Totally 65 rats were used, and the deleted ones during the experiment were supplemented by others. Changes of Caspase-3 expression after spinal cord injury: In the sham-operated group, only a small amount of Caspase-3 proteins were observed in the rat spinal cord, mainly located in motor neurons of spinal cord anterior horn. In the estrogen-treated group and saline control group, positive cells expressed occasionally at 1 day postoperatively, began to increase obviously at 7 days after injury, strongly

  11. Constrictive pericarditis in a contemporary Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Nadia Lander; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Olsen, Peter Skov;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aetiology and outcome of constrictive pericarditis vary between geographic regions and has changed over time. We describe the diagnostic work-up and outcome in a contemporary cohort of Danish patients with constrictive pericarditis. DESIGN: Hospital databases were searched for...

  12. Hepatic miR-29ab1 expression modulates chronic hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Takayuki; Costinean, Stefan; Yan, Irene; Braconi, Chiara; Croce, Carlo; Patel, Tushar

    2012-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, regulatory non-coding RNAs that have potent effects on gene expression. Several miRNA are deregulated in cellular processes involved in human liver diseases and regulation of cellular processes. Recent studies have identified the involvement of miR-29 in hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Although several targets of miR-29 have been identified, there is limited information regarding the cell-type specific roles of miR-29 in the liver, and we sought to evaluate the role of this miRNA in hepatic pathobiology. We report the generation of a tissue-specific knockout mouse to evaluate the role of miR-29 in hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis in response to injury. We hypothesized that miR-29 contributes to the hepatocyte driven response to chronic cellular injury that results in fibrosis. In support of this hypothesis, fibrosis and mortality were enhanced in miR29 knockout mice in response to carbon tetrachloride. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identified an over-representation of genes associated with fibrosis. The oncofetal RNA H19 was modulated in a miR-29 dependent manner following exposure to carbon tetrachloride in vivo. The impact of a hepatocyte specific miR-29 knockout on survival following chronic hepatic injury in vivo implicates this miRNA as a potential target for intervention. These results provide evidence of the involvement of miR-29 in chronic hepatic injury, and suggest a role for deregulated hepatocyte expression of miR-29 in the response to hepatic injury, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. PMID:22469499

  13. Psychosocial factors and adjustment to chronic pain in spinal cord injury: Replication and cross-validation

    OpenAIRE

    Molton, Ivan R.; Stoelb, Brenda L.; Jensen, Mark P.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Raichle, Katherine A.; Cardenas, Diana D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the importance of psychological factors in the experience of chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current study sought to replicate and extend previous work demonstrating associations among specific pain-related beliefs, coping, mental health, and pain outcomes in persons with SCI. A return-by-mail survey assessing psychological functioning and pain was completed by 130 individuals with SCI. Measures included short forms of the Survey of Pa...

  14. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    John Williamson; Emi Isaki

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI).  The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills.  Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and ro...

  15. Reflex responses to combined hip and knee motion in human chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Wu, PhD; Brian D. Schmit, PhD

    2010-01-01

    The relative contributions of hip and knee proprioceptors to the origination of extensor spasms were examined in 11 subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Ramp and hold extension and combined hip and knee oscillation movements were imposed to the right leg while the ankle was held in a static position by a custom-designed robot. Isometric joint torques of the hip, knee, and ankle and surface electromyograms (EMGs) from seven leg muscles were recorded following controlled hip and knee...

  16. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Hazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  17. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, chronic fallopian tube injury, and serous carcinoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Karin; Klynning, Charlotta; Flöter-Rådestad, Angelique; Carlson, Joseph W

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the deadliest gynecological malignancy. Previous studies have suggested that the fallopian tube may be the primary site for high-grade serous carcinoma. In prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies from women with hereditary high risk for ovarian cancer, precursors can be assessed prior to onset and studied as a model for serous cancer precursor lesions. Epidemiologic studies indicate that carcinogenesis may be a result of chronic fallopian tube injury. The aims of this study were to (1) to examine the incidence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) in relation to other clinical parameters and (2) to evaluate whether chronic fallopian tube injury was related to cancer development. This study enrolled 101 women, comprising the following three groups: hereditary (n = 60), sporadic serous cancer (n = 18; endometrial cancers were excluded), and control (n = 23). The cases were histologically examined and clinical risk factors were collected. The histological changes were compared between different patients and correlated to clinical risk factors. STICs were identified primarily on the fallopian tube fimbria. The incidence of STIC was 3 % in the hereditary patients. In sporadic serous cancer cases, 61 % were associated with STIC and tubal carcinoma (p cancer group and the control group or within the hereditary group. STIC and invasive cancer were seen more often in the older patients than in the younger patients (p = 0.528). This small study, no correlation with chronic tubal injury or inflammation was identified. PMID:27003156

  18. Clinical Utility of '99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using 99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  19. Dynamic response to peripheral nerve injury detected by in situ hybridization of IL-6 and its receptor mRNAs in the dorsal root ganglia is not strictly correlated with signs of neuropathic pain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, Václav; Klusáková, I.; Svíženská, I.; Dubový, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 42 (2013). ISSN 1744-8069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : CHRONIC CONSTRICTION INJURY * SATELLITE GLIAL-CELLS * SCIATIC-NERVE Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2013

  20. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α mediates Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS-induced airway constriction of CFTR -/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagranderie Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF patients are chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Increased airway constriction has been reported in CF patients but underplaying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Aim: to examine the effect of P. aeruginosa LPS on airway constriction in CF mice and the implication in this process of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α, an enzyme involved in arachidonic acid (AA release. Methods Mice were instilled intra-nasally with LPS. Airway constriction was assessed using barometric plethysmograph. MIP-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, leukotrienes and AA concentrations were measured in BALF using standard kits and gas chromatography. Results LPS induced enhanced airway constriction and AA release in BALF of CF compared to littermate mice. This was accompanied by increased levels of PGE2, but not those of leukotrienes. However, airway neutrophil influx and MIP-2 production remained similar in both mouse strains. The cPLA2α inhibitor arachidonyl trifluoro-methyl-ketone (ATK, but not aspirin which inhibit PGE2 synthesis, reduced LPS-induced airway constriction. LPS induced lower airway constriction and PGE2 production in cPLA2α -/- mice compared to corresponding littermates. Neither aspirin nor ATK interfered with LPS-induced airway neutrophil influx or MIP-2 production. Conclusions CF mice develop enhanced airway constriction through a cPLA2α-dependent mechanism. Airway inflammation is dissociated from airway constriction in this model. cPLA2α may represent a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in CF. Attenuation of airway constriction by cPLA2α inhibitors may help to ameliorate the clinical status of CF patients.

  1. Metabolic changes in concussed American football players during the acute and chronic post-injury phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellemberg Dave

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite negative neuroimaging findings many athletes display neurophysiological alterations and post-concussion symptoms that may be attributable to neurometabolic alterations. Methods The present study investigated the effects of sports concussion on brain metabolism using 1H-MR Spectroscopy by comparing a group of 10 non-concussed athletes with a group of 10 concussed athletes of the same age (mean: 22.5 years and education (mean: 16 years within both the acute and chronic post-injury phases. All athletes were scanned 1-6 days post-concussion and again 6-months later in a 3T Siemens MRI. Results Concussed athletes demonstrated neurometabolic impairment in prefrontal and motor (M1 cortices in the acute phase where NAA:Cr levels remained depressed relative to controls. There was some recovery observed in the chronic phase where Glu:Cr levels returned to those of control athletes; however, there was a pathological increase of m-I:Cr levels in M1 that was only present in the chronic phase. Conclusions These results confirm cortical neurometabolic changes in the acute post-concussion phase as well as recovery and continued metabolic abnormalities in the chronic phase. The results indicate that complex pathophysiological processes differ depending on the post-injury phase and the neurometabolite in question.

  2. Injury of the human diaphragm associated with exertion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Levi, M; Lloreta, J; Minguella, J; Serrano, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J

    2001-11-01

    Injury of the diaphragm may have clinical relevance having been reported in cases of sudden infant death syndrome or fatal asthma. However, examination of diaphragm injury after acute inspiratory loading has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an acute inspiratory overload induces injury of the human diaphragm and to determine if diaphragm from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is more susceptible to injury. Eighteen patients with COPD and 11 control patients with normal pulmonary function (62 +/- 10 yr) undergoing thoracotomy or laparotomy were studied. A threshold inspiratory loading test was performed prior to surgery in a subset of seven patients with COPD and five control patients. Samples of the costal diaphragm were obtained during surgery and processed for electron microscopy analysis. Signs of sarcomere disruption were found in all diaphragm samples. The range of values of sarcomere disruption was wide (density: 2-45 abnormal areas/100 microm(2); area fractions: 1.3-17.3%), significantly higher in diaphragm from patients with COPD (p < 0.05) and with the greatest injury after inspiratory loading. We conclude that sarcomere disruption is common in the human diaphragm, is more evident in patients with COPD, and is higher after inspiratory loading, especially in the diaphragm of those with COPD. PMID:11719318

  3. Fear of movement/(re)injury and muscular reactivity in chronic low back pain patients : an experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeyen, Johan W.S.; Seelen, HAM; Peters, Madelon L.; de Jong, Peter; Aretz, E; Beisiegel, E; Weber, WEJ

    1999-01-01

    This experiment was set up to test the hypothesis that confrontation with feared movements would lead to symptom-specific muscular reactivity in chronic low back pain patients who report high fear of movement/(re)injury. Thirty-one chronic low back pain patients were asked to watch a neutral nature

  4. A Pilot Clinical Study of Olfactory Mucosa Autograft for Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Tajima, Fumihiro; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hosomi, Koichi; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-06-15

    Recent studies of spinal cord axon regeneration have reported good long-term results using various types of tissue scaffolds. Olfactory tissue allows autologous transplantation and can easily be obtained by a simple biopsy that is performed through the external nares. We performed a clinical pilot study of olfactory mucosa autograft (OMA) for chronic complete spinal cord injury in eight patients according to the procedure outlined by Lima et al. Our results showed no serious adverse events and improvement in both the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grade and ASIA motor score in five patients. The preoperative post-rehabilitation ASIA motor score improved from 50 in all cases to 52 in case 2, 60 in case 4, 52 in case 6, 55 in case 7, and 58 in case 8 at 96 weeks after OMA. The AIS improved from A to C in four cases and from B to C in one case. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were also seen in one patient, reflecting conductivity in the central nervous system, including the corticospinal tract. The MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation allow objective assessment of the integrity of the motor circuitry comprising both the corticospinal tract and the peripheral motor nerves.We show the feasibility of OMA for chronic complete spinal cord injury. PMID:27053327

  5. Protective effects of quercetine on the neuronal injury in frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of quercetine (QE) on the neuronal injury in the frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the three experimental groups, namely, groups A (control), B (toluene treated) and C (toluene-treated with QE), where each group contains 10 animals. Control group received 1 ml of normal saline solution, and toluene treatment was performed by the inhalation of 3000 ppm toluene in an 8-h/day and 6-day/week order for 12 weeks. The rats in QE-treated group was given QE (15 mg/kg body weight) once a day intraperitoneally for 12 weeks, starting just after toluene exposure. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathological investigation. To date, no histopathological changes of neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats by QE treatment have been reported. In this study, the morphology of neurons in the QE treatment group was well protected. Chronic toluene exposure caused severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark picnotic nuclei in neurons of the frontal cortex. We conclude that QE therapy causes morphologic improvement in neurodegeneration of frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats. We believe that further preclinical research into the utility of QE may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats. PMID:22252859

  6. Peripheral nerve injury is associated with chronic, reversible changes in global DNA methylation in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Tajerian

    Full Text Available Changes in brain structure and cortical function are associated with many chronic pain conditions including low back pain and fibromyalgia. The magnitude of these changes correlates with the duration and/or the intensity of chronic pain. Most studies report changes in common areas involved in pain modulation, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and pain-related pathological changes in the PFC can be reversed with effective treatment. While the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown, they must be dynamically regulated. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression in response to experience and environment is reversible and dynamic. Epigenetic modulation by DNA methylation is associated with abnormal behavior and pathological gene expression in the central nervous system. DNA methylation might also be involved in mediating the pathologies associated with chronic pain in the brain. We therefore tested a whether alterations in DNA methylation are found in the brain long after chronic neuropathic pain is induced in the periphery using the spared nerve injury modal and b whether these injury-associated changes are reversible by interventions that reverse the pathologies associated with chronic pain. Six months following peripheral nerve injury, abnormal sensory thresholds and increased anxiety were accompanied by decreased global methylation in the PFC and the amygdala but not in the visual cortex or the thalamus. Environmental enrichment attenuated nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity and reversed the changes in global PFC methylation. Furthermore, global PFC methylation correlated with mechanical and thermal sensitivity in neuropathic mice. In summary, induction of chronic pain by peripheral nerve injury is associated with epigenetic changes in the brain. These changes are detected long after the original injury, at a long distance from the site of injury and are reversible with environmental manipulation. Changes in brain structure and

  7. Damage to Myelin and Oligodendrocytes: A Role in Chronic Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Maxwell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence in the experimental and clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI literature that loss of central myelinated nerve fibers continues over the chronic post-traumatic phase after injury. However, the biomechanism(s of continued loss of axons is obscure. Stretch-injury to optic nerve fibers in adult guinea-pigs was used to test the hypothesis that damage to the myelin sheath and oligodendrocytes of the optic nerve fibers may contribute to, or facilitate, the continuance of axonal loss. Myelin dislocations occur within internodal myelin of larger axons within 1–2 h of TBI. The myelin dislocations contain elevated levels of free calcium. The volume of myelin dislocations increase with greater survival and are associated with disruption of the axonal cytoskeleton leading to secondary axotomy. Waves of Ca2+ depolarization or spreading depression extend from the initial locus injury for perhaps hundreds of microns after TBI. As astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are connected via gap junctions, it is hypothesized that spreading depression results in depolarization of central glia, disrupt axonal ionic homeostasis, injure axonal mitochondria and allow the onset of axonal degeneration throughout an increasing volume of brain tissue; and contribute toward post-traumatic continued loss of white matter.

  8. Primary synovial osteochondromatosis presenting as constrictive capsulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary synovial chondromatosis of the joints can present as capsular constriction with peri-articular osteopenia. This rare presentation is highlighted in three cases (two hips and one shoulder). The diagnosis in all the patients was made on arthrography and/or MRI/CT and was confirmed histologically. Synovial chondromatosis should be considered in patients with this presentation. Arthrography is the best imaging modality to confirm the cause (synovial chondromatosis) and effect (constrictive capsulitis). (orig.)

  9. Lung Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) Response and Regulation During Acute and Chronic Lung Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunsbaek, Maria Quisgaard; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Beers, Michael F.;

    2013-01-01

    lung injury, with a sustained increment during chronic inflammation compared with acute inflammation. A quick upregulation of SP-D in serum in response to acute airway inflammation supports the notion that SP-D translocates from the airways into the vascular system, in favor of being synthesized......BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collection that plays important roles in modulating host defense functions and maintaining phospholipid homeostasis in the lung. The aim of current study was to characterize comparatively the SP-D response in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum in...... three murine models of lung injury, using a validated ELISA technology for estimation of SP-D levels. METHODS: Mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide, bleomycin, or Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) and sacrificed at different time points. RESULTS: In lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice, the level of SP-D in...

  10. Baroreceptor reflex during forced expiratory maneuvers in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg Ditterline, Bonnie E; Aslan, Sevda C; Randall, David C; Harkema, Susan J; Ovechkin, Alexander V

    2016-07-15

    Pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunctions are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Impaired respiratory motor function and decreased Baroreflex Sensitivity (BS) are predictors for the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This observational case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate if respiratory motor control deficits in individuals with SCI affect their ability to perform the Valsalva maneuver, and to determine if a sustained Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP) effort can serve as an acceptable maneuver for determination of the BS in the event that the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed. The BS outcomes (ms/mmHg) were obtained using continuous beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) recordings during Valsalva or MEP maneuvers in thirty nine individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI. Twenty one participants (54%) reported signs of intolerance during the Valsalva maneuver and only 15 individuals (39%) were able to complete this task. Cervical level of injury was a significant risk factor (p=0.001) for failing to complete the Valsalva maneuver, and motor-complete injury was a significant risk factor for symptoms of intolerance (p=0.04). Twenty eight participants (72%) were able to perform the MEP maneuver; the other 11 participants failed to exceed the standard airway pressure threshold of 27cm H2O. Neither level nor completeness of injury were significant risk factors for failure of MEP maneuver. When the required airway pressure was sustained, there were no significant differences between BS outcomes obtained during Valsalva and MEP maneuvers. The results of this study indicate that individuals with high-level and motor-complete SCI are at increased risk of not completing the Valsalva maneuver and that baroreflex-mediated responses can be evaluated by using sustained MEP maneuver when the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed. PMID:27137412

  11. Protective effects of emodin and astragalus polysaccharides on chronic hepatic injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Shuang-suo; ZHANG Xin; JIA Xiao-li; CHENG Ya-nan; SONG Ping; LIU En-qi; HE Qian; LI Zong-fang

    2008-01-01

    Background Chinese medicine plays an important role in hepatoprotective treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of emodin and astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in a rat model of chronic hepatic injury.Methods Chronic hepatic injury was induced by hypodermic injection of an olive oil solution containing 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) twice a week, in addition to a diet of 79.5% maizena, 20% fat, 0.5% cholesterol, and 10% alcohol in the drinking water ad libitum for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, the rats were exposed to different concentrations of emodin (40 mg·kg-1·d-1), APS (200 mg·kg-1·d-1), combination drug (emodin 40 mg.kg-1·d-1 combined with APS 200 mg.kg-1·d-1) and colchicine (0.1 mg·kg-1·d-1) in parallel by oral gavage (once a day for 12 weeks). At the end of 12 weeks, blood serum and liver tissue were taken. Serum was collected to determine the levels of total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate transaminose (AST), and albumin (ALB). Liver and spleen indexes were assayed, followed by the measurements of the liver associated enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathological changes were studied using optical microscopy.Results Splenohepatomegalia was alleviated and serum levels of TBIL and ALT were reduced in the groups treated with emodin and APS when compared to the control group. In addition, the ALB level in the APS and combination groups was higher. Similarly, the SOD activity of liver homogenates was significantly higher in the groups treated with emodin and APS, while administration of the herbal derivatives prevented the elevation in MDA levels. Histological analysis showed that the APS and combination groups significantly ameliorated the hepatic injury.Conclusions Co-administration of emodin and APS demonstrated a synergistic action in reducing ALT and restoring ALB in the serum from a rat model of chronic hepatic injury. Emodin and APS may ameliorate the CCI4-induced

  12. NADPH-Oxidase 4 Protects against Kidney Fibrosis during Chronic Renal Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nlandu Khodo, Stellor; Dizin, Eva; Sossauer, Gaetan; Szanto, Ildiko; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Feraille, Eric; Krause, Karl Heinz; De Seigneux, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidases synthesize reactive oxygen species that may participate in fibrosis progression. NOX4 and NOX2 are NADPH oxidases expressed in the kidneys, with the former being the major renal isoform, but their contribution to renal disease is not well understood. Here, we used the unilateral urinary obstruction model of chronic renal injury to decipher the role of these enzymes using wild-type, NOX4-, NOX2-, and NOX4/NOX2-deficient mice. Compared with wild-type mice, NOX4-deficient mice exh...

  13. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Williamson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years traumatic brain injury (TBI.  The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills.  Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play.  Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication.  Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.               

  14. Neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid in central nervous system lesions consequent to peripheral nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Tomassoni; Francesco Amenta; Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli; Carla Ghelardini; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Alessandra Pacini; Seyed Khosrow Tayebati

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for tre...

  15. Analytical results for cell constriction dominated by bending energy

    OpenAIRE

    Almendro Vedia, Victor Galileo; Monroy Muñoz, Francisco; Cao García, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the main magnitudes of a symmetrically constricted vesicle. These equations provide an easy and compact way to predict minimal requirements for successful constriction and its main magnitudes. Thus, they can be useful for the design of synthetic divisomes and give good predictions for magnitudes including constriction energy, length of the constriction zone, volume and area of the vesicle, and the stability coefficient for symmetric constriction. The an...

  16. Functional Recovery in Chronic Stage of Spinal Cord Injury by Neurorestorative Approach: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI at an early age can be debilitating for the child’s growth. Current treatments show a level of stagnancy, after which the recovery is minimal. Cellular therapy is an emerging area of research and has been found to possess many benefits in the previous studies. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs has demonstrated therapeutic potential for many neurological conditions, including spinal cord injury. Here we report a case of 6-year-old girl with traumatic SCI at the level of C7-D1 4 years back, who underwent 2 doses of cell transplantation with autologous BMMNCs with an interval of 6 months along with standard rehabilitation. The patient did not have any major or minor side effects. The patient showed clinical improvements throughout the 6 months after transplantation, which was assessed using Functional Independence Measure (before: 82, after: 101 out of 126. There were patchy areas of sensory gain in bilateral feet recorded, with improvements in the bladder sensation and control. Improved gait was seen as a result of better strength in abdominals and back extensors. The fact that there was functional improvement in the chronic plateau phase indicates the potential of cell therapy in chronic SCI. Further clinical studies are warranted.

  17. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  18. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-González, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D. F., México (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); López-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D. F., México (Mexico); and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary β-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: • Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury • Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group • Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups • Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels.

  19. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel K Rowe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT, a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI. At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain, neuropathology (silver stain and activated astrocytes (GFAP in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI.

  20. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Thomas, Theresa C

    2016-07-01

    As many as 20-55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  1. Chronic oligodendrogenesis and remyelination after spinal cord injury in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesp, Zoe C; Goldstein, Evan Z; Goldstein, Evan A; Miranda, Carlos J; Kaspar, Brian K; Kaspar, Brain K; McTigue, Dana M

    2015-01-21

    Adult progenitor cells proliferate in the acutely injured spinal cord and their progeny differentiate into new oligodendrocytes (OLs) that remyelinate spared axons. Whether this endogenous repair continues beyond the first week postinjury (wpi), however, is unknown. Identifying the duration of this response is essential for guiding therapies targeting improved recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) by enhancing OL survival and/or remyelination. Here, we used two PDGFRα-reporter mouse lines and rats injected with a GFP-retrovirus to assess progenitor fate through 80 d after injury. Surprisingly, new OLs were generated as late as 3 months after injury and their processes ensheathed axons near and distal to the lesion, colocalized with MBP, and abutted Caspr+ profiles, suggesting newly formed myelin. Semithin sections confirmed stereotypical thin OL remyelination and few bare axons at 10 wpi, indicating that demyelination is relatively rare. Astrocytes in chronic tissue expressed the pro-OL differentiation and survival factors CNTF and FGF-2. In addition, pSTAT3+ NG2 cells were present through at least 5 wpi, revealing active signaling of the Jak/STAT pathway in these cells. The progenitor cell fate genes Sox11, Hes5, Id2, Id4, BMP2, and BMP4 were dynamically regulated for at least 4 wpi. Collectively, these data verify that the chronically injured spinal cord is highly dynamic. Endogenous repair, including oligodendrogenesis and remyelination, continues for several months after SCI, potentially in response to growth factors and/or transcription factor changes. Identifying and understanding spontaneous repair processes such as these is important so that beneficial plasticity is not inadvertently interrupted and effort is not exerted to needlessly duplicate ongoing spontaneous repair. PMID:25609641

  2. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates cadmium-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Du, Lifen; Li, Jingjing; Song, Hongping

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious environmental problem. Kidney is a main target organ of Cd toxicity. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against chronic renal injury and fibrosis induced by CdCl2. Rat model was induced by exposing to 250 mg/L CdCl2 through drinking water. The renal function was evaluated by detecting the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCR). The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and renal enzymatic antioxidant status. Additionally, the renal levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad3, phosphorylation-Smad3 (pp-Smad3), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and E-cadherin were measured by western blot assay. Renal levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21), miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that EGCG ameliorated the CdCl2-induced renal injury, inhibited the level of oxidative stress, normalized renal enzymatic antioxidant status and E-cadherin level, as well as attenuated the over generation of TGF-β1, pp-Smad3, vimentin and α-SMA. EGCG also decreased the production of miR-21 and miR-192, and enhanced the levels of miR-29a/b/c. These results showed that EGCG could attenuate Cd induced chronic renal injury. PMID:27474435

  3. Distinct Roles for the A2B Adenosine Receptor in Acute and Chronic Stages of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yang ZHOU; Schneider, Daniel J.; Morschl, Eva; Song, Ling; Pedroza, Mesias; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Le, Thuy.; Sun, Chun-Xiao; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is an extracellular signaling molecule that is generated in response to cell injury where it orchestrates tissue protection and repair. Whereas adenosine is best known for promoting anti-inflammatory activities during acute injury responses, prolonged elevations can enhance destructive tissue remodeling processes associated with chronic disease states. The generation of adenosine and the subsequent activation of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) is an important processes in the regul...

  4. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    C. Douglas Simmons, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA; Sajay Arthanat, PhD, OTR/L, ATP; Vincent J. Macri, BA, MA

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual’s ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive r...

  5. Clinical study of the radioprotective effects of Amifostine (YM-08310, WR-2721) on chronic radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Nagai, T.; Miyaishi, K.; Maehara, Y.; Niibe, H.

    1986-06-01

    We have previously reported that Amifostine, a radioprotective agent, was effective in treating acute radiation mucositis in the head and neck region. We found that when a considerable amount of Amifostine accumulates in the salivary glands, it may be useful in preventing chronic disturbances of salivary secretion. We have observed an increase in the uptake of Ga-67-citrate to the salivary glands when they were irradiated. In this paper, the radioprotective effects of Amifostine, in treating chronic radiation injury of the salivary glands, were studied, using the cessation of an increase in uptake of Ga-67-citrate after radiotherapy as the criterion. The subjects were 105 patients, (280 salivary glands in Ga-scintigrams) with malignancy of the head and neck region treated by irradiation from 1978 to 1984. Ga-negative glands were recognized in 97%, that is, 36 out of 37 glands, before irradiation, and the figure decreased to 19%, seven out of 37, within 1 to 2 weeks (10Gy less than or equal to) after the start of radiotherapy. In patients who were irradiated with more than 30 Gy and in whom scintigraphy was performed at 6 months or more after radiotherapy, Ga-negative glands were recognized in 18 out of 41 glands, 44%, with Amifostine, compared with 13%, four out of 32 glands, without Amifostine. A difference was recognized between these two groups in the negative change in Ga-67 uptake after radiotherapy (p less than 0.05). These facts suggest that Amifostine may have a radioprotective effect on chronic radiation injury.

  6. Densely calcified tuberculous constrictive pericarditis with concurrent active pulmonary tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laudari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though pulmonary tuberculosis is a common chronic infection in the developing countries like Nepal, the incidence of tubercular constrictive pericarditis is very low. Here we report a patient of active pulmonary tuberculosis with sputum positive for acid fast bacilli along with densely calcified constrictive pericarditis which has been reported as a very rare presentation in the literature.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12955 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 41-43

  7. Psychosocial factors and adjustment to chronic pain in spinal cord injury: replication and cross-validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, Ivan R; Stoelb, Brenda L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Raichle, Katherine A; Cardenas, Diana D

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the importance of psychological factors in the experience of chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current study sought to replicate and extend previous work demonstrating associations among specific pain-related beliefs, coping, mental health, and pain outcomes in persons with SCI. A return-by-mail survey assessing psychological functioning and pain was completed by 130 individuals with SCI. Measures included short forms of the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. After factor analysis, multiple regression was used to predict pain outcomes (psychological functioning and pain interference) after controlling for pain intensity. Results indicated that psychological factors, particularly beliefs about pain (including catastrophizing) and pain-related coping strategies (including passive coping), were significant predictors of pain outcomes and accounted for 21% to 25% of unique variance. Zero-order correlations suggested that the specific variables most closely associated with negative pain outcomes were perception of oneself as disabled, perceptions of low control over pain, and tendency to catastrophize. In general, negative attributions and coping were stronger predictors of pain adjustment than were positive ones. Results highlight the importance of psychological factors in understanding chronic pain in persons with SCI and provide further support for the biopsychosocial model. PMID:19533518

  8. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yong; LI; Ming-chun; FU; Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation. Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n = 10), they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad), normal control animals (Ctr), and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN). Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60 Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively. Before radiation, the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL), whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline. The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen. The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes, which were isolated from the spleen, were determined by Trypan blue staining. Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured. Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes, associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions, and elevated NO production. Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production, and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above. Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  9. Protective Effects of Lentinan against T Lymphocytes Injury in Mice under Chronic Radiation Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; LI Ming-chun; FU Qing-jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lentinan (LTN) on mice exposed to chronic radiation.Methods Animals were divided into three groups (n =10),they were animals exposed to radiation (Rad),normal control animals (Ctr),and irradiated animals treated with LTN (Rad + LTN).Animal model of chronic radiation stress injury was induced by irradiating mice with 60Co γ-ray for 6 weeks from Monday to Friday consecutively.Before radiation,the mice in Rad + LTN group were ip injected with 0.5 mL LTN (0.01 mg/mL),whereas mice in other groups were injected with 0.9% physiological saline.The effects of LTN treatment on irradiated mice were examined by histological analysis on the spleen.The cell numbers and viability of T lymphocytes,which were isolated from the spleen,were determined by Trypan blue staining.Nitric oxide (NO) production and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion in T lymphocytes were also measured.Results Chronic radiation significantly reduced the body weights and the spleen and thymus indexes,associated with reduced T lymphocytes viability and functions,and elevated NO production.Treatment with LTN significantly normalized the elevated NO production,and attenuated the negative outcomes resulting from radiation mentioned above.Conclusion The results suggest that radioprotective effect of LTN may be contributed by improved T lymphocytes viability and functions via regulating the NO and IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

  10. Suture Button Fixation Treatment of Chronic Lisfranc Injury in Professional Dancers and High-Level Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Boe, Chelsea; Thordarson, David B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic Lisfranc injury is a subtle and severe injury in high-level athletes, including dancers. This patient population is generally intolerant of intra-articular screw fixation and can develop significant post-traumatic arthritis with potentially career ending complications. Flexible fixation with suture-button devices provides potential restoration of physiologic motion at the joint, with appropriate support for healing that may facilitate return to en pointe activities for dancers. We hypothesized that the suture-button device would restore motion at the Lisfranc joint and allow for return to activities in this particular population without the limitations and complications of rigid fixation. We operated on seven dancers and high-level athletes with diagnosed Lisfranc injuries by installing a suture-button device. All patients had failed conservative management after late presentation. They were allowed to return to sport in 6 months, preoperative and postoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) foot scores were obtained, and patients were followed for a minimum of 15 months. All seven returned to full activities in 6 months, with radiographic evidence of fixation and no complications to date. AOFAS foot scores improved from an average of 65 preoperatively to an average of 97 postoperatively at latest follow-up. It is concluded that flexible fixation with suture-button type device represents a viable alternative to screw fixation or fusion that may allow dancers and athletes to return to previous levels of activity after Lisfranc injury. This case series represents to our knowledge the first application of this device to a unique population that requires flexibility at the Lisfranc joint for performance. PMID:26641700

  11. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Åhman; Britt-Marie Stålnacke

    2008-01-01

    Sofia Åhman, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate, in patients with injury-related chronic pain, pain intensity, levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressions.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 17–62 years, admitted for assessment to the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden, for chronic pain caused b...

  12. Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are presented. Background: Significant benefits have been reported following application of transcranial, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to humans with acute stroke and mice with acute TBI. These are the first case reports documenting improved cognitive function in chronic, TBI pati...

  13. Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation through CSF on the Subacute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Nakano; Yoshiyasu Nakai; Tae-Beom Seo; Tamami Homma; Yoshihiro Yamada; Masayoshi Ohta; Yoshihisa Suzuki; Toshio Nakatani; Masanori Fukushima; Miki Hayashibe; Chizuka Ide

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the infusion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has beneficial effects on acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The present study examined whether BMSC infusion into the CSF is effective for subacute (1- and 2-week post-injury), and/or chronic (4-week post-injury) SCI in rats. The spinal cord was contused by dropping a weight at the thoracic 8-9 levels. BMSCs cultured from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were injec...

  14. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  15. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando, E-mail: fluis@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, Javier [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Majer, Johannes [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  16. Chronic Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau Oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Joseph O; Mouzon, Benoit; Algamal, Moustafa; Leary, Paige; Lynch, Cillian; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Mullan, Michael; Bachmeier, Corbin; Stewart, William; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is characterized by patchy deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in neurons and astrocytes at the depths of cortical sulci. We developed an mTBI paradigm to explore effects of repetitive concussive-type injury over several months in mice with a human tau genetic background (hTau). Two injuries were induced in the hTau mice weekly over a period of 3 or 4 months and the effects were compared with those in noninjured sham animals. Behavioral and in vivo measures and detailed neuropathological assessments were conducted 6 months after the first injury. Our data confirm impairment in cerebral blood flow and white matter damage. This was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in total tau levels and mild increases in tau oligomers/conformers and pTau (Thr231) species in brain gray matter. There was no evidence of neurofibrillary/astroglial tangles, neuropil threads, or perivascular foci of tau immunoreactivity. There were neurobehavioral deficits (ie, disinhibition and impaired cognitive performance) in the mTBI animals. These data support the relevance of this new mTBI injury model for studying the consequences of chronic repetitive mTBI in humans, and the role of tau in TBI. PMID:27251042

  17. Repeated Closed Head Injury in Mice Results in Sustained Motor and Memory Deficits and Chronic Cellular Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton Hall, Amanda N.; Joseph, Binoy; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur every year in the United States, with many people subject to multiple head injuries that can lead to chronic behavioral dysfunction. We previously reported that mild TBI induced using closed head injuries (CHI) repeated at 24h intervals produced more acute neuron death and glial reactivity than a single CHI, and increasing the length of time between injuries to 48h reduced the cumulative acute effects of repeated CHI. To determine whether repeated CHI is associated with behavioral dysfunction or persistent cellular damage, mice receiving either five CHI at 24h intervals, five CHI at 48h intervals, or five sham injuries at 24h intervals were evaluated across a 10 week period after injury. Animals with repeated CHI exhibited motor coordination and memory deficits, but not gait abnormalities when compared to sham animals. At 10wks post-injury, no notable neuron loss or glial reactivity was observed in the cortex, hippocampus, or corpus callosum. Argyrophilic axons were found in the pyramidal tract of some injured animals, but neither silver stain accumulation nor inflammatory responses in the injury groups were statistically different from the sham group in this region. However, argyrophilic axons, microgliosis and astrogliosis were significantly increased within the optic tract of injured animals. Repeated mild CHI also resulted in microgliosis and a loss of neurofilament protein 200 in the optic nerve. Lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h did not effectively reduce these behavioral or cellular responses. These results suggest that repeated mild CHI results in persistent behavioral dysfunction and chronic pathological changes within the visual system, neither of which was significantly attenuated by lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h. PMID:27427961

  18. The Quest to Model Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Multiple Model & Injury Paradigm Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Turner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neurodegeneration following a history of neurotrauma is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms. In order to enhance understanding about the underlying pathophysiology linking neurotrauma to neurodegeneration, a multi-model pre-clinical approach must be established to account for the different injury paradigms and pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated the development of tau pathology and behavioral changes using a multi-model and multi-institutional approach, comparing the pre-clinical results to tauopathy patterns seen in post-mortem human samples from athletes diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. We utilized a scaled and validated blast-induced traumatic brain injury model in rats and a modified pneumatic closed-head impact model in mice. Tau hyperphosphorylation was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze were employed to measure impulsive-like behavior and cognitive deficits respectively. Animals exposed to single blast (~50 PSI reflected peak overpressure exhibited elevated AT8 immunoreactivity in the contralateral hippocampus at 1 month compared to controls (q = 3.96, p < 0.05. Animals exposed to repeat blast (6 blasts over 2 weeks had increased AT8 (q = 8.12, p < 0.001 and AT270 (q = 4.03, p < 0.05 in the contralateral hippocampus at 1 month post-injury compared to controls. In the modified controlled closed-head impact mouse model, no significant difference in AT8 was seen at 7 days, however a significant elevation was detected at 1 month following injury in the ipsilateral hippocampus compared to control (q = 4.34, p < 0.05. Elevated plus maze data revealed that rats exposed to single blast (q = 3.53, p < 0.05 and repeat blast (q = 4.21, p < 0.05 spent more time in seconds exploring the open arms compared to controls. Morris water maze testing revealed a significant difference between groups in acquisition times on days 22

  19. Reactive microglia after taste nerve injury: comparison to nerve injury models of chronic pain [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/wh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna L Bartel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The chorda tympani (CT, which innervates taste buds on the anterior portion of the tongue, is susceptible to damage during inner ear surgeries. Injury to the CT causes a disappearance of taste buds, which is concurrent with significant microglial responses at central nerve terminals in the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS. The resulting taste disturbances that can occur may persist for months or years, long after the nerve and taste buds have regenerated. These persistent changes in taste sensation suggest alterations in central functioning and may be related to the microglial responses. This is reminiscent of nerve injuries that result in chronic pain, where microglial reactivity is essential in maintaining the altered sensation (i.e., pain. In these models, methods that diminish microglial responses also diminish the corresponding pain behavior. Although the CT nerve does not contain nociceptive pain fibers, the microglial reactivity after CT damage is similar to that described in pain models. Therefore, methods that decrease microglial responses in pain models were used here to test if they could also affect microglial reactivity after CT injury. Treatment with minocycline, an antibiotic that dampens pain responsive microglia, was largely ineffective in diminishing microglial responses after CT injury. In addition, signaling through the toll-like 4 receptor (TLR4 does not seem to be required after CT injury as blocking or deleting TLR4 had no effect on microglial reactivity. These results suggest that microglial responses following CT injury rely on different signaling mechanisms than those described in nerve injuries resulting in chronic pain.

  20. Role of SIP30 in the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Guo, Ning; Peng, Guangdun; Han, Mei; Raincrow, Jeremy; Chiu, Chi-hua; Coolen, Lique M.; Wenthold, Robert J.; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Jing, Naihe; Yu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain, we profiled gene expression in the rat spinal cord, and identified SIP30 as a gene whose expression was elevated after CCI. SIP30 was previously shown to interact with SNAP25, but whose function was otherwise unknown. We now show that in the spinal cord, SIP30 was present in dorsal horn laminae where peripheral nociceptive inputs first synapse, colocalizing with nociception-related neuropeptides CGRP and substance P. With ...

  1. Noncultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Therapy for Chronic Radiation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanori Akita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern on chronic radiation injuries should be treated properly for life-saving improvement of wound management and quality of life. Recently, regenerative surgical modalities should be attempted with the use of noncultured autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs with temporal artificial dermis impregnated and sprayed with local angiogenic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor, and secondary reconstruction can be a candidate for demarcation and saving the donor morbidity. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells, together with angiogenic and mitogenic factor of basic fibroblast growth factor and an artificial dermis, were applied over the excised irradiated skin defect and tested for Patients who were uneventfully healed with minimal donor-site morbidity, which lasts more than 1.5 years.

  2. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  3. Functional outcome following rehabilitation in chronic severe traumatic brain injury patients: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to assess functional outcome of rehabilitation in chronic severe traumatic brain injury (TBI in-patients. Setting: The study was performed at university tertiary research hospital. Study Design: A prospective cross-sectional study Materials and Methods: Forty patients (34 men with mean age of 30.1 years (range 6--60, SD 10.8, severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale 3--8, duration of coma > 6 hours, post-traumatic amnesia> 1 day postinjury were admitted in rehabilitation unit minimum 3 months (mean 7.7±4.6 months, range 3--22 months following injury falling in Glasgow outcome scale (GOS of 3. Functional recovery was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI score and disability rating scores (DRS. Data Analysis: Paired Student′s t-test was used for the assessment of functional recovery using mean BI scores at admission and discharge. The Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used for the assessment of functional recovery by comparing admission and discharge DRS scores. Results: Mean duration of stay was 30.8 days (range 18--91, SD15.6. Significant functional recovery observed in patients comparing BI and DRS scores at admission and discharge (mean BI admission 50.5±25.4, range 0--85 vs. mean discharge BI score 61.1±25.3, range 0--95, P<0.001, mean DRS admission score 7.57±4.1, range 2.5--21.0 vs. mean discharge DRS score 6.36±4.3, range 1.0-21.0, P<0.001. Conclusion: Patients with severe TBI continue to show functional recovery even in chronic phase with rehabilitation. They are left with significant residual physical and cognitive deficits and would require long-term care and assistance from care givers for the daily activities, as suggested by the mean DRS score at discharge.

  4. Chronic impact of traumatic brain injury on outcome and quality of life: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchetti, Nino; Zanier, Elisa R

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally seen as a sudden, brutal event with short-term impairment, traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause persistent, sometimes life-long, consequences. While mortality after TBI has been reduced, a high proportion of severe TBI survivors require prolonged rehabilitation and may suffer long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological disorders. Additionally, chronic consequences have been identified not only after severe TBI but also in a proportion of cases previously classified as moderate or mild. This burden affects the daily life of survivors and their families; it also has relevant social and economic costs.Outcome evaluation is difficult for several reasons: co-existing extra-cranial injuries (spinal cord damage, for instance) may affect independence and quality of life outside the pure TBI effects; scales may not capture subtle, but important, changes; co-operation from patients may be impossible in the most severe cases. Several instruments have been developed for capturing specific aspects, from generic health status to specific cognitive functions. Even simple instruments, however, have demonstrated variable inter-rater agreement.The possible links between structural traumatic brain damage and functional impairment have been explored both experimentally and in the clinical setting with advanced neuro-imaging techniques. We briefly report on some fundamental findings, which may also offer potential targets for future therapies.Better understanding of damage mechanisms and new approaches to neuroprotection-restoration may offer better outcomes for the millions of survivors of TBI. PMID:27323708

  5. Association of chronic vascular changes with functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Nick M E A; Immonen, Riikka; Tuunanen, Pasi I; Ndode-Ekane, Xavier Ekolle; Gröhn, Olli; Pitkänen, Asla

    2010-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular remodeling in the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus is associated with long-term functional recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We induced TBI with lateral fluid-percussion (LFP) injury in adult rats. Animals were followed-up for 9 months, during which we tested motor performance using a neuroscore test, spatial learning and memory with a Morris water maze, and seizure susceptibility with a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) test. At 8 months, they underwent structural MRI, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Then, rats were perfused for histology to assess the density of blood vessels. In the perilesional cortex, the CBF decreased by 56% (p water maze correlated with enhanced thalamic vessel density (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). Finally, enhanced seizure susceptibility was associated with reduced CBF in the ipsilateral hippocampus (r = 0.78, p < 0.05) and increased vascular density in the thalamus (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). There was little interaction between the behavioral measures. The present study demonstrates that each of the investigated brain areas has a unique pattern of vascular abnormalities. Chronic alterations in CBF could not be attributed to changes in vascular density. Association of thalamic hypervascularity to epileptogenesis warrants further studies. Finally, hippocampal hypoperfusion may predict later seizure susceptibility in the LFP injury model of TBI, which could be of value for pre-clinical antiepileptogenesis trials. PMID:20839948

  6. Transcranial LED therapy for cognitive dysfunction in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2010-02-01

    Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases are presented, where cognitive function improved following treatment with transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs). At age 59, P1 had closed-head injury from a motor vehicle accident (MVA) without loss of consciousness and normal MRI, but unable to return to work as development specialist in internet marketing, due to cognitive dysfunction. At 7 years post-MVA, she began transcranial LED treatments with cluster heads (2.1" diameter with 61 diodes each - 9x633nm, 52x870nm; 12-15mW per diode; total power, 500mW; 22.2 mW/cm2) on bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and midline sagittal areas (13.3 J/cm2 at scalp, estimated 0.4 J/cm2 to brain cortex per area). Prior to transcranial LED, focused time on computer was 20 minutes. After 2 months of weekly, transcranial LED treatments, increased to 3 hours on computer. Performs nightly home treatments (now, 5 years, age 72); if stops treating >2 weeks, regresses. P2 (age 52F) had history of closed-head injuries related to sports/military training and recent fall. MRI shows fronto-parietal cortical atrophy. Pre-LED, was not able to work for 6 months and scored below average on attention, memory and executive function. Performed nightly transcranial LED treatments at home (9 months) with similar LED device, on frontal and parietal areas. After 4 months of LED treatments, returned to work as executive consultant, international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing (post- 9 months of transcranial LED) showed significant improvement in memory and executive functioning (range, +1 to +2 SD improvement). Case 2 reported reduction in PTSD symptoms.

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage Associated with Intestinal Oxidative Stress Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Chunyu; Kang, Xin; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Shuai; Fu, Huijun; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate whether intestinal mucosal barrier was damaged or not in chronic kidney disease progression and the status of oxidative stress. Methods. Rats were randomized into two groups: a control group and a uremia group. The uremia rat model was induced by 5/6 kidney resection. In postoperative weeks (POW) 4, 6, 8, and 10, eight rats were randomly selected from each group to prepare samples for assessing systemic inflammation, intestinal mucosal barrier changes, and the status of intestinal oxidative stress. Results. The uremia group presented an increase trend over time in the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and intestinal permeability, and these biomarkers were significantly higher than those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Chiu's scores in uremia group were also increased over time, especially in POW 8 and 10. Furthermore, the intestinal malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly higher in uremia group when compared with those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Conclusions. The advanced chronic kidney disease could induce intestinal mucosal barrier damage and further lead to systemic inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the intestinal oxidative stress injury. PMID:27493661

  8. Filling in the gaps: Anticipatory control of eye movements in chronic mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Diwakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A barrier in the diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI stems from the lack of measures that are adequately sensitive in detecting mild head injuries. MRI and CT are typically negative in mTBI patients with persistent symptoms of post-concussive syndrome (PCS, and characteristic difficulties in sustaining attention often go undetected on neuropsychological testing, which can be insensitive to momentary lapses in concentration. Conversely, visual tracking strongly depends on sustained attention over time and is impaired in chronic mTBI patients, especially when tracking an occluded target. This finding suggests deficient internal anticipatory control in mTBI, the neural underpinnings of which are poorly understood. The present study investigated the neuronal bases for deficient anticipatory control during visual tracking in 25 chronic mTBI patients with persistent PCS symptoms and 25 healthy control subjects. The task was performed while undergoing magnetoencephalography (MEG, which allowed us to examine whether neural dysfunction associated with anticipatory control deficits was due to altered alpha, beta, and/or gamma activity. Neuropsychological examinations characterized cognition in both groups. During MEG recordings, subjects tracked a predictably moving target that was either continuously visible or randomly occluded (gap condition. MEG source-imaging analyses tested for group differences in alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results showed executive functioning, information processing speed, and verbal memory deficits in the mTBI group. Visual tracking was impaired in the mTBI group only in the gap condition. Patients showed greater error than controls before and during target occlusion, and were slower to resynchronize with the target when it reappeared. Impaired tracking concurred with abnormal beta activity, which was suppressed in the parietal cortex, especially the right hemisphere, and enhanced in left caudate and

  9. Safety Profile, Feasibility and Early Clinical Outcome of Cotransplantation of Olfactory Mucosa and Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Goni, Vijay G.; Chhabra, Rajesh; Gupta, Ashok; Marwaha, Neelam; Dhillon, Mandeep S; Pebam, Sudesh; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Bangalore Kantharajanna, Shashidhar

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective case series. Purpose To study the safety and feasibility of cotransplantation of bone marrow stem cells and autologous olfactory mucosa in chronic spinal cord injury. Overview of Literature Stem cell therapies are a novel method in the attempt to restitute heavily damaged tissues. We discuss our experience with this modality in postspinal cord injury paraplegics. Methods The study includes 9 dorsal spine injury patients with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) I...

  10. Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori G. Cook

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down versus rote memory learning (bottom-up, on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition in 20 adolescents (ages 12-20 who were six months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-minute sessions over one month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10 exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10 failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 hours utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI.

  11. Chlordecone potentiates hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Elise; Genet, Valentine; Tiaho, François; Lucas-Clerc, Catherine; Gelu-Simeon, Moana; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Samson, Michel

    2016-07-25

    Chronic liver damage due to viral or chemical agents leads to a repair process resulting in hepatic fibrosis. Fibrosis may lead to cirrhosis, which may progress to liver cancer or a loss of liver function, with an associated risk of liver failure and death. Chlordecone is a chlorinated pesticide used in the 1990s. It is not itself hepatotoxic, but its metabolism in the liver triggers hepatomegaly and potentiates hepatotoxic agents. Chlordecone is now banned, but it persists in soil and water, resulting in an ongoing public health problem in the Caribbean area. We assessed the probable impact of chlordecone on the progression of liver fibrosis in the population of contaminated areas, by developing a mouse model of chronic co-exposure to chlordecone and a hepatotoxic agent, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). After repeated administrations of chlordecone and CCl4 by gavage over a 12-week period, we checked for liver damage in the exposed mice, by determining serum liver transaminase (AST, ALT) levels, histological examinations of the liver and measuring the expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix components. The co-exposure of mice to CCl4 and chlordecone resulted in significant increases in ALT and AST levels. Chlordecone also increased expression of the Col1A2, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 genes in CCl4-treated mice. Finally, we demonstrated, by quantifying areas of collagen deposition and alpha-SMA gene expression, that chlordecone potentiated the hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4. In conclusion, our data suggest that chlordecone potentiates hepatic fibrosis in mice with CCl4-induced chronic liver injury. PMID:26853152

  12. Effect of WeiJia on carbon tetrachloride induced chronic liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pik-Yuen Cheung; Jay Chun; Hsiang-Fu Kung; Meng-su Yang; Qi Zhang; Ya-Ou Zhang; Gan-Rong Bai; Marie Chia-Mi Lin; Bernard Chan; Chi-Chun Fong; Lin Shi; Yue-Feng Shi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of WeiJia on chronic liver injury using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury animal model.METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (Group A), CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B) and CCl4 induction with WeiJia treatment group (Group C). Each group consisted of 14 rats. Liver damage and fibrosis was induced by subcutaneous injection with 40% CCl4 in olive oil at 3 mL/kg body weight twice a week for eight weeks for Groups B and C rats whereas olive oil was used for Group A rats. Starting from the third week,Group C rats also received daily intraperitoneal injection of WeiJia at a dose of 1.25 μg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed at the fifth week (4 male, 3 female), and eighth week (4 male, 3 female) respectively. Degree of fibrosis were measured and serological markers for liver fibrosis and function including hyaluronic acid (HA), type Ⅳ collagen (CIV), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were also performed.RESULTS: CCl4 induction led to the damage of liver and development of fibrosis in Group B and Group C rats when compared to Group A rats. The treatment of WeiJia in Group C rats could reduce the fibrosis condition significantly compared to Group B rats. The effect could be observed after three weeks of treatment and was more obvious after eight weeks of treatment. Serum HA, CIV,ALT, AST and Y-GT levels after eight weeks of treatment for Group C rats were 58±22 μg/L (P0.05) respectively, similar to normal control group (Group A), but significantly different from CCl4 induced liver injury control group (Group B). An increase in PCNA and decrease in a-SMA expression level was also observed.CONCLUSION: WeiJia could improve liver function and reduce liver fibrosis

  13. Ascending central canal dilation and progressive ependymal disruption in a contusion model of rodent chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keirstead Hans S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI can lead to an insidious decline in motor and sensory function in individuals even years after the initial injury and is accompanied by a slow and progressive cytoarchitectural destruction. At present, no pathological mechanisms satisfactorily explain the ongoing degeneration. Methods Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized laminectomized at T10 and received spinal cord contusion injuries with a force of 250 kilodynes using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Animals were randomly distributed into 5 groups and killed 1 (n = 4, 28 (n = 4, 120 (n = 4, 450 (n = 5, or 540 (n = 5 days after injury. Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were then performed on 1 mm block sections, 6 mm cranial and 6 mm caudal to the lesion epicenter. The SPSS 11.5 t test was used to determine differences between quantitative measures. Results Here, we document the first report of an ascending central canal dilation and progressive ependymal disruption cranial to the epicenter of injury in a contusion model of chronic SCI, which was characterized by extensive dural fibrosis and intraparenchymal cystic cavitation. Expansion of the central canal lumen beyond a critical diameter corresponded with ependymal cell ciliary loss, an empirically predictable thinning of the ependymal region, and a decrease in cell proliferation in the ependymal region. Large, aneurysmal dilations of the central canal were accompanied by disruptions in the ependymal layer, periependymal edema and gliosis, and destruction of the adjacent neuropil. Conclusion Cells of the ependymal region play an important role in CSF homeostasis, cellular signaling and wound repair in the spinal cord. The possible effects of this ascending pathology on ependymal function are discussed. Our studies suggest central canal dilation and ependymal region disruption as steps in the pathogenesis of chronic SCI, identify central canal dilation as a marker of

  14. Clinical value of renal injury biomarkers in diagnosis of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-lu ZHANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the levels of renal injury biomarkers in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD and evaluate their clinical significances in diagnosis of CKD.Methods A total of 66 subjects(37 patients with CKD and 29 healthy individuals were involved in this study.Serum blood urea nitrogen(SBUN was determined by Glutamate dehydrogenase method;serum creatinine(SCr and urinary creatinine(UCr were detected by sarcosine oxidase method;serum uric acid(SUA was measured by uricase colorimetry;serum cystatin C(Cys C and urinary microalbumin(UmAlbwere analyzed by immunological transmission turbidimetry;urinary protein(U-PROwas measured by Coomassies Brilliant Blue(CBB assay.The UmAlb and U-PRO levels were expressed in units of mg/mmolUCr.Results The results of independent samples t test indicated that significant differences were found in SBUN,SCr,SUA,Cys C,UmAlb and U-PRO(P < 0.05 between patient group and healthy control group.The evaluation of diagnostic effects showed that the areas under the curve at ROC plot for SBUN,SCr,SUA,Cys C,UmAlb and U-PRO were 0.907,0.912,0.742,0.982,0.984 and 0.991,respectively.Conclusions U-PRO,UmAlb and Cys C are ideal biomarkers,SCr and SBUN come next,SUA is the weakest when the above biomarkers are applied to evaluate the renal injury and its severity of the patients with CKD.

  15. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6±14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0±35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6±1.3 x 107 cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6±3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9±0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  16. (+)-Naloxone, an opioid-inactive toll-like receptor 4 signaling inhibitor, reverses multiple models of chronic neuropathic pain in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Loram, Lisa C.; Hutchinson, Mark R; Li, Chien-Ming; Zhang, Yingning; Maier, Steven F.; Huang, Yong; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that both the opioid antagonist (−)-naloxone and the nonopioid (+)-naloxone inhibit toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and reverse neuropathic pain expressed shortly after chronic constriction injury. The present studies reveal that the TLR4 contributes to neuropathic pain in another major model (spinal nerve ligation) and to long established (2–4 mon) neuropathic pain, not just to pain shortly after nerve damage. Additionally, analyses of plasma levels of (+)-na...

  17. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  18. Acupuncture for Chronic Urinary Retention due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No systematic review has been published on the use of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic urinary retention (CUR due to spinal cord injury (SCI. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for CUR due to SCI. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs including 334 patients with CUR due to SCI were included. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture plus rehabilitation training was much better than rehabilitation training alone in decreasing postvoid residual (PVR urine volume (MD −109.44, 95% CI −156.53 to −62.35. Likewise, a combination of acupuncture and aseptic intermittent catheterization was better than aseptic intermittent catheterization alone in improving response rates (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.38. No severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, acupuncture as a complementary therapy may have a potential effect in CUR due to SCI in decreasing PVR and improving bladder voiding. Additionally, acupuncture may be safe in treating CUR caused by SCI. However, due to the lack of high quality RCTs, we could not draw any definitive conclusions. More well-designed RCTs are needed to provide strong evidence.

  19. Unilateral microinjection of acrolein into thoracic spinal cord produces acute and chronic injury and functional deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Alexander; Liu, Nai-Kui; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Oakes, Eddie; Brenia, John; Gianaris, Thomas; Ruan, Yiwen; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Goetz, Maria; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Lu, Qing-Bo; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-06-21

    Although lipid peroxidation has long been associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), the specific role of lipid peroxidation-derived byproducts such as acrolein in mediating damage remains to be fully understood. Acrolein, an α-β unsaturated aldehyde, is highly reactive with proteins, DNA, and phospholipids and is considered as a second toxic messenger that disseminates and augments initial free radical events. Previously, we showed that acrolein increased following traumatic SCI and injection of acrolein induced tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate that microinjection of acrolein into the thoracic spinal cord of adult rats resulted in dose-dependent tissue damage and functional deficits. At 24h (acute) after the microinjection, tissue damage, motoneuron loss, and spinal cord swelling were observed on sections stained with Cresyl Violet. Luxol fast blue staining further showed that acrolein injection resulted in dose-dependent demyelination. At 8weeks (chronic) after the microinjection, cord shrinkage, astrocyte activation, and macrophage infiltration were observed along with tissue damage, neuron loss, and demyelination. These pathological changes resulted in behavioral impairments as measured by both the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and grid walking analysis. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that acrolein induced axonal degeneration, demyelination, and macrophage infiltration. These results, combined with our previous reports, strongly suggest that acrolein may play a critical causal role in the pathogenesis of SCI and that targeting acrolein could be an attractive strategy for repair after SCI. PMID:27058147

  20. Hepatocyte Turnover in Chronic HCV-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P. Karidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection may eventually lead to progressive liver fibrosis and cirrhosis through a complex, multistep process involving hepatocyte death and regeneration. Despite common pathogenetic pathways present in all forms of liver cirrhosis irrespective of etiology, hepatocyte turnover and related molecular events in HCV-induced cirrhosis are increasingly being distinguished from even “similar” causes, such as hepatitis B virus- (HBV- related cirrhosis. New insights in HCV-induced hepatocellular injury, differential gene expression, and regenerative pathways have recently revealed a different pattern of progression to irreversible parenchymal liver damage. A shift to the significant role of the host immune response rather than the direct effect of HCV on hepatocytes and the imbalance between antiapoptotic and proapoptotic signals have been investigated in several studies but need to be further elucidated. The present review aims to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on HCV-induced hepatocellular turnover with a view to outline the significant trends of ongoing research.

  1. Managing severe burn injuries: challenges and solutions in complex and chronic wound care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers AD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alan D Rogers, Marc G Jeschke Ross Tilley Burn Centre, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Encountered regularly by health care providers across both medical and surgical fields and an increasing socioeconomic burden globally, wound care is severely neglected. Practice is heavily influenced by anecdote rather than evidence-based protocols and industry-biased literature rather than robust randomized controlled trials. Burn units are well placed to address this considerable need, as a result of their infrastructure, their multispecialty staffing, and their need to evolve in light of the declining incidence of major burn injury in developed countries. The aim of this review is to evaluate some of the ideological and practical challenges facing wound practitioners and burn surgeons while managing chronic and complex wounds. It also includes an approach to wound assessment and how to conceptualize and implement dressing strategies and new and existing multimodal therapies. Keywords: negative pressure wound therapy, instillation, antiseptic solutions, dressings, multidisciplinary wound care, stem cells, surgery, autograft, allograft, reconstructive ladder

  2. Severe metabolic alkalosis and recurrent acute on chronic kidney injury in a patient with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Axel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is common in patients with Crohn's disease and may be accompanied by acid base disorders, most commonly metabolic acidosis due to intestinal loss of bicarbonate. Case Presentation Here, we present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis in a young patient suffering from M. Crohn. The patient had undergone multiple resections of the intestine and suffered from chronic kidney disease. He was now referred to our clinic for recurrent acute kidney injury, the nature of which was pre-renal due to profound volume depletion. Renal failure was associated with marked hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis which only responded to high volume repletion and high dose blockade of gastric hypersecretion. Intestinal failure with stomal fluid losses of up to 5.7 litres per day required port implantation to commence parenteral nutrition. Fluid and electrolyte replacement rapidly improved renal function and acid base homeostasis. Conclusions This case highlights the important role of gastrointestinal function to maintain acid base status in patients with Crohn's disease.

  3. Reflex responses to combined hip and knee motion in human chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wu, PhD

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of hip and knee proprioceptors to the origination of extensor spasms were examined in 11 subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. Ramp and hold extension and combined hip and knee oscillation movements were imposed to the right leg while the ankle was held in a static position by a custom-designed robot. Isometric joint torques of the hip, knee, and ankle and surface electromyograms (EMGs from seven leg muscles were recorded following controlled hip and knee extension. A stereotypical torque response consisting of hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion was observed following hip and knee perturbations. Further, the hip or knee joint posture modulated the spastic reflexes triggered by the extension movement of the other joint, with larger responses observed with the hip and knee extended. In addition, combined hip and knee oscillation movements were imposed to one leg with four different phasing conditions. The phasing between the hip and knee modulated the reflex activity triggered by hip and knee oscillations. The EMG patterns of the spastic reflexes were generally consistent with muscle timing during locomotion in human SCI. This knowledge may help identify rehabilitation strategies that produce functional movements in human SCI.

  4. THE VALUE OF THE ARTHROSCOPY IN ACUTE AND CHRONIC ANKLE INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Voicu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to demonstrate the value of the arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of the ankle sprain and cronic ankle instability. Between January 2005 and March 2009, there were studied 25 patients, to whom there was made ankle arthroscopy with the purpose to diagnose and the treatment. The mean age was 26 years, with a range from 19 to 42 years, 19 from them were men and 6 women. The final evaluation was made to 23 patient, with a medium six month follow-up. The functional results after arthroscopy were evaluate using Mc Cullough Score. In 78% of cases the pain disapeared significantly. There was made in all cases debridation with shaver, in 12 cases microabrasive chondroplasty and in 7 cases ligamentoplasty of the anterior talofibular ligament and/or deltoid ligament. In 76% there was, at least an associated, „hiden”, lesion, wich need also arthroscopic treatment. We have one complication (4,3% represented by a superficial chondral lesion, wich was treated by microabrasive chondroplasty. There were any neurological, vascular or other complications. The results show us that ankle arthroscopy remain a certain, mini-invazive method to diagnose and for the treatment of the ankle lesions. Arthroscopic ligamentoplasty of the ankle is still in confirmation. Arthrocopy is the main procedure for treating the impingement syndrom of the ankle and osteochondral lesion – injury that are frecventely associated with chronic ankle instability.

  5. Acupuncture for Chronic Urinary Retention due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhai, Yanbing; Wu, Jiani; Zhao, Shitong; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    No systematic review has been published on the use of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic urinary retention (CUR) due to spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for CUR due to SCI. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 334 patients with CUR due to SCI were included. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture plus rehabilitation training was much better than rehabilitation training alone in decreasing postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume (MD -109.44, 95% CI -156.53 to -62.35). Likewise, a combination of acupuncture and aseptic intermittent catheterization was better than aseptic intermittent catheterization alone in improving response rates (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.38). No severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, acupuncture as a complementary therapy may have a potential effect in CUR due to SCI in decreasing PVR and improving bladder voiding. Additionally, acupuncture may be safe in treating CUR caused by SCI. However, due to the lack of high quality RCTs, we could not draw any definitive conclusions. More well-designed RCTs are needed to provide strong evidence. PMID:27190542

  6. Chronic kidney disease-induced HMGB1 elevation worsens sepsis and sepsis-induced acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Huang, Yuning; Hu, Xuzhen; Zhou, Hua; Tsuji, Takayuki; Chen, Richard; Jeffrey B Kopp; Schnermann, Jürgen; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Star, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that kidney dysfunction/interstitial fibrosis by folate predisposes mice to sepsis mortality (normal/sepsis: 15%; folate/sepsis: 90%); agents that increased survival in normal septic mice were ineffective in the two-stage model. We used a recently characterized 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) mouse model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) to study how CKD impacts sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by cecal ligation-puncture (CLP). CKD intensified sepsis severity (...

  7. Periprocedural Myocardial Injury and Long-term Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Di Serafino, Luigi; Borgia, Franscesco; Maeremans, Joren; Pyraxas, Stylianos A.; De Bruyne, Bernard; Wijns, William; Heyndrickx, Guy R; Dens, Jo; di Mario, Carlo; Barbato, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) might occur more frequently during challenging procedures such as PCI of chronic coronary total occlusion (CTO). The prognostic implication of PMI in CTO-PCI remains unclear. METHODS: From January 2006 to September 2012, a total of 715 consecutive patients undergoing CTO-PCI were screened at three centers. Only patients with available pre-PCI and post-PCI troponin (cTn) were included (n ...

  8. Remyelination after chronic spinal cord injury is associated with proliferation of endogenous adult progenitor cells after systemic administration of guanosine

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shucui; Ballerini, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Jiang, Cai; Huang, Xinjie; Rathbone, Michel P.

    2008-01-01

    Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors. Guanosine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells in vitro and exerts neuroprotec...

  9. Deltoid Ligament and Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Injury in Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation at 3T and Comparison with Arthroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Ka-Young; Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Seok Hoon; Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Jeong, Min-Sun; Kim, Dae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Materials and Methods Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated ...

  10. Protective effect of corn peptides against alcoholic liver injury in men with chronic alcohol consumption: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuhong; Pan, Xingchang; Zhang, Shixiu; Wang, Wenxian; Cai, Muyi; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Fan; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Corn peptides (CPs) are a novel food prepared from corn gluten meal, which is a main by-product of the corn starch industry. Recently, significant beneficial effects of CPs on early alcoholic liver injury in rats and on acute alcoholic injury in mice were observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report showing that CPs supplementation has beneficial effects on lipid profile, oxidative stress and alcoholic liver injury in men with chronic alcohol consumption. Metho...

  11. Numerical computation of pulsatile flow through a locally constricted channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.; Layek, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the numerical solution of a pulsatile laminar flow through a locally constricted channel. A finite difference technique has been employed to solve the governing equations. The effects of the flow parameters such as Reynolds number, flow pulsation in terms of Strouhal number, constriction height and length on the flow behaviour have been studied. It is found that the peak value of the wall shear stress has significantly changed with the variation of Reynolds numbers and constriction heights. It is also noted that the Strouhal number and constriction length have little effect on the peak value of the wall shear stress. The flow computation reveals that the peak value of the wall shear stress at maximum flow rate time in pulsatile flow situation is much larger than that due to steady flow. The constriction and the flow pulsation produce flow disturbances at the vicinity of the constriction of the channel in the downstream direction.

  12. Stochastic Constriction Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Multidimensional Space Function Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Obagbuwa, I. C,; A. O. Adewumi; A. A. Adebiyi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of stochastic constriction on cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm performance was examined in this paper. A stochastic constriction cockroach swarm optimization (SCCSO) algorithm is proposed. A stochastic constriction factor is introduced into CSO algorithm for swarm stability enhancement; control cockroach movement from one position to another while searching for solution to avoid explosion; enhanced local and global searching capabilities. SCCSO performance was tested th...

  13. Snake modulates constriction in response to prey's heartbeat

    OpenAIRE

    Boback, Scott M.; Hall, Allison E.; McCann, Katelyn J.; Hayes, Amanda W.; Forrester, Jeffrey S.; Zwemer, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Many species of snakes use constriction—the act of applying pressure via loops of their trunk—to subdue and kill their prey. Constriction is costly and snakes must therefore constrict their prey just long enough to ensure death. However, it remains unknown how snakes determine when their prey is dead. Here, we demonstrate that boas (Boa constrictor) have the remarkable ability to detect a heartbeat in their prey and, based on this signal, modify the pressure and duration of constriction accor...

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces hepatic TNFα production and inflammation in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Kirpich, Irina; Ma, Zhenhua; Wang, Cuiling; Zhang, Min; Suttles, Jill; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic effects of probiotic treatment in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have been studied in both patients and experimental animal models. Although the precise mechanisms of the pathogenesis of ALD are not fully understood, gut-derived endotoxin has been postulated to play a crucial role in hepatic inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that probiotic therapy reduces circulating endotoxin derived from intestinal gram-negative bacteria in ALD. In this study, we investigated the effects of probiotics on hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production and inflammation in response to chronic alcohol ingestion. Mice were fed Lieber DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% alcohol for 8weeks, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was supplemented in the last 2 weeks. Eight-week alcohol feeding caused a significant increase in hepatic inflammation as shown by histological assessment and hepatic tissue myeloperoxidase activity assay. Two weeks of LGG supplementation reduced hepatic inflammation and liver injury and markedly reduced TNFα expression. Alcohol feeding increased hepatic mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and CYP2E1 and decreased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression. LGG supplementation attenuated these changes. Using human peripheral blood monocytes-derived macrophages, we also demonstrated that incubation with ethanol primes both lipopolysaccharide- and flagellin-induced TNFα production, and LGG culture supernatant reduced this induction in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LGG treatment also significantly decreased alcohol-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. In conclusion, probiotic LGG treatment reduced alcohol-induced hepatic inflammation by attenuation of TNFα production via inhibition of TLR4- and TLR5-mediated endotoxin activation. PMID:23618528

  15. The role of cortisol in chronic binge alcohol-induced cerebellar injury: Ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Shannon E; Tress, Ursula; Lunde, Emilie R; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-02-01

    Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy are at high risk of giving birth to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that third trimester equivalent binge alcohol exposure at a dose of 1.75 g/kg/day results in significant fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in fetal sheep and that both maternal and fetal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels are elevated in response to alcohol treatment. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated elevations in cortisol from chronic binge alcohol are responsible at least in part for fetal neuronal deficits. Animals were divided into four treatment groups: normal control, pair-fed saline control, alcohol and cortisol. The magnitude of elevation in cortisol in response to alcohol was mimicked in the cortisol group by infusing pregnant ewes with hydrocortisone for 6 h on each day of the experiment, and administering saline during the first hour in lieu of alcohol. The experiment was conducted on three consecutive days followed by four days without treatment beginning on gestational day (GD) 109 until GD 132. Peak maternal blood alcohol concentration in the alcohol group was 239 ± 7 mg/dl. The fetal brains were collected and processed for stereological cell counting on GD 133. The estimated total number of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells, the reference volume and the Purkinje cell density were not altered in response to glucocorticoid infusion in the absence of alcohol. These results suggest that glucocorticoids independently during the third trimester equivalent may not produce fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. However, the elevations in cortisol along with other changes induced by alcohol could together lead to brain injury seen in the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23218665

  16. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Åhman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Åhman, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate, in patients with injury-related chronic pain, pain intensity, levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressions.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 17–62 years, admitted for assessment to the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden, for chronic pain caused by an injury, answered a set of questionnaires to assess post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], pain intensity (VAS, depression, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HAD].Results: Moderate to severe post-traumatic stress was reported by 48.1% of the patients. Possible–probable anxiety on the HAD was scored by 44.5% and possible–probable depression by 45.2%. Pain intensity (VAS was significantly correlated to post-traumatic stress (r = 0.183, p = 0.022, the HAD-scores anxiety (r = 0.186, p = 0.0021, and depression (r = 0.252, p = 0.002. No statistically significant differences were found between genders for post-traumatic stress, pain intensity, anxiety, or depression. Participants with moderate to severe stress reaction reported statistically significant higher anxiety scores on the HAD (p = 0.030 in comparison with patients with mild stress.Conclusion: The findings of relationships between pain intensity, post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety may have implications for clinicians and underline the importance of considering all these factors when managing patients with injury-related chronic pain.Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, chronic pain

  17. Nociceptors as chronic drivers of pain and hyperreflexia after spinal cord injury: an adaptive-maladaptive hyperfunctional state hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdgarTWalters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI causes chronic peripheral sensitization of nociceptors and persistent generation of spontaneous action potentials (SA in peripheral branches and the somata of hyperexcitable nociceptors within dorsal root ganglia (DRG. Here it is proposed that SCI triggers in numerous nociceptors a persistent hyperfunctional state (peripheral, synaptic, and somal that originally evolved as an adaptive response to compensate for loss of sensory terminals after severe but survivable peripheral injury. In this hypothesis, nociceptor somata monitor the status of their own receptive field and the rest of the body by integrating signals received by their peripheral and central branches and the soma itself. A nociceptor switches into a potentially permanent hyperfunctional state when central neural, glial, and inflammatory signal combinations are detected that indicate extensive peripheral injury. Similar signal combinations are produced by SCI and disseminated widely to uninjured as well as injured nociceptors. This paper focuses on the uninjured nociceptors that are altered by SCI. Enhanced activity generated in below-level nociceptors promotes below-level central sensitization, somatic and autonomic hyperreflexia, and visceral dysfunction. If sufficient ascending fibers survive, enhanced activity in below-level nociceptors contributes to below-level pain. Nociceptor activity generated above the injury level contributes to at- and above-level sensitization and pain (evoked and spontaneous. Thus, SCI triggers a potent nociceptor state that may have been adaptive (from an evolutionary perspective after severe peripheral injury but is maladaptive after SCI. Evidence that hyperfunctional nociceptors make large contributions to behavioral hypersensitivity after SCI suggests that nociceptor-specific ion channels required for nociceptor SA and hypersensitivity offer promising targets for treating chronic pain and hyperreflexia after SCI.

  18. Snake modulates constriction in response to prey's heartbeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boback, Scott M; Hall, Allison E; McCann, Katelyn J; Hayes, Amanda W; Forrester, Jeffrey S; Zwemer, Charles F

    2012-06-23

    Many species of snakes use constriction-the act of applying pressure via loops of their trunk-to subdue and kill their prey. Constriction is costly and snakes must therefore constrict their prey just long enough to ensure death. However, it remains unknown how snakes determine when their prey is dead. Here, we demonstrate that boas (Boa constrictor) have the remarkable ability to detect a heartbeat in their prey and, based on this signal, modify the pressure and duration of constriction accordingly. We monitored pressure generated by snakes as they struck and constricted warm cadaveric rats instrumented with a simulated heart. Snakes responded to the beating heart by constricting longer and with greater total pressure than when constricting rats with no heartbeat. When the heart was stopped midway through the constriction, snakes abandoned constriction shortly after the heartbeat ceased. Furthermore, snakes naive to live prey also responded to the simulated heart, suggesting that this behaviour is at least partly innate. These results are an example of how snakes integrate physiological cues from their prey to modulate a complex and ancient behavioural pattern. PMID:22258447

  19. Deltoid ligament and tibiofibular syndesmosis injury in chronic lateral ankle instability: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at 3T and comparison with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated with prevalence of deltoid or syndesmosis injuries. The diagnostic accuracy of ankle ligament imaging at 3T MRI was analyzed using arthroscopy as a reference standard. On MRI, deltoid ligament injury was identified in 18 (36%) patients as follows: superficial ligament alone, 9 (50%); deep ligament alone 2 (11%); and both ligaments 7 (39%). Syndesmosis abnormality was found in 21 (42%) patients as follows: anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) alone, 19 (90%); and AITFL and interosseous ligament, 2 (10%). There was no correlation between LCLC injury complexity and the prevalence of an accompanying deltoid or syndesmosis injury on both MRI and arthroscopic findings. MRI sensitivity and specificity for detection of deltoid ligament injury were 84% and 93.5%, and those for detection of syndesmosis injury were 91% and 100%, respectively. Deltoid ligament or syndesmosis injuries were common in patients undergoing surgery for CLAI, regardless of the LCLC injury complexity. 3T MRI is helpful for the detection of all types of ankle ligament injury. Therefore, careful interpretation of pre-operative MRI is essential

  20. Deltoid ligament and tibiofibular syndesmosis injury in chronic lateral ankle instability: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at 3T and comparison with arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ka Young; Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Seok Hoon; Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Dae Jung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated with prevalence of deltoid or syndesmosis injuries. The diagnostic accuracy of ankle ligament imaging at 3T MRI was analyzed using arthroscopy as a reference standard. On MRI, deltoid ligament injury was identified in 18 (36%) patients as follows: superficial ligament alone, 9 (50%); deep ligament alone 2 (11%); and both ligaments 7 (39%). Syndesmosis abnormality was found in 21 (42%) patients as follows: anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) alone, 19 (90%); and AITFL and interosseous ligament, 2 (10%). There was no correlation between LCLC injury complexity and the prevalence of an accompanying deltoid or syndesmosis injury on both MRI and arthroscopic findings. MRI sensitivity and specificity for detection of deltoid ligament injury were 84% and 93.5%, and those for detection of syndesmosis injury were 91% and 100%, respectively. Deltoid ligament or syndesmosis injuries were common in patients undergoing surgery for CLAI, regardless of the LCLC injury complexity. 3T MRI is helpful for the detection of all types of ankle ligament injury. Therefore, careful interpretation of pre-operative MRI is essential.

  1. Inhibition of Cysteine Proteases in Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Swapan K.; Samantaray, Supriti; Smith, Joshua A.; Matzelle, Denise D.; Das, Arabinda; Banik, Naren L.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious neurological disorder that debilitates mostly young people. Unfortunately, we still do not have suitable therapeutic agents for treatment of SCI and prevention of its devastating consequences. However, we have gained a good understanding of pathological mechanisms that cause neurodegeneration leading to paralysis or even death following SCI. Primary injury to the spinal cord initiates the secondary injury process that includes various deleterious factors ...

  2. Decreased chronic cellular and antibody-mediated injury in the kidney following simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Timucin; Heimbach, Julie K; Rosen, Charles B; Nyberg, Scott L; Park, Walter D; Stegall, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    In simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK), the liver can protect the kidney from hyperacute rejection and may also decrease acute cellular rejection rates. Whether the liver protects against chronic injury is unknown. To answer this we studied renal allograft surveillance biopsies in 68 consecutive SLK recipients (14 with donor-specific alloantibodies at transplantation [DSA+], 54 with low or no DSA, [DSA-]). These were compared with biopsies of a matched cohort of kidney transplant alone (KTA) recipients (28 DSA+, 108 DSA-). Overall 5-year patient and graft survival was not different: 93.8% and 91.2% in SLK, and 91.9% and 77.1% in KTA. In DSA+ recipients, KTA had a significantly higher incidence of acute antibody-mediated rejection (46.4% vs. 7.1%) and chronic transplant glomerulopathy (53.6% vs. 0%). In DSA- recipients at 5 years, KTA had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of T cell-mediated rejection (clinical plus subclinical, 30.6% vs. 7.4%). By 5 years, DSA+ KTA had a 44% decline in mean GFR while DSA+SLK had stable GFR. In DSA- KTA, the incidence of a combined endpoint of renal allograft loss or over a 50% decline in GFR was significantly higher (20.4% vs. 7.4%). Simultaneously transplanted liver allograft was the most predictive factor for a significantly lower incidence of cellular (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.27) and antibody-mediated injury (odds ratio 0.11, confidence interval 0.03-0.32), as well as graft functional decline (odds ratio 0.22, confidence interval 0.06-0.59). Thus, SLK is associated with reduced chronic cellular and antibody-mediated alloimmune injury in the kidney allograft. PMID:26924059

  3. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CharlesW.Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  4. Chronic angiotensin (1-7) injection accelerates STZ-induced diabetic renal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying SHAO; Ming HE; Li ZHOU; Tai YAO; Yu HUANG; Li-min LU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in blood pressure control and body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. In the past few years, angio-tensin (Ang) (1-7) has been reported to counteract the effects of Ang Ⅱ and was even considered as a new therapeutical target in RAS. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ang (1-7) administration on a diabetic animal model and the modulation on local RAS. Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ) injection-induced diabetic rats were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) STZ-induced diabetes; and (3) STZ-induced diabetes with chronic Ang (1-7) treatment [D+Ang(1-7)]. In the D+Ang(1-7) group, a dose of 25 μg-kg-1.h-1 of Ang (1-7) was continually injected through the jugular vein by embedding mini-osmotic pump for 6 weeks. Plasma glucose, ratio of kidney to body weight, and 24 h urine protein and serum creatinine were monitored by conventional measurement. Plasma and renal Ang Ⅱ levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Ang-con-verting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, Ang Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor, Ang Ⅱ type 2 (AT2) receptor, Ang (1-7) Mas receptor, and TGF-β1 mRNA levels were measured by real time PCR; ACE, ACE2, and TGF-β1 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: The renal function of diabetic rats was significantly retrogressed when compared with that of control rats. After the treatment by constant Ang (1-7) vein injection for 6 weeks, renal function was found to be even worse than diabetic rats, and both TGF-β1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in the D+Ang(1-7) group compared with the diabetic rats. The real-time PCR result also showed an increase in ACE mRNA expression and decrease in ACE2 mRNA level in the D+Ang(1-7) group when compared with diabetic rats. The number of AT1 receptors increased in the Ang (1-7)-injected group, while the number of AT2 and Mas receptors decreased. Conclusion: Exogenous Ang (1-7) injection did not

  5. Effects of bone marrow stromal cell transplantation through CSF on the subacute and chronic spinal cord injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the infusion of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has beneficial effects on acute spinal cord injury (SCI in rats. The present study examined whether BMSC infusion into the CSF is effective for subacute (1- and 2-week post-injury, and/or chronic (4-week post-injury SCI in rats. The spinal cord was contused by dropping a weight at the thoracic 8-9 levels. BMSCs cultured from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were injected three times (once weekly into the CSF through the fourth ventricle, beginning at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the average BBB score for locomotor assessment increased from 1.0-3.5 points before injection to 9.0-10.9 points in the BMSC-injection subgroups, while, in the PBS (vehicle-injection subgroups, it increased only from 0.5-4.0 points before injection to 3.0-5.1 points. Numerous axons associated with Schwann cells extended longitudinally through the connective tissue matrices in the astrocyte-devoid lesion without being blocked at either the rostral or the caudal borders in the BMSC-injection subgroups. A small number of BMSCs were found to survive within the spinal cord lesion in SCI of the 1-week post-injury at 2 days of injection, but none at 7 days. No BMSCs were found in the spinal cord lesion at 2 days or at 7 days in the SCI of the 2-week and the 4-week post-injury groups. In an in vitro experiment, BMSC-injected CSF promoted the survival and the neurite extension of cultured neurons more effectively than did the PBS-injected CSF. These results indicate that BMSCs had beneficial effects on locomotor improvement as well as on axonal regeneration in both subacute and chronic SCI rats, and the results also suggest that BMSCs might function as neurotrophic sources via the CSF.

  6. Angiostatin overexpression is associated with an improvement in chronic kidney injury by an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wei; Long, David A; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Agarwal, Anupam; Cruz, Pedro E; Roncal, Carlos A; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Yu, Xueqing; Hauswirth, William W; Johnson, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Angiostatin, a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, is a potent anti-angiogenic factor recently shown also to have an inhibitory effect on leukocyte recruitment and macrophage migration. Because both angiogenesis and inflammation play key roles in the progression of chronic kidney disease, we evaluated the effect of angiostatin treatment in the rat remnant kidney model. Rats were pretreated for 4 wk with recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing either angiostatin or green fluorescence protein. Chronic renal disease was then induced by a subtotal nephrectomy, and rats were killed 8 wk later for analysis. Angiostatin treatment was associated with significantly less proteinuria but no alterations in serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Treatment with angiostatin reduced renal peritubular capillary number and decreased urinary nitric oxide levels. Despite reducing capillary density, angiostatin diminished interstitial fibrosis in association with reduced macrophage and T-cell infiltration and renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, angiostatin overexpression was associated with attenuated renal disease progression in a model of chronic kidney injury, likely because of its anti-inflammatory actions. However, its anti-angiogenic actions suggest countering effects that could partially offset its benefit in chronic kidney diseases. PMID:18971211

  7. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Attenuate Lung Injury in a Murine Model of Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Muhammad; Baveja, Rajiv; Liang, Olin D.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Lee, Changjin; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Kourembanas, Stella

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Neonatal chronic lung disease, known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), remains a serious complication of prematurity despite advances in the treatment of extremely low birth weight infants.

  8. Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    M. Teresa Magone, MD; Ellen Kwon, OD; Soo Y. Shin, MD

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term visual dysfunction in patients after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mbTBI) using a retrospective case series of 31 patients with mbTBI (>12 mo prior) without eye injuries. Time since mbTBI was 50.5 +/– 19.8 mo. Age at the time of injury was 30.0 +/– 8.3 yr. Mean corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Of the patients, 71% (n = 22) experienced loss of consciousness; 68% (n = 15) of patients in this subgroup were dismounted durin...

  9. Transforming Growth Factor-β Promotes Axonal Regeneration After Chronic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Wale A R

    2016-04-01

    When spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs, injured cells must survive and regenerate to close gaps caused by the injury and to create functional motor units. After peripheral nerve injury, Wallerian degeneration in the distal nerve stump creates a neurotrophic and growth-supportive environment for injured neurons and axons via Schwann cells and secreted cytokines/neurotrophins. In both SCI and peripheral nerve injury, injured motor and sensory neurons must regenerate axons, eventually reaching and reinnervating target tissue (SDC Figure 1, http://links.lww.com/BRS/B116). This process is often unsuccessful after SCI, and the highly complex anatomy of branching axons and nerves in the peripheral nervous system leads to slow recovery of function, even with careful and appropriate techniques. PMID:27015069

  10. Urinary Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Identifies Chronic Renal Injury in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, Alfonso; Saad, Ahmed; Tang, Hui; Herrmann, Sandra M; Woollard, John R; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial injury contributes to renal dysfunction in several models of renal disease, but its involvement in human hypertension remains unknown. Fragments of the mitochondrial genome released from dying cells are considered surrogate markers of mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that hypertension would be associated with increased urine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers. We prospectively measured systemic and urinary copy number of the mtDNA genes cytochrome-c oxidase-3 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in essential (n=25) and renovascular (RVH, n=34) hypertensive patients and compared them with healthy volunteers (n=22). Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin served as indices of renal injury. Renal blood flow and oxygenation were assessed by multidetector computed tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Blood pressure, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1 were similarly elevated in essential hypertension and RVH, and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in RVH versus healthy volunteers and essential hypertension. Renal blood flow was lower in RVH compared with essential hypertension. Urinary mtDNA copy number was higher in hypertension compared with healthy volunteers, directly correlated with urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 and inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate. In RVH, urinary mtDNA copy number correlated directly with intrarenal hypoxia. Furthermore, in an additional validation cohort, urinary mtDNA copy number was higher in RVH compared with healthy volunteers (n=10 each). The change in serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate 3 months after medical therapy without or with revascularization correlated with the change in urinary mtDNA. Therefore, elevated urinary mtDNA copy numbers in

  11. Maxillary first premolars: I. Morphology of the apical constriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu; Ming Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the apical constriction morphology of maxillary first premolars in the Chinese population. Methods: Eighty recently extracted human maxillary first premolars from a native Chinese population were used. The number and shape of apical constrictions were recorded under a dental operating microscope (DOM) at 12.5X2.5 magnification. After access preparation, a new K-file was inserted into the canal until the tip of the file was just seen at the apical constriction under the DOM. The teeth with files in the canals were X-rayed from a mesiodistal direction using a direct digital radiography (DDR) system, and the distance between the file tip and the center of radiographic apex was directly measured from the computer screen using DDR measurement software. Results: The percentage of teeth with an apical constriction was 78.5% (102/130). The most common apical constriction shapes were oval (55.9%) and round (35.3%). The mean distance between the apical constriction and the anatomical tip of the root was 0.61 mm, and 84.3% (86/102) were within 1 mm. Conclusion: The most common shape of an apical constriction was oval or round, and the distance to the apex was mostly within 1 mm, indicating that root canal therapy should stop 1 mm from the radiographic apex.

  12. Reliability of dynamic sitting balance tests and their correlations with functional mobility for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring the dynamic sitting balance of wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. The balance tests were performed in nine patients with chronic spinal cord injury (average of 17.2 years postinjury between levels C6 and L1, while they were sitting in their wheelchairs and on a standardized stool (unsupported sitting, twice, 7 days apart. Limits of stability (LOS and sequential weight shifting (SWS were designed in this study. The balance tests measured participants' volitional weight shifting in multiple directions within their base of support. Their mobility scores on the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III were correlated with the balance test results. The LOS results showed moderate to excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.673 to 0.990 for both the wheelchair and the unsupported sitting. The SWS results showed moderate to excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.688 to 0.952. The LOS results correlated significantly with the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III mobility scores only in case of unsupported sitting, but the SWS test results showed significant correlations in both sitting conditions. To sum up, the sitting LOS and SWS tests are reliable and valid tools for assessing the dynamic sitting balance control of patients with spinal cord injury.

  13. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury causes chronic neuroinflammation, changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and associated cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Stephanie L; Kabadi, Shruti V; Thompson, Scott M; Stoica, Bogdan A; Faden, Alan I

    2014-01-01

    Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause sustained cognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined histologic, neurophysiological, and cognitive changes after single or repeated (three injuries) mTBI using the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model. Repeated mTBI caused substantial neuronal cell loss and significantly increased numbers of activated microglia in both ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus on post-injury day (PID) 28. Long-term potentiation (LTP) could not be induced on PID 28 after repeated mTBI in ex vivo hippocampal slices from either hemisphere. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses were significantly attenuated after repeated mTBI, with no significant changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated responses. Long-term potentiation was elicited in slices after single mTBI, with potentiation significantly increased in ipsilateral versus contralateral hippocampus. After repeated mTBI, rats displayed cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Thus, repeated mTBI causes deficits in the hippocampal function and changes in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission, which are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:24756076

  14. Repeated mild traumatic brain injury causes chronic neuroinflammation, changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and associated cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Stephanie L; Kabadi, Shruti V; Thompson, Scott M; Stoica, Bogdan A; Faden, Alan I

    2014-07-01

    Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause sustained cognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined histologic, neurophysiological, and cognitive changes after single or repeated (three injuries) mTBI using the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model. Repeated mTBI caused substantial neuronal cell loss and significantly increased numbers of activated microglia in both ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus on post-injury day (PID) 28. Long-term potentiation (LTP) could not be induced on PID 28 after repeated mTBI in ex vivo hippocampal slices from either hemisphere. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses were significantly attenuated after repeated mTBI, with no significant changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated responses. Long-term potentiation was elicited in slices after single mTBI, with potentiation significantly increased in ipsilateral versus contralateral hippocampus. After repeated mTBI, rats displayed cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Thus, repeated mTBI causes deficits in the hippocampal function and changes in excitatory synaptic neurotransmission, which are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:24756076

  15. Remyelination after chronic spinal cord injury is associated with proliferation of endogenous adult progenitor cells after systemic administration of guanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shucui; Ballerini, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; Giuliani, Patricia; Jiang, Cai; Huang, Xinjie; Rathbone, Michel P

    2008-03-01

    Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological sequel to chronic brain and spinal cord injuries and disorders that slows or disrupts impulse conduction, causing further functional loss. Since oligodendroglial progenitors are present in the demyelinated areas, failure of remyelination may be due to lack of sufficient proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitors. Guanosine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells in vitro and exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Five weeks after chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), when there is no ongoing recovery of function, intraperitoneal administration of guanosine daily for 2 weeks enhanced functional improvement correlated with the increase in myelination in the injured cord. Emphasis was placed on analysis of oligodendrocytes and NG2-positive (NG2+) cells, an endogenous cell population that may be involved in oligodendrocyte replacement. There was an increase in cell proliferation (measured by bromodeoxyuridine staining) that was attributable to an intensification in progenitor cells (NG2+ cells) associated with an increase in mature oligodendrocytes (determined by Rip+ staining). The numbers of astroglia increased at all test times after administration of guanosine whereas microglia only increased in the later stages (14 days). Injected guanosine and its breakdown product guanine accumulated in the spinal cords; there was more guanine than guanosine detected. We conclude that functional improvement and remyelination after systemic administration of guanosine is due to the effect of guanosine/guanine on the proliferation of adult progenitor cells and their maturation into myelin-forming cells. This raises the possibility that administration of guanosine may be useful in the treatment of spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis where quiescent oligodendroglial progenitors exist in demyelinated plaques. PMID

  16. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI. PMID:26784694

  17. Chronic spinal cord injury treated with transplanted autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells tracked by magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chotivichit, Areesak; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Chiewvit, Pipat; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak; Sujirattanawimol, Kittipong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intrathecal transplantation is a minimally invasive method for the delivery of stem cells, however, whether the cells migrate from the lumbar to the injured cervical spinal cord has not been proved in humans. We describe an attempt to track bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a patient with a chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Case presentation A 33-year-old Thai man who sustained an incomplete spinal cord injury from the atlanto-axial subluxation was enrolled into a ...

  18. Snake constriction rapidly induces circulatory arrest in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boback, Scott M; McCann, Katelyn J; Wood, Kevin A; McNeal, Patrick M; Blankenship, Emmett L; Zwemer, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    As legless predators, snakes are unique in their ability to immobilize and kill their prey through the process of constriction, and yet how this pressure incapacitates and ultimately kills the prey remains unknown. In this study, we examined the cardiovascular function of anesthetized rats before, during and after being constricted by boas (Boa constrictor) to examine the effect of constriction on the prey's circulatory function. The results demonstrate that within 6 s of being constricted, peripheral arterial blood pressure (PBP) at the femoral artery dropped to 1/2 of baseline values while central venous pressure (CVP) increased 6-fold from baseline during the same time. Electrocardiographic recordings from the anesthetized rat's heart revealed profound bradycardia as heart rate (fH) dropped to nearly half of baseline within 60 s of being constricted, and QRS duration nearly doubled over the same time period. By the end of constriction (mean 6.5±1 min), rat PBP dropped 2.9-fold, fH dropped 3.9-fold, systemic perfusion pressure (SPP=PBP-CVP) dropped 5.7-fold, and 91% of rats (10 of 11) had evidence of cardiac electrical dysfunction. Blood drawn immediately after constriction revealed that, relative to baseline, rats were hyperkalemic (serum potassium levels nearly doubled) and acidotic (blood pH dropped from 7.4 to 7.0). These results are the first to document the physiological response of prey to constriction and support the hypothesis that snake constriction induces rapid prey death due to circulatory arrest. PMID:26202779

  19. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  20. Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Magone, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term visual dysfunction in patients after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mbTBI using a retrospective case series of 31 patients with mbTBI (>12 mo prior without eye injuries. Time since mbTBI was 50.5 +/– 19.8 mo. Age at the time of injury was 30.0 +/– 8.3 yr. Mean corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Of the patients, 71% (n = 22 experienced loss of consciousness; 68% (n = 15 of patients in this subgroup were dismounted during the blast injury. Overall, 68% (n = 21 of patients had visual complaints. The most common complaints were photophobia (55% and difficulty with reading (32%. Of all patients, 25% were diagnosed with convergence insufficiency and 23% had accommodative insufficiency. Patients with more than one mbTBI had a higher rate of visual complaints (87.5%. Asymptomatic patients had a significantly longer time (62.5 +/– 6.2 mo since the mbTBI than symptomatic patients (42.0 +/– 16.4 mo, p < 0.004. Long-term visual dysfunction after mbTBI is common even years after injury despite excellent distance visual acuity and is more frequent if more than one incidence of mbTBI occurred. We recommend obtaining a careful medical history, evaluation of symptoms, and binocular vision assessment during routine eye examinations in this prepresbyopic patient population.

  1. Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magone, M Teresa; Kwon, Ellen; Shin, Soo Y

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term visual dysfunction in patients after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mbTBI) using a retrospective case series of 31 patients with mbTBI (>12 mo prior) without eye injuries. Time since mbTBI was 50.5 +/- 19.8 mo. Age at the time of injury was 30.0 +/- 8.3 yr. Mean corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Of the patients, 71% (n = 22) experienced loss of consciousness; 68% (n = 15) of patients in this subgroup were dismounted during the blast injury. Overall, 68% (n = 21) of patients had visual complaints. The most common complaints were photophobia (55%) and difficulty with reading (32%). Of all patients, 25% were diagnosed with convergence insufficiency and 23% had accommodative insufficiency. Patients with more than one mbTBI had a higher rate of visual complaints (87.5%). Asymptomatic patients had a significantly longer time (62.5 +/- 6.2 mo) since the mbTBI than symptomatic patients (42.0 +/- 16.4 mo, p < 0.004). Long-term visual dysfunction after mbTBI is common even years after injury despite excellent distance visual acuity and is more frequent if more than one incidence of mbTBI occurred. We recommend obtaining a careful medical history, evaluation of symptoms, and binocular vision assessment during routine eye examinations in this prepresbyopic patient population. PMID:24805895

  2. Injury to the blood-testis barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionising radiation induces male infertility, accompanied by increasing permeability of the blood-testis barrier. However, the effect on male fertility by low-dose-rate chronic radiation has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of low-dose-rate chronic radiation on male mice were investigated by measuring the levels of tight-junction-associated proteins (ZO-1 and occludin-1), Niemann-Pick disease type 2 protein (NPC-2) and anti-sperm antibody (AsAb) in serum. BALB/c mice were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (3.49 mGy h-1) for total exposures of 0.02 (6 h), 0.17 (2 d) and 1.7 Gy (21 d). Based on histological examination, the diameter and epithelial depth of seminiferous tubules were significantly decreased in 1.7-Gy-irradiated mice. Compared with those of the non-irradiated group, 1.7-Gy-irradiated mice showed significantly decreased ZO-1, occludin-1 and NPC-2 protein levels, accompanied with increased serum AsAb levels. These results suggest potential blood-testis barrier injury and immune infertility in male mice exposed to low-dose-rate chronic radiation. (authors)

  3. Chronic radiation injury with mice and dogs exposed to external whole-body irradiation at the Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes studies on chronic radiation injury in experimental animals and the extrapolation of derived injury parameters to man. Most of the large studies have used mice given single, weekly, or continuous exposure to cobalt-60 gamma rays, or, more recently, single or weekly exposure to fission neutrons from the JANUS reactor. Primary measures of injury have been life shortening and the associated major pathological changes, particularly neoplastic diseases. Recent and ongoing studies compare the effects of extremely low neutron exposures with gamma irradiations delivered as a single dose or in 60 equal weekly increments. Total neutron doses range from 1 to 40 rads; gamma-ray doses range from 22.5 to 600 rads. Selected genetic studies are performed concurrently to provide a nearly complete matrix of somatic and genetic effects of these low exposures. Studies with the beagle have complemented those with mice and have shown a strong parallelism in the responses of the two species. Present exposures are at 0.3, 0.75, and 1.88 rads per day of continuous gamma irradiation to test a model for the prediction of life shortening in man which has evolved from Argonne's long-term studies. The dog offers the opportunity for longitudinal clinical evaluations that are not possible in the mouse, to develop a broader view of the neoplastic disease spectrum, and to study the mechanisms of radiation induction of leukemia. Diverse statistical approaches have been used to measure excess risk, dose-response functions, and rates of injury and repair. Actuarial statistical methods have been favored since they permit a more direct means of extrapolation to man. 50 refs., 4 figs

  4. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  5. Isolation of Microorganisms Using Sub-Micrometer Constrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Tandogan, Nil; Abadian, Pegah N.; Epstein, Slava; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Goluch, Edgar D.

    2014-01-01

    We present an automated method for isolating pure bacterial cultures from samples containing multiple species that exploits the cell's own physiology to perform the separation. Cells compete to reach a chamber containing nutrients via a constriction whose cross-sectional area only permits a single cell to enter, thereby blocking the opening and preventing other cells from entering. The winning cell divides across the constriction and its progeny populate the chamber. The devices are passive a...

  6. Cardiovascular adaptation in pregnancy - Effects of angiotensin II, transverse aorta constriction and high-intensity interval training on pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Songstad, Nils Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how cardiac function, remodeling and gene expression are affected in pregnancy in response to cardiovascular stress, to detect possible adverse effects on the fetus, and to evaluate if coronary endothelial function is influenced by pregnancy and increased cardiac afterload. Methods: Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were subjected to chronic AngII-infusion, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in three separate studies. Ech...

  7. EPITHELIAL INJURY AND INTERSTITIAL FIBROSIS IN THE PROXIMAL ALVEOLAR REGIONS OF RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO A SIMULATED PATTERN OF URBAN AMBIENT OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electron microscopic morphometry was used to study the development of lung injury during and after chronic (78 weeks) exposure to a pattern of ozone designed to simulate high urban ambient concentrations that occur in some environments. he dolly exposure regimen consisted of a 1 ...

  8. Has the athlete trained enough to return to play safely? The acute:chronic workload ratio permits clinicians to quantify a player's risk of subsequent injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Peter; Gabbett, Tim J

    2016-04-01

    The return to sport from injury is a difficult multifactorial decision, and risk of reinjury is an important component. Most protocols for ascertaining the return to play status involve assessment of the healing status of the original injury and functional tests which have little proven predictive ability. Little attention has been paid to ascertaining whether an athlete has completed sufficient training to be prepared for competition. Recently, we have completed a series of studies in cricket, rugby league and Australian rules football that have shown that when an athlete's training and playing load for a given week (acute load) spikes above what they have been doing on average over the past 4 weeks (chronic load), they are more likely to be injured. This spike in the acute:chronic workload ratio may be from an unusual week or an ebbing of the athlete's training load over a period of time as in recuperation from injury. Our findings demonstrate a strong predictive (R(2)=0.53) polynomial relationship between acute:chronic workload ratio and injury likelihood. In the elite team setting, it is possible to quantify the loads we are expecting athletes to endure when returning to sport, so assessment of the acute:chronic workload ratio should be included in the return to play decision-making process. PMID:26701923

  9. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  10. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Rong, Song [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zunyi Medical College, Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Zunyi (China); Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Mengel, Michael [University of Alberta, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Edmonton (Canada); Meier, Martin [Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Institute for Animal Science, Hannover (Germany); Chen, Rongjun [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zhejiang University, The Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  11. Correlation between diagnosis and MRI signal pattern in incomplete paralysis of chronic spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Tetsuo; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Kumura, Hiromitsu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1994-10-01

    In incomplete paralysis of spinal cord injury, the clinical symptoms frequently do not coincide with MRI findings. A study of the relationship between the diagnosis and MRI signal pattern was made. The level of spinal cord injury was seen at C[sub 3/4] and C[sub 4/5] in most of the 27 patients. The most frequent type of T[sub 2] signal pattern was oval, and the second was the girdle type in the coronal plane. The coincidence of diagnosis with MRI was found to be 86% in the small type, 55% in the middle type and 67% in the large type. In three dimensions, ellipsoid was 56%, polygon 22%, cone 18.5%, gourd 3.5%. (author).

  12. Correlation between diagnosis and MRI signal pattern in incomplete paralysis of chronic spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In incomplete paralysis of spinal cord injury, the clinical symptoms frequently do not coincide with MRI findings. A study of the relationship between the diagnosis and MRI signal pattern was made. The level of spinal cord injury was seen at C3/4 and C4/5 in most of the 27 patients. The most frequent type of T2 signal pattern was oval, and the second was the girdle type in the coronal plane. The coincidence of diagnosis with MRI was found to be 86% in the small type, 55% in the middle type and 67% in the large type. In three dimensions, ellipsoid was 56%, polygon 22%, cone 18.5%, gourd 3.5%. (author)

  13. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Douglas Simmons, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual’s ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive rehabilitation program called PreMotor Exercise Games (PEGs. Manual muscle, goniometric range of motion, and dynamometer assessments were used to determine motor functioning while the Executive Function Performance Test measured cognitive functioning. A three-level repeated measures design was conducted to determine changes pre- and postintervention. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in shoulder (p = 0.01 and wrist (p = 0.01 range of motion and clinically relevant improvement for elbow range of motion. Participants demonstrated clinically relevant improvement in shoulder, elbow, and wrist strength. Finally, participants demonstrated significant improvement in executive functioning (p < 0.05. Using PEGs as a modality for both motor and cognitive intervention is a potentially beneficial adjunct to rehabilitation and warrants further study.

  14. Achillodynia. Radiological imaging of acute and chronic overuse injuries of the Achilles tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades the incidence of acute and chronic disorders of the Achilles tendon associated with sport-induced overuse has steadily increased. Besides acute complete or partial ruptures, achillodynia (Achilles tendon pain syndrome), which is often associated with tendon degeneration, represents the most challenging entity regarding clinical diagnostics and therapy. Therefore, the use of imaging techniques to differentiate tendon disorders and even characterize structure alterations is of growing interest. This review article discusses the potential of different imaging techniques with respect to the diagnosis of acute and chronic tendon disorders. In this context, the most commonly used imaging techniques are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), B-mode ultrasound, and color-coded Doppler ultrasound (US). These modalities allow the detection of acute tendon ruptures and advanced chronic tendon disorders. However, the main disadvantages are still the low capabilities in the detection of early-stage degeneration and difficulties in the assessment of treatment responses during follow-up examinations. Furthermore, differentiation between chronic partial ruptures and degeneration remains challenging. The automatic contour detection and texture analysis may allow a more objective and quantitative interpretation, which might be helpful in the monitoring of tendon diseases during follow-up examinations. Other techniques to quantify tendon-specific MR properties, e.g. based on ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences, also seem to have great potential with respect to the precise detection of degenerative tendon disorders and their differentiation at a very early stage. (orig.)

  15. Leptin is essential for the hepatic fibrogenic response to chronic liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, IA; Farrell, GC; Schriemer, R; Robertson, GR

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obesity is associated with hyperleptinemia and is also a risk factor for fibrosis and severity of fibrosis in several chronic liver diseases. The correlation between increased leptin, obesity and hepatic fibrosis prompted us to hypothesise that leptin has profibrogenic effects on th

  16. Collateral ligament reconstruction of the chronic thumb injury with bio-tenodesis screw fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gvozdenovic, Robert; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new technique for the reconstruction of chronic lesions of the collateral ligaments of the metacarpophalangeal ligaments of the thumb, using a Bio-Tenodesis screw for the fixation of a tendon graft in a triangular manner with proximal apex and allowing early mobilization, starting 2...

  17. Sensory Afferents Regenerated into Dorsal Columns after Spinal Cord Injury Remain in a Chronic Pathophysiological State

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Andrew M.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Levine, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    Axon regeneration after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) can be promoted by combinatorial treatments that increase the intrinsic growth capacity of the damaged neurons and reduce environmental factors that inhibit axon growth. A prior peripheral nerve conditioning lesion is a well established means of increasing the intrinsic growth state of sensory neurons whose axons project within the dorsal columns of the spinal cord. Combining such a prior peripheral nerve conditioning lesion with t...

  18. Unilateral Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion as a Robust Model for Acute to Chronic Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Clef

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is an underestimated, yet important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Even after initial total recovery of renal function, some patients develop progressive and persistent deterioration of renal function and these patients are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Animal models are indispensable for unravelling the mechanisms underlying this progression towards CKD and ESRD and for the development of new therapeutic strategies in its prevention or treatment. Ischemia (i.e. hypoperfusion after surgery, bleeding, dehydration, shock, or sepsis is a major aetiology in human AKI, yet unilateral ischemia-reperfusion is a rarely used animal model for research on CKD and fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate in C57Bl/6J mice, by both histology and gene expression, that unilateral ischemia-reperfusion without contralateral nephrectomy is a very robust model to study the progression from acute renal injury to long-term tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, i.e. the histopathological hallmark of CKD. Furthermore, we report that the extent of renal fibrosis, in terms of Col I, TGFβ, CCN2 and CCN3 expression and collagen I immunostaining, increases with increasing body temperature during ischemia and ischemia-time. Thus, varying these two main determinants of ischemic injury allows tuning the extent of the long-term fibrotic outcome in this model. Finally, in order to cover the whole practical finesse of ischemia-reperfusion and allow model and data transfer, we provide a referenced overview on crucial technical issues (incl. anaesthesia, analgesia, and pre- and post-operative care with the specific aim of putting starters in the right direction of implementing ischemia in their research and stimulate them, as well as the community, to have a critical view on ischemic literature data.

  19. Cardiopulmonary function of dogs with plutonium-induced chronic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs had signs of restrictive lung disease 1 to 5 years after exposure by inhalation to 239PuO2 aerosols. The 239PuO2 aerosols were monodisperse with activity median aerodynamic diameters of 0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 microns. The plutonium particles produced protracted alpha irradiation of the lungs. Ten dogs had specific initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) of 330 to 4100 kBq of 239PuO2/kg of body mass. The average onset time of clinical signs of lung injury was 3 years after exposure; the average time from the onset of signs until cardiorespiratory function evaluation was 5.5 years. A second group of 10 dogs had IPB of 110 to 2000 kBq of 239Pu/kg of body mass but no signs of lung injury. A third group of 10 dogs, not exposed to 239Pu, were matched for age and sex. Cardiopulmonary function tests were performed. Only the dogs in group I with signs of lung injury had a mild respiratory function disorder consisting of smaller lung volumes, reduced compliance, increased respiratory frequency and minute volume, and reduced carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Cardiac function of all three groups was similar. These findings indicate that alpha irradiation of the lungs of man could produce restrictive lung disease at long times after initial exposure

  20. [Morphological changes of peripheral nerve rats under chronic micromercurialism and its pharmacological correction in different terms after injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamalо S.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Search for new pharmacological agents that activate processes of traumatized nerve regeneration at the condition of mercurial intoxication remains urgent. Objective. The aim of this study was a comparative morphometric analysis of rat peripheral nerve under micromercurialism using antioxidant drug without pharmacotherapy. Methods. Experimental model of sciatic nerve trauma under conditions of chronic micromercurialism was investigated in experiments on two groups of white rats. Micromercurialism was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of mercuric chloride during 10 weeks before sciatic nerve trauma. The rats of the first group received no pharmacological drugs in postoperative period. The second group of animals received 100 μg/kg solution of Thiotriazolinum intraperitoneally daily during 2 weeks after operation. The morphological organization and morphometric data of regenerative neuroma and adjoining parts (proximal and distal of sciatic nerve were studied in 6 and 12 weeks after damage using morphometric and statistic methods. Results. Basing on the results of the second group of animals the average angle of axon deviation from the axis of the nerve in the neuroma sufficiently decreases and distribution density of neuron fibers in distal part increases comparing with the first group. Conclusion. Taken together these data evidence that Thiotriazolinum improves the process of traumatized nerve regeneration. Citation: Shamalо SN. [Morphological changes of peripheral nerve rats under chronic micromercurialism and its pharmacological correction in different terms after injury]. Morphologia. 2015;9(3:95-8. Ukrainian.

  1. Predictors of CNS injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the setting of chronic HIV infection and CART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harezlak, J; Cohen, R; Gongvatana, A; Taylor, M; Buchthal, S; Schifitto, G; Zhong, J; Daar, E S; Alger, J R; Brown, M; Singer, E J; Campbell, T B; McMahon, D; So, Y T; Yiannoutsos, C T; Navia, B A

    2014-06-01

    The reasons for persistent brain dysfunction in chronically HIV-infected persons on stable combined antiretroviral therapies (CART) remain unclear. Host and viral factors along with their interactions were examined in 260 HIV-infected subjects who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Metabolite concentrations (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and Glx/Cr) were measured in the basal ganglia, the frontal white matter, and gray matter, and the best predictive models were selected using a bootstrap-enhanced Akaike information criterion (AIC). Depending on the metabolite and brain region, age, race, HIV RNA concentration, ADC stage, duration of HIV infection, nadir CD4, and/or their interactions were predictive of metabolite concentrations, particularly the basal ganglia NAA/Cr and the mid-frontal NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr, whereas current CD4 and the CPE index rarely or did not predict these changes. These results show for the first time that host and viral factors related to both current and past HIV status contribute to persisting cerebral metabolite abnormalities and provide a framework for further understanding neurological injury in the setting of chronic and stable disease. PMID:24696364

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of reasoning training in military and civilian chronic traumatic brain injury patients: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who sustain traumatic brain injuries (TBIs often continue to experience significant impairment of cognitive functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex well into chronic stages of recovery. Traditional brain training programs that focus on improving specific skills fall short of addressing integrative functions that draw upon multiple higher-order processes critical for social and vocational integration. In the current study, we compare the effects of two short-term, intensive, group-based cognitive rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic TBI. One program emphasizes learning about brain functions and influences on cognition, while the other program adopts a top-down approach to improve abstract reasoning abilities that are largely reliant on the prefrontal cortex. These treatment programs are evaluated in civilian and military veteran TBI populations. Methods/design One hundred individuals are being enrolled in this double-blinded clinical trial (all measures and data analyses will be conducted by blinded raters and analysts. Each individual is randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, with each condition run in groups of five to seven individuals. The primary anticipated outcomes are improvement in abstract reasoning and everyday life functioning, measured through behavioral tasks and questionnaires, and attention modulation, as measured by functional neuroimaging. Secondary expected outcomes include improvements in the cognitive processes of working memory, attention, and inhibitory control. Discussion Results of this trial will determine whether cognitive rehabilitation aimed at teaching TBI-relevant information about the brain and cognition versus training in TBI-affected thinking abilities (e.g., memory, attention, and executive functioning can improve outcomes in chronic military and civilian TBI patient populations. It should shed light on the nature of improvements and the

  3. Amelioration of liver injury by continuously targeted intervention against TNFRp55 in rats with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF is an acute deterioration of established liver disease. Blocking the TNF (tumor necrosis factor/TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 pathway may reduce hepatocyte apoptosis/necrosis, and subsequently decrease mortality during development of ACLF. We demonstrated that a long-acting TNF antagonist (soluble TNF receptor: IgG Fc [sTNFR:IgG-Fc] prevented/reduced development of acute liver failure by blocking the TNF/TNFR1 (TNFRp55 pathway. However, it is still unclear if sTNFR:IgG-Fc can inhibit hepatocyte damage during development of ACLF. METHODOLOGY: Chronic liver disease (liver fibrosis/cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by repeatedly challenging with human serum albumin (HSA, and confirmed by histopathology. ACLF was induced with D-galactosamine (D-GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS i.p. in the rats with chronic liver disease. Serum and liver were collected for biochemical, pathological and molecular biological examinations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reduced mortality was observed in sTNFR:IgG-Fc treated ACLF rats, consistent with reduced interleukin (IL-6 levels in serum and liver, as well as reduced hepatic caspase-3 activity, compared to that of mock treated group. Reduced hepatic damage was confirmed with histopathology in the sTNFR:IgG-Fc treated group, which is consistent with reduced Bcl-2 and Bax, at mRNA and protein levels, but increased hepatocyte proliferation (PCNA. This is also supported by the findings that caspase-3 production was up-regulated significantly in ACLF group compared to the mock treated group. Moreover, up-regulated caspase-3 was inhibited following sTNFR:IgG-Fc treatment. Finally, there was up-regulation of hepatic IL-22R in sTNFR:IgG-Fc treated ACLF rats. CONCLUSIONS: sTNFR:IgG-Fc improved survival rate during development of ACLF via ameliorating liver injury with a potential therapeutic value.

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 dependant pathway contributes to protection by tetramethylpyrazine against chronic hypoxic injury on medulla oblongata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Gong, Yanju; Dai, Liqun; Zheng, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii (Chuan Xiong) has been proved to protect the medulla oblongata from chronic hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of TMP are associated with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) dependant pathway in adult rats. The morphological changes of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (12N), the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) were investigated by Nissl staining; the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect; some apoptosis parameters, Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA, were tested; and the double immunochemistry staining of active caspase-3/NeuN was performed. Meanwhile, the HO-1 protein expression and heme oxygenase (HO) activity were examined. Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a potent inhibitor of HO, was used to further confirm the effect of HO-1. We found that TMP ameliorated the neuron loss in 12N, Amb and NTS, the decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content, the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA of medulla oblongata (P<0.05), and the increase in percentage of apoptotic neurons in Amb (P<0.05) induced by chronic hypoxia. Co-administration with SnPP abolished the beneficial effects above of TMP to some extent (P<0.05). Moreover, TMP significantly increased HO activity and HO-1 protein expression, which was most likely enhanced in the neurons (P<0.05), and co-administration of SnPP reduced these up-regulated effects (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that HO-1 dependant pathway may be involved in the protective action of TMP against chronic hypoxic damage on medulla oblongata in the rats. PMID:26810525

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid volume depletion in chronic whiplash-associated disorders from motor vehicle-related spinal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume depletion in chronic cases of whiplash-associated disorders, 111In radioisotope (RI) cisternography, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lumbar MR myelography were consecutively conducted on 460 individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders resulting from motor vehicle collision (Group A, n=225) and other traumatic injuries (Group B, n=57), spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndromes and other miscellaneous disorders (Group C, n=155), iatrogenic intracranial hypotension syndrome (Group D, n=11), and communicating hydrocephalus (Group E, n=12). Movement of intrathecally administered RI via a lumbar puncture was sequentially scanned at 1, 2 or 3, 5 and 24 hours. A whole body neuroaxis scanned figure showing high spinal parathecal activity at any time was considered to be a CSF leak, if small enough meningeal diverticula evidenced by MR myelography were present. Retention rate (%) of intrathecal RI for each scan was calculated using the formula: (whole body count-urinary bladder count)/whole body count (cpm) at 1 h x 100. All CSF leaks, although having single to multiple poles, were located in the spinal canal. CSF leakage was observed in 99/225 (44%), 24/57 (42%), 61/155 (39%), 9/11 (82%), and 4/12 (33%), in Groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. All CSF leakages was involved with the lumbar spine in Group A, although 20 cases extended to mid-thoracic levels. In Group A, spinal vertebrae were concomitantly injured in 7 cases (1 cervical spine dislocation, 1 cervical spine fracture, 2 thoracic and 1 lumbar compression fracture (s), and 2 lumbar disc hernia). CSF leakage for 2 cervical spine injuries was not at the injured site but at the lumbar spinal canal. CSF leakage limited to the lumbar spine involved 22 and 43 cases in groups B and C, respectively. Of all CSF leaks, 24 h retention rates less than 30% accounted for 90% of cases. In Group A, early CSF excretion and less than a 30% retention rate at 24

  6. CHRONIC UCL INJURY: A MULTIMODAL APPROACH TO CORRECTING ALTERED MECHANICS AND IMPROVING HEALING IN A COLLEGE ATHLETE— A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rachel; McGinty, Josh; Lucado, Ann; Collier, Beth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears and associated Tommy Johns surgical intervention from excessive and poor quality pitching has increased immensely—with more college and professional pitchers undergoing the surgery in 2014 alone than in the 1990s as a whole.1 Faulty mechanics developed at young ages are often well-engrained by the late adolescent years and the minimal healing ability of the largely avascular UCL often leads to delayed safe return to sport.2 Purpose The purpose of this case study was to describe an innovative, multimodal approach to conservative management of a chronic UCL injury in a college-aged baseball pitcher. This innovative approach utilizes both contractile and non-contractile dry needling to enhance soft tissue healing combined with standard conservative treatment to decrease pain and improve sport performance as measured by the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Numeric Pain Report Scale (NPRS), and return to sport. Study Design Retrospective Case Report Case Description A collegiate athlete presented to an outpatient orthopedic physical therapy clinic for treatment of UCL sprain approximately six weeks post-injury and platelet-rich plasma injection. Diagnostic testing revealed chronic ligamentous microtrauma. Impairments at evaluation included proximal stabilizing strength deficits, myofascial trigger points throughout the dominant upper extremity, improper pitching form, and inability to pitch in game conditions due to severe pain. Interventions included addressing strength deficits throughout the body, dry needling, and sport-specific biomechanical training with pitching form analysis and correction. Outcomes Conventional DASH and Sport-Specific scale on the DASH and the numeric pain rating scale improved beyond both the minimally clinically important difference and minimal detectable change over the 12 week treatment3,4 At 24-week follow up, conventional DASH scores decreased from 34.20% disability

  7. Role of high tibial osteotomy in chronic injuries of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner

    OpenAIRE

    Savarese, Eugenio; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Romeo, Rocco; Amendola, Annunziato

    2010-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to change the mechanical weight-bearing axis and alter the loads carried through the knee. Conventional indications for HTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee causing pain and dysfunction. Traditionally, knee instability associated with varus thrust has been considered a contraindication. However, today the indications include patients with chronic ligament deficiencies and malalignment, because an ...

  8. Proinflammatory cytokine expression contributes to brain injury provoked by chronic monocyte activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sirén, A. L.; McCarron, R.; Wang, L.; Garcia-Pinto, P.; Ruetzler, C.; Martin, D.; Hallenbeck, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have proposed that an increased interaction between monocyte/macrophages and blood vessel endothelium predisposes subjects to strokes. The effect of chronic monocyte activation on the development of cerebral infarcts was thus studied in rats after provocation of a modified local Swartzman reaction, in brain vasculature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two weeks after an IV bolus of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), we studied spontaneous superoxide production, integrin expression, endothe...

  9. Phosphodiesterase inhibition rescues chronic cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, David J; Sakurai, Atsushi; Kang, Yuan; Furones, Concepcion; Jergova, Stanislava; Santos, Rosmery; Sick, Thomas J; Atkins, Coleen M

    2013-03-20

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) modulates several cell signaling pathways in the hippocampus critical for memory formation. Previous studies have found that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway is downregulated after TBI and that treatment with a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor rolipram rescues the decrease in cAMP. In the present study, we examined the effect of rolipram on TBI-induced cognitive impairments. At 2 weeks after moderate fluid-percussion brain injury or sham surgery, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received vehicle or rolipram (0.03 mg/kg) 30 min before water maze acquisition or cue and contextual fear conditioning. TBI animals treated with rolipram showed a significant improvement in water maze acquisition and retention of both cue and contextual fear conditioning compared with vehicle-treated TBI animals. Cue and contextual fear conditioning significantly increased phosphorylated CREB levels in the hippocampus of sham animals, but not in TBI animals. This deficit in CREB activation during learning was rescued in TBI animals treated with rolipram. Hippocampal long-term potentiation was reduced in TBI animals, and this was also rescued with rolipram treatment. These results indicate that the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram rescues cognitive impairments after TBI, and this may be mediated through increased CREB activation during learning. PMID:23516287

  10. Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in an early chronic spinal cord injury NOD-scid mouse model.

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    Desirée L Salazar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in partial or complete paralysis and is characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes, axonal injury, and demyelination/dysmyelination of spared axons. Approximately 1,250,000 individuals have chronic SCI in the U.S.; therefore treatment in the chronic stages is highly clinically relevant. Human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns were prospectively isolated based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting for a CD133(+ and CD24(-/lo population from fetal brain, grown as neurospheres, and lineage restricted to generate neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. hCNS-SCns have recently been transplanted sub-acutely following spinal cord injury and found to promote improved locomotor recovery. We tested the ability of hCNS-SCns transplanted 30 days post SCI to survive, differentiate, migrate, and promote improved locomotor recovery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: hCNS-SCns were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD-scid mice 30 days post spinal cord contusion injury. hCNS-SCns transplanted mice demonstrated significantly improved locomotor recovery compared to vehicle controls using open field locomotor testing and CatWalk gait analysis. Transplanted hCNS-SCns exhibited long-term engraftment, migration, limited proliferation, and differentiation predominantly to oligodendrocytes and neurons. Astrocytic differentiation was rare and mice did not exhibit mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, differentiated hCNS-SCns integrated with the host as demonstrated by co-localization of human cytoplasm with discrete staining for the paranodal marker contactin-associated protein. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that hCNS-SCns are capable of surviving, differentiating, and promoting improved locomotor recovery when transplanted into an early chronic injury microenvironment. These data suggest that hCNS-SCns transplantation has efficacy in an early chronic SCI setting and thus expands the "window of opportunity" for

  11. Fractional charge and spin states in topological insulator constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the properties of two-dimensional topological insulator constrictions both in the integer and fractional regimes. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, the constriction functions as a spin filter with near-perfect efficiency and can be switched by electric fields only. Domain walls between different topological phases can be created in the constriction as an interface between tunneling, magnetic fields, charge density wave, or electron-electron interaction dominated regions. These domain walls host non-Abelian bound states with fractional charge and spin and result in degenerate ground states with parafermions. If a proximity gap is induced bound states give rise to an exotic Josephson current with 8 π periodicity.

  12. Clinical Management of a Patient with Chronic Recurrent Vertigo Following a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Eric G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo, was provoked and right torsional up-beat nystagmus was observed in a 47-year-old patient when she was placed into the right Hallpike-Dix test position using infrared goggle technology. The clinical diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, specifically right posterior canalithiasis, resulting from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI suffered approximately six-months earlier. Previous medical consultations did not include vestibular system examination, and Meclizine was prescribed to suppress her chief complaint of vertigo. Ultimately, the patient was successfully managed by performing two canalith repositioning maneuvers during a single clinical session. The patient reported 100% resolution of symptoms upon reexamination the following day, and the Hallpike-Dix test was negative. Continued symptom resolution was subjectively reported 10 days postintervention via telephone consultation. This case report supports previous publications concerning the presence of BPPV following TBI and the need for inclusion of vestibular system examination during medical consultation.

  13. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26847931

  14. Neurodegeneration after mild and repetitive traumatic brain injury: Chronic traumatic encepalopathy

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    Stanescu Ioana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive brain trauma is associated with a progressive neurological deterioration, now termed as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. Although research on the long-term effects of TBI is advancing quickly, the incidence and prevalence of post-traumatic neurodegeneration and CTE are unknown. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently under research. CTE can be diagnosed only by post mortem neuropathological examination of the brain. Great efforts are being made to better understand the clinical signs and symptoms of CTE, obtained in most cases retrospectively from families of affected persons.Patients with CTE are described as having behavioral, mood, cognitive and motor impairments, occurring after a long latency from the traumatic events. Recent pathogenetic studies have provided new insights to CTE mechanisms, offering important clues in understanding neurodegenerative process and relations between physical factors and pathologic protein deposition. Further research is needed to better identify the genetic and environmental risk factors for CTE, as well as rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

  15. An organotypic slice culture model of chronic white matter injury with maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitors

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    Sherman Larry S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CNS myelination disturbances commonly occur in chronic white matter lesions in neurodevelopmental and adult neurological disorders. Recent studies support that myelination failure can involve a disrupted cellular repair mechanism where oligodendrocyte (OL progenitor cells (OPCs proliferate in lesions with diffuse astrogliosis, but fail to fully differentiate to mature myelinating OLs. There are no in vitro models that reproduce these features of myelination failure. Results Forebrain coronal slices from postnatal day (P 0.5/1 rat pups were cultured for 1, 5, or 9 days in vitro (DIV. Slices rapidly exhibited diffuse astrogliosis and accumulation of the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA, an inhibitor of OPC differentiation and re-myelination. At 1 DIV ~1.5% of Olig2+ OLs displayed caspase-3 activation, which increased to ~11.5% by 9 DIV. At 1 DIV the density of PDGFRα+ and PDGFRα+/Ki67+ OPCs were significantly elevated compared to 0 DIV (P P + OLs at 9 DIV compared to controls (217 ± 16 vs. 328 ± 17 cells/mm2, respectively; P = 0.0003, supporting an inhibitory role of HA in OL lineage progression in chronic lesions. Conclusions Diffuse white matter astrogliosis and early OPC proliferation with impaired OL maturation were reproduced in this model of myelination failure. This system may be used to define mechanisms of OPC maturation arrest and myelination failure related to astrogliosis and HA accumulation.

  16. Transcriptional repression of the M channel subunit Kv7.2 in chronic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kirstin; Ooi, Lezanne; Dalle, Carine; Robertson, Brian; Wood, Ian C; Gamper, Nikita

    2011-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is a severe health problem for which there is a lack of effective therapy. A frequent underlying condition of neuropathic pain is a sustained overexcitability of pain-sensing (nociceptive) sensory fibres. Therefore, the identification of mechanisms for such abnormal neuronal excitability is of utmost importance for understanding neuropathic pain. Despite much effort, an inclusive model explaining peripheral overexcitability is missing. We investigated transcriptional regulation of the Kcnq2 gene, which encodes the Kv7.2 subunit of membrane potential-stabilizing M channel, in peripheral sensory neurons in a model of neuropathic pain-partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We show that Kcnq2 is the major Kcnq gene transcript in dorsal root ganglion (DRG); immunostaining and patch-clamp recordings from acute ganglionic slices verified functional expression of Kv7.2 in small-diameter nociceptive DRG neurons. Neuropathic injury induced substantial downregulation of Kv7.2 expression. Levels of repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which is known to suppress Kcnq2 expression, were upregulated in response to neuropathic injury identifying the likely mechanism of Kcnq2 regulation. Behavioural experiments demonstrated that neuropathic hyperalgesia following PSNL developed faster than the downregulation of Kcnq2 expression could be detected, suggesting that this transcriptional mechanism may contribute to the maintenance rather than the initiation of neuropathic pain. Importantly, the decrease in the peripheral M channel abundance could be functionally compensated by peripherally applied M channel opener flupirtine, which alleviated neuropathic hyperalgesia. Our work suggests a novel mechanism for neuropathic overexcitability and brings focus on M channels and REST as peripheral targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:21345591

  17. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury: acute versus chronic disturbances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M; Rödiger, Lars A; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2014-04-01

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully understood. As the admission computed tomography (CT) often is normal, perfusion CT imaging may be a useful indicator of brain dysfunction in the acute phase after injury in these patients. In the present study, directly after admission perfusion CT imaging was performed in mild TBI patients with follow-up neuropsychological assessment in those with complaints and a normal non-contrast CT. Neuropsychological tests comprised the 15 Words test Immediate Recall, Trailmaking test part B, Zoo Map test and the FEEST, which were dichotomized into normal and abnormal. Perfusion CT results of patients with normal neuropsychological test scores were compared to those with abnormal test scores. In total eighteen patients were included. Those with an abnormal score on the Zoo Map test had a significant lower CBV in the right frontal and the bilateral parieto-temporal white matter. Patients with an abnormal score on the FEEST had a significant higher MTT in the bilateral frontal white matter and a significant decreased CBF in the left parieto-temporal grey matter. No significant relation between the perfusion CT parameters and the 15 Words test and the Trailmaking test part B was present. In conclusion, impairments in executive functioning and emotion perception assessed with neuropsychological tests during follow up were related to differences in cerebral perfusion at admission in mild TBI. The pathophysiological concept of these findings is discussed. PMID:24556319

  18. Kidney Disease and the Nexus of Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Novel Biomarkers as Early and Accurate Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Murthy; Farace, Giosi; Quinn, John; Yerramilli, Maha

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are interconnected and the presence of one is a risk for the other. CKD is an important predictor of AKI after exposure to nephrotoxic drugs or major surgery, whereas persistent or repetitive injury could result in the progression of CKD. This brings new perspectives to the diagnosis and monitoring of kidney diseases highlighting the need for a panel of kidney-specific biomarkers that reflect functional as well as structural damage and recovery, predict potential risk and provide prognosis. This article discusses the kidney-specific biomarkers, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), clusterin, cystatin B, and inosine. PMID:27485279

  19. Leukotriene B4 mediates macrophage influx and pulmonary hypertension in bleomycin-induced chronic neonatal lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Mong Tieng; Kantores, Crystal; Ivanovska, Julijana; Wong, Mathew J; Jain, Amish; Jankov, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    Systemically-administered bleomycin causes inflammation, arrested lung growth, and pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in the neonatal rat, similar to human infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory lipid mediators produced by multiple cell types in the lung. The major LTs, LTB4 and cysteinyl LTs, are suggested to contribute to BPD, but their specific roles remain largely unexplored in experimental models. We hypothesized that LTs are increased in bleomycin-induced BPD-like injury, and that inhibition of LT production would prevent inflammatory cell influx and thereby ameliorate lung injury. Rat pups were exposed to bleomycin (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip) or vehicle (control) from postnatal days 1-14 and were treated with either zileuton (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), montelukast (cysteinyl LT1 receptor antagonist), or SC57461A (LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor) 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip. Bleomycin led to increased lung content of LTB4, but not cysteinyl LTs. Bleomycin-induced increases in tissue neutrophils and macrophages and lung contents of LTB4 and tumor necrosis factor-α were all prevented by treatment with zileuton. Treatment with zileuton or SC57461A also prevented the hemodynamic and structural markers of chronic PHT, including raised pulmonary vascular resistance, increased Fulton index, and arterial wall remodeling. However, neither treatment prevented impaired alveolarization or vascular hypoplasia secondary to bleomycin. Treatment with montelukast had no effect on macrophage influx, PHT, or on abnormal lung structure. We conclude that LTB4 plays a crucial role in lung inflammation and PHT in experimental BPD. Agents targeting LTB4 or LTB4-mediated signaling may have utility in infants at risk of developing BPD-associated PHT. PMID:27317685

  20. The Role of M2 Macrophages in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease following Acute Kidney Injury.

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    Myung-Gyu Kim

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a major risk factor in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain unclear. We examined the alteration of macrophage phenotypes during an extended recovery period following ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI and determine their roles in the development of fibrosis.The left renal pedicle of mice was clamped for 40 min. To deplete monocyte/macrophage, liposome clodronate was injected or CD11b-DTR and CD11c-DTR transgenic mice were used.Throughout the phase of IRI recovery, M2-phenotype macrophages made up the predominant macrophage subset. On day 28, renal fibrosis was clearly shown with increased type IV collagen and TGF-β. The depletion of macrophages induced by the liposome clodronate injection improved renal fibrosis with a reduction of kidney IL-6, type IV collagen, and TGF-β levels. Additionally, the adoptive transfer of the M2c macrophages partially reversed the beneficial effect of macrophage depletion, whereas the adoptive transfer of the M1 macrophages did not. M2 macrophages isolated from the kidneys during the recovery phase expressed 2.5 fold higher levels of TGF-β than the M1 macrophages. The injection of the diphtheria toxin into CD11b or CD11c-DTR transgenic mice resulted in lesser depletion or no change in M2 macrophages and had little impact on renal fibrosis.Although M2 macrophages are known to be indispensible for short-term recovery, they are thought to be main culprit in the development of renal fibrosis following IRI.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induced by enriched environment enhances angiogenesis and motor function in chronic hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Seo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched environment (EE on promoting angiogenesis and neurobehavioral function in an animal model of chronic hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain injury. HI brain damage was induced in seven day-old CD-1® mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 for 90 min. At six weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to either EE or standard cages (SC for two months. Rotarod, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength tests were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. In order to identify angiogenic growth factors regulated by EE, an array-based multiplex ELISA assay was used to measure the expression in frontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum. Among the growth factors, the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 was confirmed using western blotting. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry. As a result, mice exposed to EE showed significant improvements in rotarod and ladder walking performances compared to SC controls. The level of FGF-2 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex of EE mice at 8 weeks after treatment in multiplex ELISA and western blot. On the other hand, FGF-2 in the striatum significantly increased at 2 weeks after exposure to EE earlier than in the frontal cortex. Expression of activin A was similarly upregulated as FGF-2 expression pattern. Particularly, all animals treated with FGF-2 neutralizing antibody abolished the beneficial effect of EE on motor performance relative to mice not given anti-FGF-2. Immunohistochemistry showed that densities of α-SMA(+ and PECAM-1(+ cells in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were significantly increased following EE, suggesting the histological findings exhibit a similar pattern to the upregulation of FGF-2 in the brain. In conclusion, EE enhances endogenous angiogenesis and neurobehavioral functions

  2. Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: Effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury

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    Federica eTamburella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced inter limb coordination and impaired balance are considered the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. In the last years KinesioTaping (KT application has been proposed for enhancing sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity via proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. No studies addressed KT technique on SCI subjects: our goal was to analyze effects of ankle joint KT application on spasticity, balance and gait. Material and Methods: A randomized cross-over case control design was used to compare KT and conventional non-elastic silk tape (ST application’s effects in 11 chronic SCI subjects, AIS level D, with soleus/gastrocnemius (S/G muscles’ spasticity , balance and gait impairments. Treatment: 48 hours of either KT or ST treatment was followed after 1 week interval by a reverse protocol. Patient treated with KT were subjected to 48 hours of ST treatment and viceversa. Single Y-stripe of Cure©tape (KT and ST were applied to S and G with 0% stretch. Before and after 48 hours of KT and ST application, clinical data of range of motion (ROM, spasticity, clonus, pain, balance and gait were collected. Stabilometric platform assessment of Centre of Pressure (COP movements, bi-dimensional gait analysis and electromyograpich (EMG activity of S, G, Tibialis Anterior and Extensor Hallicus Lungus muscles were also collected. Results: Only After KT treatment significant effects on spasticity, clonus and COP movements, kinematic gait parameters and EMG activities were recorded. Comparison between KT and ST improvements pointed out significant differences for ROM, spasticity, clonus, pain, COP parameters and most of all kinematic gait data. Discussion: KT short term application reduces spasticity and pain and improves balance and gait performances in chronic incomplete SCI subjects.

  3. Fas Regulates Macrophage Polarization and Fibrogenic Phenotype in a Model of Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatocellular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Fuyumi; Moore, Sherri; Hines, Ian N; Wheeler, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    The role of Fas-mediated apoptosis and its effect on proinflammatory cytokine production in early alcoholic liver disease has not been addressed. Wild-type mice (C57Bl/6) or mice with a functional mutation in the Fas ligand (B6.gld) were given either high-fat control diet or ethanol diet by intragastric cannulation for 2 or 4 weeks. Liver injury, hepatic lipid accumulation, and proinflammatory cytokine production associated with chronic ethanol consumption were largely prevented in B6.gld mice compared with wild-type mice. Conversely, B6.gld mice given ethanol exhibited increases in collagen deposition, hepatic collagen gene expression, and profibrogenic cytokines (eg, transforming growth factor-β and IL-13) and alterations in matrix remodeling proteins (eg, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases) compared with wild-type mice. Hepatic F4/80(+) macrophage populations were increased significantly in B6.gld mice compared with wild-type mice; hepatic CD3(+) cell populations were not significantly different. Importantly, a shift toward the expression of M2/Th2 cytokines (eg, IL-4 and IL-13) after ethanol exposure was observed in B6.gld mice compared with classical M1 cytokine expression in wild-type mice under similar conditions. In isolated macrophages, stimulation of Fas receptor minimally enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced M1 cytokine production and significantly limits M2 cytokine production. These data support the hypothesis that Fas-mediated signaling is important for an early ethanol-induced proinflammatory response but limits the profibrogenic response, regulating collagen production in response to chronic ethanol. PMID:27102767

  4. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia H; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model...... with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients....

  5. Chronic stress is associated with pain precipitation and elevation in DeltaFosb expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of acute or repeated stimuli can induce expression of DeltaFosB (ΔFosB, a transcription factor derived from the fosB gene (an osteosarcoma viral oncogene via alternative splicing. ΔFosB protein is currently viewed as a 'molecular switch' to repeated stimuli that gradually converts acute responses into relatively stable adaptations underlying long-term neural and behavioral plasticity. ΔFosB has received extensive attention in drug addition, depression and stress adaptation, but changes in ΔFosB protein expression during pain is not fully understood. In this study we explored ΔFosB expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of rats experiencing chronic or acute stress-induced pain. Our data reveal that chronic pain induced by neonatal colorectal distension, chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, or maternal separation was associated with an increase in ΔfosB protein expression in mPFC, but acute application of acetic acid or zymosan did not alter the ΔFosB protein expression. ΔFosB expression in the rat visual cortex, a non pain-related brain region, did not change in response to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and acetic acid treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that ΔFosB protein expression is significantly elevated in rats that have experienced chronic pain and stress, but not acute pain. The ΔFosB protein may serve as an important transcription factor for chronic stress-induced pain. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of both the upstream signaling leading to ΔFosB protein expression as well as the regulation of ΔFosB gene expression in cortical neurons.

  6. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  7. Detection of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreber, Lisa A; Griesbach, Grace S; Ashley, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the post-acute phase of recovery and whether GHD was associated with increased disability, decreased independence, and depression. A secondary objective was to determine the accuracy of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in predicting GHD in patients with TBI. Anterior pituitary function was assessed in 235 adult patients with TBI through evaluation of fasting morning hormone levels. GH levels were assessed through provocative testing, specifically the glucagon stimulation test. GHD was diagnosed in a significant number of patients, with 45% falling into the severe GHD (≤3 μg/L) category. IGF-1 levels were not predictive of GHD. Patients with GHD were more disabled and less independent compared with those patients who were not GHD. Those patients with more severe GHD also showed decreased levels of cortisol and testosterone. Symptoms of depression were also more prevalent in this group. In addition, patients with severe GHD had delayed admission to post-acute rehabilitation. This study confirms the high prevalence of GHD in patients with TBI and the necessity to monitor clinical symptoms and perform provocative testing to definitively diagnose GHD. PMID:26414093

  8. A Diathesis-Stress Model of Chronic Pain and Disability following Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C Turk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the perplexing features of pain is the wide variability in patients' responses to ostensibly the same extent of physical pathology. A range of cognitive, affective and behavioural factors are related to the perception of pain, maintenance of pain and disability, exacerbation of pain and response to treatment. Moreover, there is some evidence that individual differences and prior learning history also have a significant influence on the experience of pain and related disability. The role of these psychological factors in the maintenance of disability following traumas such as motor vehicle accidents and work-related injuries has generated considerable interest. This paper provides a brief overview of a set of predisposing factors, cognitive processes and behavioural principles that appear to be particularly important in the maintenance of disability following trauma. In particular, anxiety sensitivity, anticipation and avoidance of fear or harm, catastrophizing ideation, causal attributions for symptoms, self-efficacy and operant conditioning are discussed. Each of these factors is integrated in a diathesis-stress model that emphasizes the interaction of predisposing factors with a trauma, setting in motion a cascade of interpretive cognitive processes and reinforcement contingencies that maintain disability following the trauma. This model proposes a sequential process to explain the variation observed among people following a relatively minor trauma. The model is intended to be heuristic. It may be a useful conceptualization that can serve to guide prevention efforts and the development of treatment interventions.

  9. A multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural programme for coping with chronic neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: the protocol of the CONECSI trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Catja A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people with a spinal cord injury rate neuropathic pain as one of the most difficult problems to manage and there are no medical treatments that provide satisfactory pain relief in most people. Furthermore, psychosocial factors have been considered in the maintenance and aggravation of neuropathic spinal cord injury pain. Psychological interventions to support people with spinal cord injury to deal with neuropathic pain, however, are sparse. The primary aim of the CONECSI (COping with NEuropathiC Spinal cord Injury pain trial is to evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural treatment programme on pain intensity and pain-related disability, and secondary on mood, participation in activities, and life satisfaction. Methods/Design CONECSI is a multicentre randomised controlled trial. A sample of 60 persons with chronic neuropathic spinal cord injury pain will be recruited from four rehabilitation centres and randomised to an intervention group or a waiting list control group. The control group will be invited for the programme six months after the intervention group. Main inclusion criteria are: having chronic (> 6 months neuropathic spinal cord injury pain as the worst pain complaint and rating the pain intensity in the last week as 40 or more on a 0-100 scale. The intervention consists of educational, cognitive, and behavioural elements and encompasses 11 sessions over a 3-month period. Each meeting will be supervised by a local psychologist and physical therapist. Measurements will be perfomed before starting the programme/entering the control group, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Primary outcomes are pain intensity and pain-related disability (Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, participation in activities (Utrecht Activities List, and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Pain coping and pain cognitions will be

  10. Alterations of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury accompanying deteriorated intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alterations of regional cerbral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), and correlation between these alternations and cognitive dysfunctin in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) and normal brain MRI findings. Thirty TBI patients and 19 healthy volunteers underwent rest/acetazolaminde brain SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale test was also performed in the patient group. Statistical analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping software (SPM '97). CBF was diminished in the left hemisphere including Wernicke's area in all patients with lower verbal scale scores. In addition, a reduction in CBF in the right frontal, temporal and parietal cortices was related with depressed scores in information, digital span, arithmetic and similarities. In patients with lower performance scale scores, CBF was mainly diminished in the right hemisphere including superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, premotor, primary somatomotor and a part of prefrontal cortices, left frontal lobe and supramarginal gyrus. CVR was diminished in sixty-four Brodmann's areas compared to control. A reduction in CVR was demonstrated bilaterally in the frontal and temporal lobes in patients with lower scores in both verbal and performance tests, and in addition, both inferior parietal and occipital lobes in information subset. Alterations of CBF and CVR were demonstrated in the symptomatic TBI patients with normal MRI finding. These alterations were correlated with the change of intelligence, of which the complex functions are subserved by multiple interconnected cortical structures.=20

  11. Acute Kidney Injury in Elderly Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Carry a Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Martin; Pourcelet, Aline; van Nuffelen, Marc; Racapé, Judith; Leeman, Marc; Hougardy, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mainly excreted by the liver, the dosage of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, cleared by the kidney, must be adapted to account for renal clearance in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to avoid acute kidney injury (AKI). Community-acquired AKI and the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs in the emergency department were retrospectively assessed in 324 patients with baseline stage 3 or higher CKD. After stepwise regression analysis, the use of ACE inhibitors (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.1; P=.02) and the presence of dehydration (OR, 30.8; 95% CI, 3.9-239.1) were associated with AKI. A total of 45% of patients using ACE inhibitors experienced overdosing, which causes most of the excess risk of AKI. These results suggest that dosage adjustment of ACE inhibitors to renal function or substitution of ACE inhibitors with ARBs could reduce the incidence of AKI. Moreover, ACE inhibitors and ARBs should be stopped in cases of dehydration. PMID:27080620

  12. Chronic alcohol ingestion increases mortality and organ injury in a murine model of septic peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyam P Yoseph

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with alcohol use disorders have increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine how chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to sepsis in mice. METHODS: Mice were randomized to receive either alcohol or water for 12 weeks and then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively or followed seven days for survival. RESULTS: Septic alcohol-fed mice had a significantly higher mortality than septic water-fed mice (74% vs. 41%, p = 0.01. This was associated with worsened gut integrity in alcohol-fed mice with elevated intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased crypt proliferation and shortened villus length. Further, alcohol-fed mice had higher intestinal permeability with decreased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression in the intestinal tight junction. The frequency of splenic and bone marrow CD4+ T cells was similar between groups; however, splenic CD4+ T cells in septic alcohol-fed mice had a marked increase in both TNF and IFN-γ production following ex vivo stimulation. Neither the frequency nor function of CD8+ T cells differed between alcohol-fed and water-fed septic mice. NK cells were decreased in both the spleen and bone marrow of alcohol-fed septic mice. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and BAL levels of G-CSF and TFG-β were higher in alcohol-fed mice. Pancreatic metabolomics demonstrated increased acetate, adenosine, xanthine, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and betaine in alcohol-fed mice and decreased cytidine, uracil, fumarate, creatine phosphate, creatine, and choline. Serum and peritoneal cytokines were generally similar between alcohol-fed and water-fed mice, and there were no differences in bacteremia, lung wet to dry weight, or pulmonary, liver or splenic histology. CONCLUSIONS: When subjected to the same septic insult, mice with chronic alcohol ingestion have increased mortality

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application. PMID:26617183

  14. The treatment of fear of movement/ (re)injury in chronic low back pain: further evidence on the effectiveness of exposure in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Vlaeyen, Johannes; de Jong, Jeroen; Geilen, Mario; Heuts, Peter H. T. G.; Breukelen, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several cognitive-behavioral factors contribute to the persistence of pain disability in patients with chronic back pain. Fear-avoidance beliefs and fear of movement/(re)injury in particular have been shown to be strong predictors of physical performance and pain disability. Patients reporting substantial pain-related fear might benefit from exposure in vivo to a set of individually tailored, fear-eliciting, and hierarchically ordered physical movements rather than m...

  15. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in acute kidney injury superimposed on chronic kidney disease after cardiac surgery: a multicenter prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Kent; Urata, Masahiro; Katagiri, Daisuke; Inamori, Mikako; Murata, Seiichiro; Hisagi, Motoyuki; Ono, Minoru; Matsubara, Takehiro; Ishii, Takeshi; Yahagi, Naoki; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is reportedly useful for post-cardiac surgery acute kidney injury (AKI). Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a strong risk factor for AKI development, no clinical evaluation of plasma NGAL has specifically examined AKI occurring in patients with CKD. This study evaluated plasma NGAL in AKI superimposed on CKD after cardiac surgery. Methods This study prospectively evaluated 146 adult patients with scheduled cardiac sur...

  16. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennhauser Felix H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to identify factors that contribute to fathers' PTSS. Methods Sixty-nine fathers of children newly diagnosed with either cancer, type I diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy and 70 fathers of children suffering from an unintentional injury completed questionnaires at 4–6 weeks (Time 1 and six months (Time 2 after diagnosis or injury. Results Noticeable PTSD rates were found in fathers of children with a chronic disease (26% at Time 1 and 21% at Time 2, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than rates found in fathers of children with unintentional injuries (12% at Time 1 and 6% at Time 2, respectively. Within six months after the child's diagnosis or accident a decrease in severity of PTSS was observed in both groups. Significant predictors of PTSS at Time 2 were the father's initial level of PTSS, the child's medical condition (injuries vs. chronic diseases and functional status, the father's use of dysfunctional coping strategies, and father's level of neuroticism. Conclusion Our findings suggest that fathers with initially high PTSS levels are at greater risk to experience PTSS at follow-up, particularly fathers of children with a chronic disease. Sensitizing health care professionals to the identification of PTSS symptoms but also to indicators of neuroticism and the use of specific coping strategies early in the treatment course is essential for the planning and implementation of adequate intervention strategies.

  17. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; MARTIN, PAULA I; Frazier, Judith; Michael R Hamblin; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; BAKER, ERROL H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvas...

  18. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOX) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS = III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (au) (18 refs.)

  19. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS=III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (orig.)

  20. Protection of Effective Component Group from Xiaoshuan Tongluo on Brain Injury after Chronic Hypoperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Chu-bing; WANG Hong-qing; TIAN Shuo; GAO Mei; XU Wei-ren; CHEN Ruo-yun; DU Guan-hua

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of purified effective component group in extract from Xiaoshuan Tongluo(CGXT)formula on chronic brain ischemia in rats.Methods CGXT 75,150,and 300 mg/kg or vehicle were ig administered daily for four weeks to rats with bilateral common carotid arteries ligation(BCCAL).From the day 24 to 28 after BCCAL,Morris water maze was performed to assess the learning and memory impairment of rats.Four weeks after BCCAL,brain gray and white matter damage were assessed.Results In Morris test,the mean escape latency of rats in the CGXT(150 and 300 mg/kg)groups was significantly shorter than that in the vehicle group.CGXT also attenuated the neuronal damage in hippocampus and cortex and reduced the pathological damage in the optic tract and corpus callosum.Conclusion CGXT could improve learning and memory impairment resulted from BCCAL in rats.These results provide the experimental basis for the clinical use of CGXT in stroke treatment and may help in investigation of multimodal therapy strategies in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases including stroke.

  1. Clustering of microscopic particles in constricted blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bächer, Christian; Gekle, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    A mixed suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) and microparticles flows through a cylindrical channel with a constriction mimicking a stenosed blood vessel. Our three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann simulations show that the RBCs are depleted right ahead and after the constriction. Although the RBC mean concentration (hematocrit) is 16.5% or 23.7%, their axial concentration profile is very similar to that of isolated tracer particles flowing along the central axis. Most importantly, however, we find that the stiff microparticles exhibit the opposite behavior. Arriving on a marginated position near the channel wall, they can pass through the constriction only if they find a suitable gap to dip into the dense plug of RBCs occupying the channel center. This leads to a prolonged dwell time and, as a consequence, to a pronounced increase in microparticle concentration right in front of the constriction. For biochemically active particles such as drug delivery agents or activated platelets this clustering may lead to p...

  2. Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S. [University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS (France); Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: Y.V.Nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of NanoScience (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.

  3. Pulmonary and hepatic injury after sub-chronic exposure to sublethal doses of microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Oliveira, Vinícius Rosa; Casquilho, Natália Vasconcelos; Araujo, Andressa Cristine Pereira; Soares, Raquel Moraes; Azevedo, Sandra Maria F O; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Valença, Samuel Santos; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2016-03-15

    We had previously shown that microcystin-LR (MCLR) could induce lung and liver inflammation after acute exposure. The biological outcomes following prolonged exposure to MCLR, although more frequent, are still poorly understood. Thus, we aimed to verify whether repeated doses of MCLR could damage lung and liver and evaluate the dose-dependence of the results. Male Swiss mice received 10 intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of distilled water (60 μL, CTRL) or different doses of MCLR (5 μg/kg, TOX5), 10 μg/kg (TOX10), 15 μg/kg (TOX15) and 20 μg/kg (TOX20) every other day. On the tenth injection respiratory mechanics (lung resistive and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressures, static elastance, and viscoelastic component of elastance) was measured. Lungs and liver were prepared for histology (morphometry and cellularity) and inflammatory mediators (KC and MIP-2) determination. All mechanical parameters and alveolar collapse were significantly higher in TOX5, 10, 15 and 20 than CTRL, but did not differ among them. Lung inflammatory cell content increased dose-dependently in all TOX groups in relation to CTRL, being TOX20 the largest. The production of KC was increased in lung and liver homogenates. MIP-2 increased in the liver of all TOX groups, but in lung homogenates it was significantly higher only in TOX20 group. All TOX mice livers showed steatosis, necrosis, inflammatory foci and a high degree of binucleated hepatocytes. In conclusion, sub-chronic exposure to MCLR damaged lung and liver in all doses, with a more important lung inflammation in TOX20 group. PMID:26844922

  4. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a ‘2-hit’ paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: ► Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. ► Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. ► This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  5. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ben Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcu-taneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadro-parin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calci-phylaxis, outcome is favorable.

  6. The CONECSI trial: results of a randomized controlled trial of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program for coping with chronic neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutink, Matagne; Post, Marcel W M; Bongers-Janssen, Helma M H; Dijkstra, Catja A; Snoek, Govert J; Spijkerman, Dorien C M; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    Many people with spinal cord injury (SCI) rate chronic neuropathic pain as one of the most difficult problems to manage. The aim of the CONECSI (COping with NEuropathiC Spinal cord Injury pain) trial was to evaluate a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment program for persons with chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. The intervention consisted of educational, cognitive, and behavioral elements. A total of 61 people were randomized to either the intervention group or the waiting list control group in 4 Dutch rehabilitation centers. Primary outcomes were pain intensity and pain-related disability (Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire), and secondary outcomes were mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), participation in activities (Utrecht Activities List), and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire). Measurements were performed at baseline, and at 3, and 6 months follow-up. The primary statistical technique was random coefficient analysis. The analyses showed significant changes over time on both primary (t1-t2), and 2 out of 4 secondary outcomes (both t1-t2 and t1-t3). Significant intervention effects (Time*Group interactions) were found for anxiety and participation in activities, but not for the primary outcomes. Subsequent paired t tests showed significant changes in the intervention group that were not seen in the control group: decrease of pain intensity, pain-related disability, anxiety, and increase of participation in activities. This study implies that a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program might have beneficial effects on people with chronic neuropathic SCI pain. PMID:22100355

  7. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu (Pueraria lobata is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro.

  8. Chronic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Impairs Ejaculatory Reflexes in Male Rats: Partial Recovery by Systemic Infusions of Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonist 7OHDPAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Natalie; Staudt, Michael D; Brown, Arthur; Coolen, Lique M

    2016-05-15

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes major disruption of ejaculatory function in men. Ejaculation is a reflex and the spinal generator for ejaculatory reflexes in the rat has been located in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The effects of SCI on the rat spinal ejaculation generator and ejaculatory reflexes remain understudied. The first goal of the current study was to establish the effects of chronic SCI on the function of the spinal ejaculation generator. Male rats received a contusion injury of the spinal cord at spinal level T6-T7. Ejaculatory reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN) were evaluated in injured and control rats at 4-6 weeks following SCI. SCI males demonstrated significant reductions in bursting of the bulbocavernosus muscle (BCM), an indicator for expulsion phase of ejaculation, and in seminal vesicle pressure (SVP) increases, an indicator for the emission phase of ejaculation, following DPN stimulation. Thus, contusion SCI resulted in long-term impairment of ejaculatory reflexes. The D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (7OHDPAT) facilitates ejaculation in spinal cord intact rats, thus the second goal of the current study was to test whether subcutaneous infusions of 7OHDPAT can facilitate ejaculatory reflexes in rats with chronic SCI. Male rats received a contusion injury at T6-T7 and effects of systemic administration of 7OHDPAT (1 mg/kg) were tested 4-5 weeks following injury. Results showed that 7OHDPAT administration facilitated ejaculatory reflexes in SCI males with or without DPN stimulation, provided that supraspinal inputs to the lumbar cord were severed by transection just prior to evaluating the reflex. Thus, 7OHDPAT administration in SCI males was able to overcome the detrimental effects of SCI on ejaculatory reflexes. PMID:26437577

  9. AB211. Effect of early chronic low-dose tadalafil administration on erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury in the rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jun; Liu, Cundong; Yang, Jiankun; Zhou, Qizhao; Sun, Xiangzhou; Deng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of early chronic tadalafil administration on erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve (CN) injury in the rat model. Methods Using the CN crush injury model, animals were divided into four groups: no CN injury (sham), bilateral CN injury exposed to either no tadalafil (control) or tadalafil at a dose (2 mg/kg) daily postoperation for 4 weeks, and normal group. At the time point, we assessed erectile function by apomorphine test, measurement of maximum intracavernosal pressure (ICP)/mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratio with major pelvic ganglion (MPG) electrical stimulation. For the histological analyses, the mid-shaft of penis were harvested. Immunohistochemical antibody staining was performed for nNOS and the numbers of nNOS-positive nerve fibers were recorded. Results Penile erection was observed in 50% (6/12) of the rats for (1.13±0.92) times within 30 min in control group, as compared with 0% (0/11) of the rats for (0.00±0.00) times in CN crush group (P0.05), while ICP/MAP ratio after MPG electrical stimulation of control group was significantly higher than that of CN crush group (P<0.05), but significantly lower than that of sham group (P<0.05) and normal group (P<0.05). The numbers of nNOS-positive nerve fibers was significantly larger in control group than in CN crush group (54.11±5.02 vs. 21.34±3.17, P<0.05), but was significantly smaller than that of sham group (76.48±8.24, P<0.05) and normal group (81.09±7.25, P<0.05). Conclusions Early chronic low-dose tadalafil administration on erectile dysfunction after CN injury contributes to restoration of erectile function.

  10. Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith Owen; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescence coincide with rapid maturation and synaptic reorganization of distributed neural networks that underlie complex cognitive-affective behaviors. These regions, referred to collectively as the 'social brain network' (SBN) are commonly vulnerable to disruption from pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the mechanisms that link morphological changes in the SBN to behavior problems in this population remain unclear. In 98 children and adolescents with mild to severe TBI, we acquired 3D T1-weighted MRIs at 2-8 weeks post-injury. For comparison, 33 typically developing controls of similar age, sex and education were scanned. All participants were assessed on measures of Theory of Mind (ToM) at 6 months post-injury and parents provided ratings of behavior problems at 24-months post-injury. Severe TBI was associated with volumetric reductions in the overall SBN package, as well as regional gray matter structural change in multiple component regions of the SBN. When compared with TD controls and children with milder injuries, the severe TBI group had significantly poorer ToM, which was associated with more frequent behavior problems and abnormal SBN morphology. Mediation analysis indicated that impaired theory of mind mediated the prospective relationship between abnormal SBN morphology and more frequent chronic behavior problems. Our findings suggest that sub-acute alterations in SBN morphology indirectly contribute to long-term behavior problems via their influence on ToM. Volumetric change in the SBN and its putative hub regions may represent useful imaging biomarkers for prediction of post-acute social cognitive impairment, which may in turn elevate risk for chronic behavior problems. PMID:26796967

  11. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  12. Permeability Description by Characteristic Length, Tortuosity, Constriction and Porosity

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Carl Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the permeability of a porous medium as given in Darcy's law. The permeability is described by an effective hydraulic pore radius in the porous medium, the fluctuation in local hydraulic pore radii, the length of streamlines, and the fractional volume conducting flow. The effective hydraulic pore radius is related to a characteristic hydraulic length, the fluctuation in local hydraulic radii is related to a constriction factor, the length of streamlines is characterized by a tortuosity, and the fractional volume conducting flow from inlet to outlet is described by an effective porosity. The characteristic length, the constriction factor, the tortuosity and the effective porosity are thus intrinsic descriptors of the pore structure relative to direction. We show that the combined effect of our pore structure description fully describes the permeability of a porous medium. The theory is applied to idealized porous media, where it reproduces Darcy's law for fluid flow derived from t...

  13. Still and rotating myosin clusters determine cytokinetic ring constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Kruse, Karsten; Riveline, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction. In contrast, in fission yeast, myosin clusters rotate prior to and during constriction. Theoretical analysis indicates that both patterns result from acto-myosin self-organization and reveals differences in the respective stresses. These findings suggest distinct functional roles for rings: contraction in mammalian cells and transport in fission yeast. Thus self-organization under different conditions may be a generic feature for regulating morphogenesis in vivo. PMID:27363521

  14. Expansion of Severely Constricted Visual Field Using Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trese, Matthew G J; Khan, Naheed W; Branham, Kari; Conroy, Erin Brown; Moroi, Sayoko E

    2016-05-01

    Google Glass (Google, Mountain View, CA) is a wearable technology with a computer and camera mounted on an eyeglass frame. The camera captures wide-angle video and projects it onto a prism located in the right superior temporal quadrant of the wearer's visual field. The authors present a case of an individual who used Google Glass' video projection feature to expand his severely constricted right visual field. This patient reported improved ambulatory navigation. Using Google Glass, the patient's peripheral vision, measured using Goldmann kinetic perimetry, expanded impressively. Based on these preliminary results, the authors propose further characterization on the potential utility of such head-mount display technology as a tool to improve the lives of patients with severely constricted visual fields. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:486-489.]. PMID:27183556

  15. The role of Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied whether brain perfusion SPECT is useful in the psychiatric disability evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-nine patients (M:F=58:11, age 39 ± 14 years) who underwent Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT, brain MRI and neuropsychological (NP) tests during hospitalization in psychiatric wards for the psychiatric disability evaluation were included; the severity of injury was mild in 31, moderate in 17 and severe in 21. SPECT, MRI, NP tests were performed 6 ∼ 61 months (mean 23 months) post-injury. Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and MRI to show hypoperfusion or abnormal signal intensity in patients with cognitive impairment represented by NP test results were compared. Forty-two patients were considered to have cognitive impairment on NP tests and 27 not. Brain SPECT showed 71% sensitivity and 85% specificity, while brain MRI showed 62% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p>0.05, McNemar test). SPECT found more cortical lesions and MRI was superior in detecting white matter lesions. sensitivity and specificity of 31 mild TBI patients were 45%, 90% for SPECT and 27%, 100% for MRI (p>0.05, McNemar test). Among 41 patients with normal brain MRI, SEPCT showed 63% sensitivity (50% for mild TBI) and 88% specificity (85% for malingerers). Brain SPECT has a supplementary role to neuropsychological tests in the psychiatric disability evaluation of chronic TBI patients by detecting more cortical lesions than MRI

  16. Role of calcium in the constriction of isolated cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium entry blockers (CEB) have been used in the experimental treatment or prevention of many cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, post-ischemic hypoperfusion after cardiac arrest, cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and migraine headache. However, the mechanism of action of these drugs on the cerebral circulation is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of calcium antagonists, Ca2+-deficient solutions, and vasocostrictors on cerebrovascular tone and 45Ca fluxes, to determine the role of calcium in cerebral arterial constriction. A Scatchard plot of 45Ca binding to BMCA showed that Ca2+ was bound at either low or high affinity binding sties. The four vasoconstrictors (potassium, serotonin, PGF/sub 2 α/, or SQ-26,655) each increased low affinity 45Ca uptake into BMCA. The results demonstrate that: (1) Potassium and serotonin constrict BMCA mainly by promoting Ca2+ influx through CEB-sensitive channels; (2) PGF/sub 2 α/ and SQ-26,655 constrict BMCA in part by promoting Ca2+ influx through CEB-sensitive channels, and in part by releasing Ca2+ from depletable internal stores; (3) The major action of CEB on BMCA is to block vasoconstrictor-induced Ca2+ uptake through both potential-operated (K+-stimulated) and receptor-operated channels

  17. [Characteristics of the spermatogenic epithelium in the testis of newborn rats--the offspring of female rats with chronic liver injury of various genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, M L; Briukhin, G V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of chronic injury of hepatobiliary system of various genesis in females rats on the formation of spermatogenic epithelium in the testis of their newborn offspring was studied. The models of toxic (CCl4) and medicinal (tetracycline, paracetamol) liver injury were used. The state of the seminiferous epithelium was assessed on the serial histological sections of the testis with the use of the morphometric device. In experimental animals, a reduction of the diameter and the area of the seminiferous tubules (ST) was detected, associated with the decline of the total number of spermatogenic cells, spermatogonia of various generations, total number of spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. At the same time, in the newborn rats of all the experimental groups, the number of ST with the desquamated epithelium, and that one of the multinucleated spermatogenic cells with fragmented and pyknotic nuclei were increased. PMID:25282824

  18. Adiponectin protects the genioglossus of rats against chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-feng; HUANG Han-peng; DING Wen-xiao; DING Ning; LU Gan; LIU Jian-nan; ZHANG Xi-long

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome,characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH),is closely correlated with genioglossus dysfunction.CIH has been identified to mediate mitochondrial damage in genioglossus.It has been reported that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) could be induced by mitochondrial dysfunction.This study aimed to investigate the role of ERS in CIH-induced genioglossus injury,as well as the possible intervention effect of adiponectin (Ad) supplement in rats.Methods Forty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and submitted to room air (group A,n=15) as a control or CIH (groups B and C,n=15,respectively).Throughout the exposure period,intravenous Ad was given in group C; while intravenous normal saline was simultaneously given in groups A and B.After 35-day exposure,genioglossus samples were obtained from the pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats via surgical dissection,following blood sampling.Western blotting was applied to detect expressions of ERS signals and associated apoptotic pathways in genioglossus.Serum adiponectin levels were assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Significant hypoadiponectinemia was revealed in group B only (P <0.05).Compared to those in groups A and C,expressions of markers involved in ERS,such as glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78),p-PERK,phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-elF2α),phosphorylated inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease 1α (p-IRE1α),spliced X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6),were significantly enhanced in group B (all P <0.01); while no significant difference was shown between groups A and C (all P >0.05).ERS-associated apoptotic pathways were remarkably activated in group B.The involved markers detected as the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP),B-cell lymphoma/leukemia associatied X protein (BAX)and caspase-12 were

  19. A systematic review of the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury. Results of the International Collaboration on MTBI Prognosis (ICoMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, Allison; Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment (CCI), following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Data sources: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001–2012), using a previously published search strategy and pre....... Children with MTBI and intracranial pathology (‘complicated’ MTBI) performed worse than children without intracranial pathology. Children showed higher rates of cognitive symptoms 1 year after MTBI than a control group. Conclusions: There is a lack of evidence of increased risk of dementia after MTBI. In...

  20. Effect of detraining on bone and muscle tissue in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury after a period of electrically-stimulated cycling: a small cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Frotzler, A.; Coupaud, S.; Perret, C; Kakebeeke, T.H.; Hunt, K.J.; Eser, P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate adaptive changes in bone and muscle parameters in the paralysed limbs after de-training or reduced functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced cycling following high-volume FES-cycling in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects: Five subjects with motor-sensory complete SCI (age 38.6 years, lesion duration 11.4 years) were included. Four subjects stopped FES-cycling completely after the training phase whereas one continued reduced FES-cycling (2-3 times/we...

  1. Development and testing of two lifestyle interventions for persons with chronic mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury: Acceptability and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Esther; Ribbens-Grimm, Christine; Chan, Roxane R

    2016-05-01

    This clinical methods discursive highlights the development, piloting, and evaluation of two group interventions designed for persons who experienced chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Intervention science for this population is limited and lacking in rigor. Our innovative approach to customize existing interventions and develop parallel delivery methods guided by Allostatic Load theory is presented and preliminary results described. Overall, parallel group interventions delivered by trained leaders with mental health expertise were acceptable and feasible for persons who reported being depressed, stressed, and symptomatic. They reported being satisfied with the overall programs and mostly satisfied with the individual classes. Attendance was over the anticipated 70% expected rate and changes in daily living habits were reported by participants. These two group interventions show promise in helping persons to self manage their chronic stress and symptomatology. PMID:27091260

  2. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chronic pain there may be no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and ... expected period of healing for an illness or injury. You can experience pain even if you are ...

  3. Plasticity of Urinary Bladder Reflexes Evoked by Stimulation of Pudendal Afferent Nerves after Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Hailong; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves (PudA-to-Bladder reflex) were studied in normal and chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) adult cats to examine the reflex plasticity. Physiological activation of pudendal afferent nerves by tactile stimulation of the perigenital skin elicits an inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflex in normal cats, but activates an excitatory reflex in chronic SCI cats. However, in both normal and chronic SCI cats electrical stimulation applied to the...

  4. Steady flow through a constricted cylinder by multiparticle collision dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedkihal, Salil; Kumaradas, J Carl; Rohlf, Katrin

    2013-10-01

    The flow characterization of blood through healthy and diseased flow geometries is of interest to researchers and clinicians alike, as it may allow for early detection, and monitoring, of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we use a numerically efficient particle-based flow model called multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC for short) to study the effect of compressibility and slip of flow of a Newtonian fluid through a cylinder with a local constriction. We use a cumulative averaging method to compare our MPC results to the finite-element solution of the incompressible no-slip Navier-Stokes equations in the same geometry. We concentrate on low Reynolds number flows [[Formula: see text

  5. Quantum description of dissipation in normal metals and short constrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissipation in a normal metal with impurities, which serves as a shunt to a Josephson junction, is described on a quantum-mechanical level. The derivation is based on the microscopic many-body theory of this system. No further approximations are made other than those which are also used in the classical limit and which lead to Ohm's law. We obtain an effective action which agrees with the one derived by Caldeira and Leggett from a phenomenological model. Different results are obtained for the dissipation in a short constriction between two metals

  6. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  8. The Development of Acute and Chronic Injuries During Strength Training%力量训练急性和慢性损伤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵年生; 马继政; 程广振

    2012-01-01

    Strength training has become one of the most popular physical activities for increasing characteristics such as absolute muscular strength,endurance,hypertrophy and muscular power.Strength training is broken down into five disciplines:basic strength or resistance training,bodybuilding,power lifting,style-dependant strength sports,and Olympic-style weightlifting.Each style has its own principal injuries,both acute and chronic,related to the individual technique.It is important to know basic rules,common injuries involved in strength training either as their primary or secondary activity on how to prevent injuries related to the sport.%力量训练是体能训练中最受欢迎的运动方式之一,有利于提高肌肉的力量、耐力、肥大程度和爆发力。力量训练可分为5种类型:基础力量训练、健美、爆发举、力量性项目和举重。每种类型力量训练有着特定急性和慢性损伤,和运动技术相关。了解力量训练中常见的损伤、基本原理有助于预防和治疗力量训练的相关损伤。

  9. Floating-electrode enhanced constriction dielectrophoresis for biomolecular trapping in physiological media of high conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chaurey, Vasudha; Polanco, Carlos; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an electrokinetic framework for designing insulator constriction-based dielectrophoresis devices with enhanced ability to trap nanoscale biomolecules in physiological media of high conductivity, through coupling short-range dielectrophoresis forces with long-range electrothermal flow. While a 500-fold constriction enables field focusing sufficient to trap nanoscale biomolecules by dielectrophoresis, the extent of this high-field region is enhanced through coupling the constriction ...

  10. Novel techniques for the surgical management of abdominopelvic constriction rings in amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Avery C; Balasundaram, Naveen; Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Papay, Frank A; Lucas, Armand R; Seifarth, Federico G; Doumit, Gaby D

    2015-02-01

    Constriction rings are associated with amniotic band syndrome and most often present in the extremities. Constriction bands of the trunk are rare, and a standard of surgical care remains elusive. Traditional methods of constriction ring excision rely on soft-tissue rearrangement with multiple Z-plasties, but renewed interest in linear closure and limited Z-plasty has emerged. The authors review contemporary literature and report two cases of abdominopelvic constriction ring reconstruction with long-term follow-up. Novel techniques including anterior sheath Y-V plasty, pteruges release of the Scarpa fascia, and limited Z-plasty closure may minimize the need for serrated scar patterns. PMID:25626800

  11. Diagnostic criterial to differentiate medial meniscal injury from degenerative changes on {sup 99m}Tc-MDP knee SPECT in patients with chronic knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June Key; Kang, Won Jun; So, Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae Ho; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    In patients with chronic knee pain, the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP knee SPECT for internal derangement of knee is deteriorated due to degenerative changes. In this study, we tried to establish diagnostic criteria to differentiate medial meniscal injury (MMI) from degenerative change (DC) when the uptake in increased in medial compartment. A total of 49 knee SPECT of the patients with chronic(more than 3 months) knee pain, which showed increased {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the medial compartment, were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy. On knee SPECT, 3 diagnosic criteria for MMI were investigated. In Criterion, I, MMI was diagnosed when crescentic uptake was observed in the medial tibial plateau. In Criterion II, crescentic uptake was further classified into anterior, mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns, according to the location of maximal uptake; and only crescentic mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns were diagnosed as MMI. In Criterion III, MMI was diagnosed when medial tibial plateau showed higher activity then medial femoral condyle. The diagnostic performance of the 3 criteria was compared. The sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 14% in Criterion I, 89% and 38% in Criterion II, and 75% and 67% in Criterion III, respectively. Criterion III had significantly improve diagnostic performance, especially, specificity. In this study, we established a practical diagnostic criterion to differentiate MMI from DC on knee SPECT. The result is helpful to improve the diagnostic value of knee SPECT as a screening test for chronic knee pain.

  12. Diagnostic criterial to differentiate medial meniscal injury from degenerative changes on 99mTc-MDP knee SPECT in patients with chronic knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with chronic knee pain, the diagnostic performance of 99mTc-MDP knee SPECT for internal derangement of knee is deteriorated due to degenerative changes. In this study, we tried to establish diagnostic criteria to differentiate medial meniscal injury (MMI) from degenerative change (DC) when the uptake in increased in medial compartment. A total of 49 knee SPECT of the patients with chronic(more than 3 months) knee pain, which showed increased 99mTc-MDP uptake in the medial compartment, were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy. On knee SPECT, 3 diagnosic criteria for MMI were investigated. In Criterion, I, MMI was diagnosed when crescentic uptake was observed in the medial tibial plateau. In Criterion II, crescentic uptake was further classified into anterior, mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns, according to the location of maximal uptake; and only crescentic mid, posterior, and diffuse patterns were diagnosed as MMI. In Criterion III, MMI was diagnosed when medial tibial plateau showed higher activity then medial femoral condyle. The diagnostic performance of the 3 criteria was compared. The sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 14% in Criterion I, 89% and 38% in Criterion II, and 75% and 67% in Criterion III, respectively. Criterion III had significantly improve diagnostic performance, especially, specificity. In this study, we established a practical diagnostic criterion to differentiate MMI from DC on knee SPECT. The result is helpful to improve the diagnostic value of knee SPECT as a screening test for chronic knee pain

  13. Do orthopaedic shoes improve local dynamic stability of gait? An observational study in patients with chronic foot and ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Terrier P.; Luthi F.; Dériaz O.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complex foot and ankle fractures, such as calcaneum fractures or Lisfranc dislocations, are often associated with a poor outcome, especially in terms of gait capacity. Indeed, degenerative changes often lead to chronic pain and chronic functional limitations. Prescription footwear represents an important therapeutic tool during the rehabilitation process. Local Dynamic Stability (LDS) is the ability of locomotor system to maintain continuous walking by accommodating small perturba...

  14. Peripheral Nerve Injury Is Associated with Chronic, Reversible Changes in Global DNA Methylation in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tajerian, Maral; Alvarado, Sebastian; Millecamps, Magali; Vachon, Pascal; Crosby, Cecilia; Bushnell, M. Catherine; Szyf, Moshe; Stone, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in brain structure and cortical function are associated with many chronic pain conditions including low back pain and fibromyalgia. The magnitude of these changes correlates with the duration and/or the intensity of chronic pain. Most studies report changes in common areas involved in pain modulation, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and pain-related pathological changes in the PFC can be reversed with effective treatment. While the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknow...

  15. Metal Ion Imbalance-Related Oxidative Stress Is Involved in the Mechanisms of Liver Injury in a Rat Model of Chronic Aluminum Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hong; Guo, Yuanxin; Lei, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Xinyue; Yang, Junqing; He, Qin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of chronic aluminum overload on rat liver function and its induction of pathological changes in metal ion levels and oxidative stress in hepatic tissues. Wistar rats were intragastrically administered aluminum gluconate (200 mg Al(3+)/Kg) once a day, 5 days a week, for 20 weeks. HE staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A biochemical method was adopted to detect ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT levels, as well as liver SOD activity and blood plasma MDA content. A plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer was used to detect Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu ion contents in liver tissue. Our results showed obvious vacuolar degeneration, granular degeneration, and spotty necrosis in chronic Al-overload rat hepatocytes. The levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and GGT were significantly increased. Liver SOD activity was significantly decreased, and MDA content was significantly increased. In Al-overload rat liver, Al, Mn, Fe, and Cu contents were significantly increased, and in Al-overload rat serum, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu contents were significantly decreased. However, the Al level in Al-overload rat serum was not significantly different from that in control rat serum. These results suggest that chronic aluminum overload causes obvious damage to rat liver and causes imbalances in Al, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu levels in rat liver and serum. Metal ion imbalance-related oxidative stress may be involved in the mechanism of chronic liver injury caused by aluminum overload. PMID:26811106

  16. Surgical Management of the Constricted or Obliterated Vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, John B; Schmitt, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Management of the constricted or obliterated vagina demands an understanding and recognition of the potential etiologies leading to this presentation. A thorough and comprehensive medical and surgical review is required to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, which then will guide medical or surgical intervention. It is paramount to recognize when underlying medical conditions are contributing to these conditions and to begin medical therapy; failure to do so will often yield suboptimal results. When these conditions arise after surgical interventions, compensatory surgical techniques that correct upper and lower vaginal strictures or obliteration include incision through the stricture, vaginal advancement, Z-plasty, skin grafts, perineal flaps, and abdominal flaps and grafts. Postoperative surveillance and dilation are critical to optimize long-term success. PMID:27399991

  17. Surgical treatment of 2 cases of irradiation induced constrictive pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 72-years-old man underwent radiation therapy (62 Gy) for esophageal carcinoma. Twelve months later, symptoms of heart failure such as syncope, cough and hepatomegaly manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was evident. Pericardiectomy without extracorporeal circulation was performed. Operative findings and pathological results were compatible with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. He recovered from the heart failure, and has been doing well 3 months after the surgery. A 54-years-old man underwent thymectomy for malignant thymoma. He underwent a radiation therapy (52 Gy) postoperatively. After 12 months from the irradiation, syncope and dyspnea manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was observed. Pericardiectomy with extracorporeal circulation was performed. He recovered from the heart failure after pericardiectomy, however he died of radiation-induced pneumonitis 6 months later. (author)

  18. [Surgical treatment of 2 cases of irradiation induced constrictive pericarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, H; Takahashi, W; Yoshii, S; Hosaka, S; Kaga, S; Fukuda, N; Samuel, A; Nagasaka, S; Miyauchi, Y; Tada, Y

    1999-11-01

    A 72-years-old man underwent radiation therapy (62 Gy) for esophageal carcinoma. Twelve months later, symptoms of heart failure such as syncope, cough and hepatomegaly manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was evident. Pericardiectomy without extracorporeal circulation was performed. Operative findings and pathological results were compatible with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. He recovered from the heart failure, and has been doing well 3 months after the surgery. A 54-years-old man underwent thymectomy for malignant thymoma. He underwent a radiation therapy (52 Gy) postoperatively. After 12 months from the irradiation, syncope and dyspnea manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was observed. Pericardiectomy with extracorporeal circulation was performed. He recovered from the heart failure after pericardiectomy, however he died of radiation-induced pneumonitis 6 months later. PMID:10554496

  19. [Diagnostic difficulties in a case of constricted tubular visual field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Oana-Mihaela; Rusu, Monica; Hâncu, Dacia; Horvath, Kárin

    2013-01-01

    In the paper below we present the clinical case of a 48 year old female with various symptoms associated with functional visual disturbance -constricted tubular visual fields, wich lasts from 6 years; the extensive clinical and paraclinical ophthalmological investigations ruled out the presence of an organic disorder. In the present, we suspect a diagnosis of hysteria, still uncertain, wich represented over time a big challenge in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanisms and reasons for hysteria are still not clear and it could represent a fascinating research theme. The tunnel, spiral or star-shaped visual fields are specific findings in hysteria for patients who present visual disturbance. The question of whether or not a patient with hysterical visual impairment can or cannot "see" is still unresolved. PMID:24701812

  20. Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Wyn; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    Apical constriction is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which embryonic tissue is deformed, giving rise to the shape and form of the fully-developed organism. The mechanism involves a contraction of fibres embedded in the apical side of epithelial tissues, leading to an invagination or folding of the cell sheet. In this article the phenomenon is modelled mechanically by describing the epithelial sheet as an elastic shell, which contains a surface representing the continuous mesh formed from the embedded fibres. Allowing this mesh to contract, an enhanced shell theory is developed in which the stiffness and bending tensors of the shell are modified to include the fibres' stiffness, and in which the active effects of the contraction appear as body forces in the shell equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented at the end, including the bending of a plate and a cylindrical shell (modelling neurulation) and the invagination of a spherical shell (modelling simple gastrulation). PMID:19859751

  1. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  2. Neuropeptide Y-mediated constriction and dilation in rat middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, J; Edvinsson, L; Bryan, R M

    2001-01-01

    hypothesis that NPY can either constrict or dilate rat middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). Constriction is elicited by stimulating receptors on the VSM; dilation is elicited by stimulating receptors on the endothelium. Middle cerebral arteries were isolated, cannulated with micropipettes, pressurized to 85 mm...

  3. Stenosis map for volume visualization of constricted tubular structures: Application to coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jihye; Kim, Yeo Koon; Chun, Eun Ju; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Bohyoung

    2016-02-01

    Although direct volume rendering (DVR) has become a commodity, effective rendering of interesting features is still a challenge. In one of active DVR application fields, the medicine, radiologists have used DVR for the diagnosis of lesions or diseases that should be visualized distinguishably from other surrounding anatomical structures. One of most frequent and important radiologic tasks is the detection of lesions, usually constrictions, in complex tubular structures. In this paper, we propose a 3D spatial field for the effective visualization of constricted tubular structures, called as a stenosis map which stores the degree of constriction at each voxel. Constrictions within tubular structures are quantified by using newly proposed measures (i.e. line similarity measure and constriction measure) based on the localized structure analysis, and classified with a proposed transfer function mapping the degree of constriction to color and opacity. We show the application results of our method to the visualization of coronary artery stenoses. We present performance evaluations using twenty eight clinical datasets, demonstrating high accuracy and efficacy of our proposed method. The ability of our method to saliently visualize the constrictions within tubular structures and interactively adjust the visual appearance of the constrictions proves to deliver a substantial aid in radiologic practice. PMID:26608866

  4. Flow of a Casson fluid through a locally-constricted porous channel: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlimohamadi, Haleh; Akram, Maryammosadat; Sadeghy, Kayvan

    2016-05-01

    Flow of a Casson fluid through a two-dimensional porous channel containing a local constriction is numerically investigated assuming that the resistance offered by the porous medium obeys the Darcy's law. Treating the constriction as another porous medium which obeys the Darcy-Forcheimer model, the equations governing fluid flow in the main channel and the constriction itself are numerically solved using the finite-volume method (FVM) based on the pseudo-transient SIMPLE algorithm. It is shown that an increase in the porosity of the channel decreases the shear stress exerted on the constriction. On the other hand, an increase in the fluid's yield stress is predicted to increase the maximum shear stress experienced by the constriction near its crest. The porosity of the constriction itself is predicted to have a negligible effect on the plaque's shear stress. But, the momentum of the weak flow passing through the constriction is argued to lower the bulk fluid from separating downstream of the constriction.

  5. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  6. Effects of self-hypnosis training and EMG biofeedback relaxation training on chronic pain in persons with spinal-cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Barber, Joseph; Romano, Joan M; Hanley, Marisol A; Raichle, Katherine A; Molton, Ivan R; Engel, Joyce M; Osborne, Travis L; Stoelb, Brenda L; Cardenas, Diana D; Patterson, David R

    2009-07-01

    Thirty-seven adults with spinal-cord injury and chronic pain were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of self-hypnosis (HYP) or EMG biofeedback relaxation (BIO) training for pain management. Participants in both treatment conditions reported substantial, but similar, decreases in pain intensity from before to after the treatment sessions. However, participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to posttreatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain, but this change was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:19459087

  7. Effects of Self-Hypnosis Training and Emg Biofeedback Relaxation Training on Chronic Pain in Persons with Spinal-Cord Injury1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Barber, Joseph; Romano, Joan M.; Hanley, Marisol A.; Raichle, Katherine A.; Molton, Ivan R.; Engel, Joyce M.; Osborne, Travis L.; Stoelb, Brenda L.; Cardenas, Diana D.; Patterson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven adults with spinal-cord injury and chronic pain were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of self-hypnosis (HYP) or EMG biofeedback relaxation (BIO) training for pain management. Participants in both treatment conditions reported sub-stantial, but similar, decreases in pain intensity from before to after the treatment sessions. However, participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to posttreatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain, but this change was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:19459087

  8. Are altered smooth pursuit eye movements related to chronic pain and disability following whiplash injuries? A prospective trial with one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of early smooth pursuit testing to predict chronic whiplash-associated disorders, and to study whether the presence of abnormal smooth pursuit eye movements at one-year follow-up is associated with symptoms at that time. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with one......-year follow-up. SETTING: The study was carried out at a university research centre and participants were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. SUBJECTS: In all, 262 participants were recruited within 10 days from a whiplash injury. MAIN MEASURES: Smooth pursuit eye movements were tested...... collision were determined. RESULTS: Results of early eye movement tests were not associated with the prognosis. Reduced smooth pursuit performance when tested in static cervical rotation at the one-year follow-up was significantly associated with higher neck pain intensity at that time (regression...

  9. Combination of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and cord blood mononuclear cells in the treatment of chronic thoracic spinal cord injury in 27 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-zhong WANG

    2012-08-01

    autologous bone marrow mesenshymal stem cells in combination with umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells could improve AIS grade, AISA motor and sensory scores to some extent in patients with chronic thoracic spinal cord injury by promoting the recovery of late spinal cord injury.

  10. Magneto-conductance through submicron constriction in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelya, O. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wosinski, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: wosin@ifpan.edu.pl; Figielski, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Makosa, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Morawski, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Dobrowolski, W. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wrobel, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Toth, A.L. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-10-26

    We fabricated a simple magnetoresistive microdevice formed by a narrow constriction of submicron width in the epitaxial film of a ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As semiconductor, and investigated magnetic properties of the film and the low-temperature charge-carrier transport through the constriction. We have revealed sharp jumps of a lowered conductance in a non-constricted sample and jumps of an enhanced conductance in the constricted one, which appeared when the sweeping magnetic field crossed the regions of the coercive field of the film. We argue that the both features result from a contribution of a magnetic domain wall to the conductance. While the spin-orbit interaction can be responsible for the negative contribution of a domain wall to the conductance, presumably the suppression of the weak localization effects by a domain wall located in the constriction results in the positive contribution to the conductance.

  11. Magneto-conductance through submicron constriction in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated a simple magnetoresistive microdevice formed by a narrow constriction of submicron width in the epitaxial film of a ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As semiconductor, and investigated magnetic properties of the film and the low-temperature charge-carrier transport through the constriction. We have revealed sharp jumps of a lowered conductance in a non-constricted sample and jumps of an enhanced conductance in the constricted one, which appeared when the sweeping magnetic field crossed the regions of the coercive field of the film. We argue that the both features result from a contribution of a magnetic domain wall to the conductance. While the spin-orbit interaction can be responsible for the negative contribution of a domain wall to the conductance, presumably the suppression of the weak localization effects by a domain wall located in the constriction results in the positive contribution to the conductance

  12. Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Oxidative Stress as a Common Factor in Periodontal Tissue Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vijayetha P.; Gokhale, Neeraja; Acharya, Anirudh; Kangokar, Praveenchandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of periodontitis is significantly higher among people with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Majority of tissue destruction in periodontitis is considered to be the result of an aberrant inflammatory/immune response to microbial plaque and involve prolonged release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is increased evidence for compromised antioxidant capacity in periodontal tissues and fluids which may be an added factor for tissue damage in periodontitis. Aim To study the possible role of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant status in blood among chronic periodontitis patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods The study comprised of total 100 subjects among which 25 were normal healthy controls, 25 were gingivitis patients, 25 were chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and 25 were having chronic periodontitis with type 2 diabetes (CP with DM). ROS levels were determined as MDA (Malondialdehyde) and antioxidant status as plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), vitamin C and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity. Results There was significant increase in MDA levels in all the patient groups compared with healthy controls (pperiodontitis patients with diabetes (r=0.566, p=0.003). Conclusion There is increased oxidative stress in chronic periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes indicating a common factor involvement in tissue damage. More severe tissue destruction in periodontitis is associated with excessive ROS generation which is positively correlated in type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID:27190790

  13. Preserved cardiac mitochondrial function and reduced ischaemia/reperfusion injury afforded by chronic continuous hypoxia: Role of opioid receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslov, L. N.; Naryzhnaya, N. V.; Prokudina, E. S.; Kolář, František; Gorbunov, A. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Tsibulnikov, S.Yu.; Portnichenko, A. G.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 496-501. ISSN 1440-1681 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cardioprotection * chronic hypoxia * ischaemia/reperfusion * mitochondrial function * opioid receptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2014

  14. Pancreatic Duct Glands are Distinct Ductal Compartments that React to Chronic Injury and Mediate Shh-induced Metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    STROBEL, OLIVER; Rosow, David E.; Rakhlin, Elena Y.; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Trainor, Amanda G.; Alsina, Janivette; Fernández–Del Castillo, Carlos; Warshaw, Andrew Louis; Thayer, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) are pancreatic cancer precursor lesions of unclear origin and significance. PanIN aberrantly express sonic hedgehog (Shh), an initiator of pancreatic cancer, and gastrointestinal mucins. A majority of PanIN are thought to arise from ducts. We identified a novel ductal compartment that is gathered in gland-like outpouches (pancreatic duct glands [PDG]) of major ducts and characterized its role in injury and metaplasia. METHODS: Th...

  15. Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced interlimb coordination, and impaired balance are the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years, the application of KinesioTaping (KT) has been proposed to enhance sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity by proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. Because no studies have examined KT-based techniques in SCI subjects, our goal was to analyze the effects of a...

  16. Sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of sub-chronic low dose testicular injury in the Fischer 344 rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Pacheco

    Full Text Available Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1 identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD using microarrays; 2 expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3 test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ. Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05. All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05. In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05. The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat.

  17. Targeted, activity-dependent spinal stimulation produces long-lasting motor recovery in chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jacob G; Miller, Robert R; Perlmutter, Steve I

    2015-09-29

    Use-dependent movement therapies can lead to partial recovery of motor function after neurological injury. We attempted to improve recovery by developing a neuroprosthetic intervention that enhances movement therapy by directing spike timing-dependent plasticity in spared motor pathways. Using a recurrent neural-computer interface in rats with a cervical contusion of the spinal cord, we synchronized intraspinal microstimulation below the injury with the arrival of functionally related volitional motor commands signaled by muscle activity in the impaired forelimb. Stimulation was delivered during physical retraining of a forelimb behavior and throughout the day for 3 mo. Rats receiving this targeted, activity-dependent spinal stimulation (TADSS) exhibited markedly enhanced recovery compared with animals receiving targeted but open-loop spinal stimulation and rats receiving physical retraining alone. On a forelimb reach and grasp task, TADSS animals recovered 63% of their preinjury ability, more than two times the performance level achieved by the other therapy groups. Therapeutic gains were maintained for 3 additional wk without stimulation. The results suggest that activity-dependent spinal stimulation can induce neural plasticity that improves behavioral recovery after spinal cord injury. PMID:26371306

  18. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  19. Neuroendocrine and cardiac metabolic dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in adipose tissue and pancreas following chronic spinal cord injury in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Nash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CVD (cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality in chronic SCI (spinal cord injury. Several component risk factors are observed in SCI; however, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these risks have not been defined. Central and peripheral chronic inflammation is associated with metabolic dysfunction and CVD, including adipokine regulation of neuroendocrine and cardiac function and inflammatory processes initiated by the innate immune response. We use female C57 Bl/6 mice to examine neuroendocrine, cardiac, adipose and pancreatic signaling related to inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in response to experimentally induced chronic SCI. Using immuno-histochemical, -precipitation, and -blotting analysis, we show decreased POMC (proopiomelanocortin and increased NPY (neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic ARC (arcuate nucleus and PVN (paraventricular nucleus, 1-month post-SCI. Long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb, JAK2 (Janus kinase/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/p38 and RhoA/ROCK (Rho-associated kinase signaling is significantly increased in the heart tissue post-SCI, and we observe the formation and activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome in VAT (visceral adipose tissue and pancreas post-SCI. These data demonstrate neuroendocrine signaling peptide alterations, associated with central inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI, and provide evidence for the peripheral activation of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiac, VAT and pancreatic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction post-SCI. Further understanding of biological mechanisms contributing to SCI-related inflammatory processes and metabolic dysfunction associated with CVD pathology may help to direct therapeutic and rehabilitation countermeasures.

  20. 克肝膠囊对CCI4慢性肝损伤大鼠的影响%Influence of KeGan Capsule to Mice with CCI4 Chronic Hepatic Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉芳

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the action of KeGan capsule to resist injury of hepatic cells and fibrosis of liver. Methods Replicate model of chronic hepatic injury with CCl4, at the beginning of which KeGan capsule was applied; finishing experiment, respectively tested the level of liver function, TP,ALB, A/G, L - hydroxyproline and liver index and do pathologic examination to liver. Results KeGan capsule can obviously reduce the degree of fibrosis of liver and the level of L - hydroxyproline, improve the liver function. The histological examination showed that capsule has the action of protecting hepatic cells from injury and resisting fibrosis of liver either. Conclusion For KeGan capsule has the action of resisting injury of liver cells and fibrosis of liver, it' s hoped to be applied in precaution and treatnent of fibrosis of liver.

  1. Acute-on-Chronic Kidney Injury in Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal: A Case with Possible Implications for Radioactive Iodine Planning

    OpenAIRE

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Lagari, Violet S.

    2015-01-01

    The association between renal dysfunction and hypothyroidism is of increasing clinical importance as thyroid hormone replacement may attenuate decline in renal function and improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although multiple mechanisms for the induction of renal insufficiency in hypothyroidism have been described, the renal impact of short-term, acute hypothyroidism is unknown, which has possible implications for thyroid cancer patients preparing t...

  2. Angiostatin overexpression is associated with an improvement in chronic kidney injury by an anti-inflammatory mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Wei; Long, David A.; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Agarwal, Anupam; Cruz, Pedro E; Roncal, Carlos A.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Yu, Xueqing; Hauswirth, William W.; Johnson, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Angiostatin, a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, is a potent anti-angiogenic factor recently shown also to have an inhibitory effect on leukocyte recruitment and macrophage migration. Because both angiogenesis and inflammation play key roles in the progression of chronic kidney disease, we evaluated the effect of angiostatin treatment in the rat remnant kidney model. Rats were pretreated for 4 wk with recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing either angiostatin or green fluorescence ...

  3. HPMA-RGD Hydrogels Seeded with Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Functional Outcome in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Šedý, Jiří; Kapcalová, Miroslava; Arboleda Toro, David; Amemori, Takashi; Lesný, Petr; Likavčanová, Katarína; Krumbholcová, Eva; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Burian, M.; Hájek, M.; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 10 (2010), s. 1535-1546. ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR IAA500390902 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GD309/08/H079; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; EC FP6 project RESCUE(XE) LSHB-CT-2005-518233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : magnetic-resonance tracking * spinal cord injury * stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.791, year: 2010

  4. Re-examining Archie's law: Conductance description by tortuosity and constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carl Fredrik

    2012-10-01

    In this article we investigate the electrical conductance of an insulating porous medium (e.g., a sedimentary rock) filled with an electrolyte (e.g., brine), usually described using the Archie cementation exponent. We show how the electrical conductance depends on changes in the drift velocity and the length of the electric field lines, in addition to the porosity and the conductance of the electrolyte. We characterize the length of the electric field lines by a tortuosity and the changes in drift velocity by a constriction factor. Both the tortuosity and the constriction factor are descriptors of the pore microstructure. We define a conductance reduction factor to measure the local contributions of the pore microstructure to the global conductance. It is shown that the global conductance reduction factor is the product of the tortuosity squared divided by the constriction factor, thereby proving that the combined effect of tortuosity and constriction, in addition to the porosity and conductance of the electrolyte, fully describes the effective electrical conductance of a porous medium. We show that our tortuosity, constriction factor, and conductance reduction factor reproduce the electrical conductance for idealized porous media. They are also applied to Bentheimer sandstone, where we describe a microstructure-related correlation between porosity and conductivity using both the global conductance reduction factor and the distinct contributions from tortuosity and constriction. Overall, this work shows how the empirical Archie cementation exponent can be substituted by more descriptive, physical parameters, either by the global conductance reduction factor or by tortuosity and constriction. PMID:23214684

  5. Partial constriction in a glow discharge in argon with nitrogen admixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constriction of the positive column of a glow discharge in argon with nitrogen admixture (0.02–1%) was studied. The discharge was maintained in a tube of 2.8 cm inner diameter and 75 cm length at intermediate pressures (several tens of Torrs), at which the discharge constriction goes by a jump and the hysteresis effect is well pronounced. It was observed that the constriction begins near one of the electrodes and then the constricted region boundary propagates toward the other electrode. The reverse transition occurs in a similar way. The transition time in Ar : N2 mixtures appears to be essentially longer (up to 1 s) than that in pure argon. By varying the power supply voltage in the course of the transition, the boundary between the diffuse and constricted forms of the discharge could be stopped at some position between the electrodes. Such a partially constricted discharge (PCD) is stable and can exist for a long time. A PCD at various locations of the boundary can be formed, different locations being realized at different discharge voltages but at the same discharge current. This corresponds to a vertical segment in the voltage–current characteristic curve. It was found that this segment lies inside the hysteresis loop and connects two branches of the conventional I–V characteristic measured without affecting the discharge during the diffuse-to-constricted or reverse transitions. Plasma parameters in the diffuse and constricted positive columns are estimated and ionization mechanisms are analyzed. The possible reasons for the low velocity of the constriction front in Ar : N2 mixtures and the mechanisms of the stabilization of the PCD are also discussed. (paper)

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fengwei; Chi, Feifei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Chen, Yongquan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 was screened for high antioxidative activity from 55 lactobacilli. The present study attempted to explore the protective properties of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 in alcoholic liver injury. A mouse model was induced by orally feeding alcohol when simultaneously treated with L. rhamnosus CCFM1107, the drug Hu-Gan- Pian (HGP), L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), and L. plantarum CCFM1112 for 3 months. Biochemical analysis was performed for both serum and liver homogenate. Detailed intestinal flora and histological analyses were also carried out. Our results indicated that the administration of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 significantly inhibited the increase in the levels of serum aminotransferase and endotoxin, as well as the levels of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) in the serum and in the liver. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased. The enteric dysbiosis caused by alcohol was restored by increasing the numbers of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and decreasing the numbers of both enterococci and enterobacter. Histological analysis confirmed the protective effect of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107. Compared with the other lactobacilli and to the drug Hu-Gan-Pian, there is a high chance that L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 provides protective effects on alcoholic liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and restoring the intestinal flora. PMID:26626356

  7. Recurrent Autonomic Dysreflexia due to Chronic Aortic Dissection in an Adult Male with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive clinical emergency for persons with spinal cord injury at T-6 level or above. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia is uncommon in spinal cord injury patients and is usually caused by noxious stimuli that cannot be removed promptly, e.g., somatic pain, abdominal distension. A 61-year-old man, who sustained tetraplegia at C-5 (ASIA-A 38 years ago, was admitted with chest infection. Computerised tomography (CT of the chest showed the ascending aorta to measure 4 cm in anteroposterior diameter; descending thoracic aorta measured 3.5 cm. No dissection was seen. Normal appearances of abdominal aorta were seen. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation, antibiotics, and diuretics. Nineteen days later, when there was sudden deterioration in his clinical condition, CT of the pulmonary angiogram was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. This showed no pulmonary embolus, but the upper abdominal aorta showed some dissection with thrombosis of the false lumen. Blood pressure was controlled with perindopril 2 mg, once a day, doxazosin 4 mg, twice a day, and furosemide 20 mg, twice a day. Since this patient did not show clinical features of mesenteric or lower limb ischaemia, the vascular surgeon did not recommend subdiaphragmatic aortic replacement.

  8. Modeling Of Blood Vessel Constriction In 2-D Case Using Molecular Dynamics Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rendi, Mohamad; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Blood vessel constriction is simulated with particle-based method using a molecular dynamics authoring software known as Molecular Workbench (WM). Blood flow and vessel wall, the only components considered in constructing a blood vessel, are all represented in particle form with interaction potentials: Lennard-Jones potential, push-pull spring potential, and bending spring potential. Influence of medium or blood plasma is accommodated in plasma viscosity through Stokes drag force. It has been observed that pressure p is increased as constriction c is increased. Leakage of blood vessel starts at 80 % constriction, which shows existence of maximum pressure that can be overcome by vessel wall.

  9. Current-induced skyrmion dynamics in constricted geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic skyrmions--vortex-like swirling spin structures with a quantized topological number that are observed in chiral magnets--are appealing for potential applications in spintronics because it is possible to control their motion with ultralow current density. To realize skyrmion-based spintronic devices, it is essential to understand skyrmion motions in confined geometries. Here we show by micromagnetic simulations that the current-induced motion of skyrmions in the presence of geometrical boundaries is very different from that in an infinite plane. In a channel of finite width, transverse confinement results in steady-state characteristics of the skyrmion velocity as a function of current that are similar to those of domain walls in ferromagnets, whereas the transient behaviour depends on the initial distance of the skyrmion from the boundary. Furthermore, we show that a single skyrmion can be created by an electric current in a simple constricted geometry comprising a plate-shaped specimen of suitable size and geometry. These findings could guide the design of skyrmion-based devices in which skyrmions are used as information carriers. PMID:24013132

  10. Snap-off in constricted capillary with elastic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, P.; Alvarado, V.; Carvalho, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Snap-off of bubbles and drops in constricted capillaries occurs in many different situations, from bio-fluid to multiphase flow in porous media. The breakup process has been extensively analyzed both by theory and experiments, but most work has been limited to pure interfaces, at which the surface stress is isotropic and fully defined by the interfacial tension and interface curvature. Complex interfaces may present viscous and elastic behavior leading to a complex stress state that may change the dynamics of the interface deformation and breakup. We extend the available asymptotic model based on lubrication approximation to include elastic interfacial stress. Drop breakup time is determined as a function of the capillary geometry and liquid properties, including the interfacial elastic modulus. Results show that the interfacial elasticity has a stabilizing effect by slowing down the growth of the liquid collar, leading to a larger break-up time. This stabilizing effect has been observed experimentally in different, but related flows [Alvarado et al., "Interfacial visco-elasticity of crude oil-brine: An alternative EOR mechanism in smart waterflooding," in SPE-169127 Improved Oil Recovery Symposium (Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014)].

  11. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-Fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-Ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolo...

  12. Metabonomic study of the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla as an effective treatment for chronic renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Hui; Tan, Yin-Feng; Cai, Hong-Die; Zhang, Jun-Qing

    2016-05-30

    Alpinia oxyphylla (Zingiberaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Its fruit ("Yi-Zhi-Ren" in Chinese) is used as an anti-diuretic and traditionally used for the treatment of enuresis and reduce urination. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a disease with the characteristic of the slowly loss of kidney function and has a prevalence of up to 7-10% in adults. Recent advances in its etiology and pathogenesis are providing more speculative hypotheses focused on integral systems. Using a UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS-based metabolomic platform, we explored the changes of metabolic profiling in plasma/urine simultaneously between chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced from adenine excess and the protective effects of A. oxyphylla extract (AOE). The total twenty-one metabolites (twelve in urine and nine in plasma), up-regulated or down-regulated, were identified and contributed to CKD progress. Among these biomarkers, agmatine, CAMP, 7-methylguanine, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, asparagines, kynurenic acid and p-cresol sulfate were restored back to the control-like level after the treatment of AOE (p<0.05 or 0.01), These findings may be promising to yield a valuable insight into the pathophysiology of CKD and serve as characteristics to explain the mechanisms of AOE. PMID:26966897

  13. A Systematic Review of Experimental Strategies Aimed at Improving Motor Function after Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Cortes, Mar; Guest, James; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-03-01

    While various approaches have been proposed in clinical trials aimed at improving motor function after spinal cord injury in humans, there is still limited information regarding the scope, methodological quality, and evidence associated with single-intervention and multi-intervention approaches. A systematic review performed using the PubMed search engine and the key words "spinal cord injury motor recovery" identified 1973 records, of which 39 were selected (18 from the search records and 21 from reference list inspection). Study phase ( clinicaltrials.org criteria) and methodological quality (Cochrane criteria) were assessed. Studies included proposed a broad range of single-intervention (encompassing cell therapies, pharmacology, electrical stimulation, rehabilitation) (encompassing cell therapies, pharmacology, electrical stimulation, rehabilitation) and multi-intervention approaches (that combined more than one strategy). The highest evidence level was for Phase III studies supporting the role of multi-intervention approaches that contained a rehabilitation component. Quality appraisal revealed that the percentage of selected studies classified with high risk of bias by Cochrane criteria was as follows: random sequence generation = 64%; allocation concealment = 77%; blinding of participants and personnel = 69%; blinding of outcome assessment = 64%; attrition = 44%; selective reporting = 44%. The current literature contains a high proportion of studies with a limited ability to measure efficacy in a valid manner because of low methodological strength in all items of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Recommendations to decrease bias are discussed and include increased methodological rigor in the study design and recruitment of study participants, and the use of electrophysiological and imaging measures that can assess functional integrity of the spinal cord (and may be sufficiently sensitive to detect changes that occur in response to

  14. Berberine ameliorates chronic kidney injury caused by atherosclerotic renovascular disease through the suppression of NFκB signaling pathway in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wan

    chronic renal injury in rats with ARD, and that BBR can act against proinflammatory and profibrotic responses through suppression of the NFκB signaling pathway.

  15. Utility of fractional anisotropy imaging analyzed by statistical parametric mapping for detecting minute brain lesions in chronic-stage patients who had mild or moderate traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently evolved as valuable technique to investigate diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This study examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) images analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (FA-SPM images) are superior to T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (T2*GRE) images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for detecting minute lesions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DTI was performed in 25 patients with cognitive impairments in the chronic stage after mild or moderate TBI. The FA maps obtained from the DTI were individually compared with those from age-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based analysis and FA-SPM images (p<0.001). Abnormal low-intensity areas on T2*GRE images (T2* lesions) were found in 10 patients (40.0%), abnormal high-intensity areas on FLAIR images in 4 patients (16.0%), and areas with significantly decreased FA on FA-SPM image in 16 patients (64.0%). Nine of 10 patients with T2* lesions had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM lesions topographically included most T2* lesions in the white matter and the deep brain structures, but did not include T2* lesions in the cortex/near-cortex or lesions containing substantial hemosiderin regardless of location. All 4 patients with abnormal areas on FLAIR images had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM imaging is useful for detecting minute lesions because of DAI in the white matter and the deep brain structures, which may not be visualized on T2*GRE or FLAIR images, and may allow the detection of minute brain lesions in patients with post-traumatic cognitive impairment. (author)

  16. Quantifying Compressibility and Slip in Multiparticle Collision (MPC Flow Through a Local Constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Akhter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a compressible fluid with slip through a cylinder with an asymmetric local constriction has been considered both numerically, as well as analytically. For the numerical work, a particle-based method whose dynamics is governed by the multiparticle collision (MPC rule has been used together with a generalized boundary condition that allows for slip at the wall. Since it is well known that an MPC system corresponds to an ideal gas and behaves like a compressible, viscous flow on average, an approximate analytical solution has been derived from the compressible Navier–Stokes equations of motion coupled to an ideal gas equation of state using the Karman–Pohlhausen method. The constriction is assumed to have a polynomial form, and the location of maximum constriction is varied throughout the constricted portion of the cylinder. Results for centerline densities and centerline velocities have been compared for various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, wall slip values and flow geometries.

  17. Vessel constriction correlated with local singlet oxygen generation during vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lisheng; Li, Yirong; Zhang, Jinde; Tan, Zou; Chen, Defu; Xie, Shusen; Gu, Ying; Li, Buhong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the vessel constriction was measured as a biological indicator of acute vascular response after vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT). During V-PDT treatment, the near-infrared (NIR) singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence at 1270 nm generated in blood vessels in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model in vivo was directly monitored using a custom built high-sensitive NIR imaging system. In order to compare the acute vascular response, various irradiances with the same light dose were utilized for treatments. The obtained results show that the complete arteriole constriction occurred frequently, while some of the larger veins were constricted partially. For the vessels that have significant constriction after V-PDT, our preliminary data suggest that the vasoconstriction in the selected ROIs are roughly correlated with the local cumulative 1O2 luminescence intensities. This study implies that the 1O2 luminescence dosimetry maybe also effective for evaluating V-PDT efficiency.

  18. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria With Calcific Constrictive Pericarditis: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ujjwal K; Patel, Kartik; Seth, Sandeep; Ray, Ruma; Jagia, Priya; Sahu, Manoj

    2015-10-01

    An 18-year-old boy with congenital erythropoietic porphyria and calcific constrictive pericarditis underwent total pericardiectomy. The cause of pericardial calcification could be deposition of porphyrins in the pericardium. Surgical importance of this rare condition is highlighted. PMID:26467880

  19. Re-examining Archie's law: Conductance description by tortuosity and constriction

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Carl Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the electrical conductance of an insulating porous medium (e.g., a sedimentary rock) filled with an electrolyte (e.g., brine), usually described using the Archie cementation exponent. We show how the electrical conductance depends on changes in the drift velocity and the length of the electric field lines, in addition to the porosity and the conductance of the electrolyte. We characterized the length of the electric field lines by a tortuosity and the changes in drift velocity by a constriction factor. Both the tortuosity and the constriction factor are descriptors of the pore microstructure. We define a conductance reduction factor to measure the local contributions of the pore microstructure to the global conductance. It is shown that the global conductance reduction factor is the product of the tortuosity squared divided by the constriction factor, thereby proving that the combined effect of tortuosity and constriction, in addition to the porosity and conductance of the elect...

  20. The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Fuqian; Prasad, Vish; Kao, Imin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1999-04-21

    The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a layer of material is analysed for the heat-flux specified boundary condition on the contact zone. Using Green's function, the solution of heat-conduction problems is reduced to a new type of hypersingular integral equations with a hyperbolic function kernel. The hypersingular integral equations are solved analytically, which provides closed-form solutions for the thermal constriction resistance. For a thin film and isoflux conditions over the contact zone, the thermal constriction resistance is proportional to the ratio of the film thickness to the contact width when the other side of the film is considered isothermal, whereas it is inversely proportional to this ratio for an adiabatic back. Such a large variation and reversal in trend reveals the possibility of using this method for the measurement of film thicknesses by measuring the thermal constriction resistance. (author)

  1. The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuqian; Prasad, Vish; Kao, Imin

    1999-04-01

    The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a layer of material is analysed for the heat-flux specified boundary condition on the contact zone. Using Green's function, the solution of heat-conduction problems is reduced to a new type of hypersingular integral equations with a hyperbolic function kernel. The hypersingular integral equations are solved analytically, which provides closed-form solutions for the thermal constriction resistance. For a thin film and isoflux conditions over the contact zone, the thermal constriction resistance is proportional to the ratio of the film thickness to the contact width when the other side of the film is considered isothermal, whereas it is inversely proportional to this ratio for an adiabatic back. Such a large variation and reversal in trend reveals the possibility of using this method for the measurement of film thicknesses by measuring the thermal constriction resistance.

  2. A short-term arm-crank exercise program improved testosterone deficiency in adults with chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To determine the influence of arm-crank exercise in reproductive hormone levels in adults with chronic SCI. Further objectives were to assess the influence of arm-crank exercise on muscle strength and body composition. Materials and Methods Seventeen male adults with complete SCI at or below the 5th thoracic level (T5 volunteered for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 9 or control group (n = 8 using a concealed method. The participants in the intervention group performed a 12-week arm-crank exercise program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of warming-up (10-15 min followed by a main part in arm-crank (20-30 min [increasing 2 min and 30 seconds each three weeks] at a moderate work intensity of 50-65% of heart rate reserve (HRR (starting at 50% and increasing 5% each three weeks and by a cooling-down period (5-10 min. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Muscle strength (handgrip and body composition (waist circumference [WC] were assessed. Results After the completion of the training program, testosterone level was significantly increased (p = 0.0166;d = 1.14. Furthermore, maximal handgrip and WC were significantly improved. Lastly, a significant inverse correlation was found between WC and testosterone (r =- 0.35; p = 0.0377. Conclusion The arm-crank exercise improved reproductive hormone profile by increasing testosterone levels in adults with chronic SCI. A secondary finding was that it also significantly improved muscle strength and body composition in this group.

  3. A shear-stress responsive nano-container to target critically constricted arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Holme, Margaret Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases are the world's biggest cause of mortality. During the acute case of heart attack, vasodilators are administered to open up the constricted artery and allow blood perfusion to the surrounding tissue. However, there are currently no treatments on the market that allow such drugs to be delivered locally to the site of a critically constricted artery. Such a targeted delivery method could significantly improve patient prognosis. The presente...

  4. One-year clinical study of NeuroRegen scaffold implantation following scar resection in complete chronic spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Tang, Fengwu; Tang, Jiaguang; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Yannan; Chen, Bing; Han, Sufang; Wang, Nuo; Li, Xing; Cheng, Shixiang; Han, Guang; Zhao, Changyu; Yang, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Yumei; Shi, Qin; Hou, Shuxun; Zhang, Sai; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to assess the safety and feasibility of the collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, one year after scar tissue resection and implantation. Scar tissue is a physical and chemical barrier that prevents neural regeneration. However, identification of scar tissue is still a major challenge. In this study, the nerve electrophysiology method was used to distinguish scar tissue from normal neural tissue, and then different lengths of scars ranging from 0.5-4.5 cm were surgically resected in five complete chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The NeuroRegen scaffold along with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs), which have been proven to promote neural regeneration and SCI recovery in animal models, were transplanted into the gap in the spinal cord following scar tissue resection. No obvious adverse effects related to scar resection or NeuroRegen scaffold transplantation were observed immediately after surgery or at the 12-month follow-up. In addition, patients showed partially autonomic nervous function improvement, and the recovery of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) from the lower limbs was also detected. The results indicate that scar resection and NeuroRegen scaffold transplantation could be a promising clinical approach to treating SCI. PMID:27333785

  5. Study on Effect of Baoyuan Qiangshen (保元强肾) Capsule No. Ⅱ on Tubular Interstitial Injury in Chronic Renal Failure Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of Baoyuan Qiangshen Capsule No. Ⅱ (BYQS) and its mechanism in treating chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods: Sixty CRF patients were divided into 2 groups randomly, the treated group used BYQS combined with Lotensin and the control group administered with essential amino acid combined with Lotensin. Changes of renal functions and tubular labelled proteins were observed. Results: The markedly effective rate and total effective rate of the treated group were 63.3% and 93.3% respectively, and those of the control group were 30.0% and 56.7% respectively, the effect of the treated group was obviously better than that of the control group (P<0.01). In the treated group after medication, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and clearance rate of creatinine were improved significantly (P<0.01), while Tamm-Horfau protein increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion: BYQS could alleviate tubular interstitial injury significantly so as to improve the renal function and enhance the effective rate in treating CRF.

  6. Lower blood glucose and variability are associated with earlier recovery from renal injury caused by episodic urinary tract infection in advanced type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fang Chiu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with glomerular filtration rates of 9 days, Group B groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively. The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02. Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05. Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038.Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI.

  7. Dasatinib Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in a Murine Transverse Aortic Constriction Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    Full Text Available Reactive cardiac fibrosis resulting from chronic pressure overload (PO compromises ventricular function and contributes to congestive heart failure. We explored whether nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs play a key role in fibrosis by activating cardiac fibroblasts (CFb, and could potentially serve as a target to reduce PO-induced cardiac fibrosis. Our studies were carried out in PO mouse myocardium induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, via an intraperitoneally implanted mini-osmotic pump at 0.44 mg/kg/day reduced PO-induced accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and improved left ventricular geometry and function. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment inhibited NTK activation (primarily Pyk2 and Fak and reduced the level of FSP1 positive cells in the PO myocardium. In vitro studies using cultured mouse CFb showed that dasatinib treatment at 50 nM reduced: (i extracellular accumulation of both collagen and fibronectin, (ii both basal and PDGF-stimulated activation of Pyk2, (iii nuclear accumulation of Ki67, SKP2 and histone-H2B and (iv PDGF-stimulated CFb proliferation and migration. However, dasatinib did not affect cardiomyocyte morphologies in either the ventricular tissue after in vivo administration or in isolated cells after in vitro treatment. Mass spectrometric quantification of dasatinib in cultured cells indicated that the uptake of dasatinib by CFb was greater that that taken up by cardiomyocytes. Dasatinib treatment primarily suppressed PDGF but not insulin-stimulated signaling (Erk versus Akt activation in both CFb and cardiomyocytes. These data indicate that dasatinib treatment at lower doses than that used in chemotherapy has the capacity to reduce hypertrophy-associated fibrosis and improve ventricular function.

  8. Mutations in hepatitis B virus core regions correlate with hepatocellular injury in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Su-Wen Wang; Shi-Oing Zhou; Bei-Hai Li; Hiroki Ueda; Hiroko Hamagami; Susumu Yukawa; Masakazu Ichinose; Motoshige Miyano; Keiji Mimura; Iwao Nishide; Bo-Xin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the relationship between the frequency of core mutations and the clinical activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease and to characterize the amino acid changes in the core region of HBV.METHODS: We studied 17 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B according to their clinical courses and patterns of the entire core region of HBV.RESULTS: Amino acid changes often appeared in the HBV core region of the HBV gene in patients with high values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or with the seroconversion from HbeAg to anti-HBe. The HBV core region with amino acid changes had high frequency sites that corresponded to HLA Ⅰ/Ⅱ restricted recognition epitopes reported by some investigators.CONCLUSION: The core amino acid changes of this study occur due to influence of host immune system. The presence of mutations in the HBV core region seems to be important for predicting the clinical activity of hepatitis B in Chinese patients.

  9. Association between the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and renal injury in chronic kidney disease of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Sawane; Yabuki, Akira; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    The association of renin and angiotensin II, which are potent components of the renin-angiotensin system, with the severity of chronic renal disease was investigated immunohistochemically in dogs and cats. Immunoreactivities of renin and angiotensin II were evaluated quantitatively, and their correlations with the degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were statistically analyzed. Immunoreactivities for renin were detected in afferent arteries in both dogs and cats. The score of renin-positive signals showed no correlation with plasma creatinine concentration or any of the histopathological parameters, except for the diameter of glomeruli in dogs. Immunoreactivities for angiotensin II were detected in tubules (primarily proximal tubules) and interstitial mononuclear cells in both dogs and cats. The score of tubular angiotensin II correlated with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats but not in dogs. The score of interstitial angiotensin II correlated with plasma creatinine concentration, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration and fibrosis in dogs and with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that intrarenal renin-angiotensin system is correlated with the severity of kidney disease, with the underlying mechanism differing between dogs and cats. PMID:22986274

  10. Diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of the cingulum: clinical utility and findings in traumatic brain injury with chronic sequels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurki, Timo [Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Turku (Finland); MRI Unit, Terveystalo Pulssi Medical Centre, Turku (Finland); Himanen, Leena; Vuorinen, Elina; Myllyniemi, Anna; Saarenketo, Anna-Riitta [NeuTera Neuropsychologist Centre, Turku (Finland); Kauko, Tommi [University of Turku, Department of Biostatistics, Turku (Finland); Brandstack, Nina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Turku (Finland); Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Tenovuo, Olli [Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Rehabilitation and Brain Trauma, Turku (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the clinical utility of quantitative diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and tractography-based core analysis (TBCA) of the cingulum by defining the reproducibility, normal values, and findings in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty patients with TBI and normal routine MRI and 78 controls underwent MRI at 3T. To determine reproducibility, 12 subjects were scanned twice. Superior (SC) and inferior (IC) cingulum were analyzed separately by DTT (fractional anisotropy (FA) thresholds 0.15 and 0.30). TBCA was performed from volumes defined by tractography with gradually changed FA thresholds. FA values were correlated with clinical and neuropsychological data. The lowest coefficient of variation was obtained at DTT threshold 0.30 (2.0 and 2.4 % for SC and IC, respectively), but in proportion to standard deviations of normal controls, the reproducibility of TBCA was better in SC and similar to that of DTT in IC. In patients with TBI, volume reduction with loss of peripheral fibers was relatively common; mean FA was mostly normal in these tractograms. The frequency of FA reductions (>2 SD) was in DTT smaller than in TBCA, in which FA decrease was present in 42 (13.1 %) of the 320 measurements. Central FA values in SC predicted visuoperceptual ability, and those in left IC predicted cognitive speed, language, and communication ability (p < 0.05). Tractography-based measurements have sufficient reproducibility for demonstration of severe abnormalities of the cingulum. TBCA is preferential for clinical FA analysis, because it measures corresponding areas in patients and controls without inaccuracies due to trauma-induced structural changes. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of the cingulum: clinical utility and findings in traumatic brain injury with chronic sequels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical utility of quantitative diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and tractography-based core analysis (TBCA) of the cingulum by defining the reproducibility, normal values, and findings in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eighty patients with TBI and normal routine MRI and 78 controls underwent MRI at 3T. To determine reproducibility, 12 subjects were scanned twice. Superior (SC) and inferior (IC) cingulum were analyzed separately by DTT (fractional anisotropy (FA) thresholds 0.15 and 0.30). TBCA was performed from volumes defined by tractography with gradually changed FA thresholds. FA values were correlated with clinical and neuropsychological data. The lowest coefficient of variation was obtained at DTT threshold 0.30 (2.0 and 2.4 % for SC and IC, respectively), but in proportion to standard deviations of normal controls, the reproducibility of TBCA was better in SC and similar to that of DTT in IC. In patients with TBI, volume reduction with loss of peripheral fibers was relatively common; mean FA was mostly normal in these tractograms. The frequency of FA reductions (>2 SD) was in DTT smaller than in TBCA, in which FA decrease was present in 42 (13.1 %) of the 320 measurements. Central FA values in SC predicted visuoperceptual ability, and those in left IC predicted cognitive speed, language, and communication ability (p < 0.05). Tractography-based measurements have sufficient reproducibility for demonstration of severe abnormalities of the cingulum. TBCA is preferential for clinical FA analysis, because it measures corresponding areas in patients and controls without inaccuracies due to trauma-induced structural changes. (orig.)

  12. The role of mast cells in citric acid-induced airway constriction and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yih-Loong; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Tai-Yin; Lin, Chien-He

    2009-11-30

    Inhalation of citric acid (CA) causes airway constriction and coughing. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced airway constriction and cough, three experiments using guinea pigs were carried out. In the first experiment, we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit synthesis of leukotrienes, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into 2 parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C4, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine. Decreases in respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 sec (FEV0.1) were used as indicators for airway constriction in anesthetized guinea pigs. CA-induced cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph in conscious animals. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining lung tissue or arterial plasma histamine concentration in animals. Exposure to CA induced marked airway constriction and increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced airway constriction and cough. Injection of LTC4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced airway constriction and cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in lung tissue and plasma histamine concentrations, which were blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced airway constriction and cough via perhaps mediators including LTs and histamine. PMID:20359123

  13. Pathways to injury in chronic pancreatitis: decoding the role of the high-risk SPINK1 N34S haplotype using meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Aoun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complex interactions between recurrent trypsin-mediated pancreatic injury, alcohol-associated pancreatic injury and SPINK1 polymorphisms in chronic pancreatitis (CP are undefined. We hypothesize that CP occurs as a result of multiple pathological mechanisms (pathways that are initiated by different metabolic or environmental factors (etiologies and may be influenced differentially by downstream genetic risk factors. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the differences in effect size of the high risk SPINK1 N34S haplotype on CP from multiple etiologies after combining clinical reports of SPINK1 N34S frequency using meta-analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Pubmed and the Embase databases were reviewed. We studied 24 reports of SPINK1 N34S in CP (2,421 cases, 4,857 controls using reported etiological factors as surrogates for pathways and multiple meta-analyses to determine the differential effects of SPINK1 N34S between alcoholic and non-alcoholic etiologies. Using estimates of between-study heterogeneity, we sub-classified our 24 studies into four specific clusters. We found that SPINK1 N34S is strongly associated with CP overall (OR 11.00; 95% CI: 7.59-15.93, but the effect of SPINK1 N34S in alcoholic CP (OR 4.98, 95% CI: 3.16-7.85 was significantly smaller than in idiopathic CP (OR 14.97, 95% C.I. = 9.09-24.67 or tropical CP (OR 19.15, 95% C.I. = 8.83-41.56. Studies analyzing familial CP showed very high heterogeneity suggestive of a complex etiology with an I(2 = 80.95%. CONCLUSION: The small effect of SPINK1 N34S in alcoholic subjects suggests that CP is driven through a different pathway that is largely trypsin-independent. The results also suggest that large effect sizes of SPINK1 N34S in small candidate gene studies in CP may be related to a mixture of multiple etiologic pathways leading to the same clinical endpoint.

  14. Autonomic fiber sprouting in the skin in chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Geraldine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a major symptom associated with chronic inflammation. In previous work from our laboratory, we have shown that in animal models of neuropathic pain there is a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis, a territory normally devoid of them. However, it is not known whether such sympathetic spouting, which is likely trophic factor mediated, also occurs in chronic inflammation and arthritis. In the present study, we used a rat model of chronic inflammation in which a small single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA was injected subcutaneously, unilaterally, into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. This led to a localized long-term skin inflammation and arthritis in all joints of the hindpaw. Animals were perfused with histological fixatives at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the injection. Experimental animals treated with CFA were compared to saline-injected animals. We then investigated the changes in the pattern of peripheral innervation of the peptidergic nociceptors and sympathetic fibers in rat glabrous hindpaw skin. Antibodies directed towards calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH were used for the staining of peptidergic and sympathetic fibers, respectively. Immunofluorescence was then used to analyze the different nerve fiber populations of the upper dermis. At 4 weeks following CFA treatment, DBH-immunoreactive (IR fibers were found to sprout into the upper dermis, in a pattern similar to the one we had observed in animals with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in a previous publication. There was also a significant increase in the density of CGRP-IR fibers in the upper dermis in CFA treated animals at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-injection. The increased peptidergic fiber innervation and the ectopic autonomic fibers found in the upper dermis may have a role in the pain-related behavior displayed by these animals.

  15. Sub-cellular modeling of platelet transport in blood flow through microchannels with constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-05-11

    Platelet transport through arterial constrictions is one of the controlling processes influencing their adhesive functions and the formation of thrombi. We perform high-fidelity mesoscopic simulations of blood flow in microchannels with constriction, resembling arterial stenoses. The wall shear rates inside the constrictions reach levels as high as ≈8000 s(-1), similar to those encountered in moderate atherosclerotic plaques. Both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution using the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. We perform a systematic study on the red blood cell and platelet transport by considering different levels of constriction, blood hematocrit and flow rates. We find that higher levels of constriction and wall shear rates lead to significantly enhanced margination of platelets, which may explain the experimental observations of enhanced post-stenosis platelet aggregation. We also observe similar margination effects for stiff particles of spherical shapes such as leukocytes. To our knowledge, such numerical simulations of dense blood through complex geometries have not been performed before, and our quantitative findings could shed new light on the associated physiological processes such as ATP release, plasma skimming, and thrombus formation. PMID:27087267

  16. Myosin concentration underlies cell size–dependent scalability of actomyosin ring constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Graham D.; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Chen, Yinxiao; Jedd, Gregory; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, cytokinesis is accomplished by an actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos larger cells divide at a faster rate than smaller cells, it remains unknown whether a similar mode of scalability operates in other cells. We investigated cytokinesis in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, which exhibits a wide range of hyphal circumferences. We found that N. crassa cells divide using an actomyosin ring and larger rings constricted faster than smaller rings. However, unlike in C. elegans, the total amount of myosin remained constant throughout constriction, and there was a size-dependent increase in the starting concentration of myosin in the ring. We predict that the increased number of ring-associated myosin motors in larger rings leads to the increased constriction rate. Accordingly, reduction or inhibition of ring-associated myosin slows down the rate of constriction. Because the mechanical characteristics of contractile rings are conserved, we predict that these findings will be relevant to actomyosin ring constriction in other cell types. PMID:22123864

  17. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Austin

    Full Text Available Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular

  18. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Paul J; Bembrick, Alison L; Denyer, Gareth S; Keay, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular structure

  19. Study on Chronic Lower Limb Joint Injury of "Judose" Exercise%对脚斗士运动员下肢关节慢性损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on The Chronic lower limb joint Injury of "judose" Exercise for long-term sports training and competition crowd.Methods: With 90 different professional students who training the "judose" Exercise in 4 years as the research object,The research approach includes the questionnaire survey,The interview method,X-ray photography,CT examination,Magnatic Resonance Imaging,etc.Research: The Chronic lower limb joint Injury and Compared with the contrast group.Result: The Chronic lower limb joint Injury exist observable differences with the contrast group.the incidence of Chronic injury: 5.6% in sacroiliac joint,3.3% in hip joint,27.8% in knee-joint,34.4% in ankle joint,16.7% in foot joint.Which Were higher than those in the control group.Conclusion there were chronic injury risk in competition and training.The cause of these Chronic Athletic Injury include the training time too long,the Training ground is not standard,the Training methods is not reasonable,The understanding of the sports injury is not enough,We need to further strengthen management and improve training method.%目的:研究长期进行脚斗士运动训练和比赛的人群下肢关节慢性运动损伤的情况。方法:以90名参加脚斗士运动训练四年以上不同专业学生为研究对象,通过问卷调查、访谈、X线、CT、核磁共振检查等方法对训练者下肢关节的慢性损伤情况进行调查并与未参加该项运动的学生对照组对比。结果:长时间从事脚斗士运动下肢关节的损伤情况与对照组存在差异,慢性损伤的发生率为:骶髂关节5.6%、髋关节3.3%、膝关节27.8%、踝关节34.4%、足关节16.7%,均高于对照组。结论:角斗士比赛及训练过程中存在慢性损伤的风险。训练时间过长、训练场地不规范、训练方式不合理、对运动损伤的认识不够是造成这些慢性损伤的主要原因,需要进一步加强管理及改进训练方法。

  20. Oil-in-water emulsions flow through constricted micro-capillarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Oswaldo Robles; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the oil concentration and the drop size distribution on the characteristics of the flow of an emulsion through a constricted capillary was experimentally analyzed and quantified by the ratio of the pressure drop of the continuous phase flow to the pressure drop of the emulsion flow, at the same flow rate. The results confirm that the ratio between the capillary constriction diameter and the oil drop size is one of the most important parameters for this flow. For large oil drop size emulsions, the deformation of the drop as it flows through the constriction leads to a high extra pressure drop at low capillary numbers. For small oil drop size emulsions, the extra pressure drop is a function of the viscosity ratio and the disperse phase concentration. (author)

  1. Analysis of the trajectory of a sphere moving through a geometric constriction

    CERN Document Server

    Risbud, Sumedh R; Frechette, Joelle; Drazer, German

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the effect of inertia on suspended particles moving through a geometric constriction to understand the behavior of particles in analogous microfluidic settings, such as pinched flow fractionation devices. The particles are driven by a constant force in a quiescent fluid, and the constriction (the pinching gap) corresponds to the space between a plane wall and a second, fixed sphere of the same size (the obstacle). The results show that, due to the effect of inertia and geometric constriction (individual or combined) the particles attain smaller surface-to-surface separations from the obstacle. We then relate the minimum surface-to-surface separation to the effect that the short-range repulsive non-hydrodynamic interactions (such as solid-solid contact due to surface roughness, electrostatic double layer repulsion, etc.) would have on the particle trajectories. In particular, using a simple hard-core repulsive potential model for such interactions, we infer that the particles wo...

  2. A constricted quantum Hall system as a beam-splitter: understanding ballistic transport on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained from a Landauer- Buttiker analysis as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν1) and constriction(ν2) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. These findings provide satisfactory explanations for several puzzling recent experimental results. These results are confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with some of the recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν1 = 1/3, 1. (author)

  3. Domain-wall dynamics at micropatterned constrictions in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As epilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Honolka, J.; Masmanidis, S.; Tang, H. X.; Roukes, M.L.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of sub-µm geometric constrictions on 90° magnetic domain-wall nucleation and propagation in stripes of ferromagnetic (Ga0.95,Mn0.05)As was explored. Measurements of the magnetic switching behavior were performed during ramping of an external magnetic field at constant rate and at constant field in the time domain. Demagnetizing fields are found to play a crucial role in the switching behavior around the region of the constriction. Depending on the sample's initial magnetization ...

  4. Simulation Research of Magnetic Constriction Effect and Controlling by Axial Magnetic Field of Vacuum Arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立军; 贾申利; 史宗谦; 荣命哲

    2005-01-01

    Based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of vacuum arc, the computer simulation of vacuum arc was carried out in this paper. In the MHD model, mass conservation equation,momentum conservation equations, energy conservation equations, generalized ohm's law and Maxwell equation were considered. MHD equations were calculated by numerical method, and the distribution of vacuum arc plasma parameters and current density were obtained. Simulation results showed that the magnetic constriction effect of vacuum arc is primarily caused by the Hall effect. In addition, the inhibition of axial magnetic field (AMF) on constriction of vacuum arc was calculated and analyzed.

  5. Micro-explosion of hot points in a X pinch constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of X-pinch in a diode of a powerful nanosecond current generator is studied both experimentally and theoretically. By means of X-ray probing with subnanosecond (temporary) and micron resolution one observed formation of a constriction prior to X-ray radiation flash with its subsequent rupture and decomposition. The radiation MHD-model enabled to describe the basic characteristics of the process including formation of mini- diode, formation of narrow neck, micro-explosion of the hot point formation of shock waves with subsequent rupture of constriction

  6. A multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural programme for coping with chronic neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: the protocol of the CONECSI trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra Catja A; Pfennings Lilian EMA; Luthart Peter; Post Marcel WM; Heutink Matagne; Lindeman Eline

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Most people with a spinal cord injury rate neuropathic pain as one of the most difficult problems to manage and there are no medical treatments that provide satisfactory pain relief in most people. Furthermore, psychosocial factors have been considered in the maintenance and aggravation of neuropathic spinal cord injury pain. Psychological interventions to support people with spinal cord injury to deal with neuropathic pain, however, are sparse. The primary aim of the CONE...

  7. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program. PMID:27382662

  8. AAV-mediated knock-down of HRC exacerbates transverse aorta constriction-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Sik Park

    Full Text Available Histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC is located in the lumen of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR that binds to both triadin (TRN and SERCA affecting Ca(2+ cycling in the SR. Chronic overexpression of HRC that may disrupt intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis is implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Ablation of HRC showed relatively normal phenotypes under basal condition, but exhibited a significantly increased susceptibility to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we characterized the functions of HRC related to Ca(2+ cycling and pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy using the in vitro siRNA- and the in vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated HRC knock-down (KD systems, respectively.AAV-mediated HRC-KD system was used with or without C57BL/6 mouse model of transverse aortic constriction-induced failing heart (TAC-FH to examine whether HRC-KD could enhance cardiac function in failing heart (FH. Initially we expected that HRC-KD could elicit cardiac functional recovery in failing heart (FH, since predesigned siRNA-mediated HRC-KD enhanced Ca(2+ cycling and increased activities of RyR2 and SERCA2 without change in SR Ca(2+ load in neonatal rat ventricular cells (NRVCs and HL-1 cells. However, AAV9-mediated HRC-KD in TAC-FH was associated with decreased fractional shortening and increased cardiac fibrosis compared with control. We found that phospho-RyR2, phospho-CaMKII, phospho-p38 MAPK, and phospho-PLB were significantly upregulated by HRC-KD in TAC-FH. A significantly increased level of cleaved caspase-3, a cardiac cell death marker was also found, consistent with the result of TUNEL assay.Increased Ca(2+ leak and cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration due to a partial KD of HRC could enhance activity of CaMKII and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, causing the mitochondrial death pathway observed in TAC-FH. Our results present evidence that down-regulation of HRC could deteriorate cardiac function in TAC-FH through

  9. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  10. Neuroprotective Activity of Thioctic Acid in Central Nervous System Lesions Consequent to Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tomassoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+- and (−-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for treating disorders associated with increased oxidative stress. Sciatic nerve CCI was made in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs and in normotensive reference cohorts. Rats were untreated or treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with (+/−-, (+-, or (−-thioctic acid. Oxidative stress, astrogliosis, myelin sheets status, and neuronal injury in motor and sensory cerebrocortical areas were assessed. Increase of oxidative stress markers, astrogliosis, and neuronal damage accompanied by a decreased expression of neurofilament were observed in SHR. This phenomenon was more pronounced after CCI. Thioctic acid countered astrogliosis and neuronal damage, (+-thioctic acid being more active than (+/−- or (−-enantiomers. These findings suggest a neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid on CNS lesions consequent to CCI and that the compound may represent a therapeutic option for entrapment neuropathies.

  11. 慢性放射性肠损伤的外科治疗%Outcomes of chronic radiation intestinal injury treated with surgical interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼生; 李宁; 李元新; 任建安; 朱维铭; 赵允召; 王剑; 郑磊; 黎介寿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the surgical approaches and clinical outcomes of chronic radiation intestinal injury ( CRII ).Methods From January 1,2001 to December 31,2010,at Department of Surgery,Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command a consecutive series of 206 CRII patients undergoing surgical interventions was reviewed retrospectively.There were 64 males and 142 females with an age range of (50 ± 11 ) years old.The indications,surgical approaches,surgical complications and mortality were analyzed.Results 206 CRII patients received 229 surgical treatment,31 patients underwent two or more operations.The course of surgical interventions included intestinal obstruction ( n =142 ),intestinal fistula (n=56),proctitis (n =12),bleeding (n =6) and others (n =13).They underwent 229 laparotomies including intestinal resection and primary anastomosis (n =142),intestinal resection and enterostomy (n =57),exclusion of radiation-related gastrointestinal diseases ( n =14 ) and other procedures ( n =16).The occurrence rate of postoperative intestinal complications was 25.7% ( 53/206 ).Five patients ( 2.4% ) died within the postoperative 28 days.Conclusion Surgery is often required for patients with chronic radiationinduced intestinal obstruction,fistula,hemorrhage and perforation,etc.Resection and primary anastomosis with undamaged segments may be performed safely in selected patients.And a judicious use of stoma can reduce the rates of major surgical mortality and morbidity.%目的 探讨慢性放射性肠损伤( CRII)外科治疗的方法及临床效果.方法 回顾性总结2001年1月至2010年12月南京军区南京总医院外科连续治疗的206例CRII患者资料.其中男64例,女142例,年龄(50±11)岁.总结手术原因、手术方式、手术并发症及病死率.结果 206例CRII患者手术治疗229次,其中手术≥2次者31例.手术原因为肠梗阻142例次、肠瘘56例次、直肠炎12例次、出血6例次及其他手术13例次.229例次手术包括:

  12. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based training in chronic LBP. A pragmatic, randomised trial with a one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia Havn; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non......-injury model with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients. Methods: The study was a pragmatic, single...... the focus on the pain might facilitate more natural and less painful movements, and that it is beneficial to stay physically active. 2. Individual symptom-based physical training programme : directionalpreference exercises for those centralising their pain with repetitive movements; ‘stabilising...

  13. Constriction band syndrome occurring in the setting of in vitro fertilization and advanced maternal age

    OpenAIRE

    Rinker, Brian; Vasconez, Henry C.

    2006-01-01

    The debate as to the pathogenesis of constriction band syndrome began with Hippocrates and continues today. The exogenous theory attributes the condition to entanglement of the fetus in the amniotic remnants following premature rupture of the amnion, which is in contrast to the endogenous, or genetic, mechanism.

  14. Ameliorative role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists and are clinically used for treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate is reported as a cardioprotective agent in various models of cardiac dysfunction; however, limited literature is available regarding the role of gemfibrozil as a possible cardioprotective agent, especially in a non-obese model of cardiac remodelling. The present study investigated the role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction in rats and they survived for 4 weeks. The cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by measuring left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, left ventricular wall thickness, and protein and collagen content. The oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The haematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining was used to observe cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen deposition, respectively. Moreover, serum levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and glucose were also measured. Gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered since the first day of partial abdominal aortic constriction and continued for 4 weeks. The partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy are indicated by significant change in various parameters used in the present study that were ameliorated with gemfibrozil treatment in rats. No significant change in serum parameters was observed between various groups used in the present study. It is concluded that gemfibrozil ameliorates partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy and in rats. PMID:24905340

  15. Human umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic spinal cord injury Electrophysiological changes and long-term efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing Yao; Chuan He; Ying Zhao; Jirong Wang; Mei Tang; Jun Li; Ying Wu; Lijuan Ao; Xiang Hu

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation can promote functional restoration following acute spinal cord injury (injury time 6 months) were treated with human umbilical cord blood stem cells via intravenous and intrathecal injection. The follow-up period was 12 months after transplantation. Results found that autonomic nerve functions were restored and the latent period of somatosensory evoked potentials was reduced. There were no severe adverse reactions in patients following stem cell transplantation. These experimental findings suggest that the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells is a safe and effective treatment for patients with traumatic spinal cord injury.

  16. CASE REPORT - CHRONIC UTERINE INVERSION : A RARE COMPLICATION OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic uterine inversion is a complication of mismanaged labour. It is a life threatening complication and an obstetric emergency. Early diagnosis , prompt and aggressive management reduce the morbidity and mortality. Incomplete uterine inversion left unattended or unnoticed may lead to constriction ring formation and may require surgical intervention. We report a case of chronic uterine inversion whi ch was reduced by Haultain’s repair.

  17. CASE REPORT - CHRONIC UTERINE INVERSION : A RARE COMPLICATION OF LABOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Parinita; Nitin; Manisha; Sanjay Kumar; Gauri

    2015-01-01

    Chronic uterine inversion is a complication of mismanaged labour. It is a life threatening complication and an obstetric emergency. Early diagnosis , prompt and aggressive management reduce the morbidity and mortality. Incomplete uterine inversion left unattended or unnoticed may lead to constriction ring formation and may require surgical intervention. We report a case of chronic uterine inversion whi ch was reduced by Haultain’s repair.

  18. Chronic Stress Is Associated with Pain Precipitation and Elevation in DeltaFosb Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Tao, Xinrong; Huang, Si-Ting; Wu, Liang; Tang, Hui-Li; Song, Ying; Zhang, Gongliang; Zhang, Yong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    A number of acute or repeated stimuli can induce expression of DeltaFosB (ΔFosB), a transcription factor derived from the fosB gene (an osteosarcoma viral oncogene) via alternative splicing. ΔFosB protein is currently viewed as a ‘molecular switch’ to repeated stimuli that gradually converts acute responses into relatively stable adaptations underlying long-term neural and behavioral plasticity. ΔFosB has received extensive attention in drug addition, depression, and stress adaptation, but changes in ΔFosB protein expression during pain is not fully understood. In this study we explored ΔFosB expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats experiencing chronic or acute stress-induced pain. Our data reveal that chronic pain induced by neonatal colorectal distension, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, or maternal separation was associated with an increase in ΔfosB protein expression in mPFC, but acute application of acetic acid or zymosan did not alter the ΔFosB protein expression. ΔFosB expression in the rat visual cortex, a non pain-related brain region, did not change in response to (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and acetic acid treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that ΔFosB protein expression is significantly elevated in rats that have experienced chronic pain and stress, but not acute pain. The ΔFosB protein may serve as an important transcription factor for chronic stress-induced pain. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of both the upstream signaling leading to ΔFosB protein expression as well as the regulation of ΔFosB gene expression in cortical neurons. PMID:27303299

  19. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen muscles Achilles tendon injuries Pain along the shin bone Rotator cuff injuries Fractures Dislocations If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing ...

  20. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro; Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  1. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  2. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  3. Interplay of induced charge electroosmosis, electrothermal flow, and dielectrophoresis at insulating constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Naga Neehar; Wang, Qianru; Buie, Cullen

    2014-11-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study on the combined influence of induced charge electroosmotic flow (ICEO) and electrothermal flow on particle motion in an insulator based dielectrophoretic (iDEP) device. Strong electric fields used for particle trapping induce charges on the channel wall of low, but finite permittivity, and also induce strong temperature gradients because of Joule heating. Consequently, the background fluid flow near the constriction is a superposition of these two effects. Our analysis presents a hitherto unexplored interplay between these two effects and how they influence particles which also experience dielectrophoresis. From our analysis, we find that for channels of low surface permittivity and conductivity, electrothermal effects are stronger near the constriction compared to ICEO effects, while the opposite is true when the surface permittivity or conductivity (or both) are comparable to that of bulk fluid. The analysis also includes the pH and electrolyte concentration dependent contributions of the dynamic Stern layer on ICEO flow.

  4. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  5. Stock Market Index Prediction via Hybrid Inertia Factor PSO and Constriction Coefficient PSO

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Ashhar; Amin Rostami Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Conventional statistical techniques for forecasting are constrained by the underlying seasonality, non-stationary and other factors. Increasingly over the past decade, Artificial intelligence (AI) methods including Artificial Neural network (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) etc. have been used successfully to perform predictions in financial markets and other areas. This study presents a hybrid inertia factor and constriction coefficient PSO-based methodolog...

  6. Exercise training reverses aging-induced impairment of myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Payal; Mora Solis, Fredy R.; Dominguez, James M.; Spier, Scott A.; Donato, Anthony J.; Delp, Michael D.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether exercise training can reverse age-related impairment of myogenic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle arterioles, young (4 mo) and old (22 mo) male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either sedentary or exercise-trained groups. The roles of the endothelium and Kv1 channels in age- and exercise training-induced adaptations of myogenic responses were assessed through evaluation of pressure-induced constriction in endothelium-intact and denuded soleus muscle arterio...

  7. Thyroid bud morphogenesis requires CDC42- and SHROOM3-dependent apical constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, David A. F.; Plageman, Timothy F.; Tang, Theresa L.; Jones, Vanessa J.; Muccioli, Maria; Tam, Patrick P. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early development of the gut endoderm and its subsequent remodeling for the formation of organ buds are accompanied by changes to epithelial cell shape and polarity. Members of the Rho-related family of small GTPases and their interacting proteins play multiple roles in regulating epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we examined the role of Cdc42 in foregut development and organ bud formation. Ablation of Cdc42 in post-gastrulation mouse embryos resulted in a loss of apical-basal cell polarity and columnar epithelial morphology in the ventral pharyngeal endoderm, in conjunction with a loss of apical localization of the known CDC42 effector protein PARD6B. Cell viability but not proliferation in the foregut endoderm was impaired. Outgrowth of the liver, lung and thyroid buds was severely curtailed in Cdc42-deficient embryos. In particular, the thyroid bud epithelium did not display the apical constriction that normally occurs concurrently with the outgrowth of the bud into the underlying mesenchyme. SHROOM3, a protein that interacts with Rho GTPases and promotes apical constriction, was strongly expressed in the thyroid bud and its sub-cellular localization was disrupted in Cdc42-deficient embryos. In Shroom3 gene trap mutant embryos, the thyroid bud epithelium showed no apical constriction, while the bud continued to grow and protruded into the foregut lumen. Our findings indicate that Cdc42 is required for epithelial polarity and organization in the endoderm and for apical constriction in the thyroid bud. It is possible that the function of CDC42 is partly mediated by SHROOM3. PMID:26772200

  8. Myosin concentration underlies cell size–dependent scalability of actomyosin ring constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Meredith E.K.; Wright, Graham D.; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Chen, Yinxiao; Jedd, Gregory; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes, cytokinesis is accomplished by an actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos larger cells divide at a faster rate than smaller cells, it remains unknown whether a similar mode of scalability operates in other cells. We investigated cytokinesis in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, which exhibits a wide range of hyphal circumferences. We found that N. crassa cells divide using an actomyosin ring and larger rings constricted faster than s...

  9. Visual field constriction as a cause of blindness or visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Murdoch, I. E.; Jones, B R; Cousens, S; Liman, I; O. E. Babalola; Dauda, J.; Abiose, A

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of onchocerciasis in communities mesoendemic for savanna onchocerciasis in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria. The study involved 6831 individuals aged > or = 5 years who underwent an extensive screening examination for visual function including Friedmann field analysis. A total of 185 (2.7%) were bilaterally blind by acuity and an additional 28 (0.4%) were blind by visual field constriction. Also 118 (1.7%) individuals were visually impaired by acuity criteria...

  10. Intrauterine ductus arteriosus constriction: analysis of a historic cohort of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchese Stelamaris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the relative incidence, presentation, and evolvement of fetuses with early ductus constriction. METHODS: Twenty fetal echocardiograms indicating ductus constriction were reviewed in a population of 7000 pregnants. RESULTS: The cases were divided into group A (related to maternal use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors [n=7] and group B (idiopathics [n=13]. Mean gestational age was 32.5±3.1 (27-38 weeks and maternal age was 28.2±8.5 (17-42 years. Mean systolic velocity in the ductus was 2.22±0.34 (1.66-2.81 m/s, diastolic velocity 0.79±0.28 (0.45-1.5 m/s, and pulsatility index 1.33±0.36 (0.52-1.83. Two cases of ductal occlusion were noted. In 65% of the cases, an increase occurred in the right cavities; in 90% of the cases, tricuspid or pulmonary regurgitation, or both, occurred, with functional pulmonary atresia in 1 case. Diastolic velocity was greater in group A (1.13±0.33 than in group B (0.68±0.15 (P=0.008. The other data were similar in the 2 groups. The evolvement was not favorable in 4 patients from group B, including 1 death and 2 cases of persistent pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of idiopathic constriction of the ductus arteriosus suggests that its diagnosis is underestimated and that many cases of persistence of fetal circulation in newborns may be related to constriction of the ductus arteriosus not diagnosed during intrauterine life. Group B had a lower severity but a risk of an unfavorable evolvement, suggesting a distinct alteration.

  11. Detection of posture-induced constriction of the cervical cerebrospinal fluid space by scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintiscanning of the cervical cerebrospinal fluid space at maximum ante- and retroflexion in 24 patients revealed the method to be recommended for use in the case of cervical myelopathy when the polymorphous early symptoms appear and before myelography as well as for follow-up examination. The detection of posture-induced constriction of the lumen provides additional information and increases the sensitivity considerably because, particularly during retroflexion, minor inflammatory reactions lead to scintigraphically detectable reduction in the liquor space. (author)

  12. Cough sensitivity and extrathoracic airway responsiveness to inhaled capsaicin in chronic cough patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, You Sook; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced cough response has been frequently observed in chronic cough. Recently, extrathoracic airway constriction to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in some chronic cough patients. However, relation between extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness (EAHR) and cough sensitivity determined by capsaicin inhalation is unclear in each etiological entity of chronic cough. Seventy-seven patients, with dry cough persisting for 3 or more weeks, normal spirometry and chest radiography, and 15 contro...

  13. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  14. Transport in constricted quantum Hall systems: beyond the Kane-Fisher paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model of edge transport in a constricted quantum Hall system with a lowered local fi lling factor is studied. The current backscattered from the constriction is explained from a matching of the properties of the edge-current excitations in the constriction (ν2) and bulk (ν1) regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model, stressing the importance of boundary conditions in elucidating the nature of current transport. By invoking a generalised quasiparticle-quasihole symmetry of the quantum Hall circuit system, we fi nd that a competition between two tunneling process determines the fate of the low-bias transmission conductance. A novel generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model is found, describing transitions from a weak-coupling theory at partial transmission to strong- coupling theories for perfect transmission and reflection as well as a new symmetry dictated fixed point. These results provide satisfactory explanations for recent experimental results at fi lling-factors of 1/3 and 1. (author)

  15. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  16. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space,divide Caulobacter inner and outer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Ellen M.; Comolli, Luis R.; Chen, Joseph C.; Downing,Kenneth H.; Moerner, W.E.; McAdams, Harley H.

    2005-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner, and then the outer, membrane in a manner distinctly different from septum-forming bacteria. The smallest observed pre-fission constrictions were 60 nm for both the inner and outer membrane. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization, when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments, occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135 min cell cycle. Here, we used FLIP experiments with membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins to show that (1) periplasmic compartmentalization occurs after cytoplasmic compartmentalization, consistent with the cryoEM observations, and (2) inner membrane and periplasmic proteins can diffuse past the FtsZ constriction site, indicating that the cell division machinery does not block membrane diffusion.

  17. Enhancement in ion beam current with layered-glows in a constricted dc plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High current mode has been discovered and investigated in a constricted dc plasma ion source. As discharge currents exceed a certain threshold, voltage to sustain the constricted dc plasma suddenly falls down to almost half of the value. In this sense, constricted dc plasmas can be sustained at much higher current than in conventional mode operation at a fixed discharge voltage. Phenomenally, several discrete layered-glows are created between an anode glow and a cathode glow. The layers are thin and divided by dark spaces where charged particles can be accelerated. In this high current mode, ion beam current density is about 100 times higher than in conventional mode at the same voltage. It is noteworthy that lower gas pressure is desirable to sustain the layered-glow mode, which is also profitable for ion source in terms of differential pumping. Ion current density exceeds 300 mA/cm2 at low discharge power of 175 W where ion density of plasma ball is estimated to be over 3.7x1012 cm-3.

  18. Bilateral elevation of interleukin-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following unilateral chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubový, P.; Brázda, Václav; Klusáková, I.; Hradilová-Svíženská, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 55 (2013). E-ISSN 1742-2094 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Unilateral nerve injury * Contralateral reaction * Remote ganglia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.902, year: 2013

  19. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad;

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantitie...

  20. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  1. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  2. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  3. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  4. 红外/红光治疗仪缓解慢性软组织损伤症状的临床试验%Clinical trial of infrared/red light therapy instrument on relieving chronic soft tissue injury symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪天庆; 胡思源; 孙庆

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the efficacy and safety of MPET 800 infrared/ red light therapy instrument in relieving chronic soft tissue injury symptom. [Methods] Sixty-six patients were divided into two groups randomly and CQ-61 infrared light therapy instrument was used as control group. The curative effect was evaluated after the physical therapy for 14 days. [Results] Concerning the curative effect of synthetic and local soreness,the effective power of test group was better than that of control group. While regarding tenderness,the curative effect of local swelling and dysfunction,the effective power between two groups had no difference. [Conclusion] The tested instrument can relieve the chronic soft tissue injury symptoms such as local pain,tenderness,dysfunction and local swelling.%[目的]评价迈能MPET800红外/红光治疗仪,缓解慢性软组织损伤引起疼痛等症状的有效性及安全性.[方法]将66名患者随机分为两组,对照组使用CQ-61型红外线治疗器,理疗14d后评价临床疗效.[结果]试验组综合疗效及局部疼痛疗效有效率优于对照组,压痛、局部肿胀及功能障碍疗效有效率与对照组无差异.[结论]本仪器可缓解慢性软组织损伤引起的局部疼痛、压痛、功能障碍、局部肿胀症状.

  5. Skin injuries in interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced skin injuries to patients in interventional procedures have been reported since the early 1990's, but the number reported is far less than what might be occurring around the world. There is a gross lack of awareness resulting in patients suffering. A case of severe injury observed in multiple percutaneous coronary interventions for chronic total occlusion is reported in this paper. Further, the paper summarises the existing knowledge on radiation dosimetry in interventional procedures, factors involved in skin injury, guidance on detection, and avoidance and management of injury when it occurs. Information on a recently launched international anonymous reporting system of the International Atomic Energy Agency is also included. (authors)

  6. Lisfranc Injury in a West Point Cadet

    OpenAIRE

    Diebal, Angela R.; Westrick, Richard B.; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J. Parry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lisfranc joint injuries are fairly uncommon; however, few injuries hold such an elevated potential for devastating chronic secondary pain and disability. It is imperative when evaluating an injury to the ankle or foot to have a high clinical index of suspicion for Lisfranc injury, as physical examination findings are often subtle. Case Description: An 18-year-old military cadet reported to a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic with foot pain. Despite negative radiographic...

  7. Chronic Treatment with a Water-Soluble Extract from the Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Prevents Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Injury of Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been known to increase systemic oxidative stress by chronic hyperglycemia and visceral obesity and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury. On the basis of our previous study regarding a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (designed as MAK, which exerts antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, the present study was conducted to evaluate the preventive effects of MAK on apoptosis and necroptosis (a programmed necrosis induced by hypoxia/ischemia (H/I in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. H/I was induced by a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation with hypoxia (8% O2 for 20 min and subsequent reoxygenation. Pretreatment with MAK (1 g/kg, p.o. for a week significantly reduced H/I-induced neurological deficits and brain infarction volume assessed at 24 h of reoxygenation. Histochemical analysis showed that MAK significantly suppressed superoxide production, neuronal cell death, and vacuolation in the ischemic penumbra, which was accompanied by a decrease in the numbers of TUNEL- or cleaved caspase-3-positive cells. Furthermore, MAK decreased the expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 mRNA and protein, a key molecule for necroptosis. These results suggest that MAK confers resistance to apoptotic and necroptotic cell death and relieves H/I-induced cerebral ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic mice.

  8. Chronic Treatment with a Water-Soluble Extract from the Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Prevents Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Injury of Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Meiyan; Okazaki, Mari; Iwata, Naohiro; Asano, Satoshi; Kamiuchi, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Miyano, Yoshiyuki; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Hibino, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been known to increase systemic oxidative stress by chronic hyperglycemia and visceral obesity and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury. On the basis of our previous study regarding a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (designed as MAK), which exerts antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, the present study was conducted to evaluate the preventive effects of MAK on apoptosis and necroptosis (a programmed necrosis) induced by hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. H/I was induced by a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation with hypoxia (8% O2 for 20 min) and subsequent reoxygenation. Pretreatment with MAK (1 g/kg, p.o.) for a week significantly reduced H/I-induced neurological deficits and brain infarction volume assessed at 24 h of reoxygenation. Histochemical analysis showed that MAK significantly suppressed superoxide production, neuronal cell death, and vacuolation in the ischemic penumbra, which was accompanied by a decrease in the numbers of TUNEL- or cleaved caspase-3-positive cells. Furthermore, MAK decreased the expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 mRNA and protein, a key molecule for necroptosis. These results suggest that MAK confers resistance to apoptotic and necroptotic cell death and relieves H/I-induced cerebral ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:25945116

  9. Recent Studies of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Treatment of Acuteand Chronic Lung Injury%内皮祖细胞在急慢性肺损伤治疗中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建立

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells ( EPCs ) are a specficc subtype of hematopoietic stem cells that have the propensity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells.Resent studies showed circulating endothelial progenitor cells played an important role in lung wound healing.Besides restoring pulmonary endothelialfunction, preserving integrity of the alveolocapillary barrier and suppressing the lung inflammatory response,EPCs can reverse endothelial dysfunction,inhibited puhnonary vessel remodeling, reduced puhnonary arterial pressure in healing of lung injury.Great progresses in acute lung injury and chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension with EPCs transplanting have been achieved.%内皮祖细胞(EPCs)是一种特殊表型的造血干细胞,它可以分化为成熟内皮细胞.近年来研究表明,EPCs肺组织损伤修复过程中有着重要作用.除了具有保护肺泡毛细血管屏障完整,减轻炎性反应,减轻肺组织损伤的作用外,EPCs还具有替代紊乱的肺血管内皮,防止肺血管重构,降低肺动脉压力的能力.目前EPCs移植在治疗急性肺损伤、慢性肺动脉高压方面的研究也取得了一定进展.

  10. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  11. Achillodynia. Radiological imaging of acute and chronic overuse injuries of the Achilles tendon; Achillodynie. Radiologische Bildgebung bei akuten und chronischen Ueberlastungsschaeden der Achillessehne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syha, R.; Springer, F.; Grosse, U. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology; Ketelsen, D.; Kramer, U.; Horger, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Ipach, I. [University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Orthopaedic Surgery; Schick, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2013-11-15

    In the past decades the incidence of acute and chronic disorders of the Achilles tendon associated with sport-induced overuse has steadily increased. Besides acute complete or partial ruptures, achillodynia (Achilles tendon pain syndrome), which is often associated with tendon degeneration, represents the most challenging entity regarding clinical diagnostics and therapy. Therefore, the use of imaging techniques to differentiate tendon disorders and even characterize structure alterations is of growing interest. This review article discusses the potential of different imaging techniques with respect to the diagnosis of acute and chronic tendon disorders. In this context, the most commonly used imaging techniques are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), B-mode ultrasound, and color-coded Doppler ultrasound (US). These modalities allow the detection of acute tendon ruptures and advanced chronic tendon disorders. However, the main disadvantages are still the low capabilities in the detection of early-stage degeneration and difficulties in the assessment of treatment responses during follow-up examinations. Furthermore, differentiation between chronic partial ruptures and degeneration remains challenging. The automatic contour detection and texture analysis may allow a more objective and quantitative interpretation, which might be helpful in the monitoring of tendon diseases during follow-up examinations. Other techniques to quantify tendon-specific MR properties, e.g. based on ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences, also seem to have great potential with respect to the precise detection of degenerative tendon disorders and their differentiation at a very early stage. (orig.)

  12. Persistent At-Level Thermal Hyperalgesia and Tactile Allodynia Accompany Chronic Neuronal and Astrocyte Activation in Superficial Dorsal Horn following Mouse Cervical Contusion Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jaime L.; Hala, Tamara J; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can le...

  13. The Prevalence of Anemia of Chronic Disease in Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries and Pressure Ulcers and the Impact of Erythropoietin Supplementation on Wound Healing: A Descriptive Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vair, Audra; Keast, David; LeMesurier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is thought to impair the responsiveness of erythroid progenitor cells, but research has shown treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) can improve patient hemoglobin levels and, subsequently, overall patient health status and quality of life. A prospective pilot study was designed to estimate the prevalence of ACD in outpatients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pressure ulcers (PUs) and examine the impact of rhuEPO on PU healing in this population. The charts of 49 SCI patients with PUs were reviewed; of those, 17 had anemia (hemoglobin nutritional status and treatment response. No statistically significant changes were observed with treatment. Wound surface area and depth had mean decreases of 1.35 cm(2) and 0.58 cm, respectively, immediately post-treatment. Participants' elevated C-reactive protein levels (91.1-14.2 mg/L) decreased with rhuEPO treatment, but returned to baseline levels post-treatment (83.2-14.3 mg/L). Prealbumin levels were consistently low (range of 0.1-0.21 g/L). This research indicates rhuEPO treatment may improve some outcomes for ACD-SCI PU patients, but larger randomized controlled trials are required. The results of this study suggest the prevalence of ACD in the SCI outpatient population with PUs is at least 35%, and increased vigilance of patient nutrition is recommended. PMID:26061404

  14. Piezoelectric control of the static behaviour of flextensional actuators with constricted hinges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present the mathematical modelling and computational testing of the static operational performance and effectiveness of flextensional actuators comprised of two rectilinear or initially deflected beams placed equidistantly from a centrally located piezoceramic stack in the form of a rod. The beams are mounted by stiff links with an offset to a piezoelectric transformer. A monolithic hinge lever mechanism is applied by cutting constricted hinges at the links to generate and magnify the in-plane displacement created by the application of a voltage to the piezorod. Structures of such a type have been commonly used as passive or active actuators since the manufacturing of the mechanism’s prototypes in the form of Moonie or cymbal actuators. An analytical model of the actuator is developed on the basis of stationary values of the total potential energy principle with the use of the von Kármán non-linear strains theory. During the numerical computations, the deflection and internal axial force generated by both the externally distributed load and the the application of an electric field are determined by changing the actuator properties such as the distance between the beams and the rod, the amplitude of the beam’s initial displacement as well as the stiffness of the constricted hinges. Additionally, the application of structure prestressing is considered to avoid an undesired stretching of the piezo stack. It has been shown that for the flextensional actuator with a very high flexibility of constricted hinges, the generated transverse displacement is limited by the maximum electric field as the characteristic property for each piezoceramic material. A vast number of numerical results exhibit the mechanical responses of the transducer of different geometrical and physical properties to piezoelectric stimulation; this has potential applications in the design process of such actuators. (papers)

  15. Injuries to dancers: prevalence, treatment, and perceptions of causes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, A

    1989-01-01

    A survey of injuries to dancers was commissioned by the National Organisation of Dance and Mime. Questionnaires asking about chronic and recent injuries were sent to 188 dancers and completed by 141 dancers from seven professional ballet and modern dance companies in the United Kingdom (75% response rate). It was found that of the 141 dancers, 67 (47%) had experienced a chronic injury and 59 (42%) an injury in the previous six months that had affected their dancing. A high proportion of injur...

  16. What Is Chronic Pain?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manageable, but chronic pain is different. And because it is different, we need to think about it in very different ways. Ed Covington, M.D.: ... no apparent physical injury or illness to explain it. The physician and the patient are accustomed to ...

  17. Prenatal constriction of the ductus arteriosus following maternal diclofenac medication in the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Karoline; Brantberg, Anne; Nyrnes, Siri Ann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 21-year-old primigravida at 36 weeks' gestation who was admitted to a local hospital because of abdominal pain. She was prescribed a total of six doses of diclofenac 50 mg over 2 days. One day later, there was difficulty registering the fetal heartbeats on cardiotocography. Ultrasound examination revealed a fetus with ascites and pathological flow over the tricuspid valve. The patient was referred to a tertiary centre for fetal medicine. Fetal echocardiography revealed, in addition to ascites and tricuspid regurgitation, a constricted ductus arteriosus, dilated right ventricle and reduced flow in the pulmonary artery. Immediate caesarean section resulted in an excellent neonatal outcome. PMID:26427495

  18. Transition from Spark Discharge to Constricted Glow Discharge in Atmospheric Air by Capacitor Coupled Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yutao; REN Chunsheng; XU Zhenfeng; MA Tengcai; QI Bing; WANG Dezhen; WANG Younian

    2007-01-01

    The transition from a spark discharge to a constricted glow discharge in atmospheric air was studied with a capacitor coupled pin-to-water plasma reactor. The reason of the transition is considered to be of various factors, namely the change of the air gap due to the polarization of water molecules by the electric field, the feedback effect of the capacitors, and the ion trapping mechanism. The effects of the frequency of the power supply, inter-electrode gap, and coupled capacitance on the discharge transition were also investigated.

  19. The intensification of gas–liquid flows with a periodic, constricted oscillatory-meso tube

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N.; P.C. Mena; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira; Rocha, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental study of gas dispersion in a vertical periodically, constricted, oscillatory meso-tube (OMT) is herein presented. Water was continuously pumped through the OMT in the laminar flow regime along with an oscillatory flow component superimposed into the net flow in a range of fluid oscillation frequency (f) and centre-to-peak amplitude (x0) of and 0–3 mm, respectively, in the presence of a very low superficial gas velocity . Bubble images were recorded with a CCD camera and anal...

  20. Constricted diamagnetic hysteresis loops observed for the high T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic hysteresis loops, ac susceptibility, and resistivity measurements have been made on a Ba2 YCu3 O/sub 7-//sub x/-type high- T/sub c/ superconductor. The shape of the hysteresis loops well below T/sub c/ are reminiscent of constricted hysteresis loops observed in certain ferromagnetic materials which are usually associated with magnetic aftereffects. Similar dynamic effects, with a time constant on the order of 10 s at 40 K, are shown to be present in the superconducting material. This dynamic magnetic viscosity effect is in addition to the flux creep observed for longer time periods

  1. Constricted diamagnetic hysteresis loops observed for the high T/sub c/ superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzmony, U.; Shull, R.D.; Chiang, C.K.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Bennett, L.H.; Watson, R.E.

    1988-04-15

    Magnetic hysteresis loops, ac susceptibility, and resistivity measurements have been made on a Ba/sub 2/ YCu/sub 3/ O/sub 7-//sub x/-type high- T/sub c/ superconductor. The shape of the hysteresis loops well below T/sub c/ are reminiscent of constricted hysteresis loops observed in certain ferromagnetic materials which are usually associated with magnetic aftereffects. Similar dynamic effects, with a time constant on the order of 10 s at 40 K, are shown to be present in the superconducting material. This dynamic magnetic viscosity effect is in addition to the flux creep observed for longer time periods.

  2. The prevalence and outcome of effusive constrictive pericarditis: a systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Commerford, Patrick J; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is sparse information on the epidemiology of effusive constrictive pericarditis (ECP). The objective of this article was to review and summarise the literature on the prevalence and outcome of ECP, and identify gaps for further research. The prevalence of ECP ranged from 2.4 to 14.8%, with a weighted average of 4.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2–7.5%]. Sixty-five per cent (95% CI: 43–82%) of patients required pericardiectomy regardless of the aetiology. The combined death r...

  3. Constrictive responses of aorta in irradiated rats: influence of hypoxia and anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amplification of constrictive responses of vessels after exposure of rats to a low dose gamma radiation (50 cGy at a dose rate of 2.8*10-7 Gy per sec) is defined mainly by decrease in relaxation influences of the endothelium. Vasoactive properties of endothelial cells are the deciding factor of changes of responses of aorta during the action of agonists of adrenergic receptors in conditions of hypoxia and anoxia. During insufficient oxygen supply, as opposed to conditions of oxygenation, post-radiation destabilization of endothelial mechanisms of adrenergic control of arterial vessels tone is observed. (authors)

  4. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L 4-5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  5. Prediction of posttraumatic stress in fathers of children with chronic diseases or unintentional injuries: a six-months follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Sennhauser Felix H; Vollrath Margarete E; Ribi Karin; Gnehm Hanspeter E; Landolt Markus A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background While fathers were neglected for a long time in research investigating families of pediatric patients, there are now a few studies available on fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about the course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of pediatric patients. The present study aimed to compare the prevalence and course of PTSS and PTSD in fathers of children with different chronic and acute conditions and to ...

  6. Loss of neuronal integrity: a cause of hypometabolism in patients with traumatic brain injury without MRI abnormality in the chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain dysfunction in many patients. However, some patients have severe brain dysfunction but display no abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There have been some reports of hypometabolism even in such patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic abnormality and loss of neuronal integrity in TBI patients with some symptoms but without MRI abnormalities. The study population comprised ten patients with TBI and ten normal volunteers. All of the patients were examined at least 1 year after the injury. 15O-labelled gas PET and [11C]flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET) were carried out. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and binding potential (BP) images of FMZ were calculated. Axial T2WI, T2*WI and FLAIR images were obtained. Coronal images were added in some cases. All of the patients had normal MRI findings, and all showed areas with abnormally low CMRO2. Low uptake on BP images was observed in six patients (60%). No lesions that showed low uptake on BP images were without low CMRO2. On the other hand, there were 14 lesions with low CMRO2 but without BP abnormalities. These results indicate that there are metabolic abnormalities in TBI patients with some symptoms after brain injury but without abnormalities on MRI. Some of the hypometabolic lesions showed low BP, indicating a loss of neuronal integrity. Thus, FMZ PET may have potential to distinguish hypometabolism caused by neuronal loss from that caused by other factors. (orig.)

  7. Year 2008 whitewater injury survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILIOS DIAFAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to gather retrospective data on paddling style, equipment, and acute and chronic/overuseinjuries in hard shell whitewater canoe and kayak paddlers, to compare injury rates and patterns in different groups of paddlers, and to evaluate the incidence in paddlers of self-reported giardia infection. During summer and fall of 2008, a surveywasdistributed at riverside, through paddle club bulletins, andwas posted on the Internet. Three hundred nineteen useablesurveys were returned reporting 388 acute and 285 chronic in-juries. Shoulder, wrist/hand, and elbow/forearm were the mostcommon sites of injury. Sprain/strain was the most common(26% known acute injury, followed by laceration and contusion(each 17%. Tendinitis was the most common (44% knownchronic injury diagnosis, followed by sprain/strain (27%. Forty-seven percent of acute and 36% of chronically injured paddlers sought medical attention. Giardia infection was reported in14%. It is concluded that shoulder and wrist/hand areas were the most common injured sites in this survey. Sprains, tendinitis, lacerations, and contusions were the most common known injury diagnoses. Injuries due to portage were common. Giardia infection may be common in whitewater paddlers.

  8. Cycling injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries.

  9. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated ...

  10. The physical nature of the phenomenon of positive column plasma constriction in low-pressure noble gas direct current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essence of the positive-column plasma constriction for static (the diffusion mode) and dynamic ionization equilibrium (the stratificated and constricted modes) is analyzed. Two physical parameters, namely, the effective ionization rate of gas atoms and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions, determine the transverse distribution of discharge species and affect the current states of plasma. Transverse constriction of the positive column takes place as the gas ionization level (discharge current) and pressure increase. The stratified mode (including the constricted one) is observed between the two adjacent types of self-sustained discharge phases when they coexist together at the same time or in the same place as a coherent binary mixture. In the case, a occurrence of the discharge phase with more high electron density presently involve a great decrease in the cross-section of the current channel for d.c. discharges. Additional physical factors, such as cataphoresis and electrophoresis phenomena and spatial gas density inhomogeneity correlated with a circulatory flow in d.c. discharges, are mainly responsible for the current hysteresis and partially constricted discharge

  11. Reduced heart rate variability in chronic severe traumatic brain injury: Association with impaired emotional and social functioning, and potential for treatment using biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Fisher, Alana; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may provide an index of capacity for social functioning and may be remediated by HRV biofeedback. Given reductions in HRV are found following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the present study aimed to determine whether lower HRV in TBI is associated with social function, and whether HRV biofeedback might be a useful remediation technique in this population. Resting state HRV and measures of social and emotional processing were collected in 30 individuals with severe TBI (3-34 years post-injury) and 30 controls. This was followed by a single session of HRV biofeedback. HRV was positively associated with social cognition and empathy, and negatively associated with alexithymia for the TBI group. Both TBI and control groups showed significantly increased HRV on both time-domain (i.e., SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency-domain measures (LF, HF, LF:HF ratio) during biofeedback compared to baseline. These results suggest that decreased HRV is linked to social and emotional function following severe TBI, and may be a novel target for therapy using HRV biofeedback techniques. PMID:25627984

  12. Effects of a rapid-resisted elliptical training program on motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L; Zampieri, Cristiane; Ge, Jie; Acevedo, Ana; Dsurney, John

    2016-08-01

    This small clinical trial utilized a novel rehabilitation strategy, rapid-resisted elliptical training, in an effort to increase motor, and thereby cognitive, processing speed in ambulatory individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As an initial step, multimodal functional abilities were quantified and compared in 12 ambulatory adults with and 12 without TBI. After the baseline assessment, the group with TBI participated in an intensive 8-week daily exercise program using an elliptical trainer and was reassessed after completion and at an 8-week follow-up. The focus of training was on achieving a fast movement speed, and once the target was reached, resistance to motion was increased in small increments to increase intensity of muscle activation. Primary outcomes were: High-Level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT), instrumented balance tests, dual-task (DT) performance and neurobehavioral questionnaires. The group with TBI had poorer movement excursion during balance tests and poorer dual-task (DT) performance. After training, balance reaction times improved and were correlated with gains in the HiMAT and DT. Sleep quality also improved and was correlated with improved depression and learning. This study illustrates how brain injury can affect multiple linked aspects of functioning and provides preliminary evidence that intensive rapid-resisted training has specific positive effects on dynamic balance and more generalized effects on sleep quality in TBI. PMID:27025506

  13. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  14. Congenital Constriction Ring of Limbs in Subjects with History of Maternal Substance Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital Constriction Ring (CCR) is a rare malformation which manifests itself in the form of ring-like constrictive bands. Due to its heterogeneous nature, its etiology remains unclear. Here, we present a series of seven independent individuals afflicted with CCR, which primarily involved the digits. The phenotypic manifestations included terminal phalangeal reduction, anonychia, digit hypoplasia, and acrosyndactyly. Mesoaxial digits in hands and preaxial digits in feet were most frequently affected. Camptodactyly and clubfoot were witnessed in four and one subject, respectively. Curiously, mothers of six of these subjects revealed that they consumed copious amounts of Multani mitti(Fuller's clay) and/or Naswar(nonsmoke-tobacco), during their respective pregnancies. Maternal substance use during pregnancy is not an unusual practice, however, its relationship with CCR as pregnancy outcome remains unexplored. Case-control studies are warranted to elucidate the relationship between the exposure to these substances and the etiology of CCR and/or other limb defects in the offspring. (author)

  15. Effusive-constrictive calcific pericarditis associated with Streptococcus salivarius. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailidis, Petros I; Prapas, Sotirios N; Kasiakou, Sofia K; Costeas, Xenofon F; Falagas, Matthew E

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 40-year-old patient presenting with a 6-month history of dyspnea and edema, with significant worsening of his clinical manifestations for the 2 weeks before admission to our department. During this 14-day preadmission period, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was prescribed elsewhere for management of a working diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. The patient presented to us hemodynamically compromised. Management of the patient included emergency cardiac surgery for tamponade caused by effusive-constrictive, calcific pericarditis in addition to antimicrobial treatment as a result of the growth of Streptococcus salivarius from the pericardial fluid. This is the first report in the literature of association of this microorganism with pericarditis. The use of CPAP made the patient's symptoms worse as a result of an increase of the intrathoracic pressure, which was a pathophysiological mechanism, added to the interference of the localized pericardial effusion and the effect of the pericardial constriction. In an era of rapidly increasing use of CPAP systems, clinicians should be aware of their possible detrimental effects on patients with some types of cardiopulmonary diseases. PMID:15831142

  16. Probing weak localization in chemical vapor deposition graphene wide constriction using scanning gate microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, C.; Matsunaga, M.; Liu, F.-H.; Woo, T.-P.; Aoki, N.; Lin, L.-H.; Wu, B.-Y.; Ochiai, Y.; Liang, C.-T.

    2016-02-01

    Low-temperature scanning gate microscopy (LT-SGM) studies of graphene allow one to obtain important spatial information regarding coherent transport such as weak localization (WL) and universal conductance fluctuations. Although fascinating LT-SGM results on pristine graphene prepared by mechanical exfoliation have been reported in the literature, there appears to be a dearth of LT-SGM results on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene whose large scale and flexible substrate transferability make it an ideal candidate for coherent electronic applications. To this end, we have performed LT-SGM studies on CVD-grown graphene wide constriction (0.8 μm), which can be readily prepared by cost-effective optical lithography fully compatible with those in wafer foundry, in the WL regime. We find that the movable local gate can sensitively modulate the total conductance of the CVD graphene constriction possibly due to the intrinsic grain boundaries and merged domains, a great advantage for applications in coherent electronics. Moreover, such a conductance modulation by LT-SGM provides an additional, approximately magnetic-field-independent probe for studying coherent transport such as WL in graphene and spatial conductance variation.

  17. Clinical characteristics of constrictive pericarditis diagnosed by echo-Doppler technique in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. S.; Song, J. K.; Song, J. M.; Kang, D. H.; Lee, C. W.; Nam, G. B.; Choi, K. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, M. K.; Kim, J. J.; Park, S. W.; Park, S. J.; Song, H.; Lee, J. W.; Song, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 71 patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP) diagnosed by echo-Doppler technique (mean age, 49+/-17) was done. In 27 patients (38%), the etiology was unknown, and the three most frequent identifiable causes were tuberculosis (23/71, 32%), cardiac surgery (8/71, 11%), and mediastinal irradiation (6/71, 9%). Pericardiectomy was performed in 35 patients (49%) with a surgical mortality of 6% (2/35), and 11 patients (15%, 11/ 71) showed complete resolution of constrictive physiology with medical treatment. Patients with transient CP were characterized by absence of pericardial calcification, shorter symptom duration, and higher incidence of fever, weight loss, and tuberculosis. The 5-yr survival rates of patients with transient CP and those undergoing pericardiectomy were 100% and 85+/-6%, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of patients without undergoing pericardiectomy (33+/-17%, p=0.0083). Mediastinal irradiation, higher functional class, low voltage in ECG, low serum albumin, and old age were the independent variables associated with a higher mortality. Tuberculosis is still the most important etiology of CP in Korea, and not infrequently, it may cause transient CP. Early diagnosis and decision-making using follow-up echocardiography are crucial to improve the prognosis of patients with CP. PMID:11641523

  18. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP. A pragmatic, randomised trial with a one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsholm Lars

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP, activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs, physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients. Methods The study was a pragmatic, single-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial. Patients with chronic/recurrent LBP were randomised to one of the following treatments: 1. Educational programme : the emphasis was on creating confidence that the back is strong, that loads normally do not cause any damage despite occasional temporary pain, that reducing the focus on the pain might facilitate more natural and less painful movements, and that it is beneficial to stay physically active. 2. Individual symptom-based physical training programme : directional-preference exercises for those centralising their pain with repetitive movements; 'stabilising exercises' for those deemed 'unstable' based on specific tests; or intensive dynamic exercises for the remaining patients. Follow-up questionnaires (examiner-blinded were completed at 2, 6 and 12 months. The main statistical test was an ANCOVA adjusted for baseline values. Results A total of 207 patients participated with the median age of 39 years (IQR 33-47; 52% were female, 105 were randomised to the educational programme and 102 to the physical training programme. The two groups were comparable at baseline. For the primary outcome measures, there was a non-significant trend towards activity limitation being reduced mostly in the educational programme group, although of doubtful clinical relevance. Regarding secondary outcomes, improvement in

  19. Macroscopic small bowel mucosal injury caused by chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIS use as assessed by capsule endoscopy Valoración mediante cápsulas endoscópicas de las lesiones intestinales mucosas causadas por antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caunedo-Álvarez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the type, frequency, and severity of macroscopic small bowel mucosal injury after chronic NSAID intake as assessed by capsule endoscopy (CE, as well as to correlate the severity of gastroduodenal and intestinal damage in these patients. Material and methods:a prospective, endoscopist-blind, controlled trial. Sixteen patients (14F/2M; age: 57.06 ± 10.16 yrs with osteoarthritis (OA on chronic therapy with NSAIDs underwent CE and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Seventeen patients with OA (9F/2M; age: 57.47 ± 9.82 yrs who did not take NSAIDs were included as a control group. A scale ranging from 0 to 2 (0 = no lesions, 1-minor = red spots or petechiae, denuded areas and/or 1-5 mucosal breaks; 2-major = > 5 mucosal breaks and/or strictures, or hemorrhage was designed to assess the severity of small bowel mucosal injuries. Results: CE found intestinal lesions in 75% (12/16 of patients in the study group and in 11.76% (2/17 of controls (p < 0.01. Seven out of 16 NSAID consumers (43.75% and none in the control group (0% had a major small bowel mucosal injury (p < 0.01. The percentages of patients with grade 1 and 2 gastroduodenopathy in the study group, as assessed by UGE, were 37.14 and 23.81%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of major enteropathy between patients with none or minor gastroduodenal injury, and those with major gastroduodenopathy (43.75 vs. 40%; p = N.S.. Conclusions: chronic NSAID intake is associated with a high rate of small bowel mucosal injuries. Our data have failed to demonstrate a relationship between the severity of gastroduodenal and intestinal injury.

  20. Chylous ascites and chylothorax due to constrictive pericarditis in a patient infected with HIV: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summachiwakij Sarawut

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chylothorax and chylous ascites are uncommon and usually associated with trauma or neoplasms. To the best of our knowledge, constrictive pericarditis leading to chylothorax and chylous ascites in a person infected with HIV has never previously been described. Case presentation A 39-year-old Thai man was referred to our institute with progressive dyspnea, edema and abdominal distension. His medical history included HIV infection and pulmonary tuberculosis that was complicated by tuberculous pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Upon further investigation, we found constrictive pericarditis, chylothorax and chylous ascites. A pericardiectomy was performed which resulted in gradual resolution of the ascites and chylous effusion. Conclusions Although constrictive pericarditis is an exceptionally rare cause of chylothorax and chylous ascites, it should nonetheless be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potentially reversible cause.

  1. Lisfranc injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  2. Boundary critical phenomena and a quasiparticle-quasihole symmetric metal-insulator: transition in a constricted quantum hall circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by surprises in recent experimental findings, we study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν1) and constriction (ν2) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. The competition between two interedge tunneling processes taking place inside the constriction, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole (qp-qh) symmetry, is accounted for by computing the boundary theories of the system. This competition is found to determine the strong coupling configuration of the system. A separatrix of qp-qh symmetric gapless critical states is found to lie between the relevant RG flows to a metallic and an insulating configuration of the constriction system. This constitutes an interesting generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model. The features of the RG phase diagram are also confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with many recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν1 = 1/3, 1. We also discuss and make predictions for the case of a constriction system with ν2 = 5/2. (author)

  3. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibits Homing of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Triggered by Chronic Liver Injury via Redox Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have capacity to migrate to the damaged liver and contribute to fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2, an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, is considered a new inhibitor of cell migration. However, the actions of 15d-PGJ2 on BMSC migration remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of 15d-PGJ2 on the migration of BMSCs using a mouse model of chronic liver fibrosis and primary mouse BMSCs. Our results demonstrated that in vivo, 15d-PGJ2 administration inhibited the homing of BMSCs to injured liver by flow cytometric analysis and, in vitro, 15d-PGJ2 suppressed primary BMSC migration in a dose-dependent manner determined by Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, the repressive effect of 15d-PGJ2 was blocked by reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibitor, but not PPARγ antagonist, and action of 15d-PGJ2 was not reproduced by PPARγ synthetic ligands. In addition, 15d-PGJ2 triggered a significant ROS production and cytoskeletal remodeling in BMSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 plays a crucial role in homing of BMSCs to the injured liver dependent on ROS production, independently of PPARγ, which may represent a new strategy in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  4. Groin Injuries in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Timothy F.; Silvers, Holly J.; Gerhardt, Michael B.; Nicholas, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is ...

  5. Safety and efficacy of at-home robotic locomotion therapy in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Rupp

    Full Text Available The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern.Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI.Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD years sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II: Interquartile range 9 to 16 completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks. Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy.After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100% for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD. One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe occurred in over 800 training sessions.Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor function beyond in-patient rehabilitation

  6. Comparative gene and protein expression analyses of a panel of cytokines in acute and chronic drug-induced liver injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant safety issue associated with medication use, and is the major cause of failures in drug development and withdrawal in post marketing. Cytokines are signaling molecules produced and secreted by immune cells and play crucial roles in the progression of DILI. Although there are numerous reports of cytokine changes in several DILI models, a comprehensive analysis of cytokine expression changes in rat liver injury induced by various compounds has, to the best of our knowledge, not been performed. In the past several years, we have built a public, free, large-scale toxicogenomics database, called Open TG-GATEs, containing microarray data and toxicity data of the liver of rats treated with various hepatotoxic compounds. In this study, we measured the protein expression levels of a panel of 24 cytokines in frozen liver of rats treated with a total of 20 compounds, obtained in the original study that formed the basis of the Open TG-GATEs database and analyzed protein expression profiles combined with mRNA expression profiles to investigate the correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels. As a result, we demonstrated significant correlations between mRNA and protein expression changes for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, monocyte chemo-attractant protein (MCP)-1/CC-chemokine ligand (Ccl)2, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/Ccl5 in several different types of DILI. We also demonstrated that IL-1β protein and MCP-1/Ccl2 mRNA were commonly up-regulated in the liver of rats treated with different classes of hepatotoxicants and exhibited the highest accuracy in the detection of hepatotoxicity. The results also demonstrate that hepatic mRNA changes do not always correlate with protein changes of cytokines in the liver. This is the first study to provide a comprehensive analysis of mRNA–protein correlations of factors involved in

  7. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  8. Pressure Overload by Transverse Aortic Constriction Induces Maladaptive Hypertrophy in a Titin-Truncated Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifeng; Kesteven, Scott; Wu, Jianxin; Aidery, Parwez; Gawaz, Meinrad; Gramlich, Michael; Feneley, Michael P; Harvey, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the giant sarcomeric protein titin (TTN) are a major cause for inherited forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We have previously developed a mouse model that imitates a TTN truncation mutation we found in a large pedigree with DCM. While heterozygous Ttn knock-in mice do not display signs of heart failure under sedentary conditions, they recapitulate the human phenotype when exposed to the pharmacological stressor angiotensin II or isoproterenol. In this study we investigated the effects of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in heterozygous (Het) Ttn knock-in mice. Two weeks after TAC, Het mice developed marked impairment of left ventricular ejection fraction (p arsenal of cardiac disease models, adding a valuable tool to understand cardiac pathophysiological remodeling processes and to develop therapeutic approaches to combat heart failure. PMID:26504781

  9. A case of post-radiation constrictive pericarditis developing 12 years after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 70-year-old woman underwent radical mastectomy for carcinoma of the left breast in 1982. Postoperative radiation therapy was given in a total dose of 50 Gy for parasternal and left subclavian nodes. Symptoms of heart failure such as exertional dyspnea, facial edema, and hepatomegaly manifested in 1992. Cardiac catheterization revealed marked elevation of mean right atrial pressure and right ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The pressure wave form of the right ventricle showed the so called ''dip and plateau'' feature. Pericardiectomy without using extracorporeal circulation was performed in 1994. Operative findings and pathological study results were compatible with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. She rapidly recovered from heart failure after this operation, and has done very well to date. (author)

  10. Electronic conductance model in constricted MoS{sub 2} with nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, Aditya [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Leburton, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jleburto@illinois.edu [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We describe a self-consistent model for electronic transport in a molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS{sub 2}) layer containing a nanopore in a constricted geometry. Our approach is based on a semi-classical thermionic Poisson-Boltzmann technique using a two-valley model within the effective mass approximation to investigate perturbations caused by the nanopore on the electronic current. In particular, we show that the effect of the nanopore on the conductance is reduced as the nanopore is moved from the center to the layer edges. Our model is applied to the detection of DNA translocating through the nanopore, which reveals current features similar to those as predicted in nanopore graphene layers.

  11. Portable, Constriction-Expansion Blood Plasma Separation and Polymerization-Based Malaria Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatova, Tatyana A; Lathwal, Shefali; Engle, Marissa R; Sikes, Hadley D; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-08-01

    A portable, microfluidic blood plasma separation device is presented featuring a constriction-expansion design, which produces 100.0% purity for undiluted blood at 9% yield. This level of purity represents an improvement of at least 1 order of magnitude with increased yield compared to that achieved previously using passive separation. The system features high flow rates, 5-30 μL/min plasma collection, with minimal clogging and biofouling. The simple, portable blood plasma separation design is hand-driven and can easily be incorporated with microfluidic or laboratory scale diagnostic assays. The separation system was applied to a paper-based diagnostic test for malaria that produced an amplified color change in the presence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 at a concentration well below clinical relevancy for undiluted whole blood. PMID:27366819

  12. Ballistic phonon transport through a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities in a narrow constriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo Yuan [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang Weiqing, E-mail: wqhuang2000@yahoo.co [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Guifang, E-mail: gfhuang@hnu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hu Wangyu; Wang Lingling; Pan Anlian [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-05-09

    We investigate the ballistic phonon transport through a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities in a narrow constriction of a semiconductor nanowire at low temperatures. It is found that the transmission spectrum of such a system consists of quasiband gaps and narrow resonances caused by the coupling of phonon waves. Both phonon transmission and thermal conductance exhibit the similarity due to the Fibonacci sequence structure. The similarity is sensitive to the number n and parameters of nanocavities. The results are compared with those in a periodic acoustic nanocavities. - Highlights: Ballistic phonon transport in a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities is studied. The transmission spectrum consists of quasiband gaps and narrow resonances. Both phonon transmission and thermal conductance exhibit the similarity. The similarity is sensitive to the number and parameters of nanocavities.

  13. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  14. Dietary niche constriction when invaders meet natives: evidence from freshwater decapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle C; Grey, Jonathan; Miller, Katie; Britton, J Robert; Donohue, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species are a key driver of global environmental change, with frequently strong negative consequences for native biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Understanding competitive interactions between invaders and functionally similar native species provides an important benchmark for predicting the consequences of invasion. However, even though having a broad dietary niche is widely considered a key factor determining invasion success, little is known about the effects of competition with functionally similar native competitors on the dietary niche breadths of invasive species. We used a combination of field experiments and field surveys to examine the impacts of competition with a functionally similar native crab species on the population densities, growth rates and diet of the globally widespread invasive red swamp crayfish in an African river ecosystem. The presence of native crabs triggered significant dietary niche constriction within the invasive crayfish population. Further, growth rates of both species were reduced significantly, and by a similar extent, in the presence of one another. In spite of this, crayfish maintained positive growth rates in the presence of crabs, whereas crabs lost mass in the presence of crayfish. Consequently, over the 3-year duration of the study, crab abundance declined at those sites invaded by the crayfish, becoming locally extinct at one. The invasive crayfish had a dramatic effect on ecosystem structure and functioning, halving benthic invertebrate densities and increasing decomposition rates fourfold compared to the crabs. This indicates that replacement of native crabs by invasive crayfish likely alters the structure and functioning of African river ecosystems significantly. This study provides a novel example of the constriction of the dietary niche of a successful invasive population in the presence of competition from a functionally similar native species. This finding highlights the importance of considering both

  15. Natural killer cells contribute to hepatic injury and help in viral persistence during progression of hepatitis B e-antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Nandi, M; Pal, S; Mukhopadhyay, D; Chakraborty, B C; Khatun, M; Bhowmick, D; Mondal, R K; Das, S; Das, K; Ghosh, R; Banerjee, S; Santra, A; Chatterjee, M; Chowdhury, A; Datta, S

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B e-antigen negative (e(-)) chronic HBV infection (CHI) encompasses a heterogeneous clinical spectrum ranging from inactive carrier (IC) state to e(-) chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. In the backdrop of dysfunctional virus-specific T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are emerging as innate effectors in CHI. We characterized CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells in clinically well-defined, treatment-naive e(-) patients in IC, e(-)CHB or decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) phase to appraise their role in disease progression. The NK cell frequencies increased progressively with disease severity (IC 8.2%, e(-)CHB 13.2% and LC 14.4%). Higher proportion of NK cells from LC/e(-)CHB expressed CD69, NKp46, NKp44, TRAIL and perforin, the last two being prominent features of CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK subsets, respectively. The frequencies of CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells together with TRAIL(+) CD56(bright) and Perforin(+) CD56(dim) NK cells correlated positively with serum alanine transaminase levels in e(-)CHB/LC. K562 cell-stimulated NK cells from e(-)CHB/LC exhibited significantly greater degranulation but diminished interferon-γ production than IC. Further, Perforin(+) NK cell frequency inversely correlated with autologous CD4(+) T-cell count in e(-) patients and ligands of NK receptors were over-expressed in CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB/LC relative to IC. Co-culture of sorted CD56(dim) NK cells and CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB showed enhanced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis, which was reduced by perforin inhibitor, concanamycin A, suggesting a possible perforin-dependent NK cell-mediated CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Moreover, greater incidence of perforin-expressing NK cells and decline in CD4(+) T cells were noticed intrahepatically in e(-)CHB than IC. Collectively, NK cells contribute to the progression of e(-)CHI by enhanced TRAIL- and perforin-dependent cytolytic activity and by restraining anti-viral immunity through reduced interferon-γ secretion and

  16. Vitamin B complex attenuated heat hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve constriction in rats and reduced capsaicin in vivo and in vitro effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopruszinski, Caroline M; Reis, Renata C; Bressan, Elisangela; Reeh, Peter W; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2015-09-01

    Vitamins of the B complex attenuate some neuropathic pain sensory aspects in various animal models and in patients, but the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. Herein it was investigated if the treatment with a vitamin B complex (VBC) reduces heat hyperalgesia in rats submitted to infraorbital nerve constriction and the possibility that TRPV1 receptors represent a target for B vitamins. In the present study, the VBC refers to a combination of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 at low- (18, 18 and 1.8mg/kg, respectively) or high- (180, 180 and 18mg/kg, respectively) doses. Acute treatment of rats with either the low- or the high-doses combination reduced heat hyperalgesia after nerve injury, but the high-doses combination resulted in a long-lasting effect. Repeated treatment with the low-dose combination reduced heat hyperalgesia on day four after nerve injury and showed a synergist effect with a single injection of carbamazepine (3 or 10mg/kg), which per se failed to modify the heat threshold. In naïve rats, acute treatment with the high-dose of VBC or B1 and B12 vitamins independently reduced heat hyperalgesia evoked by capsaicin (3µg into the upper lip). Moreover, the VBC, as well as, each one of the B vitamins independently reduced the capsaicin-induced calcium responses in HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with the human TRPV1 channels. Altogether, these results indicate that B vitamins can be useful to control heat hyperalgesia associated with trigeminal neuropathic pain and that modulation of TRPV1 receptors may contribute to their anti-hyperalgesic effects. PMID:26048309

  17. Start-up of flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Rallison, J.M.; Hinch, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube is computed by a split Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method. In steady flow it is found that the upstream vortex grows with increasing Deborah number, while the downstream vortex diminishes and disappears. The steady pressure dr...

  18. Injuries to dancers: prevalence, treatment, and perceptions of causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, A

    1989-03-18

    A survey of injuries to dancers was commissioned by the National Organisation of Dance and Mime. Questionnaires asking about chronic and recent injuries were sent to 188 dancers and completed by 141 dancers from seven professional ballet and modern dance companies in the United Kingdom (75% response rate). It was found that of the 141 dancers, 67 (47%) had experienced a chronic injury and 59 (42%) an injury in the previous six months that had affected their dancing. A high proportion of injuries to the soft tissues had not responded to treatment. With correct treatment such injuries should usually heal completely. Dancers are aware of the high rate of injuries and also of procedures that might help to prevent injury--for example, dancing on floors that are sprung and in warmer studios; teachers' and choreographers' awareness of a dancer's limitations and the need for rest and adequate treatment when an injury occurs. PMID:2496824

  19. Catheter-based endomyocardial delivery of mesenchymal precursor cells using 3D echo guidance improves cardiac function in a chronic myocardial injury ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanping; Yi, Genghua; Conditt, Gerard B; Sheehy, Alexander; Kolodgie, Frank D; Tellez, Armando; Polyakov, Igor; Gu, Anguo; Aboodi, Michael S; Wallace-Bradley, David; Schuster, Michael; Martens, Timothy; Itescu, Silviu; Kaluza, Greg L; Basu, Shubhayu; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F; Sherman, Warren

    2013-01-01

    The administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells may provide a new treatment option for patients with heart failure. Transcatheter cell injection may require multi-imaging modalities to optimize delivery. This study sought to evaluate whether endomyocardial injection of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) could be guided by real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) in treating chronic, postinfarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in sheep. Four weeks after induction of an anterior wall myocardial infarction in 39 sheep, allogeneic MPCs in doses of either 25 × 10(6) (n = 10), 75 × 10(6) (n = 9), or 225 × 10(6) (n = 10) cells or nonconditioned control media (n = 10) were administered intramyocardially into infarct and border zone areas using a catheter designed for combined fluoroscopic and RT3DE-guided injections. LV function was assessed before and after injection. Infarct dimension and vascular density were evaluated histologically. RT3DE-guided injection procedures were safe. Compared to controls, the highest dose MPC treatment led to increments in ejection fraction (3 ventricula 3% in 225M MPCs vs. -5 ± 4% in the control group, p logistical obstacles. Significant increases in LV performance (ejection fraction and wall thickening) and neovascularization resulted from this technique, and so this technique has important implications for treating patients with postischemic LV dysfunction. PMID:23107489

  20. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  1. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Gohary, Y

    2012-01-31

    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  2. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  3. Relationship of ankle joint proprioceptor injury with chronic ankle instability: a preliminary study%踝关节本体感受器损伤与慢性踝关节不稳定关系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱渊; 徐向阳; 刘津浩; 边海林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of ankle joint proprioceptor injury on the functional ankle instability. Methods The study enrolled 18 ( 13 males) with chronic ankle instability treated with ligament reconstruction operation. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgeons (AOFAS)score was used for evaluation of the function before and after operation and the balance system evaluate the proprioception function. The two ankle ligament specimens from fresh frozen body and the tissue samples from operation were used for investigation of the structure and distribution of the sensory corpuscles by using histology and immunohistoehemical staining. Results The sections were evaluated with a microscope and an image analyzer. Labeled nerve endings were mapped, measured and categorized. Type Ⅰ ( Ruffini-like ending) , type Ⅱ ( Pacinin-like corpuscle ) and type Ⅳ- (noncorpuscular) nerve endings could be identified in all the lateral ankle ligaments, with majority of types Ⅰ and Ⅱ nerve endings.These receptors were distributed primarily over the superficial ligament and near the bony attachments.There was statistical difference between preoperative and postoperative sway distance as well as between preoperative and postoperative AOFAS score. Conclusions This study suggests that the longer history,severer symptoms and lower AOFAS score may lead to the severer injury of the mechanical proprioceptors.The proprioceptor injury is correlated with ankle joint instability and the ligament reconstruction is effective to avoid the repeated injury of the proprioceptor.%目的 从新鲜尸体和踝关节不稳患者手术中所切取的韧带周围组织入手,分析踝关节周围本体感受器的性质和分布,并进一步与临床病例的生物力学、本体感觉功能检验结果相比较,判断和分析本体感受器受损在功能性踝关节不稳定中的作用.方法18例踝关节不稳患者行韧带重建手术.术前、术后分别行功能评分[美国骨科

  4. Predicting pain outcomes after traumatic musculoskeletal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Katz, Joel; Chin, Kelly Y W; Haslam, Lynn; Canzian, Sonya; Kreder, Hans J; McCartney, Colin J L

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic musculoskeletal injury results in a high incidence of chronic pain; however, there is little evidence about the nature, quality, and severity of the pain. This study uses a prospective, observational, longitudinal design to (1) examine neuropathic pain symptoms, pain severity, pain interference, and pain management at hospital admission and 4 months after traumatic musculoskeletal injury (n = 205), and (2) to identify predictors of group membership for patients with differing moderate-to-severe putative neuropathic pain trajectories. Data were collected on mechanism of injury, injury severity, pain (intensity, interference, neuropathic quality), anxiety (anxiety sensitivity, general anxiety, pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety), depression, and posttraumatic stress while patients were in-hospital and 4 months after injury. A third of patients had chronic moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain 4 months after injury. Specifically, 11% of patients developed moderate-to-severe pain by 4 months and 21% had symptoms immediately after injury that persisted over time. Significant predictors of the development and maintenance of moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain included high levels of general anxiety while in-hospital immediately after injury (P stress 4 months after injury (P management in-hospital and at 4 months. Future research is needed among trauma patients to better understand the development of chronic pain and to determine the best treatment approaches. PMID:27058677

  5. Injury Rates and Profiles of Elite Competitive Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, Gregg; Fry, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. Design and Setting: We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Subjects: Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. Measurements: United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x2 tests. Results: The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. Conclusions: The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558570

  6. Windsurfing Injuries: Added Awareness for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Dietz, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    With proper training and safety precautions, windsurfing is relatively safe, but its unique equipment and unpredictable environmental conditions can produce serious injuries. Clinicians may see fall-related ankle injuries, tarsometatarsal injuries, or anterior shoulder dislocations; chronic low-back pain from torso stress; skin lacerations; and…

  7. The puerperium alters spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue and nerve damage can result in chronic pain. Yet, chronic pain after cesarean delivery is remarkably rare in women and hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury in rats resolves rapidly if the injury occurs in the puerperium. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats du...

  8. Related factors of early renal injury in the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病早期肾损伤相关因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红艳; 高永才; 曹丽; 郑亚莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨影响老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者早期肾损伤的临床指标。方法收集入住于宁夏人民医院呼吸内科的60例COPD患者作为研究对象(COPD组);选择该院体检中心的30例健康体检者(对照亚组)。亚组:60例COPD组依据患病时间分为病程≤10年亚组和病程>10年亚组;依据营养状况分为营养欠佳亚组和营养正常亚组。营养状况主要测定COPD患者白蛋白(ALB)、血红蛋白(Hb)、总胆固醇(TC)水平。评估COPD组及对照组的血清肌酐(SCr)、尿素氮(BUN)、β2微球蛋白(β2-MG)、白细胞(WBC)、中性粒细胞百分比(NE%)、血清胱抑素C(CysC)及估算肾小球滤过率(eGFR)等指标。结果与对照组比较,COPD组SCr、BUN、WBC、NE%差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),eGFR, ALB,Hb,TC均明显降低,CysC 及β2-MG明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);亚组分析,与病程≤10年亚组和营养状况正常亚组比较,血清CysC及β2-MG浓度在病程>10年亚组及营养状况欠佳亚组均明显升高(P<0.05);eGFR在病程>10年亚组明显低于病程≤10年亚组(P<0.05);SCr在各亚组间比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);Pearson线性相关性分析:eGFR与ALB和Hb呈正相关,与患病时间呈负相关;CysC和β2-MG与eGFR呈负相关。结论老年COPD患者存在早期肾损伤,随COPD病程延长及ALB,Hb,TC降低,早期肾损伤加重;患病时间、血清ALB和Hb水平影响老年COPD患者慢性缺氧早期肾损伤,与早期肾损伤呈线性相关。%Objective To investigate the related factors of early renal injury in the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Sixty patients with COPD [age:(65±6) years] admitted in the Department of Respiratory Diseases of Ningxia People’s Hospital were enrolled in this study. Another 30 healthy individuals [age

  9. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Murali, Arvind R.; Kotwal, Vikram; Chawla, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  13. Stress-induced Salter-Harris I growth plate injury of the proximal tibia: first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of chronic Salter-Harris I injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis. To our knowledge such an injury has not been described in the English language literature. The radiological appearance can mimic chronic infection. The possibility of chronic athletic stress-related change should be considered in such scenarios to avoid a misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with 15O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO2 in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO2 between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO2 along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO2 of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO2 between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO2 of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the normal group in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and occipital lobe

  15. [Community-based rehabilitation and outpatient care for patients with acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in Germany: continuing support for social participation and re-integration in the neurological care system?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, P; Hendrich, A; Kringler, W; Vespo, E

    2012-12-01

    In Germany a number of patients who are suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability are either undersupplied or exposed to inappropriate care in their social environment. The number of these patients is increasing due to the changes in the procedures of care and due to demographic factors. While acute medical care and early rehabilitative treatment is accessible throughout the German health care system the necessary multimodal and competent care is rare or absent in the social participative sites such as life and occupational environments of the patients. The complex impairment of the brain, the central organ for sensorial, executive and other cognitive functions of human beings, renders the affected patient an exception in the system of medical and social care - this has only inadequately been considered in the past. The authors explain the necessity to disclose the status of a "human-with acquired-brain damage (Mensch-mit-erworbener-Hirnschädigung, MeH)" explicitly as severely disabled. The paper recommends a number of structural and procedural elements that have proven to overcome the insufficient or inappropriate support in integrating the patients suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in their social environment as well as for a demand-focused support with sustainable rehabilitative and ambulant follow-up procedures. Comparisons with other developed health care systems and international guidelines show that with organizing of early-supported-discharge, community-ambulation, shared-care and community-based-rehabilitation these problems have long since been identified elsewhere. Community-based and resident-oriented concepts have already been systematically implemented. In order to achieve the necessary support for the individual patient, a nation-wide development is necessary in Germany to perform the principles of the German social code and the principles of the Convention on the Rights of

  16. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  17. Pressure Overload by Transverse Aortic Constriction Induces Maladaptive Hypertrophy in a Titin-Truncated Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the giant sarcomeric protein titin (TTN are a major cause for inherited forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. We have previously developed a mouse model that imitates a TTN truncation mutation we found in a large pedigree with DCM. While heterozygous Ttn knock-in mice do not display signs of heart failure under sedentary conditions, they recapitulate the human phenotype when exposed to the pharmacological stressor angiotensin II or isoproterenol. In this study we investigated the effects of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in heterozygous (Het Ttn knock-in mice. Two weeks after TAC, Het mice developed marked impairment of left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.05, while wild-type (WT TAC mice did not. Het mice also trended toward increased ventricular end diastolic pressure and volume compared to WT littermates. We found an increase in histologically diffuse cardiac fibrosis in Het compared to WT in TAC mice. This study shows that a pattern of DCM can be induced by TAC-mediated pressure overload in a TTN-truncated mouse model. This model enlarges our arsenal of cardiac disease models, adding a valuable tool to understand cardiac pathophysiological remodeling processes and to develop therapeutic approaches to combat heart failure.

  18. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  19. Flow of colloidal solids and fluids through constrictions: dynamical density functional theory versus simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Urs; Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-06-22

    Using both dynamical density functional theory and particle-resolved Brownian dynamics simulations, we explore the flow of two-dimensional colloidal solids and fluids driven through a linear channel with a constriction. The flow is generated by a constant external force acting on all colloids. The initial configuration is equilibrated in the absence of flow and then the external force is switched on instantaneously. Upon starting the flow, we observe four different scenarios: a complete blockade, a monotonic decay to a constant particle flux (typical for a fluid), a damped oscillatory behaviour in the particle flux, and a long-lived stop-and-go behaviour in the flow (typical for a solid). The dynamical density functional theory describes all four situations but predicts infinitely long undamped oscillations in the flow which are always damped in the simulations. We attribute the mechanisms of the underlying stop-and-go flow to symmetry conditions on the flowing solid. Our predictions are verifiable in real-space experiments on magnetic colloidal monolayers which are driven through structured microchannels and can be exploited to steer the flow throughput in microfluidics. PMID:27116706

  20. A constriction resistance model of conjugated polymer based piezoresistive sensors for electronic skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N; Naguib, H E; Kwon, R H

    2016-05-14

    Human intervention can be replaced through the development of tools resulting from utilization of sensing devices possessing a wide range of applications including humanoid robots or remote and minimally invasive surgeries. Similar to the five human senses, sensors interface with their surroundings to stimulate a suitable response or action. The sense of touch which arises in human skin is among the most challenging senses to emulate due to its ultra high sensitivity. This has brought forth novel challenging issues to consider in the field of biomimetic robotics. In this work, using a multiphase reaction, a polypyrrole (PPy) based hydrogel is developed as a resistive type pressure sensor with an intrinsically elastic microstructure stemming from three dimensional hollow spheres. It is shown that the electrical conductivity of the fabricated PPy based piezoresistive sensors is enhanced as a result of adding conductive fillers and therefore, endowing the sensors with a higher sensitivity. A semi-analytical constriction resistance based model accounting for the real contact area between the PPy hydrogel sensors and the electrode along with the dependency of the contact resistance change on the applied load is developed. The model is then solved using a Monte Carlo technique and its corresponding sensitivity is obtained. Comparing the results with their experimental counterparts, the proposed modeling methodology offers a good tracking ability. PMID:27035514

  1. Dynamics and dislodgment from pore constrictions of a trapped nonwetting droplet stimulated by seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2013-07-01

    Seismic waves affect fluid flow and transport processes in porous media. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the role of seismic waves in subsurface hydrodynamics is important for the development of practical applications and prediction of natural phenomena. We present a theoretical fluid dynamics model to describe how low-frequency elastic waves mobilize isolated droplets trapped in pores by capillary resistance. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the critical mobilization amplitudes (Ac) and the displacement dynamics of the nonwetting droplet are validated against computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our theory has the advantage of rapid calculation of Ac for various scenarios. Both theory and CFD simulations show that the Ac increases with increasing wave frequency. The theoretical and computational models agree well in the low-frequency range both in terms of predicting the displacement history of the droplet and its eventual dislodgment, but their results begin to diverge with increasing wave frequency since the Hagen-Poiseuille flow approximation in the model becomes invalid. Relative to a previous "viscous seismic model," our model compares more favorably to experimental observations. The model is thus appropriate for predicting trapped nonwetting droplet dynamics in and dislodgement from pore constrictions by low-frequency elastic waves.

  2. Dynamics of trapped nonwetting phase droplet under seismic stimulation in constricted pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W.; Beresnev, I. A.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic waves affect fluid flow and transport processes in porous media. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the role of elastic waves in subsurface hydrodynamics is important for the development of practical applications and prediction of natural phenomena. We present a theoretical fluid dynamics model to describe how low-frequency waves mobilize isolated droplets trapped in pores by capillary forces. The mobilization of droplets can result in the restoration of locally-reduced permeability and thus contributes to the large-scale increase in the permeability of reservoirs and aquifers. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the critical mobilization amplitudes and the displacement dynamics of the nonwetting droplet is compared with computational fluid dynamics simulations. The theoretical and computational models agree well in the low-frequency range but results begin diverge with increasing frequency of elastic waves. Furthermore, comparison of both the new theoretical model and a previous "viscous seismic model" with available experimental data shows that the new model performs better than the previous theoretical model. The model is thus more appropriate for predicting dynamics of trapped nonwetting droplets in pore constrictions subject to low-frequency elastic waves.

  3. Effect of Right Heart Systolic Function on Outcomes in Patients with Constrictive Pericarditis Undergoing Pericardiectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the influence of right ventricular function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP undergoing surgery and to compare the outcomes of patients who received surgery with those managed medically. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of CP and healthy volunteers were recruited from January 2006 to November 2011. Patients with CP chose to either receive pericardiectomy or medical management. Echocardiographic measurements were performed to evaluate heart function, and survival was recorded. Results: A total of 58 patients with CP (36 received pericardiectomy, 22 managed medically, and 43 healthy volunteers were included. CP patients who received surgery had a higher survival rate than those managed medically (P = 0.003, and higher survival was also seen in the subgroup of CP patients with severely impaired right systolic function. Albumin level, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and tricuspid regurgitation velocity were associated with survival in CP patients who received surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative right heart function does not affect surgical outcomes. Patients with severely impaired preoperative right systolic function obtain a greater survival advantage with surgery than with medical treatment.

  4. Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Tajuddin Syed Hassan; Husna Jamaludin; Rosna Abd Raman; Haliza Mohd Riji; Khaw Wan Fei

    2013-01-01

    Context: As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contribu...

  5. Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports.The etiology as well as the pathophysilogical mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance.At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage.The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment.Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. (orig.)

  6. Non-constrictive bead immobilization leading to decreased and uniform shear stress in microfluidic bead-based ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Chidambaram, Preethi; Maharry, Aaron P; Xu, Ronald X; Tweedle, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic biosensors have been utilized for sensing a wide range of antigens using numerous configurations. Bead based microfluidic sensors have been a popular modality due to the plug and play nature of analyte choice and the favorable geometry of spherical sensor scaffolds. While constriction of beads against fluid flow remains a popular method to immobilize the sensor, it results in poor fluidic regimes and shear conditions around sensor beads that can affect sensor performance. We present an alternative means of sensor bead immobilization using poly-carbonate membrane. This system results in several orders of magnitude lower variance of flow radially around the sensor bead. Shear stress experienced by our non-constrictive immobilized bead was three orders of magnitude lower. We demonstrate ability to quantitatively sense EpCAM protein, a marker for cancer stem cells and operation under both far-red and green wavelengths with no auto-fluorescence.

  7. a Comprehensive Model for Capillary Pressure Difference across a Drop/bubble Flowing Through a Constricted Capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mingchao; Wei, Junhong; Han, Hongmei; Fu, Chengguo; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-09-01

    The capillary pressure is one of the crucial parameters in many science and engineering applications such as composite materials, interface science, chemical engineering, oil exploration, etc. The drop/bubble formation and its mechanisms that affect the permeability of porous media have steadily attracted much attention in the past. When a drop/bubble moves from a larger capillary to a smaller one, it is often obstructed by an additional pressure difference caused by the capillary force. In this paper, a comprehensive model is derived for the capillary pressure difference when a drop/bubble flows through a constricted capillary, i.e. a geometrically constricted passage with an abrupt change in radius. The proposed model is expressed as a function of the smaller capillary radius, pore-throat ratio, contact angle, surface tension and length of the drop/bubble in the smaller capillary. The model predictions are compared with the available experimental data, and good agreement is found between them.

  8. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  9. Effects of Hegu(LI 4)and Taichong(LR 3)on Vascular Dilation and Constriction in Migraine Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽华; 林咸明

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hegu(LI 4)and Taichong(LR 3)are the Yuan-Primary acupoints of the Large Intestine and Liver Meridian,and are collectively named as Si Guan (four gates)point.Combined use of these two acupoints can harmonize yin and yang,regulate qi and blood,and balance ascending or descending.This paper attempts to study the effects of Si Guan point on the vascular dilation and constriction in migraine patients from the perspective of its feature.

  10. Positive correlation between size at initiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli and size at initiation of cell constriction.

    OpenAIRE

    Koppes, L J; Nanninga, N.

    1980-01-01

    The variability of (i) the length (size) at which cells initiate chromosome replication, (ii) the length at which they initiate cell constriction, and (iii) the time interval between these events has been estimated for Escherichia coli B/r K at two different slow growth rates. Steady-state cultures were pulse-labeled with [3H]thymidine and, after fixation, analyzed by electron microscopic radioautography. The coefficient of variation of length at initiation of chromosome replication was found...

  11. Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio José Reis; Noeli Pereira Rocha

    2006-01-01

    O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg), no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata), ou do óxido nítrico (NO) endógen...

  12. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  13. Nonlinear microwave response of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ transmission strip line with constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave insertion loss IL(Pin) in the superconducting thing-film YBa2Cu3O7-δ transmission linc with a cross-section constriction is measured within within the temperature interval 78-90 K. An abrupt increase of insertion loss was observed at some threshold critical value of induced rf current amplitude Ic(rf). At higher input power levels a strong increase of insertion loss in the line was observed. Above the threshold value of input power Pin, corresponding to the induced current amplitude Ic(rf), the insertion loss dependence IL(Pin) exhibits a hysteretic behaviour with increasing and decreasing the input power. The model calculations show that the microwave losses in the transmission line under consideration are mainly related to the formation of resistive domains in the constriction region which possess a temperature, higher than the critical point value. It is also demonstrated that a small constriction of the superconducting thin film transmission line can be considered as a lumped nonlinear resistive element, which in turn may be used to design a microwave power limiter

  14. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrist Extensor Stretch Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries By Daniel F. Danzl, MD NOTE: This ... Cold Injuries Overview of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite In nonfreezing tissue injuries, parts of ...

  15. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  16. Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Ana L; Rojas, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic, progressive and lethal lung diseases. The incidence of IPF and COPD increases with age, independent of exposure to common environmental risk factors. At present, there is limited understanding of the relationship between ageing and the development of chronic lung diseases. One hypothesis is that chronic injury drives to exhaustion the local and systemic repair responses in the lung. These changes are accentuated during ageing where there is a progressive accumulation of senescent cells. Recently, stem cells have emerged as a critical reparative mechanism for lung injury. In this review, we discuss the repair response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-MSC) after lung injury and how their function is affected by ageing. Our own work has demonstrated a protective role of B-MSC in several animal models of acute and chronic lung injury. We recently demonstrated the association, using animal models, between age and an increase in the susceptibility to develop severe injury and fibrosis. At the same time, we have identified functional differences between B-MSC isolated from young and old animals. Further studies are required to understand the functional impairment of ageing B-MSC, ultimately leading to a rapid stem cell depletion or fatigue, interfering with their ability to play a protective role in lung injury. The elucidation of these events will help in the development of rational and new therapeutic strategies for COPD and IPF. PMID:23648014

  17. Lateral constrictional flow of hot orogenic crust: Insights from the Neoarchean of south India, geological and geophysical implications for orogenic plateaux

    OpenAIRE

    Chardon, Dominique; Jayananda, Mudlappa; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an in situ geological perspective on fabrics produced by synconvergence lateral crustal flow of hot orogens. It is based on the example of the Neoarchean orogen of the Dharwar craton (India) and combines structural analysis and ion microprobe U!Pb zircon geochronology. We document a pervasive, three!dimensional flow mode of the lower crust, called lateral constrictional flow (LCF), which combines orogen!normal shortening, lateral constrictional stretching, and transtension...

  18. Computation of backwater and discharge at width constrictions of heavily vegetated flood plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, V.R.; Board, J.W.; Colson, B.E.; Lee, F.N.; Druffel, Leroy

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, cooperated with the Federal Highway Administration and the State Highway Departments of Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, to develop a proposed method for computing backwater and discharge at width constrictions of heavily vegetated flood plains. Data were collected at 20 single opening sites for 31 floods. Flood-plain width varied from 4 to 14 times the bridge opening width. The recurrence intervals of peak discharge ranged from a 2-year flood to greater than a 100-year flood, with a median interval of 6 years. Measured backwater ranged from 0.39 to 3.16 feet. Backwater computed by the present standard Geological Survey method averaged 29 percent less than the measured, and that computed by the currently used Federal Highway Administration method averaged 47 percent less than the measured. Discharge computed by the Survey method averaged 21 percent more then the measured. Analysis of data showed that the flood-plain widths and the Manning 's roughness coefficient are larger than those used to develop the standard methods. A method to more accurately compute backwater and discharge was developed. The difference between the contracted and natural water-surface profiles computed using standard step-backwater procedures is defined as backwater. The energy loss terms in the step-backwater procedure are computed as the product of the geometric mean of the energy slopes and the flow distance in the reach was derived from potential flow theory. The mean error was 1 percent when using the proposed method for computing backwater and 3 percent for computing discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  20. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...