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Sample records for chronic constriction bcci

  1. Sodium hydrosulfide relieves neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Qing; Luo, Hui-Qin; Lin, Cai-Zhu; Chen, Jin-Zhuan; Lin, Xian-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain (NPP). Channel protein pCREB of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) could inhibit the expression of pCREB. However, whether NaHS could relieve the pain, it needs further experimental research. Furthermore, the clinical potential that NaHS was used to relieve pain was limited so it would be required. To address these issues, the rats of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) were given intraperitoneal injection of NaHS containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The experimental results showed that NaHS inhibited the reduction of paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and the level of pCREB in CCI rats in a dose-dependent manner and they were greatly decreased in NaHSM group (P < 0.05). NaHS alleviates chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting expression of pCREB in the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  2. Sodium Hydrosulfide Relieves Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constriction Injured Rats

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    Jian-qing Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain (NPP. Channel protein pCREB of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS could inhibit the expression of pCREB. However, whether NaHS could relieve the pain, it needs further experimental research. Furthermore, the clinical potential that NaHS was used to relieve pain was limited so it would be required. To address these issues, the rats of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI were given intraperitoneal injection of NaHS containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S. The experimental results showed that NaHS inhibited the reduction of paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT, and the level of pCREB in CCI rats in a dose-dependent manner and they were greatly decreased in NaHSM group (P < 0.05. NaHS alleviates chronic neuropathic pain by inhibiting expression of pCREB in the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  3. Baclofen reversed thermal place preference in rats with chronic constriction injury.

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    Salte, K; Lea, G; Franek, M; Vaculin, S

    2016-06-20

    Chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve was used as an animal model of neuropathic pain. Instead of frequently used reflex-based tests we used an operant thermal place preference test to evaluate signs of neuropathic pain and the effect of baclofen administration in rats with neuropathy. Chronic constriction injury was induced by four loose ligations of the sciatic nerve. Thermal place preference (45 °C vs. 22 °C and 45 °C vs. 11 °C) was measured after the ligation and after the administration of baclofen in sham and experimental rats. Rats with the chronic constriction injury spent significantly less time on the colder plate compared to sham operated animals at the combination 45 °C vs. 11 °C. After administration of baclofen (10 mg/kg s.c.), the aversion to the colder plate in rats with chronic constriction injury disappeared. At the combination 45 °C vs. 22 °C, no difference in time spent on colder and/or warmer plate was found between sham and experimental animals. These findings show the importance of cold allodynia evaluation in rats with chronic constriction injury and the effectiveness of baclofen in this neuropathic pain model.

  4. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  5. Effect of gabapentin for treatment of neuropathic pain induced by bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury in rats%加巴喷丁治疗双侧坐骨神经结扎诱发大鼠神经病理性痛的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思; 申乐; 李昊; 罗爱伦; 虞雪融; 黄宇光

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价加巴喷丁治疗双侧坐骨神经结扎(bCCI)诱发大鼠神经病理性痛的效应.方法 SPF级健康雌性SD大鼠48只,体重180 ~ 200 g,7~9周龄,采用随机数字表法,将其分为4组(n=12):正常对照组(C组)、假手术组(S组)、bCCI组和bCCI+加巴喷丁组(G组).加巴喷丁给药方案:给药方式为腹腔注射,术前15 min给药1次,术后7-13 d期间2次/d,每次100 mg/kg,连续7d.分别于术前(基础水平)、术后1、3、6、8、10、14 d时记录双足机械缩足反应阈(MWT)、热缩足潜伏期(TWL)和冷刺激诱发缩足次数(TNCW).结果 与C组比较,bCCI组和G组左足和右足MWT降低,TWL缩短(P<0.05),S组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与bCCI组比较,G组左足和右足MWT升高,TWL延长(P<0.05),TNCW差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 加巴喷丁可缓解bCCI诱发神经病理性痛大鼠机械痛觉过敏和热痛觉过敏,而对冷痛觉过敏无影响.%Objective To evaluate the effect of gabapentin for treatment of neuropathic pain induced by bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (bCCI) of rats.Methods Forty-eight female SPF Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 180-200 g,aged 7-9 weeks,were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =12 each) using a random number table:control group (C group),sham operation group (S group),bCCI group,and bCCI + gabapentin group (G group).Gabapentin 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected once at 15 min before operation and twice a day during 7-13 days after operation for 7 consecutive days.The bilateral mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT),thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL) and number of cold-stimulated paw withdrawal were measured before operation (baseline) and at 1,3,6,8,10,14 days after operation.Results Compared with C group,the bilateral MWT was significantly decreased,and the bilateral TWL was shortened in bCCI and G groups,and no significant change was found in MWT and TWL in S group.Compared with bCCI group,the bilateral

  6. ERK signaling mediates enhanced angiotensin Ⅱ-induced rat aortic constriction following chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xue-ling; DENG Yan; SHANG Jin; LIU Kui; XU Yong-jian; LIU Hui-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for systemic hypertension.The study investigated the functional consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on aortic constriction induced by angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) and the possible signaling involving ERK1/2 and contractile proteins such as myosin light chain kinase (MLCK),myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC).Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into CIH group and normoxia group and exposed to either CIH procedure or air-air cycles.Phosphorylation of ERK1/2,MYPT1 and MLC was assessed by Western blotting following constrictor studies in the presence or absence of PD98059 (10 μmol/L).Results CIH-exposure resulted in more body weight gain and elevated blood pressure,which could be attenuated by pretreatment with PD98059.Endothelium-removed aortic rings from CIH rats exhibited higher constrictor sensitivity to Ang Ⅱ (Emax:(138.56±5.78)% versus (98.45±5.31)% of KCI; pD2:7.98±0.14 versus 8.14±0.05,respectively).CIH procedure exerted complex effects on ERK expressions (total ERK1/2 decreased whereas the ratio of phosphorylated to total ERK1/2increased).CIH aortas had higher MLCK mRNA and basal phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC.In parallel to greater increases in phosphorylation of ERK1/2,MYPT1 and MLC,Ang Ⅱ-induced aortic constriction was significantly enhanced in CIH rats,which was largely reversed by PD98059.However vascular constriction of normoxia rats remained unchanged despite similar but smaller changing tendency of proteins phosphorylation.Conclusion These data suggest that CIH exposure results in aortic hyperresponsiveness to Ang Ⅱ,presumably owing to more activated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  7. Gonadectomy affects brain derived neurotrophic factor in rats after chronic constriction nerve injury

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    Xin ZHAO; Xin WANG; Shu-yun ZHENG; Jian-guo XU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of gonadectomy on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in neuropathic pain. METHODS: Using chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, we detected BDNF mRNA in dorsal root ganglion and protein content in spinal cord by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. The time point we chose was post CCI operation d 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21.RESULTS: After CCI surgery, BDNF mRNA in ipsilateral DRGs was upregulated and reached its maximum on post operation d 7. BDNF protein level in ipsilateral spinal cord was also increased and reached its maximum on post operation d 14. The magnitude of this increase in gonadectomy (GDX) rats was significantly smaller than the GDX-sham rats at each time point. CONCLUSION: Gonadectomy reduced the BDNF increment after CCI surgery.Estrogen may affect nociceptive processing by its effect on BDNF.

  8. Antiallodynic Effect of Herbal Medicine Yokukansan on Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats with Chronic Constriction Injury

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    Yasuyuki Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yokukansan, one of the traditional Japanese herbal medicines, ameliorated neuropathic pain symptoms in patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of yokukansan on neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury (CCI model. Oral administration of yokukansan significantly inhibited mechanical and cold allodynia in the von Frey hair or acetone test, respectively. In comparison, amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, demonstrated moderate, but not significant, antiallodynic effects in the mechanical and cold tests. Yokukansan significantly inhibited the cerebrospinal fluid dialysate level of glutamate that had increased by the stimulation of brush or acetone. Glutamate transporter inhibitors, DL-threo-beta-hydroxy aspartate and dihydrokainate, decreased the yokukansan-induced antiallodynic actions in CCI rats. Our results suggest that yokukansan was confirmed to have antiallodynic effects in CCI rats, which are related to a blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission via activation of glutamate transporters in the spinal cord.

  9. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

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    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model.

  10. Pharmacological correlation between the formalin test and the neuropathic pain behavior in different species with chronic constriction injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.C.P.; Geenen, F.; Biermans, R.; Meert, T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Research on mechanisms of drug action, and preclinical screening of molecules with a potential activity on neuropathic pain requires extensive animal work. The chronic constriction injury model is one of the best-characterized models of neuropathic pain behavior in rats, but requires extensive time

  11. Analgesic effect of gabapentin in a rat model for chronic constrictive injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lu-lu; LIU Wei; HUANG Yu-guang; YANG Nan; ZUO Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Gabapentin has been widely and successfully used in the clinic for many neuropathic pain syndromes since last decade,however its analgesic mechanisms are still elusive.Our study was to investigate whether Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) contributes to the analgesic effect of gabapentin on a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model.Methods Gabapentin (2%,100 mg/kg) or saline (0.5 mil100 g) was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes prior to surgery and then every 12 hours from postoperative day 0-4 to all rats in control,sham and CCI groups.The analgesic effect of gabapentin was assessed by measuring mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of rats.Expression and activation of CaMKII were quantified by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Results The analgesic effect of gabapentin on mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia was significant in the CCI model,with maximal reduction reached on postoperative day 8.Gabapentin decreased the expression of the total CaMKII and phosphorylated CaMKII in CCI rats.Conclusion The analgesic effect of gabapentin on CCI rats may be related to the decreased expression and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the spinal cord.

  12. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

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    Duo-Yi Li; Lan Meng; Nan Ji; Fang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models,but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined.We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN) on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI).Methods:The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL).Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group.The contralateral SN served as a control.The MWT and TWL were determined again 2,4,6,8,10,12,and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment.On day 14,ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy.Results:Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P =0.000).In the PRF group,MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P =0.000),while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05).Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group.Conclusions:Hyperalgesia is relieved,and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  13. Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Rat Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury: A Preliminary Study

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    Duo-Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF application to the dorsal root ganglia can reduce neuropathic pain (NP in animal models, but the effect of PRF on damaged peripheral nerves has not been examined. We investigated the effect of PRF to the rat sciatic nerve (SN on pain-related behavior and SN ultrastructure following chronic constriction injury (CCI. Methods: The analgesic effect was measured by hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL. Twenty rats with NP induced by ligating the common SN were then randomly divided into a PRF treatment group and a sham group. The contralateral SN served as a control. The MWT and TWL were determined again 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 days after the PRF or sham treatment. On day 14, ipsilateral and contralateral common SNs were excised and examined by electron microscopy. Results: Ipsilateral MWT was significantly reduced and TWL significantly shorter compared to the contralateral side 14 days after CCI (both P = 0.000. In the PRF group, MWT was significantly higher and TWL significantly longer 14 days after the PRF treatment compared to before PRF treatment (both P = 0.000, while no such difference was observed in the sham group (P > 0.05. Electron microscopy revealed extensive demyelination and collagen fiber formation in the ipsilateral SN of sham-treated rats but sparse demyelination and some nerve fiber regrowth in the PRF treatment group. Conclusions: Hyperalgesia is relieved, and ultrastructural damage ameliorated after direct PRF treatment to the SN in the CCI rat model of NP.

  14. Neurotrophic factor changes in the rat thick skin following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve

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    Peleshok Jennifer C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous peripheral neuropathies have been associated with changes of the sensory fiber innervation in the dermis and epidermis. These changes are mediated in part by the increase in local expression of trophic factors. Increase in target tissue nerve growth factor has been implicated in the promotion of peptidergic afferent and sympathetic efferent sprouting following nerve injury. The primary source of nerve growth factor is cells found in the target tissue, namely the skin. Recent evidence regarding the release and extracellular maturation of nerve growth factor indicate that it is produced in its precursor form and matured in the extracellular space. It is our hypothesis that the precursor form of nerve growth factor should be detectable in those cell types producing it. To date, limitations in available immunohistochemical tools have restricted efforts in obtaining an accurate distribution of nerve growth factor in the skin of naïve animals and those with neuropathic pain lesions. It is the objective of this study to delineate the distribution of the precursor form of nerve growth factor to those cell types expressing it, as well as to describe its distribution with respect to those nerve fibers responsive to it. Results We observed a decrease in peptidergic fiber innervation at 1 week after the application of a chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve, followed by a recovery, correlating with TrkA protein levels. ProNGF expression in CCI animals was significantly higher than in sham-operated controls from 1-4 weeks post-CCI. ProNGF immunoreactivity was increased in mast cells at 1 week post-CCI and, at later time points, in keratinocytes. P75 expression within the dermis and epidermis was significantly higher in CCI-operated animals than in controls and these changes were localized to neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations using specific markers for each. Conclusions We describe proNGF expression by

  15. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

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    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  16. Myogenic constriction is increased in mesenteric resistance arteries from rats with chronic heart failure : instantaneous counteraction by acute AT(1) receptor blockade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwend, S; Henning, RH; Pinto, YM; de Zeeuw, D; van Gilst, WH; Buikema, H

    2003-01-01

    1 Increased vascular resistance in chronic heart failure (CHF) has been attributed to stimulated neurohumoral systems. However, local mechanisms may also importantly contribute to set arterial tone. Our aim, therefore, was to test whether pressure-induced myogenic constriction of resistance arteries

  17. Moringa oleifera Leaves Extract Attenuates Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury

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    Jurairat Khongrum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neuropathic pain, a challenge of this decade, has been reported to be associated with the diversity conditions including diabetes. At present, there are no conventional analgesics that can effectively treat neuropathic pain with a satisfactory outcome. Due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy, the searching for novel effective remedies in the management of neuropathic pain is required. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g were induced diabetes mellitus by Streptozotocin (STZ (single injection, 65 mg kg-1 BW, i.p. Diabetic rats were induced neuropathic pain by Constricting the right sciatic nerve (CCI at permanently. Then, all rats were administered the extract of M. oleifera leaves at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1 BW once daily in a period of 21 days. The analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated using Von Frey filament and hot plate tests every 3 days after CCI throughout 21-day experimental period. In addition, at the end of the experiment, the alteration of oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in the injured sciatic nerve were also evaluated. Results: The current results showed that rats subjected to M.oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg-1 BW significantly reversed the decreased withdrawal threshold intensity and withdrawal latency in Von Frey filament and hot plate tests respectively. In addition, rats subjected to the medium dose extract also reversed the decreased activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the elevation of MDA level in the injured nerve. Taken all together, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract can attenuate neuropathic pain in diabetic condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also involve. Conclusion: Our results suggest that M. oleifera leaves may be the potential novel adjuvant therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  18. Radial shock wave therapy in the treatment of chronic constriction injury model in rats: a preliminary study

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    Fu Miao; Cheng Hao; Li Duoyi; Yu Xiaotong; Ji Nan; Luo Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain physicians pay close attention to neuropathic pain (NP),since there is currently no ideal treatment.Radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) is a noninvasive treatment to chronic pain of soft tissue disorders.So far,there is no information on the use of RSWT for the treatment of NP.Therefore we observe the effects of RSWT on a NP model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats.Methods Four different energy densities (1.0,1.5,2.0 and 2.5 bar) RSWT administered as a single session or repeated sessions in rats with NP induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve.The analgesic effect was assessed by measuring mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL).The safety was assessed through calculating sciatic functional index (SFI).Results MWT and TWL increased after a single session of RSWT from day 1 to day 5 but retumed to baseline levels by day 10.Following repeated sessions of RSWT,both the MWT and TWL were significantly higher than NP group (P < 0.01)for at least 4 weeks.In addition,no significant changes of SFI were observed in any groups after repeated sessions of RSWT and no increased pain or other side effects in any animals.Conclusions A single session of RSWT is rapidly effective in the treatment of CCI,but the efficacy maintained in a short period.However,repeated sessions of RSWT have prolonged efficacy.

  19. Antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone on a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain.

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    Zulazmi, Nurul Atiqah; Gopalsamy, Banulata; Farouk, Ahmad Akira Omar; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Bharatham, B Hemabarathy; Perimal, Enoch Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.

  20. The Effect of Alternating Current Iontophoresis on Rats with the Chronic Constriction Injury to the Infraorbital Nerve

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    Yoko Yamazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of AC iontophoresis on rats with the chronic constriction injury (CCI to the infraorbital nerve by animal experiments. CCI model rats were divided into four groups, namely, rats that received general anesthesia for 60 min except AC IOP (CCI: n=5, AC IOP with 0.9% physiological saline for 60 min (CCI + saline AC IOP: n=5, AC IOP with 4% lidocaine hydrochloride for 60 min (CCI + lidocaine AC IOP: n=5, and attachment of two electrodes soaked with 4% lidocaine hydrochloride to the facial skin for 60 min (CCI + attach lidocaine: n=5. In the CCI + lidocaine AC IOP group, an elevated withdrawal threshold was observed after AC IOP, and the duration of efficacy was longer compared with that in the CCI + saline AC IOP and CCI + attached lidocaine groups. A significant decrease in the number of Fos-like immunoreactive (LI cells was observed in the CCI + lidocaine AC IOP group compared with that in the CCI group. These findings suggest that the effect of CCI + lidocaine AC IOP group may be caused by active permeation of lidocaine into the facial skin and electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nucleus.

  1. The Antinociceptive Effects of Tramadol and/or Gabapentin on Rat Neuropathic Pain Induced by a Chronic Constriction Injury.

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    Corona-Ramos, Janette Nallely; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Medina-López, José Raúl; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical Research The current work evaluates the interaction between two commonly used drugs, tramadol (Tra) and gabapentin (Gbp). Dose-response curves (DRC) and isobolographic analysis were used to confirm their synergistic antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic responses in a rat neuropathic pain model involving chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and in von Frey and acetone tests. Tra and Gbp produced dose-dependent antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects. Dose-response studies of combinations of Tra and Gbp in combination showed the DRC was leftward-shifted compared to the DRCs for each compound alone. One combination demonstrated both antihyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects greater than those observed after individual administration. The remaining combinations demonstrated an additive effect. The Tra+Gbp combination demonstrated a potentiative effect with smaller doses of Tra. Additionally, it was determined lethal dose 50 (LD50 ) of Tra alone and tramadol + Gbp 10 using mice to 48 h post administration. The DRC (death) were similar for Tra alone and in Tra in combination, despite the improved effectiveness of Tra in the presence of GBP, 10 mg/kg. A combination of these drugs could be effective in neuropathic pain therapy because they can produce potentiative (at a low dose) or additive effects. Drug Dev Res 77 : 217-226, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ameliorative potential of Vernonia cinerea on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    VENKATA R.K. THIAGARAJAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the ameliorative potential of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea in the chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Behavioral parameters such as a hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal, chemical and mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. Biochemical changes in sciatic nerve tissue were ruled out by estimating thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels. Ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea and pregabalin were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI of sciatic nerve has been shown to induce significant changes in behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments when compared to the sham control group. Vernonia cinerea attenuated in a dose dependent manner the above pathological changes induced by CCI of the sciatic nerve, which is similar to attenuation of the pregabalin pretreated group. The ameliorating effect of ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea against CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain may be due to the presence of flavonoids and this effect is attributed to anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulator actions of these compounds.

  3. Analgesic effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats.

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    Mehta, Ashish K; Bhati, Yogendra; Tripathi, Chakra D; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-08-01

    Despite immense advances in the treatment strategies, management of neuropathic pain remains unsatisfactory. Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs, used to improve cognitive impairment. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced by the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Following this, piracetam was intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and pain was assessed by employing the behavioural tests for thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate and tail flick tests) and cold allodynia (acetone test). After the induction of neuropathic pain, significant development of thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia was observed. The administration of piracetam (50 mg/kg) did not have any significant effect on all the behavioural tests. Further, piracetam (100 mg/kg) also had no effect on the hot plate and tail flick tests; however it significantly decreased the paw withdrawal duration in the acetone test. Piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly modulated neuropathic pain as observed from the increased hot plate and tail flick latencies, and decreased paw withdrawal duration (in acetone test). Therefore, the present study suggests the potential use of piracetam in the treatment of neuropathic pain, which merits further clinical investigation.

  4. Role of Oxidants in Interstitial Lung Diseases: Pneumoconioses, Constrictive Bronchiolitis, and Chronic Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia

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    William N. Rom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidants such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and myeloperoxidase from activated inflammatory cells in the lower respiratory tract contribute to inflammation and injury. Etiologic agents include inorganic particulates such as asbestos, silica, or coal mine dust or mixtures of inorganic dust and combustion materials found in World Trade Center dust and smoke. These etiologic agents are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages or bronchial epithelial cells and release chemotactic factors that recruit inflammatory cells to the lung. Chemotactic factors attract and activate neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes and further activate macrophages to release more oxidants. Inorganic dusts target alveolar macrophages, World Trade Center dust targets bronchial epithelial cells, and eosinophils characterize tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE caused by filarial organisms. The technique of bronchoalveolar lavage in humans has recovered alveolar macrophages (AMs in dust diseases and eosinophils in TPE that release increased amounts of oxidants in vitro. Interestingly, TPE has massively increased eosinophils in the acute form and after treatment can still have ongoing eosinophilic inflammation. A course of prednisone for one week can reduce the oxidant burden and attendant inflammation and may be a strategy to prevent chronic TPE and interstitial lung disease.

  5. Activation of ERK/CREB pathway in spinal cord contributes to chronic constrictive injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Xue-song SONG; Jun-li CAO; Yan-bing XU; Jian-hua HE; Li-cai ZHANG; Yin-ming ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether activation and translocation of extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK) is involved in the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pa in, and effects of activation and translocation of ERK on expression of pCREB and Fos in the chronic neuropathic pain.Methods: Lumbar intrathecal catheters were chronically implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats.The left sciatic nerve was loosely ligated proximal to the sciatica's trifurcation at approximately 1.0 mm intervals with 4-0 silk sutures.The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 or phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ODN) were intrathecally administered every 12 h, 1 d pre-chronic constriction injury (CCI) and 3 d post-CCI.Thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds were assessed with the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to radiant heat and yon Frey filaments.The expression of pERK, pCREB, and Fos were assessed by both Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis.Results: Intrathecal injection of U0126 or ERK antisense ODN significantly attenuated CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia.CCI significantly increased the expression of p-ERK-IR neurons in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn to injury, not in the contralateral spinal dorsal horn.The time courses of pERK expression showed that the levels of both cytosol and nuclear pERK, but not total ERK, were increased at all points after CCI and reached a peak level on postoperative d 5.CCI also significantly increased the expression of pCREB and Fos.Phospho-CREB-positive neurons were distributed in all laminae of the bilateral spinal cord and Fos was expressed in laminae Ⅰ and Ⅱ of the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn.Intrathecal injection of U0126 or ERK antisense ODN markedly suppressed the increase of CCI-induced pERK, pCREB and c-Fos expression in the spinal cord.Conclusion:The activation of ERK pathways contributes to neuropathic pain in CCI rats, and the function of pERK may

  6. Expression changes of parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 induced by chronic constriction injury in rat dorsal root ganglia

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    CAO Ming-hui; JI Feng-tao; LIU Ling; LI Feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Parvalbumin (PV), as a mobile endogenous calcium buffer, plays an important role in affecting temporospatial characteristics of calcium transients and in modulating calcium homeostasis. PV is expressed in neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn and may be involved in synaptic transmission through regulating cytoplasm calcium concentrations. But the exact role of PV in peripheral sensory neurons remains unknown.Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), belonging to structural microtubule-associated protein family, is especially vulnerable to acute central nervous system (CNS) injury, and there will be rapid loss of MAP-2 at the injury site. The present study investigated the changes of PV expressing neurons and the MAP-2 neurons in the DRG after an operation for chronic constriction injury to the unilateral sciatic nerve (CCI-SN), in order to demonstrate the possible roles of PV and MAP-2 in transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive information.Methods Seventy-two adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 180-220 g, were randomly divided into two groups (36 rats in each group), the sham operation group and chronic constriction injury (CCI) group. Six rats in each group were randomly selected to receive mechanical and thermal sensitivity tests at one day before operation and 1,3, 5,7, and 14 days after surgery. After pain behavioral test, ipsilateral lumbar fifth DRGs were removed and double immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression changes of PV and of MAP2 expressing neurons in the L5 DRG before or after surgery.Results The animals with CCI-SN showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Both the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia decreased to their lowest degree at 7 days after surgery compared to the baseline before surgery (P<0.01). In normal rats before surgery, a large number of neurons were MAP-2 single labeled cells, and just a small number of PV

  7. Ameliorative potential of Butea monosperma on chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    Venkata R.K. Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative role of ethanolic extract from leaves of Butea monosperma in chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced neuropathic pain in rats. Hot plate, acetone drop, paw pressure, Von Frey hair and tail immersion tests were performed to assess the degree of thermal hyperalgesia, cold chemical allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia & allodynia in the left hind paw and tail thermal hyperalgesia. Further on, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the biochemical changes in the sciatic nerve tissue. Histopathological changes were also observed in the sciatic nerve tissue. Ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma leaves and pregabalin (serving as positive control were administered for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of surgery. CCI resulted in significant changes in behavioural and biochemical parameters. Pretreatment of Butea monosperma attenuated CCI induced development of behavioural, biochemical and histopathological alterations in a dose dependent manner, which is comparable to that of pregabalin pretreated group. These findings may be attributed to its potential anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and calcium channel modulatory actions of Butea monosperma.O presente trabalho visou investigar o papel do extrato etanólico de folhas de Butea monosperma no alívio da dor neuropática pela injúria de constrição crônica (CCI do nervo ciático induzida em ratos. Placa quente, gota de acetona, pressão na pata, testes de imersão de pelo e cauda de Von Frey foram utilizados para acessar o grau de hiperalgesia térmica, alodinia química fria, hiperalgesia mecânica e alodinia na pata trazeira esquerda e hiperalgesia térmica da cauda. Além disso, substâncias reativas com ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, glutatião reduzido (GSH e níveis de cálcio total foram estimados para acessar as altera

  8. p300 exerts an epigenetic role in chronic neuropathic pain through its acetyltransferase activity in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI

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    Zhu Xiao-Yan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is detrimental to human health; however, its pathogenesis still remains largely unknown. Overexpression of pain-associated genes and increased nociceptive somato-sensitivity are well observed in neuropathic pain. The importance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating the expression of pro- or anti-nociceptive genes has been revealed by studies recently, and we hypothesize that the transcriptional coactivator and the histone acetyltransferase E1A binding protein p300 (p300, as a part of the epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. To test this hypothesis, two different approaches were used in this study: (I down-regulating p300 with specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA and (II chemical inhibition of p300 acetyltransferase activity by a small molecule inhibitor, C646. Results Using the CCI rat model, we found that the p300 expression was increased in the lumbar spinal cord on day 14 after CCI. The treatment with intrathecal p300 shRNA reversed CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, a neuropathic pain-associated factor. Furthermore, C646, an inhibitor of p300 acetyltransferase, also attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, accompanied by a suppressed COX-2 expression, in the spinal cord. Conclusions The results suggest that, through its acetyltransferase activity in the spinal cord after CCI, p300 epigenetically plays an important role in neuropathic pain. Inhibiting p300, using interfering RNA or C646, may be a promising approach to the development of new neuropathic pain therapies.

  9. Effect of delayed intrathecal administration of capsaicin on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats

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    Zhang K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kun Zhang,1 Somayaji Ramamurthy,1 Thomas J Prihoda,2 Maxim S Eckmann1 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Purpose: The current study was designed to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally administered capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Methods: Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups, and all rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Two weeks after injury, five groups received intrathecal administration of either capsaicin in three different dosing regimens or equal volumes of vehicle. The other group received intrathecal capsaicin on the third day after nerve injury. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was assessed by measuring the capsaicin-induced change in thermal and mechanical response thresholds. Results: Capsaicin (150–300 µg/100–200 µL, when administered by fast infusion or chronic infusions at 8 µL/hour or 1 µL/hour, attenuated thermal hyperalgesia as indicated by significantly prolonging paw withdrawal latency to noxious thermal stimulation. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was more profound in the injured limb compared to that in the uninjured limb. When capsaicin was administered on the third day after nerve injury, it failed to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. No significant effect on the mechanical response threshold was observed with intrathecally administered capsaicin. Conclusion: Our data suggest that intrathecal capsaicin could significantly attenuate thermal hyperalgesia, depending on the time when the drug is given after nerve injury, and that the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal capsaicin positively correlates with the previously reported dynamic profile of spinal transient receptor potential

  10. Transient Constrictive Pericarditis: Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies.

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    Gentry, James; Klein, Allan L; Jellis, Christine L

    2016-05-01

    Transient constrictive pericarditis is increasingly recognized as a distinct sub-type of constrictive pericarditis. The underlying pathophysiology typically relates to impaired pericardial distensibility, associated with acute or sub-acute inflammation, rather than the fibrosis or calcification often seen in chronic pericardial constriction. Accordingly, patients may present clinically with concomitant features of pericarditis and constrictive physiology. Non-invasive multimodality imaging is advocated for diagnosis of transient constrictive pericarditis. Echocardiography remains the mainstay for initial evaluation of the dynamic features of constriction. However, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can provide complimentary functional information, with the addition of dedicated sequences to assess for active pericardial edema and inflammation. Although transient pericardial constriction can spontaneously resolve, institution of anti-inflammatory therapy may hasten resolution or even prevent progression to chronic pericardial constriction. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents remain the initial treatment of choice, with subsequent consideration of colchicine, steroids, and other immune-modulating agents in more refractory cases.

  11. Tramadol reduces anxiety-related and depression-associated behaviors presumably induced by pain in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.

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    Caspani, Ombretta; Reitz, Marie-Céline; Ceci, Angelo; Kremer, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-09-01

    Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities of neuropathic pain (NP). Pharmacological preclinical studies on NP have given abundant information on the effects of drugs on reflex measures of stimulus-evoked pain. However, few preclinical studies focus on relief of comorbidities evoked by NP. In this study, we investigated the effects of tramadol on nociceptive reflex, depression-associated and anxiety-related behaviors in a NP model in rats. We used chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve as an animal model of neuropathic pain. We performed electronic von Frey tests (evF) to measure mechanical sensitivity, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) to record anxiety-related behaviors and forced swimming tests (FST) to evaluate depression-associated behaviors. In the evF, CCI rats showed a decrease of 82% of the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) compared to sham (PTramadol increased the PWT by 336% in CCI rats (PTramadol increased the time spent on the open arms of CCI rats by 67% (PTramadol reduced the immobility time in CCI rats by 22% (PTramadol reversed the changes in mechanical sensitivity as well as anxiety-related and depression-associated behaviors that are caused by injury of the sciatic nerve with only minor effects in the absence of injury. These data suggest that tramadol relieves chronic pain and its indirect consequences and comorbidities, and that this study also is a model for pharmacological studies seeking to investigate the effect of drugs on the major disabling symptoms of NP.

  12. Preemptive analgesic effects of low-dose ketamine on growth-associated protein expression in dorsal root ganglion of chronic constriction injury model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyong Lin; Chen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and plays an important role in the treatment of pain.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preemptive analgesic effects of different doses of ketamine on growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in dorsal root ganglion in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury, and to study the differences between high-dose and low-dose ketamineDESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING: Medical College of Shantou University. MATERIALS: Thirty-five adult male Sprague Dawley rats were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ketamine hydrochloride injection was provided by Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jiangsu. METHODS: This study was performed at the Immunological Laboratory, Medical College of Shantou University from September to December 2006. Model of chronic sciatic nerve constricted injury: after anesthesia, the right sciatic nerve was exposed and ligated 1-cm distal to the ischiadic tuberosity with a No. 3-0 cat gut suture. Grouping and intervention: 35 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (n = 5), chronic constriction injury (CCI) group (n = 10), low-dose ketamine group (n = 10), and high-dose ketamine group (n = 10). Rats in the normal control group did not undergo any surgery or drug intervention. Rats in the CCI group received intraperitoneal injection of saline (1 mL), and their sciatic nerves were ligated after 10 minutes. Rats in the low-dose ketamine group underwent intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (25 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve; while, rats in the high-dose ketamine group were given intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg) 10 minutes prior to ligation of sciatic nerve. On the third and the seventh days after surgery, dorsal root ganglion were resected from the sciatic nerve and cut into sections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GAP-43

  13. Attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigma after chronic constriction injury of rats

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    BAHAREH AMIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus elicited antinociceptive effects in the chronic constriction injury (CCI model of neuropathic pain. In this study, we explored anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of such extracts in CCI animals. A total of 72 animals were divided as vehicle-treated CCI rats, sham group, CCI animals treated with the effective dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (200 mg/kg, i.p.. The lumbar spinal cord levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6, were evaluated at days 3 and 7 after CCI (n=3, for each group. The apoptotic protein changes were evaluated at days 3 and 7 by western blotting. Oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione reduced (GSH, were measured on day 7 after CCI. Inflammatory cytokines levels increased in CCI animals on days 3 and 7, which were suppressed by both extracts. The ratio of Bax/ Bcl2 was elevated on day 3 but not on day 7, in CCI animals as compared to sham operated animals and decreased following treatment with both extracts at this time. Both extracts attenuated MDA and increased GSH levels in CCI animals. It may be concluded that saffron alleviates neuropathic pain, at least in part, through attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidant activity and apoptotic pathways.

  14. Attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigma after chronic constriction injury of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bahareh; Abnous, Khalil; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In our previous study, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Crocus sativus elicited antinociceptive effects in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. In this study, we explored anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of such extracts in CCI animals. A total of 72 animals were divided as vehicle-treated CCI rats, sham group, CCI animals treated with the effective dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (200 mg/kg, i.p.). The lumbar spinal cord levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were evaluated at days 3 and 7 after CCI (n=3, for each group). The apoptotic protein changes were evaluated at days 3 and 7 by western blotting. Oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione reduced (GSH), were measured on day 7 after CCI. Inflammatory cytokines levels increased in CCI animals on days 3 and 7, which were suppressed by both extracts. The ratio of Bax/ Bcl2 was elevated on day 3 but not on day 7, in CCI animals as compared to sham operated animals and decreased following treatment with both extracts at this time. Both extracts attenuated MDA and increased GSH levels in CCI animals. It may be concluded that saffron alleviates neuropathic pain, at least in part, through attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, antioxidant activity and apoptotic pathways.

  15. Prokineticin 2 Upregulation in the Peripheral Nervous System Has a Major Role in Triggering and Maintaining Neuropathic Pain in the Chronic Constriction Injury Model

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    Roberta Lattanzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new chemokine Prokineticin 2 (PROK2 and its receptors (PKR1 and PKR2 have a role in inflammatory pain and immunomodulation. Here we identified PROK2 as a critical mediator of neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve in mice and demonstrated that blocking the prokineticin receptors with two PKR1-preferring antagonists (PC1 and PC7 reduces pain and nerve damage. PROK2 mRNA expression was upregulated in the injured nerve since day 3 post injury (dpi and in the ipsilateral DRG since 6 dpi. PROK2 protein overexpression was evident in Schwann Cells, infiltrating macrophages and axons in the peripheral nerve and in the neuronal bodies and some satellite cells in the DRG. Therapeutic treatment of neuropathic mice with the PKR-antagonist, PC1, impaired the PROK2 upregulation and signalling. This fact, besides alleviating pain, brought down the burden of proinflammatory cytokines in the damaged nerve and prompted an anti-inflammatory repair program. Such a treatment also reduced intraneural oedema and axon degeneration as demonstrated by the physiological skin innervation and thickness conserved in CCI-PC1 mice. These findings suggest that PROK2 plays a crucial role in neuropathic pain and might represent a novel target of treatment for this disease.

  16. Prokineticin 2 Upregulation in the Peripheral Nervous System Has a Major Role in Triggering and Maintaining Neuropathic Pain in the Chronic Constriction Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Roberta; Maftei, Daniela; Marconi, Veronica; Florenzano, Fulvio; Franchi, Silvia; Borsani, Elisa; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Sacerdote, Paola; Negri, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The new chemokine Prokineticin 2 (PROK2) and its receptors (PKR1 and PKR2) have a role in inflammatory pain and immunomodulation. Here we identified PROK2 as a critical mediator of neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice and demonstrated that blocking the prokineticin receptors with two PKR1-preferring antagonists (PC1 and PC7) reduces pain and nerve damage. PROK2 mRNA expression was upregulated in the injured nerve since day 3 post injury (dpi) and in the ipsilateral DRG since 6 dpi. PROK2 protein overexpression was evident in Schwann Cells, infiltrating macrophages and axons in the peripheral nerve and in the neuronal bodies and some satellite cells in the DRG. Therapeutic treatment of neuropathic mice with the PKR-antagonist, PC1, impaired the PROK2 upregulation and signalling. This fact, besides alleviating pain, brought down the burden of proinflammatory cytokines in the damaged nerve and prompted an anti-inflammatory repair program. Such a treatment also reduced intraneural oedema and axon degeneration as demonstrated by the physiological skin innervation and thickness conserved in CCI-PC1 mice. These findings suggest that PROK2 plays a crucial role in neuropathic pain and might represent a novel target of treatment for this disease. PMID:25685780

  17. Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Stigma Extract and its Active Constituent Crocin on Neuropathic Pain Responses in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury.

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    Safakhah, Hossein Ali; Taghavi, Tahereh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sokhanvar, Mina; Mohebbi, Narges; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituent crocin on neuropathic pain behavioral responses induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Sham + saline, CCI + saline, CCI+ saffron (30 mg/kg), CCI + crocin (15 mg/kg) and CCI + crocin (30 mg/kg). CCI was induced by applying 4 loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve. Two weeks after nerve lesion, injections of saline, saffron or crocin were started and continued until 26(th) day post-surgery. Pain behavioral responses including mechanical allodynia (von Frey filament testing) and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 40(th) days after CCI. CCI significantly increased pain behavioral responses. Saffron and crocin (30 mg/kg) decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on day 26, and this effect continued until the day 40. Crocin at lower dose (15 mg/kg) was ineffective. These findings indicate that treatment of saffron and crocin after CCI may have a therapeutic effect against neuropathic pain, suggesting that these substances may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition.

  18. Novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG derivative as a new therapeutic strategy for reducing neuropathic pain after chronic constriction nerve injury in mice.

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    Xavier Xifró

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral nerve injury and often fails to respond to ordinary medication. Here, we investigated whether the two novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG polyphenolic derivatives, compound 23 and 30, reduce the neuropathic pain in mice chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI. First, we performed a dose-response study to evaluate nociceptive sensation after administration of EGCG and its derivatives 23 and 30, using the Hargreaves test at 7 and 21 days after injury (dpi. We daily administered EGCG, 23 and 30 (10 to 100 mg/Kg; i.p. during the first week post-CCI. None of the doses of compound 23 caused significant pain diminution, whereas 50mg/kg was optimal for both EGCG and 30 to delay the latency of paw withdrawal. With 50 mg/Kg, we showed that EGCC prevented the thermal hyperalgesia from 7 to 21 dpi and compound 30 from 14 to 56 dpi. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underpinning why EGCG and compound 30 differentially prevented the thermal hyperalgesia, we studied several biochemical parameters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at 14 and 56 dpi. We showed that the effect observed with EGCG and compound 30 was related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN, a known target of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, we observed that EGCG and compound 30 reduced the expression of CCI-mediated inflammatory proteins and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B at 14 dpi, but not at 56 dpi. We also strongly detected a decrease of synaptic plasma membrane levels of N-methyl-D-asparte receptor 2B in CCI-mice treated with compound 30 at 56 dpi. Altogether, compound 30 reduced the chronic thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI better than the natural compound EGCG. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for the preclinical development of compound 30 as an agent to treat neuropathic pain.

  19. Anti-hyperalgesic effect of a benzilidine-cyclohexanone analogue on a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain: Participation of the κ-opioid receptor and KATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Tatt, Lee; Khalivulla, Shaik Ibrahim; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lajis, Nordin; Perimal, Enoch Kumar; Akira, Ahmad; Ali, Daud Israf; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the analgesic effect of a novel synthetic cyclohexanone derivative, 2,6-bis-4-(hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzilidine)-cyclohexanone or BHMC in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice, when evaluated using Randall-Selitto mechanical analgesiometer. It was also demonstrated that pretreatment of naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor blocker), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI, selective κ-opioid receptor blocker), but not β-funaltrexamine (β-FN, selective μ-opioid receptor blocker) and naltrindole hydrochloride (NTI, selective δ-opioid receptor blocker), reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of BHMC. In addition, the analgesic effect of BHMC was also reverted by pretreatment of 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, soluble guanosyl cyclase blocker) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) but not Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker). Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the systemic administration of BHMC attenuated chronic constriction, injury-induced neuropathic pain. We also suggested that the possible mechanisms include κ-opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide-independent cyclic guanosine monophosphate activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opening.

  20. The Effects of Two-Week Swimming Training on Neuropathic Pain Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury and the Expression of GAD65 in Adult Male Rats

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    Babak Farzad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Unknown mechanisms are involved in neuropathic pain. Among the non-pharmacological treatments, it seems that physical activity improves neuropathic pain. However, the possible reasons for the effectiveness of regular physical activity on neuropathic pain are unknown. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of two-week swimming training on the expression of GAD65 enzyme and P2X3 receptor in Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve. Materials & Methods: 40Wistar adult rats were divided into five groups randomly: 1 CCI neuropathic pain with swimming training (CCIST2; 2 CCI neuropathic pain without swimming training (CCI; 3 No CCI neuropathic pain with swimming training (ST2; No CCI neuropathic pain without swimming training (control group; 5 CCI sham surgery (Sham CCI. CCI and CCIST2 groups underwent peripheral nerve injury by four loose ligatures around sciatic nerve. Swimming program included two weeks with five sessions per week, and 30-60 min per session. The protein expressions of GAD65 enzyme and P2X3 receptor were evaluated by western blotting technique. Results: CCI surgery decreased the expression of GAD65, but two weeks swimming training increased expression of GAD65 comparing to CCI and Sham CCI groups (P≤0.001, but P2X3 receptor expression were not significantly different among groups in lumbar segment of rats (P>0.05. Conclusion: Totally, our findings showed that two-week swimming training improves neuropathic pain possibly through maintenance of inhibitory neurons and subsequently increased GAD65, which converts glutamate excitatory neurotransmitter to GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter.

  1. Effects of 660- and 980-nm low-level laser therapy on neuropathic pain relief following chronic constriction injury in rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumipoor, M; Jameie, S B; Janzadeh, A; Nasirinezhad, F; Soleimani, M; Kerdary, M

    2014-09-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most suffered conditions in medical disciplines. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in the induction of NP was studied by many researchers. Neuropathies lead to medical, social, and economic isolation of the patient, so various therapies were used to treat or reduce it. During the recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in certain areas of medicine and rehabilitation. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) is a well-known model for neuropathic pain studies. In order to find the effects of different wavelengths of LLLT on the injured sciatic nerve, the present research was done. Thirty Wistar adult male rats (230-320 g) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). To induce neuropathic pain for the sciatic nerve, the CCI technique was used. Low-level laser of 660 and 980 nm was used for two consecutive weeks. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was done before and after surgery on days 7 and 14, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were also evaluated. CCI decreased the pain threshold, whereas both wavelengths of LLLT for 2 weeks increased mechanical and thermal threshold significantly. A comparison of the mechanical and thermal threshold showed a significant difference between the therapeutic effects of the two groups that received LLLT. Based on our findings, the laser with a 660-nm wavelength had better therapeutic effects than the laser with a 980-nm wavelength, so the former one may be used for clinical application in neuropathic cases; however, it needs more future studies.

  2. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ya-Qiong [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Jin, Shao-Ju [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China); Liu, Ning [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Li, Yu-Xiang [College of Nursing, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Zheng, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Ma, Lin [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Zhao, Cheng-Jun [Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Niu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Sun, Tao [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Yu, Jian-Qiang, E-mail: Yujq910315@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway.

  3. Necrotizing Liver Granuloma/Abscess and Constrictive Aspergillosis Pericarditis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Different Remarkable Phenotypes in Different Chronic Granulomatous Disease Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Eren Akarcan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

  4. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron, Crocus sativus L., and its constituents, safranal and crocin in allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2012-07-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate therapeutic potential of systemically administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts of saffron as well as its bioactive ingredients, safranal and crocin, in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The von Frey filaments, acetone drop, and radiant heat test were performed to assess the degree of mechanical allodynia, thermal allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia respectively, at different time intervals, i.e., one day before surgery and 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post surgery. The ambulatory behavior was evaluated using the open field test. A 7-day treatment with the ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50,100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and safranal (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), attenuated the behavioral symptoms of neuropathic pain in a dose dependent manner. Crocin even at the high dose (50 mg/kg) failed to produce any protective role. However, gabapentine (100 mg/kg) as a reference drug significantly alleviated all behavioral manifestations of neuropathic pain compared to control group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of saffron as well as safranal could be useful in treatment of different kinds of neuropathic pains and as an adjuvant to conventional medicines.

  5. Long-evolution ascites in a patient with constrictive pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos Nunes, Gonçalo Filipe; Fatela, Narcisa; Ramalho, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is an uncommon disease resulting from chronic pericardial inflammation, fibrosis and calcification. Once there are atypical forms of presentation, with subtle or nonexistent cardiorespiratory symptoms, diagnosis may be challenging and difficult. Recurrent ascites in patients with congestive hepatopathy due to constrictive pericarditis is common and, in most cases, reversible after pericardiectomy. Nevertheless, development of persistent liver dysfunction may be a long-term complication. The present work describes a 23 years old man with growth delay, dyspnoea and long evolution ascites, whose exhaustive etiological investigation led to diagnosis. Afterwards the patient underwent elective surgery with symptom and general condition improvement. Ascites differential diagnosis and its association with constrictive pericarditis are briefly reviewed in this article.

  6. 鞘内注射JNK特异性抑制剂SP600125对CCI大鼠痛行为的影响%Effect of intrathecal administration of SP600125 on MWT and TWL of rats after chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫哲; 杨承祥; 王汉兵; 赵伟成; 周小丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of intrathecal administration of SP600125 on both MWT and TWL of rats after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Methods 40 male SD rats were randomized to deride into 5 groups (n=8). Rats in group SP5 received SP600125 5 μg after CCI; rats in group SP25 received SP600125 25 μg after CCI; rats in group SP50 received SP600125 50 μg after CCI; rats in group DMSO received 2% DMSO 10 μl after CCI; rats in group Naive received SP600125 50 μg without sciatic nerve injury. SP600125 was dissolved in 10 μl 2%DMSO solvent. On the 7th day after CCI, MWT and TWL were determined with yon Frey filaments and thermal radiation apparatus repectively after intrathecal administration of SP600125. Results Intrathecal administration certain dosage of SP600125 could attenuate the established mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI rather than normal rats. Conclusion Intrathecal administration certain dosage of SP600125 could attenuate the established mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI.%目的 观察鞘内注射c-Jun氨基末端蛋白激酶(c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase,JNK)特异性抑制剂SP600125对慢性压榨性损伤(chronic constriction injury,CCI)大鼠痛行为的影响.方法 雄性sD大鼠40只,随机分为5组(n=8). SP5组:CCI模型,鞘内注射SP600125 5μg;SP25组:CCI模型,鞘内注射SP600125 25 μg;SP50组:CCI模型,鞘内注射SP600125 50μg;DMSO组:CCI模型,鞘内注射2%二甲亚砜溶剂10 μl;Naive组:正常大鼠,鞘内注射SP600125 50μg.SP600125均溶于2%二甲亚砜10μl.CCI模型制作7 d后行鞘内注射,并测定大鼠机械缩足反射阈值(mechanical withdrawal threshold,MWT)及热缩足反射潜伏期(thermal withdrawal latency,TWL).结果 鞘内注射SP600125对正常大鼠的痛行为无影响.鞘内注射一定剂量SP600125能减轻CCI大鼠的机械痛敏及热痛敏.结论 鞘内注射一定剂量的SP600125能够减轻CCI大鼠的机械痛敏及热痛敏.

  7. Curcumin exerts antinociceptive effects by inhibiting the activation of astrocytes in spinal dorsal horn and the intracellular extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in rat model of chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Feng-tao; LIANG Jiang-jun; LIU Ling; CAO Ming-hui; LI Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of glial cells and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain.Curcumin can alleviate the symptom of inflammatory pain by inhibiting the production and release of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor.However,whether curcumin affects neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury and the possible mechanism involved are still unknown.This study investigated the effects of tolerable doses of curcumin on the activation of astrocytes and ERK signaling in the spinal dorsal horn in rat model of neuropathic pain.Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:a control (sham operated) group,and chronic constriction injury groups (to induce neuropathic pain) that were either untreated or treated with curcumin.Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia thresholds were measured.The distribution and morphological changes of astrocytes were observed by immunofluorescence.Western blotting was used to detect changes in the expression of glial flbrillary acid protein (GFAP) and phosphorylated ERK.Results Injured rats showed obvious mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia.The number of GFAP-positive astrocytes,and the fluorescence intensity of GFAP were significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of injured compared with control rats.The soma of astrocytes also appeared hypertrophied in injured animals.Expression of GFAP and phosphorylated ERK was also significantly increased in the spinal dorsal hom of injured compared with control rats.Curcumin reduced the injury-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia,the increase in the fluorescence intensity of GFAP and the hypertrophy of astrocytic soma,activation of GFAP and phosphorylation of ERK in the spinal dorsal horn.Conclusions Curcumin can markedly alleviate nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.The analgesic effect of curcumin may be attributed to its inhibition of

  8. Effect of Touch-stimulus on the Expression of C-fos and TrkA in Spinal Cord Following Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the innoxious touch-stimulus on the modulation of hyperalgesia and the expression of the C-fos and the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor-TrkA in the spinal dorsal horn neurons following the chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats, 60female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group and CCI group, with each group being further divided into 3 subgroups on the 7th, 14 th and 28th day after operation (n=10). The mechanical and the thermal withdrawal threshold were assessed following the touch stiumulation after the CCI, immunohistochemical methods were employed to observe the expression of the C-fos and TrkA in spinal dorsal horn. Our results showed that the hyperalgesia appeared on the 4th day and reached the maximal level on the 14th day after operation. The expression of the C-fos also increased significantly and reached its maximal level on the 14th day after the touch-stimulus.Meanwhile, the TrkA expression was elevated significantly in both groups, as compared with basic data, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). It is concluded that the level of the C-fos expression changed with the paw withdrawal threshold variation and increased markedly following the innoxious touch-stimulus. The expression of the TrkA receptors also increased gradually following the development of the neuropathic pain. The results suggest that C-fos may play a crucial role in the development of the hyperalgesia in the earlier-time of the neuropathic pain, but TrkA receptors may be involved in the long-lasting adaptive changes of the central pathway in neuropathic pain.

  9. Hydralazine-induced constrictive pericarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, CFC; ElGamal, MIH; Gans, ROB; Hoorntje, SJ

    1996-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed as having constrictive pericarditis 17 months after a typical hydralazine-induced autoimmune syndrome, This late complication of hydralazine has been reported only once. Ten years later the patient was found to have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies directed agai

  10. 慢病毒介导GDNF过表达对CCI大鼠神经病理性疼痛的影响%Effect of lentiviral vector-mediated GDNF up-regulation on neuropathic pain of chronic constriction injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁卓峰; 徐伟; 宋宗斌; 邹望远; 郭曲练

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intrathecal injection of lentiviral vector-mediated up-regulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophicfactor (GDNF) on neuropathic pain of chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats.Methods The CCI model was prepared by ligating the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Seven days after CCI modeling,a single intrathecal injection of lentiviral vectors (LV)-GDNF was given.Before CCI and 3,5,7,14,and 21 days after CCI modeling,the mechanical pain threshold was tested in rats,and 21 days after surgery,Western blot was used to detect the expression of GDNF protein.Results On 21 days after CCI modeling,GDNF expression was reduced compared to sham group.After intrathecal injection of LV-GDNF,GDNF expression was up-regulated in the spinal cord,and CCI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in rats was alleviated.Conclusions Intrathecal injection LV-GDNF can up-regulate the expression of GDNF and alleviate neuropathic pain in CCI rats.%目的 观察鞘内注射过表达胶质细胞源性神经生长因子(GDNF)慢病毒载体对慢性缩窄性神经损伤(CCI)大鼠神经病理性疼痛的影响.方法 采用结扎大鼠坐骨神经制备CCI模型.CCI造模成功后第7天鞘内注射GDNF过表达慢病毒载体.CCI造模前及造模后第3、5、7、14、21天测定大鼠机械痛阈,并于术后第21天采用Western免疫印迹法测定脊髓GDNF表达.结果 Western免疫印迹显示CCI组GDNF表达较假手术组减少(P<0.05);鞘内注射GDNF过表达慢病毒载体后,脊髓GDNF表达上调,且CCI大鼠机械痛敏显著降低(P<0.05).结论 上调脊髓GDNF表达可减轻CCI大鼠神经病理性疼痛.

  11. Losartan protects mesenteric arteries from ROS-associated decrease in myogenic constriction following 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavrinec, Peter; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.; Goris, Maaike; Buikema, Hendrik; Henning, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with hypertension, proteinuria, loss of myogenic constriction (MC) of mesenteric arteries and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under experimental conditions. Previous results showed that ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme act

  12. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  13. Constrictive Pericarditis: A Challenging Diagnosis in Paediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Faustino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Constrictive pericarditis is an uncommon disease in children, usually difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with a previous history of tuberculosis and right heart failure, in whom constrictive pericarditis was diagnosed. The case highlights the need to integrate all information, including clinical data, noninvasive cardiac imaging, and even invasive hemodynamic evaluation when required, in order to establish the correct diagnosis and proceed to surgical treatment.

  14. Hour glass constriction in advanced carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: We recommend epineurolysis for mild to moderate constriction and also end-to-end repair may be needed if extensive and severe constriction was found. It means that if we manage mild to moderate constriction sooner, it can prevent the need for further surgical procedure because of sever constriction.

  15. Nanoscale constrictions in superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Mark David; Naether, Uta; Ciria, Miguel; Zueco, David; Luis, Fernando, E-mail: fluis@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, Javier [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Atkinson, James; Barco, Enrique del [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Sánchez-Azqueta, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Majer, Johannes [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-20

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with nanoscopic constrictions. By reducing the size of the center line down to 50 nm, the radio frequency currents are concentrated and the magnetic field in its vicinity is increased. The device characteristics are only slightly modified by the constrictions, with changes in resonance frequency lower than 1% and internal quality factors of the same order of magnitude as the original ones. These devices could enable the achievement of higher couplings to small magnetic samples or even to single molecular spins and have applications in circuit quantum electrodynamics, quantum computing, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

  16. Pregnancy complicating irradiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, Younes N.; Martan, Ahmed; Amri, Aladin (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology); Amri, M. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Cardiovascular Diseases)

    1992-01-01

    A case is reported of a 24 year-old primigravida who had severe effusive constrictive pericarditis secondary to mediastinal irradiation following chemotherapy for Hodgkins disease. Pregnancy was threatened by serious maternal cardiovascular complications and a non-viable fetus was born spontaneously and prematurely. Patient was completely asymptomatic before pregnancy. (au).

  17. Constrictive pericarditis in a renal transplant recipient with tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Kuthe, S; Jha, V; Kohli, H S; Rathi, M; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, V

    2010-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a common cause of pericarditis in the developing countries and constrictive pericarditis is a serious sequel. There are only three cases of constrictive pericarditis in kidney transplant recipients previously reported in literature. Here, we report a case of constrictive pericarditis developing in a renal transplant recipient while on antituberculous therapy for tuberculous pleural effusion.

  18. Effects of "Kanli Granule" on Skeletal Muscle Apoptosis in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure Induced by Constriction of Abdominal Aorta%坎离颗粒对腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠骨骼肌细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚成增; 蒋梅先; 阮小芬; 腾名子

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察中药坎离颗粒对腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠骨骼肌细胞凋亡的影响.方法:以腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠为研究对象,对其细胞凋亡基因Bax、Bcl-2的蛋白表达进行观察,采用TUNEL检测凋亡细胞;并分别以中药坎离颗粒生药高(13.5 g/kg、)、中(6.75g/kg)、低(3.375g/kg)剂量及培哚普利(0.36 mg/kg)每日1次灌胃,3周1疗程,每疗程后停药1周,共干预8个疗程.结果:慢性心衰大鼠存在骨骼肌细胞凋亡增多的现象;培哚普利、坎离颗粒预防给药能改善上述病理变化,并观察到坎离颗粒改善心衰时骨骼肌细胞凋亡呈现明显的剂量依赖关系.结论:坎离颗粒在改善腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠心功能的同时还能改善其细胞凋亡,对骨骼肌功能的改善可能起有益作用.%To investigate the effects of "Kanli Granule" on the skeletal muscle apoptosis in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by constriction of abdominal aorta. Methods; The CHF rat model was established by ligating the abdominal aorta. The CHF rats were fed intragastrically with "Kanli Granule" (13. 5,6. 75, 3. 375 g/kg) and perindopril once a day for 32 weeks. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 genes were observed, and the apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. Results; The skeletal muscle apoptosis of the CHF rats was increased. Preventive therapy with "Kanli Granule" or perindopril could improve the skeletal muscle apoptosis of the CHF rats, and " Kanli Granule" had a clear dose-dependent relationship in improving the skeletal muscle apoptosis of CHF rats. Conclusion: "Kanli Granule" can improve the skeletal muscle apoptosis in rats with CHF induced by constriction of abdominal aorta.

  19. 鞘内注射GABA转运体-1抑制剂NO-711对神经病理痛大鼠脊髓Fos蛋白表达的影响%Effect of intrathecal NO-711 injection on expression of Fos protein after chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶聪; 付宝军; 刘芳; 李悦

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察脊髓水平GABA转运体-1(γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1,GAT-1)抑制剂NO-711对坐骨神经慢性松结扎(chronic constriction injury,CCI)大鼠机械痛敏和热痛敏以及Fos蛋白表达的影响,探讨NO-711抗伤害性的可能机制.方法:雄性SD大鼠84只,随机分为4组(n=21):假手术生理盐水组、假手术抑制剂组、神经损伤生理盐水组和神经损伤抑制剂组.各组大鼠CCI前5 d进行鞘内置管,在术前测定基础机械性缩足反射阈值(mechanical withdrawal threshold,MWT)和热缩足潜伏期(thermal withdrawal latency,TWL)及Fos蛋白的表达,CCI后5 d鞘内注射100 μg NO-711或生理盐水,测定节扎前、给药前、给药后0.5,1,2,4和8 h大鼠MWL和TWL及Fos蛋白的表达.结果:与给药前和神经损伤生理盐水组相比,神经损伤抑制剂组大鼠在给药后机械痛敏和热痛敏以及Fos蛋白的表达均逐渐降低,并随时间的延长又逐渐恢复到给药前水平,在给药后1 h时作用最明显,并一直持续到给药后4 h.结论:鞘内注射NO-711可通过抑制Fos蛋白表达明显减轻CCI大鼠机械痛敏和热痛敏.%Objective: To observe the effect of the GAT-1 inhibitor NO-711 on behavior and c-fos expression in the dorsal horn of spinal cord after chronic constrictive injury (CCI) in rats, and to investigate the possible mechanism underlying its antinociceptive effect. Methods: Eighty four male Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 280 ~ 300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n = 21 for each goup). All the rats were intrathecally cathetered at 5 d before sciatic nerve ligation, on the 5th day after the ligation, and NO-711or NS was injected through the intrathe-cal catheter. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of rats were determined by thermal radiation apparatus and von Frey microfilament before administration and 0. 5, 1 , 2, 4 and 8 h after administration, respectively. The time course of c-fos expression was

  20. Modified constriction particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Zhang; Limin Jia; Yong Qin

    2015-01-01

    To deal with the demerits of constriction particle swarm optimization (CPSO), such as relapsing into local optima, slow convergence velocity, a modified CPSO algorithm is proposed by improving the velocity update formula of CPSO. The random ve-locity operator from local optima to global optima is added into the velocity update formula of CPSO to accelerate the convergence speed of the particles to the global optima and reduce the likeli-hood of being trapped into local optima. Final y the convergence of the algorithm is verified by calculation examples.

  1. Constrictive pericarditis following mediastinal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffee, M.A.; Hamman, J.L.

    1977-02-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of patients with neoplastic disease have received aggressive radiation therapy to the mediastinum. Following this therapy as many as 30% of patients develop pericarditis with effusion, which may later severely compromise cardiovascular function because of constriction and/or tamponade. In a retrospective study, Martin et al found either transient or persistent pericardial effusion in 24 of 81 patients with Hodgkin's disease, Stages I-III B, who underwent upper mantle radiation. Five of the 24 patients eventually required pericardiectomy for signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade. Most of the retrospective studies of heart disease following radiation therapy demonstrate an increased incidence of cardiac involvement following high doses (over 4000 rads) to the mediastinum; however, acute pericarditis, restrictive disease, and even myocardial infarctions have occurred with a total dose of less than 4000 rads.

  2. Endoscopic release of limb constriction rings in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronderos-Dumit, D; Briceño, F; Navarro, H; Sanchez, N

    2006-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is a sporadic condition that may result in constriction bands, amputation and multiple craniofacial, visceral and body wall defects. It occurs in 1/1,200 to 1/15,000 live births. Most cases present with multiple congenital anomalies that are incompatible with life. A small group of fetuses shows isolated limb constrictions that may cause severe limb dysfunction or limb amputation if left untreated. Successful in utero surgical lyses of constriction rings have been reported. We report a case of constriction amniotic bands involving both legs and compromising blood flow to the distal extremity. The constriction ring was successfully released by a minimally invasive endoscopic surgical technique avoiding severe limb dysfunction or foot amputation.

  3. Effects of naringenin on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain%柚苷配基对慢性压迫性损伤引起的大鼠触摸痛及痛觉过敏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyam Kaulaskar; Pravinkumar Bhutada; Anand Rahigude; Dilpesh Jain; Uday Harle

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the analgesic effects of naringenin on chronic constriction injury (CCI)model of neuropathic pain.METHODS:After inducing of neuropathic pain by CCI,treatment with 25 and 50 mg/kg of naringenin and 10 mg/kg of pregabalin was given.Rats were evaluated for behavioral tests using Hargreaves apparatus for thermal hyperalgesia,pin prick test for tactile mechanical hyperalgesia and cold water-induced allodynia on days 0,3,5,7,14 and 21.At the end of study,oxidative stress parameters were measured.RESULTS:Naringenin showed ameliorating action against CCI-induced neuropathic pain in all the tested models.Also,naringenin attenuated the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide,and restored the level of reduced glutathione.CONCLUSION:The results of the present investigation suggest that naringenin exhibits analgesic effect in sciatic nerve injury model.%目的:研究柚苷配基对慢性压迫性神经损伤模型的镇痛效果.方法:经慢性压迫性损伤建立神经性疼痛大鼠模型后,分别给予模型大鼠25和50 mg/kg的柚苷配基以及10 mg/kg的普加巴林.在第0、3、5、7、14和21天采用Hargreaves方法评估大鼠的行为变化,针刺实验测试触觉性机械痛觉过敏和经冷水诱发的异常性疼痛,最后测定氧化应激反应参数.结果:柚苷配基能缓解经慢性压迫性损伤诱发的神经性疼痛,减轻脂质过氧化反应,降低一氧化氮水平,恢复还原型谷胱甘肽含量.结论:柚苷配基能缓解坐骨神经损伤引起的疼痛.

  4. 新型芳烷酮哌嗪类衍生物YX0611-1对坐骨神经慢性压迫损伤大鼠的镇痛作用%Analgesic effect of novel aralkyl-ketone piperazine derivatives YX0611-1 on chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉梅; 谢炜; 徐祥清; 刘世成; 盛雨辰

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究化合物YX0611-1对神经病理性疼痛大鼠的镇痛作用.方法 建立CCI模型,采用Electronic von Frey法和热辐射法分别测定大鼠机械刺激缩足反射痛阈值(MWT)和热刺激缩足反射潜伏期(TWL).结果 YX0611-1 160 mg·kg-1组和80 mg·kg-1组单次给药均能明显提高大鼠的机械刺激阈值,延长大鼠热刺激潜伏期;YX0611-1 160 mg·kg-1组多次给药能明显提高大鼠机械刺激阈值,延长大鼠热刺激潜伏期;YX0611-1 80 mg·kg-1组多次给药能明显提高大鼠的热刺激潜伏期.结论 化合物YX0611-1对神经病理性疼痛大鼠有镇痛作用.%Aim To explore the anti-nociceptive effect of compound YX0611-1 in rats with a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury ( CCI ). Methods CCI model was performed as four ligatures placed around the fight sciatic nerve and tied without obstructing the blood supply of the nerve. Thermal withdrawal latency ( TWL )and mechanical withdrawal threshold( MWT )of rats were determined by Hargreaves thermal radiation apparatus and electronic von Frey's method of microfilament, respectively. Results YX0611-1 significantly reversed the reduction of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia thresholds at doses of 80 mg · kg-1 and 160 mg · kg -1 after single gavage. Similar with the results of single gavage, the mechanical and thermal thresholds were also significantly enhanced at both doses after consecutive gavages, with the exception that YX0611-1 had no effect on mechanical threshold at 80 mg · kg-1. Conclusion In rat with neuropathic pain, compound YX0611-1 exerts analgesic effect.

  5. Maxillary first premolars: I. Morphology of the apical constriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu; Ming Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the apical constriction morphology of maxillary first premolars in the Chinese population. Methods: Eighty recently extracted human maxillary first premolars from a native Chinese population were used. The number and shape of apical constrictions were recorded under a dental operating microscope (DOM) at 12.5X2.5 magnification. After access preparation, a new K-file was inserted into the canal until the tip of the file was just seen at the apical constriction under the DOM. The teeth with files in the canals were X-rayed from a mesiodistal direction using a direct digital radiography (DDR) system, and the distance between the file tip and the center of radiographic apex was directly measured from the computer screen using DDR measurement software. Results: The percentage of teeth with an apical constriction was 78.5% (102/130). The most common apical constriction shapes were oval (55.9%) and round (35.3%). The mean distance between the apical constriction and the anatomical tip of the root was 0.61 mm, and 84.3% (86/102) were within 1 mm. Conclusion: The most common shape of an apical constriction was oval or round, and the distance to the apex was mostly within 1 mm, indicating that root canal therapy should stop 1 mm from the radiographic apex.

  6. Effects of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family on chronic constrictive injury in rats%胶质细胞源性神经营养因子家族在大鼠坐骨神经慢性压榨损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉萍; 杨建军; 李伟彦; 稽晴

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究大鼠坐骨神经慢性压榨损伤(chronic constrictive injury,CCI)中胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(glialcell line-derived neurotrophic factor,GDNF)和神经细胞黏附分子(neural cell adhesion molecule,NCAM)表达的变化,以及鞘内注射NCAM相似肽c3d、NCAM反义寡核甘酸(Anti)对神经病理性疼痛(neuropathic pain,NP)的影响,探讨GDNF、NCAM在NP中的作用及可能机制. 方法 实验1:成年雄性SD大鼠42只,随机分为2组(每组21只):疼痛组和对照组.疼痛组大鼠行左侧坐骨神经结扎术,建立CCI模型,对照组行假手术.分别于术前1d和术后1、3、5、7、14、21d测机械痛阈(mechanicalwithdrawl threshold,MWT)和热痛阈(thermal withdrawal latency,TWL).采用免疫组织化学染色和RT-PCR技术检测背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)中GDNF和NCAM的表达变化.实验2:成年雄性SD大鼠24只,随机分为4组(每组6只):生理盐水(normal saline,NS)对照组、NS+ GDNF组、c3d+GDNF组、Anti-NCAM+ GDNF组.各组大鼠于建立CCI模型后3d鞘内注射上述制剂,观察其痛阈变化. 结果 实验1:与对照组相比,疼痛组大鼠术前1d、术后1、21 d MWT和TWL差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);术后3、5、7、14d MWT和TWL均降低,其中术后7d阈值最低(P<0.01);术后3、5、7、14d GDNF和NCAM的表达均升高,其中7d表达最高(P<0.01).实验2:与NS对照组相比,NS+ GDNF组、c3d+ GDNF组MWT和TWL明显降低(P<0.01),Anti-NCAM+ GDNF组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);NS+ GDNF组、c3d+ GDNF组与给药前相比,MWT和TWL明显降低(P<0.01);Anti-NCAM+ GDNF组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 大鼠CCI后出现痛阈下降,DRG中GDNF和NCAM表达增高;外源性GDNF可缓解NP,阻断NCAM表达可消减GDNF的镇痛作用,提示GDNF和NCAM信号通路参与了NP的发生和调节.%Objective The present study was to investigate the changes in the expressions of the glial cell line-derived neuro-trophic factor (GDNF) and

  7. Effects of special CaMKⅡ inhibitor m-AIP on sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational pain responses in chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve rats%鞘内注射m-AIP对坐骨神经结扎大鼠疼痛感觉分辨和情绪体验的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔银; 石寒; 马正良; 顾小萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational pain response of intrathecal injection of m-AIP,a special inhibitor of CaMKII,in a rat model of chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve(CCI).Methods Eighteen SD rats were divided randomly into 3 groups(n=6):Group S(sham),Group C(control) and Group m-AIP.Group C and m-AIP were operated with the model of neumpathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve; Group S were treated as sham operated rats.Seven days after operation,Group S and C received intrathecal injection of 0.9% NaCI 20 μl,while Group m-AIP received intrathecal injection of m-AIP 0.5 nmol/20 μl.Escape/avoidance behavior refrecting the affective-motivational dimension of pain was measured on 1.5 h after administration.Rats received pain behavior tests including paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT) and paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTL) before and 2 h,4 h,8 h after administration.Results Treatment with m-AIP attenuated escape/avoidance behavior and reversed pain behaviors after CCI.At 2h and 4h after administration,Group m-AIP PWTL((1 1.45 ± 2.04)s,(10.26 ± 1.48)s) and PWMT ((21.15 ±4.32)g,(20.45 ±4.09) g) were increased when compared with Group C PWTL((9.63 ± 1.65)s,(9.30 ±0.73)s),PWMT((13.87 ±2.36)g,(14.80 ±3.12)g)(P<0.05).Before and8 h after administration,Group m-AIP PWTL,PWMT had no significant difference when compared with Group C (P > 0.05).Conclusion CaMKⅡ may play an important role in sensory and affective pain processing in neuropathic rats.Intrathecal injection of m-AIP can effectively improve pain behaviors and attenuate negative affect.%目的 观察鞘内注射钙调蛋白依赖性激酶Ⅱ特异性抑制剂m-AIP对坐骨神经结扎大鼠疼痛感觉分辨和情绪体验的影响.方法 SD雄性大鼠18只按随机数字表法分为3组(每组n=6):假手术对照Sham组(S组)、坐骨神经结扎模型对照Control组(C组)、m-AIP组.C组和m-AIP组制备坐骨

  8. Effects of Akt1 gene knockout on pain behaviour induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in mice%Akt1基因敲除对坐骨神经结扎小鼠痛行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隽立芹; 薄靳华; 马正良; 顾小萍

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨Akt1基因敲除对坐骨神经结扎小鼠痛行为学的影响.方法 C57BL/6雄性小鼠随机分为Akt1基因敲除组(KO组,n=12)和野生组(WT组,n=12).在小鼠右侧制作坐骨神经慢性挤压(chronic constriction injury,CCI)模型,测试术前1d和术后1d、3d、5d、7d、10d、14d、17d、21 d的机械缩足阈值(paw withdrawal mechanical threshold,PWMT)和热缩足潜伏期(paw withdrawal thermal latency,PWTL).结果 KO组和WT组小鼠的两侧PWMT基础值[右侧:(0.89±0.15)g,(0.87±0.15)g;左侧:(0.97 ±0.19)g,(1.05±0,14)g,P>0.05]和PWTL[右侧:(7.64±0.71)s,(7.56±0.68)s;左侧:(7.67±0.6)s,(7.64±0.64)s,P>0.05]差异无统计学意义.术后各测试时间点KO组/WT组小鼠右侧的PWMT和PWTL与其基础值相比均明显减低(P<0.05),KO组左侧PWMT和PWTL与WT组小鼠相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但是KO组右侧PWMT和PWTL较WT组明显降低(P<0.05).结论 Akt1基因敲除后会加重小鼠坐骨神经结扎所诱发的神经病理性疼痛.%Objective To investigate the effects of Aktl gene knockout on pain behavior induced by chronic constriction injury model of sciatic nerve (CCI).Methods C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into Akt1 knockout group (KO group,n=12),wild type group(WT group,n=12).All mice were made model of CCI in the right sciatic nerve.Each mouse received tests of the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and the paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTL) at the times of 1d before and 1 d,3 d,5 d,7 d,10 d,14 d,17 d,21 d after surgery.Results For both KO group and WT group,the basic values of PMWT(right(0.89±0.15)g,(0.87±0.15)g; left(0.97±0.19) g,(1.05±0.14) g,P>0.05) and PWTL(right (7.64±0.71) s,(7.56±0.68) s ;left: (7.67±0.6) s,(7.64±0.64) s,P>0.05) showed no significantly statistical difference.Compared with WT group and the basic value,PWMT and PWTL were significantly decreased after surgery in KO group (P<0.05).The PWMT and P WTL of the left paw in KO group

  9. Role of SIRT1 in the Extracts of the Chinese Medicine Shaoyao and Gancao in Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats%芍药甘草汤对坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤大鼠痛阈和脊髓SIRT1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 马千; 吕晨; 赵莉; 谢晓燕; 郭小文

    2015-01-01

    [目的]观察芍药甘草汤(shaoyao-gancao decoction,SGD)对坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤(chronic constriction injury,CCI)大鼠机械痛敏和热痛敏的影响,并研究SGD对CCI大鼠脊髓沉默信息调节因子2相关酶1(silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1, SIRT1)表达的影响。[方法] SD大鼠随机分为5组:假手术组(Sham组)、CCI组、SGD组、SGD+SIRT1-siRNA(small-interfering RNA,siRNA)和SGD+MM-siRNA(阴性对照)组,SGD组大鼠在CCI模型建立前6h开始灌胃给予40g·kg-1 SGD,1次/d,连续4d,而Sham组和CCI组大鼠则灌胃给予同体积的0.9%生理盐水;SGD+SIRT1-siRNA组大鼠除灌胃给予40g·kg-1 SGD,还鞘内给予10μL(2.5μg)的SIRT1-siRNA,SGD+MM-siRNA组则给予同剂量的MM-siRNA。各组分别在术前和术后第1、3、5、7d测定机械缩足反射阈值(mechanical withdrawal threshold,MWT)和热缩足潜伏期(thermal withdrawal latency, TWL),手术结束后提取大鼠脊髓测定SIRT1和Ac-NF-κB/NF-κB的蛋白表达。[结果]和Sham组相比,CCI组术后MWT及TWL均下降(P<0.05), SGD组与CCI组相比,MWT和TWL在术后1、3和7d均明显增加(P<0.05)。和Sham组相比,CCI组SIRT1和Ac-NF-κB/NF-κB表达降低(P<0.01),和CCI组比较,SGD+SIRT1-siRNA组SIRT1和Ac-NF-κB/NF-κB表达增加(P<0.01),而鞘内预先给予SIRT1 siRNA组则可逆转SGM的作用(P<0.05,P<0.01)。[结论] SGD能抑制CCI大鼠的机械痛敏和热痛敏,其作用可能和增加脊髓SIRT1的表达有关。%Objective] To observe the effect and the SIRT1 expression of the extracts of the Chinese medicine shaoyao and gancao(SGD) on mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury(CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. [Methods] Mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia were evaluated by mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) and thermal withdrawal

  10. Constricted Canals: A New Strategy to Overcome This Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of constricted canals can be a challenge during endodontic treatment. Over the years, several strategies have been presented in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by this anatomical feature. This paper presents three cases using a different protocol from that recommended by the manufacturer of the Protaper System in order to facilitate the negotiation of constricted canals. These cases suggest that the modified protocol shown is able to perform the shaping process with less resistance, reducing the risk of instrument separation and performing an effective process to reach the apical thirds in constricted canals.

  11. Penile constriction injury: An experience of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Somaji Sawant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile injury due to constriction by a foreign object is a rare known complication, commonly seen in pediatric age group. We report four cases of penile constriction injury in adults due to various foreign objects and different indications. Between October 2014 and March 2016, four patients (mean age 42.5 years presented with penile constriction injury with duration at presentation ranging from 18 h to 2 months. One patient had complete transection of the corpus and penile urethra. Three patients were managed successfully with daily dressings followed by split-skin grafting in one patient. One patient required delayed primary suturing after the resolution of local edema. The outcome was satisfactory in all patients with retained erectile function. Early medical attention and management is the key to success in penile constriction injury cases and to avoid complications and morbidity. Prompt removal can be challenging in cases of metal foreign bodies.

  12. 坐骨神经结扎对大鼠背根神经节和脊髓背角神经元磷酸化环酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白表达的影响%Increased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the dorsal root ganglia and superficial dorsal hornneurons following chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永兴; 祝继洪; 宋学军; 张励才; 曾因明

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve of rats could produce alterations in the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding(CREB) protein in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and superficial dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord. Methods Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was employed as a model of neuropathic pain. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Naive, Sham, CCI 2w(received CCI for 2 weeks) and CCI 4w(received CCI for 4 weeks)groups. Hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli were used to determine the mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Then all the rats were deeply anesthetized and perfused intracardially with paraformaldehyde. The fixed L4-5 spinal cord and the L5 DRG ipsilateral to CCI were harvested for fixation. The pCREB-immunoreactive(pCREB-IR) cells in both DRG and superficial dorsal horn neurons were quantified for analysis using immunohistochemistry methods. Results On the 14th day after sciatic nerve injury, all the rats exhibited significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. The mechanical withdrawal thresholds to yon Frey filament from CCI 2w group decreased significantly compared to both baseline values and those of Sham group( P < 0.01); Thermal withdwal latencies from CCI 2w group decreased significantly compared to both baseline values and those of Sham group( P <0.01). Some rats from Sham group also showed mechanical hyperalgesia compared to hoth baseline values and those of Naive group( P < 0.01 ). 28 days after CCI, both mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were significantly alleviated, with no statistical significance compared to those of Sham group. On the 14th day after CCI, the number of pCREB-IR cells significantly increased in ipsilateral L5 DRGs and superficial dorsal horns( P <0.01) compared to Sham group. The number of phosphorylated CREB-IR cells in the ipsilateral DRGs

  13. Wall shear stress estimates in coronary artery constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. H.; Crawford, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Wall shear stress estimates from laminar boundary layer theory were found to agree fairly well with the magnitude of shear stress levels along coronary artery constrictions obtained from solutions of the Navier Stokes equations for both steady and pulsatile flow. The relatively simple method can be used for in vivo estimates of wall shear stress in constrictions by using a vessel shape function determined from a coronary angiogram, along with a knowledge of the flow rate.

  14. 鞘内注射GDNF对神经病理性疼痛大鼠的影响及可能机制%Effects and mechanisms of intrathecal injection of GDNF on chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁佳; 刘功俭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects and mechanisms of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of neuropathic pain.Methods 120 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with successful intrathecal catheter implantation were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =30 each)--control group (group C),sham operated group (group S),neuropathic pain group (group P),and GDNF group (group G).Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve model in rats was established by ligation of the right sciatic nerve in group P and group G.Group C received no treatment,group S received sham operation,group P received intrathecal injection of normal saline at 10 μl once every other day for a period of 14 days,and group G received intrathecal injection of GDNF at 2 μg dissolved in 10 μl normal saline once every other day for a period of 14 days.Paw withdraw thermal latency (PWTL) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) were measured before treatment and at 3,7 and 14 days after treatment.10 animals from each group were selected at 3,7 and 14 days after treatment and decapitated.The L4-6 segment of the spinal cord of the operated side was isolated.Phosphor-JNK (p-JNK) and Phosphor-ERK (p-ERK) protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn was determined by Western blot.Results Intrathecal GDNF significantly alleviated thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CCI and attenuated CCI induced activation of p-JNK and p-ERK protein expression in spinal dorsal horn of the operated side.Conclusion lntrathecal injection of GDNF can attenuate hyperalgesia in CCI rats through inhibiting p-JNK and p-ERK protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn.%目的 评价鞘内注射胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(GDNF)对神经病理性疼痛大鼠行为学的影响,以及脊髓背角c-Jun氨基末端蛋白激酶(JNK)和细胞外调节蛋白激酶(ERK

  15. Constriction and septation during cell division in caulobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, J S; Hagenzieker, J G

    1981-07-01

    Morphogenesis of the division site in caulobacters had been described as constrictive in Caulobacter spp. and septate in Asticcacaulis excentricus. However, subsequent studies of other gram-negative genera had implied that constrictive division was an artefact resulting from inadequate preservation of septa; exploration of alternatives to osmium fixation, particularly with aldehydes, was recommended. In this study, the appearance of sectioned division sites was reinvestigated in caulobacter cells prepared by 20 different procedures varying with respect to fixation agents, media, schedules, and temperatures, to dehydrating agents, and to embedding resins. Three types of division site morphogenesis were observed: constriction in C. bacteroides and C. crescentus, partial septation in C. leidyi, and complete, undivided septation in A. excentricus and A. biprosthecum. The anatomy of the division site depended on the bacterial strain, not on the method of preparation of the cells for sectioning. These studies confirm the earlier observations on osmium-fixed caulobacter cells and lead to the general conclusion that gram-negative bacteria with tapered poles probably divide by constriction, whereas septation results in blunt cell poles. A pattern of spiral, rather than circular, insertion of new envelope subunits at the cell equator is proposed as a basic developmental difference between constrictive and septate fission in gram-negative bacteria. Since caulobacter prosthecae can develop as extensions of tapered poles formed by constriction, whereas subpolar or lateral prosthecae occur in species with blunt poles resulting from septation, the site of formation of a thick septum appears unsuitable as a site of subsequent envelope outgrowth.

  16. NIFLUMIC ACID INHIBITS THE EXPRESSION OF TMEM16A IN DRG NEURONS IN A RAT MODEL OF CHRONIC CONSTRICTION INJURY OF THE SCIATIC NERVE%尼氟灭酸对CCI模型鼠DRG神经元TMEM16A表达的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田镇溥; 王洋; 张文雯; 王艳萍; 马克涛; 李丽; 司军强

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察尼氟灭酸(niflumic acid,NFA)干预后,TMEM 16A在坐骨神经压榨性损伤(chronic constriction injury,CCI)模型鼠背根神经节(dorsal root ganglion,DRG)神经元上的表达,研究TMEM16A是否参与神经病理性疼痛.方法:制备CCI模型,热板实验检测热缩足反射潜伏期(thermalwithdrawal latency,TWL).在模型制备后第ld开始以腹腔注射形式给予不同浓度的NFA干预14d,取大鼠L4~6 DRG神经元进行实验.免疫荧光实验明确TMEM16A在DRG神经元中的分布;运用RT-PCR技术和Westem Blot技术在给予不同浓度NFA干预后,检测CCI模型DRG神经元上TMEM 16A的mRNA水平和蛋白的表达.结果:(1) CCI组的TWL较正常组明显缩短,给予10 μM、50 μM和300 μM的NFA干预后,各组TWL较CCI组均明显延长(P<0.01,刀=6);50μM的NFA干预组较10 μM的NFA干预组TWL也明显延长(P<0.05,n=6);但300 μM的NFA干预组与50 μM的NFA干预组相比,TWL时间差异无统计学意义. (2)免疫荧光显示TMEM16A主要存在于DRG神经元上;(3) CCI组mRNA水平较正常组明显增高;随着NFA浓度的增加,DRG神经元TMEM 16A的mRNA水平较CCI组逐渐降低,差异具有统计学意义(P< 0.01,n=6). (4) CCI组TMEM16A蛋白表达较正常组的明显增高;随着NFA浓度的增加,DRG神经元上TMEM16A蛋白表达较CCI组逐渐减低,差异具有统计学意义(P< 0.01,n=6).结论:尼氟灭酸能抑制神经病理性疼痛大鼠DRG神经元TMEM16A的表达,而且与尼氟灭酸的剂量相关,提示钙激活氯通道可能参与或调控神经病理性疼痛的发生.

  17. 加巴喷丁复合吗啡预防慢性压迫坐骨神经致痛觉敏化的疗效分析%Analysis of effects of Gabapentin combined with Morphine in preventive analgesia on mechanical hyperalgesia induced by sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晨; 刘红; 万朝权; 朱燕燕; 杨幸怡; 阳桂香; 成建定; 李朝晖

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Gabapentin combined with Morphine in preventive analgesia on mechanical withdrawal threshold and the expression of TNF-a expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in dorsal horn in sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury (CCI) rats. Methods Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham operation group(S), model group(M), preventive analgesia group(P) and normal analgesia group(N). Mechanical pain threshold on the operated side of rats in different groups were measured. Rats were killed on the 10th day after operation. The dynamic changes of TNF-a in spinal dorsal corn neuron were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results The depression of mechanical pain threshold was more responsive in M than P and N after the l0h day of the surgery. The expression of TNF-a in the superficial spinal dorsal horn on the operated side of rats in M was higher than those in P and N (P<0.05). Conclusion Preemptive administration of Gabapentin combined with Morphine which have good effect, can significantly decrease severity of mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CCI, as well as the expression of TNF-a.%目的 观察加巴喷丁复合吗啡预防性镇痛对大鼠慢性压迫坐骨神经(CCI)后导致的机械缩足阈变化以及脊髓背角肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)表达的影响.方法 随机选择重量(180±20)g的成年雄性SD大鼠24只,分为假手术组(S组)、模型组(M组)、预防性镇痛组(P组)和常规镇痛组(N组).观察不同方式给药的模型组和对照组大鼠的行为学变化.术后10 d分离脊髓通过免疫组化检测TNF-α水平的变化.结果 术前各组大鼠机械痛阈差异无统计学意义,与M组相比,手术后各时段S、P、N组都存在不同程度的改变,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);P、N组TNF-α的积分光密度均值(IOD)水平分别为(0.2185±0.01980)、(0.2301±0.01386),与M组的(0.2902±0.01325)比较明显降低,

  18. Dynamics of droplet entrapment in a constricted microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Mehdi; Bithi, Swastika; Vanapalli, Siva

    2016-11-01

    Droplet migration and clogging in confined geometries is a problem of fundamental importance in oil recovery and droplet microfluidics. A confined droplet flowing through a conduit can either be arrested at the constriction or squeeze through it. The dynamics of the trapped and squeezed states are expected to depend on capillary number, drop size, viscosity ratio. Although there have been a number of studies on the dynamics of droplets passing through a constriction, investigations of dynamics of trapped droplets in constricted microchannels is lacking. In this work, we performed three-dimensional simulations of droplet trapping and squeezing process in a constricted microchannel. We also conducted experiments to validate the key results of the simulations. We investigated the impact of different system parameters on the onset of droplet immobilization at the constriction. We found that the continuous phase flows through the corners of the droplet, i.e. gutter flows to play an important role in determining the transition between trapping and squeezing. Therefore we evaluated the effect of different system parameters on gutter flows and found that the hydrodynamic resistance of gutters depends on the viscosity, size and confinement of the droplet.

  19. Isolation of microorganisms using sub-micrometer constrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandogan, Nil; Abadian, Pegah N; Epstein, Slava; Aoi, Yoshiteru; Goluch, Edgar D

    2014-01-01

    We present an automated method for isolating pure bacterial cultures from samples containing multiple species that exploits the cell's own physiology to perform the separation. Cells compete to reach a chamber containing nutrients via a constriction whose cross-sectional area only permits a single cell to enter, thereby blocking the opening and preventing other cells from entering. The winning cell divides across the constriction and its progeny populate the chamber. The devices are passive and require no user interaction to perform their function. Device fabrication begins with the creation of a master mold that contains the desired constriction and chamber features. Replica molding is used to create patterned polymer chips from the master, which are bonded to glass microscope cover slips to create the constrictions. We tested constriction geometries ranging from 500 nanometers to 5 micrometers in width, 600 to 950 nanometers in height, and 10 to 40 micrometers in length. The devices were used to successfully isolate a pure Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture from a mixture that also contained Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that individual strains of the same species can be separated out from mixtures using red and green fluorescently-labeled E. coli. We also used the devices to isolate individual environmental species. Roseobacter sp. was separated from another marine species, Psychroserpens sp.

  20. Isolation of microorganisms using sub-micrometer constrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil Tandogan

    Full Text Available We present an automated method for isolating pure bacterial cultures from samples containing multiple species that exploits the cell's own physiology to perform the separation. Cells compete to reach a chamber containing nutrients via a constriction whose cross-sectional area only permits a single cell to enter, thereby blocking the opening and preventing other cells from entering. The winning cell divides across the constriction and its progeny populate the chamber. The devices are passive and require no user interaction to perform their function. Device fabrication begins with the creation of a master mold that contains the desired constriction and chamber features. Replica molding is used to create patterned polymer chips from the master, which are bonded to glass microscope cover slips to create the constrictions. We tested constriction geometries ranging from 500 nanometers to 5 micrometers in width, 600 to 950 nanometers in height, and 10 to 40 micrometers in length. The devices were used to successfully isolate a pure Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture from a mixture that also contained Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that individual strains of the same species can be separated out from mixtures using red and green fluorescently-labeled E. coli. We also used the devices to isolate individual environmental species. Roseobacter sp. was separated from another marine species, Psychroserpens sp.

  1. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  2. Fractional charge and spin states in topological insulator constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the properties of two-dimensional topological insulator constrictions both in the integer and fractional regimes. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, the constriction functions as a spin filter with near-perfect efficiency and can be switched by electric fields only. Domain walls between different topological phases can be created in the constriction as an interface between tunneling, magnetic fields, charge density wave, or electron-electron interaction dominated regions. These domain walls host non-Abelian bound states with fractional charge and spin and result in degenerate ground states with parafermions. If a proximity gap is induced bound states give rise to an exotic Josephson current with 8 π periodicity.

  3. On transport in quantum Hall systems with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S.

    2007-10-01

    We study edge transport in a simple model of a constricted quantum Hall system with a lowered local filling factor. The current backscattered from the constriction is explained from a matching of the properties of the edge-current excitations in the constriction (ν2) and bulk (ν1) regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model, finding that a competition between two tunneling process, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole symmetry, determines the fate of the low-bias transmission conductance. A novel generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model is found, describing transitions from a weak-coupling theory at partial transmission to strong-coupling theories for perfect transmission and reflection as well as a new symmetry dictated fixed point. These results provide satisfactory explanations for recent experimental results at filling factors of 1/3 and 1.

  4. Size, but not experience, affects the ontogeny of constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F

    2016-03-01

    Constriction is a prey-immobilization technique used by many snakes and is hypothesized to have been important to the evolution and diversification of snakes. However, very few studies have examined the factors that affect constriction performance. We investigated constriction performance in ball pythons (Python regius) by evaluating how peak constriction pressure is affected by snake size, sex, and experience. In one experiment, we tested the ontogenetic scaling of constriction performance and found that snake diameter was the only significant factor determining peak constriction pressure. The number of loops applied in a coil and its interaction with snake diameter did not significantly affect constriction performance. Constriction performance in ball pythons scaled differently than in other snakes that have been studied, and medium to large ball pythons are capable of exerting significantly higher pressures than those shown to cause circulatory arrest in prey. In a second experiment, we tested the effects of experience on constriction performance in hatchling ball pythons over 10 feeding events. By allowing snakes in one test group to gain constriction experience, and manually feeding snakes under sedation in another test group, we showed that experience did not affect constriction performance. During their final (10th) feedings, all pythons constricted similarly and with sufficiently high pressures to kill prey rapidly. At the end of the 10 feeding trials, snakes that were allowed to constrict were significantly smaller than their non-constricting counterparts.

  5. Tidal and subtidal hydrodynamics and energetics in a constricted estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzuelo, Carmen; López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Díez-Minguito, Manuel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of coastal plain estuaries are mainly associated with variable tidal forcing and local winds in combination with bathymetric complexity and coastline irregularity. Specific features, such as constricted areas, can potentially affect and energize the hydrodynamics of these types of systems. Particularly, tidal range and tidal currents can be significantly amplified where the incoming tidal wave becomes constricted. In this work, the impact of a narrow constriction on a mesotidal estuary was analysed at tidal and subtidal time scales. Tidal hydrodynamics, energy fluxes and energy dissipation were determined for the entire Cádiz Bay (southwestern Spain) using the Delft3D numerical model. Field observations were used to analyse tidal propagation and energy dissipation along the bay constriction and to calibrate and test the numerical model. The results indicate that the presence of the constriction transformed and distorted the tide and increased the tidal range and flow velocities along the channel, with implications on energy dissipation. The tidal currents were oriented along-channel at the central part of the constriction, although abrupt bathymetric changes at the channel inner boundary provoked a sudden rotation of the flow. Although the energy fluxes were higher for spring tides and were strongly influenced by winds, the energy dissipation was controlled by bed shear stresses and vertical dispersion. The significance of this energy dissipation was that it destabilized the water column, which resulted in a weakly stratified system with implications on water quality. At a subtidal scale, the residual water volume exchange was the result of the combined effects of the neap/spring tides, wind and waves, whereas tides were dominant at the tidal scale.

  6. A rare combination of amniotic constriction band with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa Hitesh; Shah, Hitesh

    2015-11-11

    Amniotic constriction bands and osteogenesis imperfecta are disorders arising from a collagen defect. We report a rare association of amniotic bands with osteogenesis imperfecta in a child. The child was born with multiple amniotic bands involving the right leg, both hands and both feet. Multiple fractures of long bones of lower limbs occurred in childhood due to trivial trauma. Deformities of the femur and tibia due to malunion with osteopenia and blue sclerae were present. The patient was treated with z plasty of constriction band of the right tibia and bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta. This rare association of both collagen diseases may provide further insight for the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  7. Multidisciplinary emergent removal of a metal penoscrotal constriction device

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nason, GJ

    2017-03-01

    Strangulation of the genital organs is a rare presentation to the emergency department which requires urgent intervention to avoid long term complications. Penoscrotal constriction devices are either used for autoerotic stimulus or to increase sexual performance by maintaining an erection for a longer period. We report a case of a man who presented with penile strangulation following the application of a titanium penoscrotal constriction ring during sexual intercourse seven hours previously. The Fire Brigade department attended with an electric operated angle grinder to facilitate removal of the ring as standard medical equipment (orthopaedic saws, bolt and bone cutters) were insufficient. Fully functional recovery was achieved.

  8. Effect of gabapentin on activation of glial cells in spinal cord after chronic constrictive injury to sciatic nerve in rats%加巴喷丁对神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓胶质细胞活化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林福清; 杨小虎; 侯冷晨; 傅舒昆

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gabapentin on the activation of glial cells in the spinal cord after chronic constrictive injury (CCI) to sciatic nerve in rats.Methods Twenty-four male SD rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8 each): group Ⅰ sham operation (group S), group Ⅱ CCI and group Ⅲ gabapentin + CCI. Right sciatic nerve was exposed and 4 loose ligatures were placed with 6-0chromic catgut. Seven days after operation gabapentin 50 mg/kg in 5 ml was given by intragastric gavage twice a day for 5 days in group Ⅲ. Paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments was measured one day before (baseline) and at 7, 15 d after operation. The animals were killed at 15 d after operation. The lumbar segment L4-5 of the spinal cord was removed. Immunohistochemical double mark technique was used to detect the activation of astrocytes and microglias in the spinal cord. Results Paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation was significantly decreased on the 7th and 15th day after CCI operation in group CCI as compared with group S. After 5 day treatment with gabapentin, the withdrawal threshold to von Frey hair stimulation was significantly higher in group Ⅲ than in group Ⅱ . The activation of astrocytes and microglias in the spinal cord was significantly enhanced in group CCI as compared with group S. Treatment with gabapentin significantly inhibited CCI-induced activation of astrocytes and microglias in the spinal cord. ConclusionGabapentin reduces neuropathic pain by inhibiting activation of glial cells in the spinal cord.%目的 评价加巴喷丁对神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓胶质细胞活化的影响.方法 雄性SD大鼠24只,体重180~220 g,随机分为3组(n=8):假手术组(S组)、坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤组(CCI组)和加巴喷丁组(G组).CCI组和G组采用坐骨神经慢性压迫性损伤法建立大鼠神经病理性痛模型;S组只暴露坐

  9. Effect of Fluorocitrate Administered Intrathecally on Mechanical and Heathyperalgesia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of Sciatic Nerve in Rats%鞘内注射氟代柠檬酸对慢性坐骨神经结扎大鼠机械痛敏和热痛敏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶聪; 李悦; 付宝军; 刘芳; 李恩有

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察脊髓水平胶质细胞代谢抑制剂氟代柠檬酸对坐骨神经慢性结扎(CCI)大鼠热缩足潜伏期(ther-mal withdrawal latency,TWL)和机械缩足阈值(mechanical withdrawal threshold,MWT)的影响.方法 所有的大鼠术前8 d鞘内置管,用MWT和TWL分别评价大鼠机械痛敏和热痛敏.前给药组:于坐骨神经结扎前1 d开始持续到术后1 d(每天2次)分别鞘内注射生理盐水10 μl或氟代柠檬酸50μg,热缩足潜伏期和机械缩足阈值分别于术前2 d,术后1、3、5、7、14 d测定;后给药组:坐骨神经结扎后7 d分别鞘内注射1次生理盐水10μl或氟代柠檬酸50μg,分别于给药后0.5、1、2、4、8 h测定热缩足潜伏期和机械缩足阈值.结果 在前给药组中,与前生理盐水组相比,氟代柠檬酸组大鼠在神经结扎后的1~5 d MWT和TWL明显增加(P<0.05,P<0.01);后给药组中,氟代柠檬酸组大鼠在给药后的各个时间点与后生理盐水组和给药前自身相比,在给药后0.5、1、2、4 h MWT和TWL明显增加(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 术前鞘内注射氟代柠檬酸明显延迟CCI大鼠热痛敏和机械痛敏形成,并且术后7 d鞘内注射氟代柠檬酸明显抑制CCI大鼠已建立热痛敏和机械痛敏,提示胶质细胞的活化参与慢性坐骨神经结扎引发神经病理痛形成和维持.%Objective To observe the effect of fluorocitrate, a glial inhibitor, administered intrathecally on thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Methods SD rats in all groups were intrathecally cathetered at 8 d before operation. Mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia were evaluated by MWT and TWL, respectively. For the rats receiving pre- treatment, glial inhibitor fluorocitrate (50 ug) or normal saline (10 ul), beginning on 1 d before operation, were intrathecally administered twice daily for consecutive 3 days ( pre - treatment), the values

  10. Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mario J

    2016-05-01

    About one-half of the patients with congestive heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Although the etiology of HFpEF is most commonly related to long-standing hypertension and atherosclerosis, a significant number of suspected HFpEF patients have a restrictive cardiomyopathy or chronic pericardial disease. Recognizing these syndromes is important because early diagnosis may lead to instituting specific therapy that may prolong survival, improve quality of life, and/or recognize and treat an underlying systemic disorder. Advances in diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and genetic testing today allow identification of the specific etiology in most cases. Novel pharmacological, immunologic, and surgical therapies are leading to improved quality of life and survival.

  11. Efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona sobre a hiperalgesia persistente induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático em ratos: participação do óxido nítrico Long term analgesic effect of dipyrone on the persistent hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats: involviment of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio José Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito analgésico de longa duração da dipirona foi avaliado em um modelo de dor neuropática assim como a participação da via óxido nítrico-GMPc neste mecanismo analgésico. Uma única administração intraplantar de dipirona (80 µg, no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática induzida pela constrição do nervo ciático exerceu um efeito analgésico, significativo e de longa duração. A inibição da óxido nítrico sintetase com L-NAME (50 ou 100 µg/pata, ou do óxido nítrico (NO endógeno com hemoglobina (10 ou 30 µg/pata, bloquearam o desenvolvimento do efeito analgésico da dipirona. A L-arginina (500 µg/pata reverteu o efeito do L-NAME. Cloreto de metiltionínio (azul de metileno (500 µg/pata, ODQ (50 µg/pata (bloqueadores da guanilil ciclase ou glibenclamida (100, 200 ou 300 µg/pata (bloqueador de canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP inibiram o efeito analgésico da dipirona. O nitroprussiato de sódio administrado no 14º dia após a instalação da hiperalgesia neuropática também exerceu efeito analgésico de longa duração, semelhante ao observado com a dipirona. Sugerimos que a ação analgésica periférica e de longa duração da dipirona, neste modelo experimental, ocorra devido a provável dessensibilização dos nociceptores, envolvendo a via óxido nítrico - GMPc e canais de K+ sensíveis ao ATP.The long term analgesic effect of dipyrone was evaluated on a model of neuropathic pain and the role of nitric oxide/GMPc pathway in this antinociceptive mechanism. One intraplantar dipyrone administration (80 mg, at 14th day after the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, induced a significant and long term analgesic effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS with L-NAME (50 or 100 mg/paw or scavenging of the endogenous NO with hemoglobin (10 or 30 mg/paw inhibited the development of the dipyrone analgesia. L-arginine (500 mg/paw could reverted the effect of L-NAME. Metylene blue

  12. Theoretical study on the constricted flow phenomena in arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Chakravarty, S.

    2012-12-01

    The present study is dealt with the constricted flow characteristics of blood in arteries by making use of an appropriate mathematical model. The constricted artery experiences the generated wall shear stress due to flow disturbances in the presence of constriction. The disturbed flow in the stenosed arterial segment causes malfunction of the cardiovascular system leading to serious health problems in the form of heart attack and stroke. The flowing blood contained in the stenosed artery is considered to be non-Newtonian while the flow is treated to be two-dimensional. The present pursuit also accounts for the motion of the arterial wall and its effect on local fluid mechanics. The flow analysis applies the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations for non-Newtonian fluid representing blood. An extensive quantitative analysis presented at the end of the paper based on large scale numerical computations of the quantities of major physiological significance enables one to estimate the constricted flow characteristics in the arterial system under consideration which deviates significantly from that of normal physiological flow conditions.

  13. Bacterial growth and motility in sub-micron constrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männik, J.; Driessen, R.; Galajda, P.; Keymer, J.E.; Dekker, C.

    2009-01-01

    In many naturally occurring habitats, bacteria live in micrometer-size confined spaces. Although bacterial growth and motility in such constrictions is of great interest to fields as varied as soil microbiology, water purification, and biomedical research, quantitative studies of the effects of conf

  14. Clustering of microscopic particles in constricted blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bächer, Christian; Gekle, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    A mixed suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) and microparticles flows through a cylindrical channel with a constriction mimicking a stenosed blood vessel. Our three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann simulations show that the RBCs are depleted right ahead and after the constriction. Although the RBC mean concentration (hematocrit) is 16.5% or 23.7%, their axial concentration profile is very similar to that of isolated tracer particles flowing along the central axis. Most importantly, however, we find that the stiff microparticles exhibit the opposite behavior. Arriving on a marginated position near the channel wall, they can pass through the constriction only if they find a suitable gap to dip into the dense plug of RBCs occupying the channel center. This leads to a prolonged dwell time and, as a consequence, to a pronounced increase in microparticle concentration right in front of the constriction. For biochemically active particles such as drug delivery agents or activated platelets this clustering may lead to p...

  15. Clustering of microscopic particles in constricted blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächer, Christian; Schrack, Lukas; Gekle, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    A mixed suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) and microparticles flows through a cylindrical channel with a constriction mimicking a stenosed blood vessel. Our three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann simulations show that the RBCs are depleted right ahead of and after the constriction. Although the RBC mean concentration (hematocrit) is 16.5% or 23.7%, their axial concentration profile is very similar to that of isolated tracer particles flowing along the central axis. Most importantly, however, we find that the stiff microparticles exhibit the opposite behavior. Arriving on a marginated position near the channel wall, they can pass through the constriction only if they find a suitable gap to dip into the dense plug of RBCs occupying the channel center. This leads to a prolonged dwell time and, as a consequence, to a pronounced increase in microparticle concentration right in front of the constriction. For biochemically active particles such as drug delivery agents or activated platelets this clustering may have important physiological consequences, e.g., for the formation of microthrombi.

  16. Atypical Presentation of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Holstein Heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Elhanafy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The field diagnosis of constrictive pericardial effusion is often established on the pertinent pathognomonic physical examination findings, but the condition cannot be ruled out based on absence of these cardinal signs. Constrictive pericardial effusion is not always manifested by bilateral jugular venous distention and pulsation, brisket edema, and muffled heart sounds, all of which are considered the key points in the field diagnosis of pericardial effusion and hardware disease. This case will also document that the outcomes of hematology, serum biochemistry panels, and blood gas analysis can be totally inconsistent with passive venous congestion and constrictive pericardial effusion in cattle. Chest radiographic findings revealed radio dense, wire-like objects; the findings were suggestive but not conclusive for pericardial or pleural effusions, due to indistinguishable diaphragmatic outline and cardiopulmonary silhouette. Cardiac ultrasonography was found to be an excellent paraclinical diagnostic procedure for cases that potentially have traumatic pericarditis and constrictive pericardial effusion. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was also a valuable diagnostic aid in establishing a definitive diagnosis.

  17. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Michael; Gao, Guo-Jie; Thomas, Jeffrey; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity.

  18. Nanoplough-constrictions on thin YBCO films made with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkaseh, A A O; Büttner, U; Meincken, M; Hardie, G L; Srinivasu, V V; Perold, W J

    2007-09-01

    Utilizing atomic force microscope (AFM) with a diamond tip, we were able to successfully plough nano-constrictions on epitaxially grown YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films deposited on MgO substrates. The thickness, width, and length of the obtained constrictions were in the range of a few 100 nm. Furthermore, we managed to produce a new S-type constriction, of which the dimensions are easier to control than for conventional constrictions.

  19. Permeability Description by Characteristic Length, Tortuosity, Constriction and Porosity

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Carl Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the permeability of a porous medium as given in Darcy's law. The permeability is described by an effective hydraulic pore radius in the porous medium, the fluctuation in local hydraulic pore radii, the length of streamlines, and the fractional volume conducting flow. The effective hydraulic pore radius is related to a characteristic hydraulic length, the fluctuation in local hydraulic radii is related to a constriction factor, the length of streamlines is characterized by a tortuosity, and the fractional volume conducting flow from inlet to outlet is described by an effective porosity. The characteristic length, the constriction factor, the tortuosity and the effective porosity are thus intrinsic descriptors of the pore structure relative to direction. We show that the combined effect of our pore structure description fully describes the permeability of a porous medium. The theory is applied to idealized porous media, where it reproduces Darcy's law for fluid flow derived from t...

  20. Expansion of Severely Constricted Visual Field Using Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trese, Matthew G J; Khan, Naheed W; Branham, Kari; Conroy, Erin Brown; Moroi, Sayoko E

    2016-05-01

    Google Glass (Google, Mountain View, CA) is a wearable technology with a computer and camera mounted on an eyeglass frame. The camera captures wide-angle video and projects it onto a prism located in the right superior temporal quadrant of the wearer's visual field. The authors present a case of an individual who used Google Glass' video projection feature to expand his severely constricted right visual field. This patient reported improved ambulatory navigation. Using Google Glass, the patient's peripheral vision, measured using Goldmann kinetic perimetry, expanded impressively. Based on these preliminary results, the authors propose further characterization on the potential utility of such head-mount display technology as a tool to improve the lives of patients with severely constricted visual fields. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:486-489.].

  1. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  2. Eggshell calcification of the heart in constrictive pericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh; Vijayvergiya; Ramalingam; Vadivelu; Sachin; Mahajan; Sandeep; S; Rana; Manphool; Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis(CP) is an inflammatory disease of pericardium. Pericardial calcification in X-ray provides a clue for the diagnosis of CP. An extensive "eggshell" type of calcification is rarely seen in CP. We hereby report a case of CP with eggshell calcification of pericardium, encircling whole of the heart. A need for multimodality imaging and hemodynamic assessment followed by surgical pericardiectomy is discussed.

  3. History dependence of vital capacity in constricted lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Thomas P.; Wilson, Theodore A.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hyatt, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic force-length behavior of maximally activated strips of smooth muscle during oscillatory length changes show that force decreases well below the isometric force during the shortening phase of the oscillation. The magnitude of the decrease depends on the rate of shortening; for slower shortening, the decrease is smaller and force is larger. Modeling of expiratory flow, based on these data, predicts that vital capacity in constricted lungs depends on the rate of expiratio...

  4. History dependence of vital capacity in constricted lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A; Johnson, Bruce D; Hyatt, Robert E

    2010-07-01

    Measurements of dynamic force-length behavior of maximally activated strips of smooth muscle during oscillatory length changes show that force decreases well below the isometric force during the shortening phase of the oscillation. The magnitude of the decrease depends on the rate of shortening; for slower shortening, the decrease is smaller and force is larger. Modeling of expiratory flow, based on these data, predicts that vital capacity in constricted lungs depends on the rate of expiration. In maximally constricted lungs, forced vital capacity (FVC) is predicted to be 16% smaller than control, and vital capacity for a very slow expiration (SVC), 31% less than control. These predictions were tested by measuring FVC and SVC in constricted normal subjects. In the first group of 9 subjects, four maneuvers were made following the delivery of two doses of methacholine in the order: SVC, FVC, FVC, SVC. In a second group of 11 subjects, two maneuvers were performed at each dose in the order: FVC, SVC. At the highest dose of methacholine, FVC for both trials in group 1 and for the one trial in group 2 were all approximately 13% less than control, a slightly smaller decrease than predicted. SVC for the 1st trial in group 1 was 27% less than control, also slightly smaller than predicted. The difference between FVC and SVC for this trial, 13%, was close to the predicted difference of 15%. However, SVC for the 2nd trial in group 1 (preceded by 3 vital capacity maneuvers) and for group 2 (preceded by 1) were no different from FVC. We conclude that vital capacity in constricted lungs depends on the dynamic force-length properties of smooth muscle and that the history dependence of the dynamic properties of smooth muscle is more complicated than has been inferred from oscillatory force-length behavior.

  5. Role of calcium in the constriction of isolated cerebral arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendling, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium entry blockers (CEB) have been used in the experimental treatment or prevention of many cerebrovascular disorders including stroke, post-ischemic hypoperfusion after cardiac arrest, cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and migraine headache. However, the mechanism of action of these drugs on the cerebral circulation is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of calcium antagonists, Ca/sup 2 +/-deficient solutions, and vasocostrictors on cerebrovascular tone and /sup 45/Ca fluxes, to determine the role of calcium in cerebral arterial constriction. A Scatchard plot of /sup 45/Ca binding to BMCA showed that Ca/sup 2 +/ was bound at either low or high affinity binding sties. The four vasoconstrictors (potassium, serotonin, PGF/sub 2 ..cap alpha../, or SQ-26,655) each increased low affinity /sup 45/Ca uptake into BMCA. The results demonstrate that: (1) Potassium and serotonin constrict BMCA mainly by promoting Ca/sup 2 +/ influx through CEB-sensitive channels; (2) PGF/sub 2 ..cap alpha../ and SQ-26,655 constrict BMCA in part by promoting Ca/sup 2 +/ influx through CEB-sensitive channels, and in part by releasing Ca/sup 2 +/ from depletable internal stores; (3) The major action of CEB on BMCA is to block vasoconstrictor-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake through both potential-operated (K/sup +/-stimulated) and receptor-operated channels.

  6. Characterization of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with artificial constrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies on the performance of different superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs on one chip suggested that random constrictions existed in the nanowire that were barely registered by scanning electron microscopy. With the aid of advanced e-beam lithography, artificial geometric constrictions were fabricated on SNSPDs as well as single nanowires. In this way, we studied the influence of artificial constrictions on SNSPDs in a straight forward manner. By introducing artificial constrictions with different wire widths in single nanowires, we concluded that the dark counts of SNSPDs originate from a single constriction. Further introducing artificial constrictions in SNSPDs, we studied the relationship between detection efficiency and kinetic inductance and the bias current, confirming the hypothesis that constrictions exist in SNSPDs.

  7. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Frank M.; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape, however it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of...

  9. Motion of an elastic capsule in a constricted microchannel

    CERN Document Server

    Touchard, Antoine; Zhu, Lailai; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the motion of an elastic capsule through a microchannel characterized by a localized constriction. We consider a capsule with a stress-free spherical shape and impose its steady state configuration in an infinitely long straight channel as the initial condition for our calculations. We report how the capsule deformation, velocity, retention time, and maximum stress of the membrane are affected by the capillary number, Ca, and the constriction shape. We estimate the deformation by measuring the variation of the three-dimensional surface area and a series of alternative quantities easier to extract from experiments. These are the Taylor parameter, the perimeter and the area of the capsule in the spanwise plane. We find that the perimeter is the quantity that reproduces the behavior of the three-dimensional surface area the best. We observe that, in general, area-deformation correlated quantities grow linearly with Ca, while velocity-correlated quantities saturate for large Ca but display a steeper incr...

  10. Tuberculous constrictive pericarditis complicated with tuberculous mediastinitis - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Milena Adina; NiŢu, Mimi Floarea; Strâmbu, Lelia; Florescu, Cristina; Streba, Costin Teodor; Trofor, Antigona Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is a rare and severe disease. A 37-year-old patient was admitted in the hospital for dyspnea, precordial pain, right-sided cardiac failure. Chest X-ray showed cardiac enlargement and an opacity suggestive for pleural effusion. Echocardiography revealed an adhesive-effusive-constrictive pericarditis, a very thickened pericardium and bilateral pleural effusion. After a pericardiectomy done to restore cardiac compensation and to identify etiological factors, a tuberculous pericarditis (TBP) was diagnosed. After surgery and starting anti-TB treatment, the patient presented altered clinical status, dyspnea, dry cough, fever and delayed callus formation at sternum level. Thoracic scan revealed mediastinal air collections, pericarditis and pleurisy. Thus, the TBP diagnosis was extended to mediastinal TB and anti-TB therapy was continued. After four months of treatment, another thoracic scan showed disappearance of the mediastinal air-leakage bubbles, multiple new micronodules in both lungs and lymph nodes of up to 15 mm; also increasing pericardial and pleural effusions. This case was interpreted as a TB treatment failure situation. A retreatment regimen was started, resulting in a slow favorable outcome. Pericardial TB is a rare condition, usually with delayed diagnosis and poor treatment benefits. Whenever possible, earlier diagnostic can contribute to better management of these cases.

  11. 鞘内注射γ-氨基丁酸转运体抑制剂NO-711抑制坐骨神经慢性挤压伤大鼠神经病理性痛觉过敏%Inhibition of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by intrathecal administration ofγ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 in rats with chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱珊珊; 曾因明; 王俊科; 严蓉; 聂鑫; 曹君利

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the role of γ-aminobutyric acid transporters in the neuropathic pain. On the chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats 4 doses (5, 10, 20, 40 μg in group N5, N10, N20, N40, respectively) of specific γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 or normal saline (in group NS) were intrathecally administered before sciatic nerve ligation (pretreatment) or at the third day after ligation (post-treatment). The paw withdrawl latency (PWL) from a noxious thermal stimulus and paw withdrawl mechanical threshold (PWMT) of von Frey filament was used as measure of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia respectively. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of NO-711 significantly suppressed thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia in CCI rats (P<0.05, P<0.01), the inhibitory effect lasted for 2 h (N40 group) and 4 h (N20 group) respectively. NO-711 inhibited thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI in a dose-dependent manner. Intrathecal pretreatment with different doses of NO-711 delayed the occurrence of thermal hyperalgesia, but could not delay the emergence of allodynia induced by CCI. This study indicates that γaminobutyric acid transporter inhibiwr has anti-thermal hyperalgesia and anti-tactile allodynia effects in neuropathic rats.%为研究γ-氨基丁酸转运体在神经病理性痛中的作用,实验用坐骨神经慢性挤压伤致神经病理性痛模型大鼠,以清醒大鼠分别对辐射热刺激和机械性触觉刺激的缩腿潜伏期和机械阈值为指标,分为NS组、N5组、N10组、N20组、N40组5组,分别在坐骨神经结扎前和结扎后第三天鞘内给予生理盐水或不同剂量的γ-氨基丁酸转运体特异性抑制剂NO-711(5、10、20、40μg),观察鞘内注射NO-711对大鼠热痛敏和触诱发痛的影响.结果表明,NO-711可显著抑制神经病理性痛大鼠的热痛觉过敏和触诱发痛(P<0.05,P<0.01),其抑制作用持续时间最长分别可达2 h(N40组)和4 h

  12. [Diagnostic difficulties in a case of constricted tubular visual field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Oana-Mihaela; Rusu, Monica; Hâncu, Dacia; Horvath, Kárin

    2013-01-01

    In the paper below we present the clinical case of a 48 year old female with various symptoms associated with functional visual disturbance -constricted tubular visual fields, wich lasts from 6 years; the extensive clinical and paraclinical ophthalmological investigations ruled out the presence of an organic disorder. In the present, we suspect a diagnosis of hysteria, still uncertain, wich represented over time a big challenge in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanisms and reasons for hysteria are still not clear and it could represent a fascinating research theme. The tunnel, spiral or star-shaped visual fields are specific findings in hysteria for patients who present visual disturbance. The question of whether or not a patient with hysterical visual impairment can or cannot "see" is still unresolved.

  13. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben T.; Jacobsen, Lars Magnus W.; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend...... on both fasting time and prey size. In the ball pythons fed with mice of a relative prey mass RPM (mass of the prey/mass of the snake×100) of 15%, we observed a satiety response that developed between 6 and 12h after feeding, but after 24h pythons regained their appetite. With an RPM of 10% the pythons...... a significant decrease in handling time between the first and the second prey and a positive correlation between handling time and the mass of the snake....

  14. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  15. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  16. Constriction of the buccal branch of the facial nerve produces unilateral craniofacial allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susannah S; Grace, Peter M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-12-18

    Despite pain being a sensory experience, studies of spinal cord ventral root damage have demonstrated that motor neuron injury can induce neuropathic pain. Whether injury of cranial motor nerves can also produce nociceptive hypersensitivity has not been addressed. Herein, we demonstrate that chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the buccal branch of the facial nerve results in long-lasting, unilateral allodynia in the rat. An anterograde and retrograde tracer (3000MW tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran) was not transported to the trigeminal ganglion when applied to the injury site, but was transported to the facial nucleus, indicating that this nerve branch is not composed of trigeminal sensory neurons. Finally, intracisterna magna injection of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist reversed allodynia, implicating the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by facial nerve CCI. These data extend the prior evidence that selective injury to motor axons can enhance pain to supraspinal circuits by demonstrating that injury of a facial nerve with predominantly motor axons is sufficient for neuropathic pain, and that the resultant pain has a neuroimmune component.

  17. 慢性坐骨神经痛大鼠脊髓和海马组织脑源性神经生长因子表达的改变%Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in spinal cord and hippocampus of rats with chronic constriction injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁维秀; 张宏; 程姝娟; 杨红菊

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性坐骨神经挤压损伤(chronic constrictioni injujry,CCI)大鼠脊髓和海马组织中脑源性神经生长因子(brain-derived neurotrophicfactor,BDNF)表达的改变.方法:雄性SD大鼠12只,随机分为2组,按Bennett和Xie法制作CCI模型,以von-Frey filament和冰水测定触痛及冷水阈值,采用免疫组化法测定CCI大鼠脊髓和海马组织中BDNF表达.结果:术后14 d,CCI大鼠脊髓背角(手术侧)BDNF免疫阳性表达增加153.3%,双侧海马CA3区锥体细胞BDNF表达均有增加,手术同侧增加65.7%,手术对侧增加203.8%.结论:慢性坐骨神经损伤后,脊髓和海马CA3区BDNF表达增加,提示内源性BDNF可能参与了慢性坐骨神经痛的发病过程.

  18. Modeling Of Blood Vessel Constriction In 2-D Case Using Molecular Dynamics Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rendi, Mohamad; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Blood vessel constriction is simulated with particle-based method using a molecular dynamics authoring software known as Molecular Workbench (WM). Blood flow and vessel wall, the only components considered in constructing a blood vessel, are all represented in particle form with interaction potentials: Lennard-Jones potential, push-pull spring potential, and bending spring potential. Influence of medium or blood plasma is accommodated in plasma viscosity through Stokes drag force. It has been observed that pressure p is increased as constriction c is increased. Leakage of blood vessel starts at 80 % constriction, which shows existence of maximum pressure that can be overcome by vessel wall.

  19. Inhaled corticosteroids stabilize constrictive bronchiolitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashoura, L; Gupta, S; Jain, A; Couriel, D R; Komanduri, K V; Eapen, G A; Safdar, A; Broglio, K R; Adachi, R; Dickey, B F

    2008-01-01

    Post transplantation constrictive bronchiolitis (PTCB) is the most common pulmonary complication among long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is a late manifestation of GVHD. Its treatment with high-dose systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive regimens is associated with multiple side effects. Topical corticosteroids are used for the treatment of other manifestations of GVHD to minimize these side effects. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a series of adult patients to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of PTCB. Seventeen patients with new-onset airflow obstruction were diagnosed with PTCB. Their forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) declined from a median of 84% (range, 56-119) before HSCT to 53% (26-82) after HSCT. All patients received inhaled fluticasone propionate 500-940 microg two times daily. Symptoms of airway obstruction improved and FEV1 stabilized 3-6 months after treatment. We conclude that high-dose inhaled corticosteroids may be effective in the treatment of PTCB and propose a plausible mechanism of its action. A prospective evaluation of its efficacy is warranted.

  20. The big squeeze: scaling of constriction pressure in two of the world's largest snakes, Python reticulatus and Python molurus bivittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Dartez, Schuyler F; Moon, Brad R

    2015-11-01

    Snakes are important predators that have radiated throughout many ecosystems, and constriction was important in their radiation. Constrictors immobilize and kill prey by using body loops to exert pressure on their prey. Despite its importance, little is known about constriction performance or its full effects on prey. We studied the scaling of constriction performance in two species of giant pythons (Python reticulatus and Python molurus bivittatus) and propose a new mechanism of prey death by constriction. In both species, peak constriction pressure increased significantly with snake diameter. These and other constrictors can exert pressures dramatically higher than their prey's blood pressure, suggesting that constriction can stop circulatory function and perhaps kill prey rapidly by over-pressurizing the brain and disrupting neural function. We propose the latter 'red-out effect' as another possible mechanism of prey death from constriction. These effects may be important to recognize and treat properly in rare cases when constrictors injure humans.

  1. Apical constriction: themes and variations on a cellular mechanism driving morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam C; Goldstein, Bob

    2014-05-01

    Apical constriction is a cell shape change that promotes tissue remodeling in a variety of homeostatic and developmental contexts, including gastrulation in many organisms and neural tube formation in vertebrates. In recent years, progress has been made towards understanding how the distinct cell biological processes that together drive apical constriction are coordinated. These processes include the contraction of actin-myosin networks, which generates force, and the attachment of actin networks to cell-cell junctions, which allows forces to be transmitted between cells. Different cell types regulate contractility and adhesion in unique ways, resulting in apical constriction with varying dynamics and subcellular organizations, as well as a variety of resulting tissue shape changes. Understanding both the common themes and the variations in apical constriction mechanisms promises to provide insight into the mechanics that underlie tissue morphogenesis.

  2. Quantifying Compressibility and Slip in Multiparticle Collision (MPC Flow Through a Local Constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Akhter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a compressible fluid with slip through a cylinder with an asymmetric local constriction has been considered both numerically, as well as analytically. For the numerical work, a particle-based method whose dynamics is governed by the multiparticle collision (MPC rule has been used together with a generalized boundary condition that allows for slip at the wall. Since it is well known that an MPC system corresponds to an ideal gas and behaves like a compressible, viscous flow on average, an approximate analytical solution has been derived from the compressible Navier–Stokes equations of motion coupled to an ideal gas equation of state using the Karman–Pohlhausen method. The constriction is assumed to have a polynomial form, and the location of maximum constriction is varied throughout the constricted portion of the cylinder. Results for centerline densities and centerline velocities have been compared for various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, wall slip values and flow geometries.

  3. Re-examining Archie's law: Conductance description by tortuosity and constriction

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Carl Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the electrical conductance of an insulating porous medium (e.g., a sedimentary rock) filled with an electrolyte (e.g., brine), usually described using the Archie cementation exponent. We show how the electrical conductance depends on changes in the drift velocity and the length of the electric field lines, in addition to the porosity and the conductance of the electrolyte. We characterized the length of the electric field lines by a tortuosity and the changes in drift velocity by a constriction factor. Both the tortuosity and the constriction factor are descriptors of the pore microstructure. We define a conductance reduction factor to measure the local contributions of the pore microstructure to the global conductance. It is shown that the global conductance reduction factor is the product of the tortuosity squared divided by the constriction factor, thereby proving that the combined effect of tortuosity and constriction, in addition to the porosity and conductance of the elect...

  4. Prevalence, hemodynamics, and cytokine profile of effusive-constrictive pericarditis in patients with tuberculous pericardial effusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpiko Ntsekhe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effusive constrictive pericarditis (ECP is visceral constriction in conjunction with compressive pericardial effusion. The prevalence of proven tuberculous ECP is unknown. Whilst ECP is distinguished from effusive disease on hemodynamic grounds, it is unknown whether effusive-constrictive physiology has a distinct cytokine profile. We conducted a prospective study of prevalence and cytokine profile of effusive-constrictive disease in patients with tuberculous pericardial effusion. METHODS: From July 2006 through July 2009, the prevalence of ECP and serum and pericardial levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined in adults with tuberculous pericardial effusion. The diagnosis of ECP was made by combined pericardiocentesis and cardiac catheterization. RESULTS: Of 91 patients evaluated, 68 had tuberculous pericarditis. The 36/68 patients (52.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.2-65.4 with ECP were younger (29 versus 37 years, P=0.02, had a higher pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure (17.0 versus 10.0 mmHg, P 15 mmHg (odds ratio [OR] = 48, 95%CI: 8.7-265; P 200 pg/ml (OR=10, 95%CI: 1.1, 93; P=0.04 were independently associated with ECP. CONCLUSION: Effusive-constrictive disease occurs in half of cases of tuberculous pericardial effusion, and is characterized by greater elevation in the pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure and pericardial and serum IL-10 levels compared to patients with effusive non-constrictive tuberculous pericarditis.

  5. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  6. Quantitative visualization of asymmetric gas flow in constricted microchannels by using pressure-sensitive paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yung; Chen, Ying-Hsuan; Wan, Shaw-An; Wang, Yu-Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow in constricted microchannel devices was quantitatively investigated using a pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique. For microchannel devices with constriction ratios of 2 : 1 and 5 : 1, detailed pressure maps for the region around the constriction structure were obtained and enabled visualization of the flow field. Symmetric flow was observed in the microchannel device with a constriction ratio of 2 : 1 at the Reynolds number range 2-165. In the microchannel with a constriction ratio of 5 : 1, a deflected flow pattern was clearly identified from PSP measurements at Reynolds numbers exceeding 107. Furthermore, PSP measurements showed a pressure difference of up to 2.5 kPa between the two lateral locations corresponding to y  =  ±0.15 W (W is the microchannel width) downstream of the constriction at a Reynolds number of 279. The pressure difference resulted from asymmetric bifurcation of the flow.

  7. Dasatinib Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in a Murine Transverse Aortic Constriction Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    Full Text Available Reactive cardiac fibrosis resulting from chronic pressure overload (PO compromises ventricular function and contributes to congestive heart failure. We explored whether nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs play a key role in fibrosis by activating cardiac fibroblasts (CFb, and could potentially serve as a target to reduce PO-induced cardiac fibrosis. Our studies were carried out in PO mouse myocardium induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, via an intraperitoneally implanted mini-osmotic pump at 0.44 mg/kg/day reduced PO-induced accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and improved left ventricular geometry and function. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment inhibited NTK activation (primarily Pyk2 and Fak and reduced the level of FSP1 positive cells in the PO myocardium. In vitro studies using cultured mouse CFb showed that dasatinib treatment at 50 nM reduced: (i extracellular accumulation of both collagen and fibronectin, (ii both basal and PDGF-stimulated activation of Pyk2, (iii nuclear accumulation of Ki67, SKP2 and histone-H2B and (iv PDGF-stimulated CFb proliferation and migration. However, dasatinib did not affect cardiomyocyte morphologies in either the ventricular tissue after in vivo administration or in isolated cells after in vitro treatment. Mass spectrometric quantification of dasatinib in cultured cells indicated that the uptake of dasatinib by CFb was greater that that taken up by cardiomyocytes. Dasatinib treatment primarily suppressed PDGF but not insulin-stimulated signaling (Erk versus Akt activation in both CFb and cardiomyocytes. These data indicate that dasatinib treatment at lower doses than that used in chemotherapy has the capacity to reduce hypertrophy-associated fibrosis and improve ventricular function.

  8. Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin Attenuate Neuropathic Pain via MAPK Pathway in Chronic Constriction Injury Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain remains as the most frequent cause of suffering and disability around the world. The isomers paeoniflorin (PF and albiflorin (AF are major constituents extracted from the roots of Paeonia (P. lactiflora Pall. Neuroprotective effect of PF has been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. However, only a few studies are related to the biological activities of AF and no report has been published on analgesic properties of AF about neuropathic pain to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of AF and PF against CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rat and explore the underlying mechanism. We had found that both PF and AF could inhibit the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK pathway in spinal microglia and subsequent upregulated proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. AF further displayed remarkable effects on inhibiting the activation of astrocytes, suppressing the overelevated expression of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK in astrocytes, and decreasing the content of chemokine CXCL1 in the spinal cord. These results suggest that both PF and AF are potential therapeutic agents for neuropathic pain, which merit further investigation.

  9. Modeling the dynamics of airway constriction: effects of agonist transport and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Samir D; Majumdar, Arnab; Frey, Urs; Suki, Béla

    2010-08-01

    Recent advances have revealed that during exogenous airway challenge, airway diameters cannot be adequately predicted by their initial diameters. Furthermore, airway diameters can also vary greatly in time on scales shorter than a breath. To better understand these phenomena, we developed a multiscale model that allowed us to simulate aerosol challenge in the airways during ventilation. The model incorporates agonist-receptor binding kinetics to govern the temporal response of airway smooth muscle contraction on individual airway segments, which, together with airway wall mechanics, determines local airway caliber. Global agonist transport and deposition are coupled with pressure-driven flow, linking local airway constrictions with global flow dynamics. During the course of challenge, airway constriction alters the flow pattern, redistributing the agonist to less constricted regions. This results in a negative feedback that may be a protective property of the normal lung. As a consequence, repetitive challenge can cause spatial constriction patterns to evolve in time, resulting in a loss of predictability of airway diameters. Additionally, the model offers new insights into several phenomena including the intra- and interbreath dynamics of airway constriction throughout the tree structure.

  10. Constriction of current lines for a porous electrode and effect on electrolyte resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Heuveln, F.H.; Burgers, A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.

    1998-04-01

    The electrodes generally considered for use in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) consist of a porous structure on top of a dense electrolyte. The porous electrode may be viewed as a mesh of point contacts. Neglecting oxygen transport through the electrode material, the electrode reaction is confined to the three-phase boundary zone located at the perimeter of the point contacts. This results in a constriction of the current lines in the electrolyte. The associated increase of the apparent electrolyte resistance is referred to as the constriction resistance. In this study, the constriction resistance was calculated for a conducting ring-like geometry of the point contact using a finite element method. The ring mimics the actual three-phase-boundary (tpb) area. An empirical relation was derived for the constriction resistance. The width of the ring and the distance between nearest-neighbour rings were varied in the calculations. The numerical results are compared with those obtained for a circular contact and with experimental data for the constriction resistance of porous strontium-doped LaMnO3 electrodes on stabilised zirconia. 10 refs.

  11. Oil-in-water emulsions flow through constricted micro-capillarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Oswaldo Robles; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the oil concentration and the drop size distribution on the characteristics of the flow of an emulsion through a constricted capillary was experimentally analyzed and quantified by the ratio of the pressure drop of the continuous phase flow to the pressure drop of the emulsion flow, at the same flow rate. The results confirm that the ratio between the capillary constriction diameter and the oil drop size is one of the most important parameters for this flow. For large oil drop size emulsions, the deformation of the drop as it flows through the constriction leads to a high extra pressure drop at low capillary numbers. For small oil drop size emulsions, the extra pressure drop is a function of the viscosity ratio and the disperse phase concentration. (author)

  12. Revisiting the Nelson-Morfey scaling law for flow noise from duct constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårekull, Oscar; Efraimsson, Gunilla; Åbom, Mats

    2015-11-01

    The semi-empirical scaling law by Nelson and Morfey [1] predicts the noise generation from constrictions in ducts with low Mach number flows. The results presented here demonstrate that the original model loses accuracy for constrictions of high pressure loss. A generalization based on a momentum flux assumption of the dipole forces is suggested and is evaluated against measurement results for orifice geometries of higher pressure loss than earlier evaluated. A prediction model including constrictions at flow duct terminations is also suggested. Improved accuracy for the predictions of the new model is found for orifice geometries of high pressure loss inside and at the end of ducts. The extended model is finally evaluated by measurements on a regular ventilation air terminal device.

  13. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  14. Analysis of the trajectory of a sphere moving through a geometric constriction

    CERN Document Server

    Risbud, Sumedh R; Frechette, Joelle; Drazer, German

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the effect of inertia on suspended particles moving through a geometric constriction to understand the behavior of particles in analogous microfluidic settings, such as pinched flow fractionation devices. The particles are driven by a constant force in a quiescent fluid, and the constriction (the pinching gap) corresponds to the space between a plane wall and a second, fixed sphere of the same size (the obstacle). The results show that, due to the effect of inertia and geometric constriction (individual or combined) the particles attain smaller surface-to-surface separations from the obstacle. We then relate the minimum surface-to-surface separation to the effect that the short-range repulsive non-hydrodynamic interactions (such as solid-solid contact due to surface roughness, electrostatic double layer repulsion, etc.) would have on the particle trajectories. In particular, using a simple hard-core repulsive potential model for such interactions, we infer that the particles wo...

  15. Classification of the pattern of intrauterine amputations of the upper limb in constriction ring syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2000-06-01

    Twenty patients with congenital upper limb amputations caused by constriction rings were reviewed to classify the pattern of these amputations. In the 20 patients studied, 31 upper limbs had congenital amputations. The pattern of amputation was classified into three types. Proximal upper limb amputation was considered type I and was only seen in one limb. The most common pattern of amputation was digital amputation associated with "coning" or "superimposition" of the digits (type II) and was seen in 20 hands. Type II amputations were subclassified according to the involvement of all, ulnar, radial, or central digits by the constriction ring. In type III amputations (N = 10 limbs), there was no associated coning or superimposition of the digits. This type of amputation was subclassified into type IIIA (multiple-digit amputations within the same hand) and type III B (single-digit amputation). Associated anomalies are reviewed and the pathogenesis of constriction rings is discussed.

  16. Nitric oxide alterations following acute ductal constriction in the fetal lamb: a role for superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Oishi, Peter; Wiseman, Dean A; Hou, Yali; Chikovani, Omar; Datar, Sanjeev; Sajti, Eniko; Johengen, Michael J; Harmon, Cynthia; Black, Stephen M; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial compression of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) results in an initial abrupt increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), which is followed by a significant reduction in PBF to baseline values over the ensuing 2-4 h. We have previously demonstrated that this potent vasoconstricting response is due, in part, to an endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In addition, in vitro data demonstrate that ET-1 increases superoxide levels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and that oxidative stress alters NOS activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the potential role of superoxide in the alterations of hemodynamics and NOS activity following acute ductal constriction in the late-gestation fetal lamb. Eighteen anesthetized near-term fetal lambs were instrumented, and a lung biopsy was performed. After a 48-h recovery, acute constriction of the DA was performed by inflating a vascular occluder. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD; 1,000-1,500 units/kg, n = 7) or PEG-alone (vehicle control group, n = 5) was injected into the pulmonary artery before ductal constriction. Six animals had a sham operation. In PEG-alone-treated lambs, acute ductal constriction rapidly decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) by 88%. However, by 4 h, PVR returned to preconstriction baseline. This vasoconstriction was associated with an increase in lung superoxide levels (82%), a decrease in total NOS activity (50%), and an increase in P-eNOS-Thr495 (52%) (P < 0.05). PEG-SOD prevented the increase of superoxide after ductal constriction, attenuated the vasoconstriction, preserved NOS activity, and increased P-eNOS Ser1177 (307%, P < 0.05). Sham procedure induced no changes. These data suggest that an acute decrease in NOS activity that is mediated, in part, by increased superoxide levels, and alterations in the phosphorylation status of the endothelial NOS isoform, underlie the pulmonary vascular

  17. Gas-dynamic disturbances created by surface dielectric barrier discharge in the constricted mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralev, I.; Boytsov, S.; Kazansky, P.; Bityurin, V.

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional structure of the gas-dynamic disturbances, created by surface dielectric barrier discharge in a constricted (saturated) mode, was analyzed simultaneously with the discharge morphology. Discharge was created in the still air under normal conditions. Flow visualization was performed by shadowgraphy and stereo-PIV technique. The wall-normal jets with the origins located in between the positions of the constricted filaments are found. Velocity magnitude in the wall-normal direction is comparable with the tangential component. Flow structure is similar to the one created by the serpentine actuator.

  18. Simulation Research of Magnetic Constriction Effect and Controlling by Axial Magnetic Field of Vacuum Arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立军; 贾申利; 史宗谦; 荣命哲

    2005-01-01

    Based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of vacuum arc, the computer simulation of vacuum arc was carried out in this paper. In the MHD model, mass conservation equation,momentum conservation equations, energy conservation equations, generalized ohm's law and Maxwell equation were considered. MHD equations were calculated by numerical method, and the distribution of vacuum arc plasma parameters and current density were obtained. Simulation results showed that the magnetic constriction effect of vacuum arc is primarily caused by the Hall effect. In addition, the inhibition of axial magnetic field (AMF) on constriction of vacuum arc was calculated and analyzed.

  19. Four-terminal magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron-gas constriction in the ballistic regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Thornton, T.J.; Ahmed, H.; Pepper, M.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel negative magnetoresistance effect is found in four-terminal measurements of the voltage drop across a short constriction of variable width in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas. The effect is interpreted as the suppression by a magnetic field of the geometrical constriction resista

  20. AAV-mediated knock-down of HRC exacerbates transverse aorta constriction-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Sik Park

    Full Text Available Histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC is located in the lumen of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR that binds to both triadin (TRN and SERCA affecting Ca(2+ cycling in the SR. Chronic overexpression of HRC that may disrupt intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis is implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Ablation of HRC showed relatively normal phenotypes under basal condition, but exhibited a significantly increased susceptibility to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we characterized the functions of HRC related to Ca(2+ cycling and pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy using the in vitro siRNA- and the in vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated HRC knock-down (KD systems, respectively.AAV-mediated HRC-KD system was used with or without C57BL/6 mouse model of transverse aortic constriction-induced failing heart (TAC-FH to examine whether HRC-KD could enhance cardiac function in failing heart (FH. Initially we expected that HRC-KD could elicit cardiac functional recovery in failing heart (FH, since predesigned siRNA-mediated HRC-KD enhanced Ca(2+ cycling and increased activities of RyR2 and SERCA2 without change in SR Ca(2+ load in neonatal rat ventricular cells (NRVCs and HL-1 cells. However, AAV9-mediated HRC-KD in TAC-FH was associated with decreased fractional shortening and increased cardiac fibrosis compared with control. We found that phospho-RyR2, phospho-CaMKII, phospho-p38 MAPK, and phospho-PLB were significantly upregulated by HRC-KD in TAC-FH. A significantly increased level of cleaved caspase-3, a cardiac cell death marker was also found, consistent with the result of TUNEL assay.Increased Ca(2+ leak and cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration due to a partial KD of HRC could enhance activity of CaMKII and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, causing the mitochondrial death pathway observed in TAC-FH. Our results present evidence that down-regulation of HRC could deteriorate cardiac function in TAC-FH through

  1. Reducing cholinergic constriction: the major reversible mechanism in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brusasco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The airway narrowing in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has often been misunderstood as being irreversible. However, a large proportion of patients with COPD do respond to bronchodilator agents with significant changes in lung function. Unlike in asthma, abnormalities in airway smooth muscle structure or function are not believed to play a key role in COPD airway narrowing. Although there are only limited data suggesting that cholinergic tone may be increased in COPD, the well-documented efficacy of antimuscarinic agents in increasing airway calibre suggests that cholinergic tone represents the major reversible component of airflow obstruction in these patients. Airway wall thickening and loss of airway-to-parenchyma interdependence are nonreversible components of airflow obstruction in COPD that may amplify the effect of changes in airway smooth muscle tone. Thus, keeping airway smooth muscle tone to a minimum might offer patients long-lasting airway patency and protection against breathlessness, which is the major complaint of patients with COPD. Receptor antagonism by anticholinergic agents can achieve effective relaxation of airway smooth muscle in COPD. According to a classical view of cholinergic receptor function and distribution, the ideal anticholinergic bronchodilator would be one that blocks both M1 and M3 receptors, which mediate airway smooth muscle contraction, but not the M2 receptor, stimulation of which reduces acetylcholine release from vagus nerve endings and prevents the airway smooth muscle from contracting by excessive increments. Agents with such pharmacodynamic selectivity are not available, but effective and prolonged inhibition of airway smooth muscle tone has been obtained with tiotropium, which binds to all three major muscarinic receptor subtypes, but for much longer to M3 than to M2 receptors. Recent data show that long-term treatment with tiotropium for 1 yr helps sustain 24-h airway patency. This

  2. Coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis and outer membrane constriction during Escherichia coli cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, A.N.; Egan, A.J.F.; van 't Veer, I.L.; Verheul, J.; Colavin, A.; Koumoutsi, A.; Biboy, J.; Altelaar, A.F.M.; Damen, M.J.; Huang, K.C.; Simorre, J.P.; Breukink, E.; den Blaauwen, T.; Typas, A.; Gross, C.A.; Vollmer, W.

    2015-01-01

    To maintain cellular structure and integrity during division, Gram-negative bacteria must carefully coordinate constriction of a tripartite cell envelope of inner membrane, peptidoglycan (PG), and outer membrane (OM). It has remained enigmatic how this is accomplished. Here, we show that envelope ma

  3. Does pupil constriction under blue and green monochromatic light exposure change with age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Hébert, Marc; Teikari, Petteri; Mure, Ludovic S.; Doyon, Julien; Gronfier, Claude; Cooper, Howard M.; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Many non-visual functions are regulated by light through a photoreceptive system involving melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that are maximally sensitive to blue light. Several studies have suggested that the ability of light to modulate circadian entrainment and to induce acute effects on melatonin secretion, subjective alertness and gene expression, decreases during aging, particularly for blue light. This could contribute to the documented changes in sleep and circadian regulatory processes with aging. However, age-related modification in the impact of light on steady-state pupil constriction, which regulates the amount of light reaching the retina, is not demonstrated. We measured pupil size in 16 young (22.8±4y) and 14 older (61±4.4y) healthy subjects during 45s exposures to blue (480nm) and green (550nm) monochromatic lights at low (7×1012 photons/cm2/s), medium (3×1013 photons/cm2/s), and high (1014 photons/cm2/s) irradiance levels. Results showed that young subjects had consistently larger pupils than older subjects, for dark adaptation and during all light exposures. Steady-state pupil constriction was greater under blue than green light exposure in both age groups and increased with increasing irradiance. Surprisingly, when expressed in relation to baseline pupil size, no significant age-related differences were observed in pupil constriction. The observed reduction in pupil size in older individuals, both in darkness and during light exposure, may reduce retinal illumination and consequently affect non-visual responses to light. The absence of a significant difference between age groups for relative steady-state pupil constriction suggests that other factors such as tonic, sympathetic control of pupil dilation, rather than light sensitivity per se, account for the observed age difference in pupil size regulation. Compared to other nonvisual functions, the light sensitivity of steady-state pupil constriction appears to remain relatively

  4. CASE REPORT - CHRONIC UTERINE INVERSION : A RARE COMPLICATION OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic uterine inversion is a complication of mismanaged labour. It is a life threatening complication and an obstetric emergency. Early diagnosis , prompt and aggressive management reduce the morbidity and mortality. Incomplete uterine inversion left unattended or unnoticed may lead to constriction ring formation and may require surgical intervention. We report a case of chronic uterine inversion whi ch was reduced by Haultain’s repair.

  5. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  6. Receptor mechanisms of PAF mediated lymphatic constriction in the canine forelimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobbins

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activating factor (PAF is a potent inflammatory lipid. In this study we assessed the ability of PAF to impact lymphatic vessel function by altering prenodal lymphatic resistance. Intralymphatic PAF (7.47 × 10−6, 7.47 × 10−5 and 7.47 × 10−4 M increased lymphatic perfusion pressure at the two highest infusion rates. PAF mediated lymphatic constriction was not altered by the intra-arterial infusion of phentolamine but was blocked by the intra-arterial infusion of the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2170. These data indicate that in addition to PAF's effects on microvascular permeability, this agent may also impact the ability of the lymphatics to transport fluid through alterations in lymphatic smooth muscle tone. PAF mediated lymphatic constriction is not mediated by α-receptors but rather through PAF receptor mediated mechanism.

  7. The effect of gradually constricted channel on the I-V characteristics of graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Fernando; Nobrega, K. Z.; Dartora, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ideal graphene is a gapless semiconductor consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms regularly arranged in a honeycomb lattice having infinite spatial extent in the (x,y)-plane, in which electrons behave as Dirac massless fermions. Even neglecting interactions with the anchoring substrate, a graphene sheet in real world has finite extent, leading to distinctive features in the conductivity of a given sample. In this letter we study the effect of a gradual channel constriction in graphene nanoribbons on their I-V characteristics, using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The constriction width and the border cutting angle are the main parameters to be varied. We found that transmission through the channel is considerably affected by these parameters, presenting sharp peaks at specific energies, which can be attributed to a resonance due to the tuning of energy eigenvalues.

  8. An optofluidic constriction chip for monitoring metastatic potential and drug response of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Vazquez, R; Nava, G; Veglione, M; Yang, T; Bragheri, F; Minzioni, P; Bianchi, E; Di Tano, M; Chiodi, I; Osellame, R; Mondello, C; Cristiani, I

    2015-04-01

    Cellular mechanical properties constitute good markers to characterize tumor cells, to study cell population heterogeneity and to highlight the effect of drug treatments. In this work, we describe the fabrication and validation of an integrated optofluidic chip capable of analyzing cellular deformability on the basis of the pressure gradient needed to push a cell through a narrow constriction. We demonstrate the ability of the chip to discriminate between tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB231) and between human melanoma cells with different metastatic potential (A375P and A375MC2). Moreover, we show that this chip allows highlighting the effect of drugs interfering with microtubule organization (paclitaxel, combretastatin A-4 and nocodazole) on cancer cells, which leads to changes in the pressure-gradient required to push cells through the constriction. Our single-cell microfluidic device for mechanical evaluation is compact and easy to use, allowing for an extensive use in different laboratory environments.

  9. Two-dimensional speckle tracking cardiac mechanics and constrictive pericarditis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Marta; Teixeira, Rogério; Costa, Marco; Gonçalves, Lino; Klein, Allan L

    2016-10-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography has a pivotal role in the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis (CP). In addition to the classic M-mode, two-dimensional and Doppler indices, newer methodologies designed to evaluate myocardial mechanics, such as two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE), provide additional diagnostic and clinical information in the context of CP. Research has demonstrated that cardiac mechanics can improve echocardiographic diagnostic accuracy of CP and aid in differentiating between constrictive and restrictive ventricular physiology. 2DSTE can also be used to assess the success of pericardiectomy and its impact on atrial and ventricular mechanics. In the course of this review, we describe cardiac mechanics in patients with CP and summarize the influence of pericardiectomy on atrial and ventricular mechanics assessed using 2DSTE.

  10. Mechanical roles of apical constriction, cell elongation, and cell migration during neural tube formation in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Watanabe, Tadashi; Yasue, Naoko; Tateo, Itsuki; Adachi, Taiji; Ueno, Naoto

    2016-12-01

    Neural tube closure is an important and necessary process during the development of the central nervous system. The formation of the neural tube structure from a flat sheet of neural epithelium requires several cell morphogenetic events and tissue dynamics to account for the mechanics of tissue deformation. Cell elongation changes cuboidal cells into columnar cells, and apical constriction then causes them to adopt apically narrow, wedge-like shapes. In addition, the neural plate in Xenopus is stratified, and the non-neural cells in the deep layer (deep cells) pull the overlying superficial cells, eventually bringing the two layers of cells to the midline. Thus, neural tube closure appears to be a complex event in which these three physical events are considered to play key mechanical roles. To test whether these three physical events are mechanically sufficient to drive neural tube formation, we employed a three-dimensional vertex model and used it to simulate the process of neural tube closure. The results suggest that apical constriction cued the bending of the neural plate by pursing the circumference of the apical surface of the neural cells. Neural cell elongation in concert with apical constriction further narrowed the apical surface of the cells and drove the rapid folding of the neural plate, but was insufficient for complete neural tube closure. Migration of the deep cells provided the additional tissue deformation necessary for closure. To validate the model, apical constriction and cell elongation were inhibited in Xenopus laevis embryos. The resulting cell and tissue shapes resembled the corresponding simulation results.

  11. Intrauterine ductus arteriosus constriction: analysis of a historic cohort of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchese Stelamaris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the relative incidence, presentation, and evolvement of fetuses with early ductus constriction. METHODS: Twenty fetal echocardiograms indicating ductus constriction were reviewed in a population of 7000 pregnants. RESULTS: The cases were divided into group A (related to maternal use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors [n=7] and group B (idiopathics [n=13]. Mean gestational age was 32.5±3.1 (27-38 weeks and maternal age was 28.2±8.5 (17-42 years. Mean systolic velocity in the ductus was 2.22±0.34 (1.66-2.81 m/s, diastolic velocity 0.79±0.28 (0.45-1.5 m/s, and pulsatility index 1.33±0.36 (0.52-1.83. Two cases of ductal occlusion were noted. In 65% of the cases, an increase occurred in the right cavities; in 90% of the cases, tricuspid or pulmonary regurgitation, or both, occurred, with functional pulmonary atresia in 1 case. Diastolic velocity was greater in group A (1.13±0.33 than in group B (0.68±0.15 (P=0.008. The other data were similar in the 2 groups. The evolvement was not favorable in 4 patients from group B, including 1 death and 2 cases of persistent pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of idiopathic constriction of the ductus arteriosus suggests that its diagnosis is underestimated and that many cases of persistence of fetal circulation in newborns may be related to constriction of the ductus arteriosus not diagnosed during intrauterine life. Group B had a lower severity but a risk of an unfavorable evolvement, suggesting a distinct alteration.

  12. Diaphragm arterioles are less responsive to alpha1- adrenergic constriction than gastrocnemius arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, Aaron; Laughlin, M H

    2002-05-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has greater influence on vascular resistance in low-oxidative, fast-twitch skeletal muscle than in high-oxidative skeletal muscle (17). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that arterioles isolated from low-oxidative, fast-twitch skeletal muscle [the white portion of gastrocnemius (WG)] possess greater responsiveness to adrenergic constriction than arterioles isolated from high-oxidative skeletal muscle [red portion of the gastrocnemius muscle (RG) and diaphragm (Dia)]. Second-order arterioles (2As) were isolated from WG, RG, and Dia of rats and reactivity examined in vitro. Results reveal that Dia 2As constrict less to norepinephrine (NE) (10(-9) to 10 (-4) M) than 2As from RG and WG, which exhibited similar NE-induced constrictions. This difference was not endothelium dependent, because responses of denuded 2As were similar to those of intact arterioles. The blunted NE-induced constrictor response of Dia 2As appears to be the result of differences in alpha1-receptor effects because 1) arterioles from Dia also responded less to selective alpha1-receptor stimulation with phenylephrine than RG and WG arterioles; 2) arterioles from Dia, RG, and WG dilated similarly to isoproterenol (10(-9) to 10(-4) M) and did not respond to selective alpha2-receptor stimulation with UK-14304; and 3) endothelin-1 produced similar constriction in 2As from Dia, RG, and WG. We conclude that differences in oxidative capacity and/or fiber type composition of muscle tissue do not explain different NE responsiveness of Dia 2As compared with 2As from gastrocnemius muscle. Differences in alpha1-adrenergic constrictor responsiveness among arterioles in skeletal muscle may contribute to nonuniform muscle blood flow responses observed during exercise and serve to maintain blood flow to Dia during exercise-induced increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  13. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids: re-evaluation of vascular constriction hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    1 The question whether constriction of local vessels is essential for the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids in carrageenin-induced granulomatous inflammation was studied. 2 The vasodilator prostaglandin E1 injection into the granuloma pouch fluid increased the exudation of plasma protein into the granuloma tissue. 3 Noradrenaline significantly reduced plasma exudation, possibly through alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation. 4 Cortisol and dexamethasone in doses sufficient to inhibit vascul...

  14. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Mediates Caffeine Antagonism of Alcohol-Induced Cerebral Artery Constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Fedinec, Alexander L; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Leffler, Charles W; Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alex M

    2016-01-01

    Despite preventive education, the combined consumption of alcohol and caffeine (particularly from "energy drinks") continues to rise. Physiologic perturbations by separate intake of ethanol and caffeine have been widely documented. However, the biologic actions of the alcohol-caffeine combination and their underlying subcellular mechanisms have been scarcely studied. Using intravital microscopy on a closed-cranial window and isolated, pressurized vessels, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro action of ethanol-caffeine mixtures on cerebral arteries from rats and mice, widely recognized models to address cerebrovascular pathophysiology and pharmacology. Caffeine at concentrations found in human circulation after ingestion of one to two cups of coffee (10 µM) antagonized the endothelium-independent constriction of cerebral arteries evoked by ethanol concentrations found in blood during moderate-heavy alcohol intoxication (40-70 mM). Caffeine antagonism against alcohol was similar whether evaluated in vivo or in vitro, suggesting independence of systemic factors and drug metabolism, but required a functional endothelium. Moreover, caffeine protection against alcohol increased nitric oxide (NO•) levels over those found in the presence of ethanol alone, disappeared upon blocking NO• synthase, and could not be detected in pressurized cerebral arteries from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice. Finally, incubation of de-endothelialized cerebral arteries with the NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (10 µM) fully restored the protective effect of caffeine. This study demonstrates for the first time that caffeine antagonizes ethanol-induced cerebral artery constriction and identifies endothelial NO• as the critical caffeine effector on smooth muscle targets. Conceivably, situations that perturb endothelial function and/or NO• availability will critically alter caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced cerebrovascular constriction without

  15. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  16. Biventricular Failure due to Stress Cardiomyopathy after Pericardiectomy for Constrictive Pericarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott M. Groves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Constrictive pericarditis is a rare clinical entity that frequently necessitates surgical intervention. Here we present a case of biventricular failure due to stress cardiomyopathy after pericardiectomy. This is an extremely rare complication that is not well described and does not have a definitive mechanism. Observations. A 40-year-old Ecuadorian woman who was found to have constrictive pericarditis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was referred to our institution. The presence of constrictive pericarditis was confirmed by echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiac catheterization. Following pericardiectomy, the patient developed biventricular failure consistent with stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, based on the echocardiographic assessment of the ventricles, which demonstrated an akinetic apex and hyperactive base in both ventricles, the absence of significant epicardial coronary atherosclerosis, and prompt normalization of the cardiac function after intensive medical therapy. Conclusions and Relevance. Biventricular failure in the form of stress cardiomyopathy after pericardiectomy in the manner presented here has not been previously described in the literature. While postulations as to the cause of single ventricle dysfunction have been described, the exact mechanism is unclear and current theories do not explain the clinical features in this case of stress cardiomyopathy after pericardiectomy.

  17. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space,divide Caulobacter inner and outer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Ellen M.; Comolli, Luis R.; Chen, Joseph C.; Downing,Kenneth H.; Moerner, W.E.; McAdams, Harley H.

    2005-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner, and then the outer, membrane in a manner distinctly different from septum-forming bacteria. The smallest observed pre-fission constrictions were 60 nm for both the inner and outer membrane. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization, when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments, occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135 min cell cycle. Here, we used FLIP experiments with membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins to show that (1) periplasmic compartmentalization occurs after cytoplasmic compartmentalization, consistent with the cryoEM observations, and (2) inner membrane and periplasmic proteins can diffuse past the FtsZ constriction site, indicating that the cell division machinery does not block membrane diffusion.

  18. FtsZ does not initiate membrane constriction at the onset of division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Daniel O; Skoglund, Ulf; Söderström, Bill

    2016-09-09

    The source of constriction required for division of a bacterial cell remains enigmatic. FtsZ is widely believed to be a key player, because in vitro experiments indicate that it can deform liposomes when membrane tethered. However in vivo evidence for such a role has remained elusive as it has been challenging to distinguish the contribution of FtsZ from that of peptidoglycan-ingrowth. To differentiate between these two possibilities we studied the early stages of division in Escherichia coli, when FtsZ is present at the division site but peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes such as FtsI and FtsN are not. Our approach was to use correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) to monitor the localization of fluorescently labeled FtsZ, FtsI or FtsN correlated with the septal ultra-structural geometry in the same cell. We noted that the presence of FtsZ at the division septum is not sufficient to deform membranes. This observation suggests that, although FtsZ can provide a constrictive force, the force is not substantial at the onset of division. Conversely, the presence of FtsN always correlated with membrane invagination, indicating that allosteric activation of peptidoglycan ingrowth is the trigger for constriction of the cell envelope during cell division in E. coli.

  19. Constriction structures related to viscous collision, southern Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Adrian F.; Boger, Steven D.; Fay, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Macroscopic structures are investigated in a zone of highly contorted migmatites from the southern Prince Charles Mountains, Antarctica. Here, L-tectonite fabrics, rods, mullions, boudin pods, elongate enclaves, and fold hinges, are persistent linear features all plunging gently to the northeast. In contrast, amoeboid folds, ptygmatic folds and folded boudins with different orientations are the characteristic structures in transverse sections (perpendicular to the lineation). No consistent shear sense is recognised in any dimension. Together with strain and shape analysis, these observations strongly suggest that the deformation pattern is one of folding and stretching by constriction. Previous timing constraints indicate that this deformation overlapped with the waning stages of anatexis during decompression at approximately 510 Ma, up to 30 million years after initial orogeny at 540 Ma. The zone affected by constriction is several kilometres wide and has a contorted flower-like shape confined between two broad domal antiforms. In this context, the constricted zone is interpreted as a relatively late tectonic feature that could have formed via deep-seated viscous collision in response to orogenic collapse and doming.

  20. Chirality dependent pinning and depinning of magnetic vortex domain walls at nano-constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan P, Vineeth; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of magnetic domain wall (DW) based memory and logic devices critically depend on the control over DW assisted magnetization reversal processes. Here we investigate the magnetization reversal by DW injection, pinning and depinning at a geometrical constriction in permalloy nanowire (NW) driven by external in-plane magnetic field, using local electrical probes. The observations of two distinct depinning field values are identified with the help of micromagnetic simulations, as being due to vortex DWs of different chiralities. Statistical analysis gave an estimate of chirality dependent pinning probability of DWs at this constriction. The stochastic nature of the DW based reversal driven by magnetic field is revealed here. The asymmetry in the depinning field of the DWs to move to either side of constriction indicates the asymmetric nature of the barrier potential seen by the DWs. The results demonstrate the difficulties in achieving deterministic switching behavior of DW assisted reversal, and provide a platform to understand the main bottlenecks in the technological implementation of DWs.

  1. Intestinal flora changes in a mouse model of transverse aortic constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-jie ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate intestinal microbiota changes of model mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC to find a new target point for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Methods  Twelve C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into TAC model group (group TN and control group (group N of 6 mice each. The group TN received minimally invasive surgery for ligating the aorta to make its constriction to the appropriate degree, while the group N received same operation but no constriction. Faecal samples were collected 22 days after the treatment. Intestinal flora were determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatics clustering analysis were performed with software of Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology. Results  A higher abundance of Parabacteroides and a lower abundances of Lactobacillaceae, Lactobacillus and Cocleatum were present in TAC mice compared with the controls. Conclusion  Intestinal flora changes would take place in the TAC mice. Intestinal flora may be a potential target for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but further validation should be performed to verify the relationship between those intestinal flora changes and disease progression in animal models. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.04

  2. Cough sensitivity and extrathoracic airway responsiveness to inhaled capsaicin in chronic cough patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, You Sook; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced cough response has been frequently observed in chronic cough. Recently, extrathoracic airway constriction to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in some chronic cough patients. However, relation between extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness (EAHR) and cough sensitivity determined by capsaicin inhalation is unclear in each etiological entity of chronic cough. Seventy-seven patients, with dry cough persisting for 3 or more weeks, normal spirometry and chest radiography, and 15 contro...

  3. Pericarditis - constrictive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions such as restrictive cardiomyopathy and cardiac tamponade . Your health care provider will need to rule ... Complications may include: Cardiac tamponade Damage to the coronary arteries Heart failure Pulmonary edema Scarring of the heart muscle

  4. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... alcohol abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute ... chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be a factor in some cases. ...

  5. Piezoelectric control of the static behaviour of flextensional actuators with constricted hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the mathematical modelling and computational testing of the static operational performance and effectiveness of flextensional actuators comprised of two rectilinear or initially deflected beams placed equidistantly from a centrally located piezoceramic stack in the form of a rod. The beams are mounted by stiff links with an offset to a piezoelectric transformer. A monolithic hinge lever mechanism is applied by cutting constricted hinges at the links to generate and magnify the in-plane displacement created by the application of a voltage to the piezorod. Structures of such a type have been commonly used as passive or active actuators since the manufacturing of the mechanism’s prototypes in the form of Moonie or cymbal actuators. An analytical model of the actuator is developed on the basis of stationary values of the total potential energy principle with the use of the von Kármán non-linear strains theory. During the numerical computations, the deflection and internal axial force generated by both the externally distributed load and the the application of an electric field are determined by changing the actuator properties such as the distance between the beams and the rod, the amplitude of the beam’s initial displacement as well as the stiffness of the constricted hinges. Additionally, the application of structure prestressing is considered to avoid an undesired stretching of the piezo stack. It has been shown that for the flextensional actuator with a very high flexibility of constricted hinges, the generated transverse displacement is limited by the maximum electric field as the characteristic property for each piezoceramic material. A vast number of numerical results exhibit the mechanical responses of the transducer of different geometrical and physical properties to piezoelectric stimulation; this has potential applications in the design process of such actuators.

  6. Domain wall pinning and potential landscapes created by constrictions and protrusions in ferromagnetic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Dorothée; Jausovec, Ana-Vanessa; Read, Dan; Cowburn, Russell P.

    2008-06-01

    The potential experienced by transverse domain walls (TDWs) in the vicinity of asymmetric constrictions or protrusions in thin Permalloy nanowires is probed using spatially resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. Both types of traps are found to act as pinning centers for DWs. The strength of pinning is found to depend on the trap type as well as on the chirality of the incoming DW; both types of traps are seen to act either as potential wells or potential barriers, also depending on the chirality of the DW. Micromagnetic simulations have been performed that are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Coherent Electronic Transport through Graphene Constrictions: Subwavelength Regime and Optical Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darancet, Pierre; Olevano, Valerio; Mayou, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Nanoelectronic devices smaller than the electron wavelength can be achieved in graphene with current lithography techniques. Here we show that the electronic quantum transport of graphene subwavelength nanodevices presents deep analogies with subwavelength optics. We introduce the concept of electronic diffraction barrier to represent the effect of constrictions and the rich transport phenomena of a variety of nanodevices. Results are presented for Bethe and Kirchhoff diffraction in graphene slits and Fabry-Perot interference oscillations in nanoribbons. The same concept applies to graphene quantum dots and gives new insight into recent experiments in these systems.

  8. Observation of mode transition and low-frequency oscillations in magnetically constricted anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S.; Ranjan, M.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the discharge behaviour and the mode transition observed in a magnetically constricted anode device. With an increase in pressure, the central droplet shaped glow shrunk and abruptly switched to peripheral glow mode for pressure above 5 ×10-2 mbar . This transition is observed when the width of the droplet shaped glow at the anode approaches the diameter of the central magnet. The mode transition is observed as a sudden jump in the discharge current, which obeys a different power law than the previous discharge mode. Further, this new mode is observed to accompany the global oscillations in the range of few kHz.

  9. Buoyancy-induced squeezing of a deformable drop through an axisymmetric ring constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander Z.; Davis, Robert H.

    2010-08-01

    Axisymmetric boundary-integral (BI) simulations were made for buoyancy-induced squeezing of a deformable drop through a ring constriction. The algorithm uses the Hebeker representation for the solid-particle contribution. A high-order, near-singularity subtraction technique is essential for near-critical squeezing. The drop velocity and minimum drop-solid spacing were determined for different ring and hole sizes, viscosity ratios, and Bond numbers, where the latter is a dimensionless ratio of gravitational to interfacial forces. The drop velocity decelerates typically 100-fold or more, and the drop-solid spacing reduces to typically 0.1%-1% of the nondeformed drop radius as the drop passes through the constriction. The critical Bond number (below which trapping occurs) was determined for different conditions. For supercritical conditions, the nondimensional time required for the drop to pass through the ring increases for a fixed drop-to-hole size with increasing viscosity ratio and decreasing Bond number, but it has a nonmonotonic dependence on the ratio of the radii of the drop and ring cross section. Numerical results indicate that the square of the drop squeezing time is inversely proportional to the Bond number minus the critical Bond number for near-critical squeezing. The critical Bond number, determined from dynamic BI calculations, compares favorably to that obtained precisely from a static algorithm. The static algorithm uses the Young-Laplace equation to calculate the pendant and sessile portions of the drop interface coupled through the conditions of global pressure continuity and total drop volume conservation. Over a limited parameter space, the critical Bond number increases almost linearly with the drop-to-hole ratio and is a weak function of the ratio of the ring cross-sectional radius to the hole radius. Another dynamic phenomenon, in addition to drop squeezing, is a drop "dripping" around the outer edge of the ring constriction, and a critical

  10. A critical velocity of squeezing a droplet through a circular constriction: implications on ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Drapaca, Corina

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87 percent of all stroke cases. In these cases, models of squeezing a droplet through a smaller constriction channel can help better understand the pathology and capillary restoring after a Stroke. In the present research, we analytical expressed the minimum impulse of squeezing a droplet through a circular channel as well as its critical velocity. By comparison with a previously defined critical velocity, we find the difference between these two. Applications of this research in the understanding of ischemic stroke are also discussed. Zhifeng Zhang thanks the support of Robert A. Sebrosky Graduate Fellowship in Engineering Science and Mechanics, the Pennsylvania State University.

  11. Differences in the effects of turns and constrictions on the resistive response in current-biased superconducting wire after single photon absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Y.

    2013-01-01

    We study how turns and constrictions affect the resistive response of the superconducting wire after instant in time and local in space heating, which models the absorption of the single photon by the wire. We find that the presence of constriction favors detection of photons of various energies but the presence of turn increases only ability to detect relatively "low" energy photons. The main reason is that in case of constriction the current density is increased over whole length and width ...

  12. Constriction model of actomyosin ring for cytokinesis by fission yeast using a two-state sliding filament mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Woon; Mascagni, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We developed a model describing the structure and contractile mechanism of the actomyosin ring in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The proposed ring includes actin, myosin, and α-actinin, and is organized into a structure similar to that of muscle sarcomeres. This structure justifies the use of the sliding-filament mechanism developed by Huxley and Hill, but it is probably less organized relative to that of muscle sarcomeres. Ring contraction tension was generated via the same fundamental mechanism used to generate muscle tension, but some physicochemical parameters were adjusted to be consistent with the proposed ring structure. Simulations allowed an estimate of ring constriction tension that reproduced the observed ring constriction velocity using a physiologically possible, self-consistent set of parameters. Proposed molecular-level properties responsible for the thousand-fold slower constriction velocity of the ring relative to that of muscle sarcomeres include fewer myosin molecules involved, a less organized contractile configuration, a low α-actinin concentration, and a high resistance membrane tension. Ring constriction velocity is demonstrated as an exponential function of time despite a near linear appearance. We proposed a hypothesis to explain why excess myosin heads inhibit constriction velocity rather than enhance it. The model revealed how myosin concentration and elastic resistance tension are balanced during cytokinesis in S. pombe.

  13. Constriction model of actomyosin ring for cytokinesis by fission yeast using a two-state sliding filament mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong-Woon [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States); Mascagni, Michael, E-mail: Mascagni@fsu.edu [Departments of Computer Science, Mathematics and Scientific Computing, and Graduate Program in Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4530 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We developed a model describing the structure and contractile mechanism of the actomyosin ring in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The proposed ring includes actin, myosin, and α-actinin, and is organized into a structure similar to that of muscle sarcomeres. This structure justifies the use of the sliding-filament mechanism developed by Huxley and Hill, but it is probably less organized relative to that of muscle sarcomeres. Ring contraction tension was generated via the same fundamental mechanism used to generate muscle tension, but some physicochemical parameters were adjusted to be consistent with the proposed ring structure. Simulations allowed an estimate of ring constriction tension that reproduced the observed ring constriction velocity using a physiologically possible, self-consistent set of parameters. Proposed molecular-level properties responsible for the thousand-fold slower constriction velocity of the ring relative to that of muscle sarcomeres include fewer myosin molecules involved, a less organized contractile configuration, a low α-actinin concentration, and a high resistance membrane tension. Ring constriction velocity is demonstrated as an exponential function of time despite a near linear appearance. We proposed a hypothesis to explain why excess myosin heads inhibit constriction velocity rather than enhance it. The model revealed how myosin concentration and elastic resistance tension are balanced during cytokinesis in S. pombe.

  14. Loss of naive T cells and repertoire constriction predict poor response to vaccination in old primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicin-Sain, Luka; Smyk-Pearson, Susan; Smyk-Paerson, Sue; Currier, Noreen; Byrd, Laura; Koudelka, Caroline; Robinson, Tammie; Swarbrick, Gwendolyn; Tackitt, Shane; Legasse, Alfred; Fischer, Miranda; Nikolich-Zugich, Dragana; Park, Byung; Hobbs, Theodore; Doane, Cynthia J; Mori, Motomi; Axthelm, Michael K; Axthelm, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Deborah A; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2010-06-15

    Aging is usually accompanied by diminished immune protection upon infection or vaccination. Although aging results in well-characterized changes in the T cell compartment of long-lived, outbred, and pathogen-exposed organisms, their relevance for primary Ag responses remain unclear. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the loss of naive T cells, their partial replacement by oligoclonal memory populations, and the consequent constriction of TCR repertoire limit the Ag responses in aging primates. We show in this study that aging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exhibit poor CD8 T cell and B cell responses in the blood and poor CD8 responses in the lungs upon vaccination with the modified vaccinia strain Ankara. The function of APCs appeared to be maintained in aging monkeys, suggesting that the poor response was likely intrinsic to lymphocytes. We found that the loss of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the appearance of persisting T cell clonal expansions predicted poor CD8 responses in individual monkeys. There was strong correlation between early CD8 responses in the transitory CD28+ CD62L- CD8+ T cell compartment and the peak Ab titers upon boost in individual animals, as well as a correlation of both parameters of immune response to the frequency of naive CD8+ T cells in old but not in adult monkeys. Therefore, our results argue that T cell repertoire constriction and naive cell loss have prognostic value for global immune function in aging primates.

  15. Chylous ascites and chylothorax due to constrictive pericarditis in a patient infected with HIV: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summachiwakij Sarawut

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chylothorax and chylous ascites are uncommon and usually associated with trauma or neoplasms. To the best of our knowledge, constrictive pericarditis leading to chylothorax and chylous ascites in a person infected with HIV has never previously been described. Case presentation A 39-year-old Thai man was referred to our institute with progressive dyspnea, edema and abdominal distension. His medical history included HIV infection and pulmonary tuberculosis that was complicated by tuberculous pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Upon further investigation, we found constrictive pericarditis, chylothorax and chylous ascites. A pericardiectomy was performed which resulted in gradual resolution of the ascites and chylous effusion. Conclusions Although constrictive pericarditis is an exceptionally rare cause of chylothorax and chylous ascites, it should nonetheless be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potentially reversible cause.

  16. Electronic conductance model in constricted MoS{sub 2} with nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, Aditya [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Leburton, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jleburto@illinois.edu [Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We describe a self-consistent model for electronic transport in a molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS{sub 2}) layer containing a nanopore in a constricted geometry. Our approach is based on a semi-classical thermionic Poisson-Boltzmann technique using a two-valley model within the effective mass approximation to investigate perturbations caused by the nanopore on the electronic current. In particular, we show that the effect of the nanopore on the conductance is reduced as the nanopore is moved from the center to the layer edges. Our model is applied to the detection of DNA translocating through the nanopore, which reveals current features similar to those as predicted in nanopore graphene layers.

  17. Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through Constricted Tube using Integral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady flow of a second grade fluid through constricted tube for mild stenosis is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying an order-of-magnitude analysis. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points are also calculated. The effects of nondimensional parameters emerging in the model on the velocity profile, shear stress, pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. The effect of non-Newtonian parameter on velocity profile, wall shear stress and pressure gradient is also analyzed. It is found that the Reynolds number strongly effect the wall shear stress, separation and reattachment points.

  18. Amnioserosa cell constriction but not epidermal actin cable tension autonomously drives dorsal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Frei, Erich; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Affolter, Markus; Brunner, Damian

    2016-11-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple force-producing components. During dorsal closure in fly embryogenesis, an epidermis opening closes. A tensioned epidermal actin/MyosinII cable, which surrounds the opening, produces a force that is thought to combine with another MyosinII force mediating apical constriction of the amnioserosa cells that fill the opening. A model proposing that each force could autonomously drive dorsal closure was recently challenged by a model in which the two forces combine in a ratchet mechanism. Acute force elimination via selective MyosinII depletion in one or the other tissue shows that the amnioserosa tissue autonomously drives dorsal closure while the actin/MyosinII cable cannot. These findings exclude both previous models, although a contribution of the ratchet mechanism at dorsal closure onset remains likely. This shifts the current view of dorsal closure being a combinatorial force-component system to a single tissue-driven closure event.

  19. Ballistic phonon transport through a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities in a narrow constriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo Yuan [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang Weiqing, E-mail: wqhuang2000@yahoo.co [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Guifang, E-mail: gfhuang@hnu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hu Wangyu; Wang Lingling; Pan Anlian [Department of Applied Physics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-05-09

    We investigate the ballistic phonon transport through a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities in a narrow constriction of a semiconductor nanowire at low temperatures. It is found that the transmission spectrum of such a system consists of quasiband gaps and narrow resonances caused by the coupling of phonon waves. Both phonon transmission and thermal conductance exhibit the similarity due to the Fibonacci sequence structure. The similarity is sensitive to the number n and parameters of nanocavities. The results are compared with those in a periodic acoustic nanocavities. - Highlights: Ballistic phonon transport in a Fibonacci array of acoustic nanocavities is studied. The transmission spectrum consists of quasiband gaps and narrow resonances. Both phonon transmission and thermal conductance exhibit the similarity. The similarity is sensitive to the number and parameters of nanocavities.

  20. Gas-bubble snap-off under pressure driven flow in constricted noncircular capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Radke, C.J.

    1996-04-01

    A model for snap-off of a gas thread in a constricted cornered pore is developed. The time for wetting liquid to accumulate at a pore throat into an unstable collar is examined, as for the resulting pore-spanning lens to be displaced from the pore so that snap-off is the time may repeat. A comer-flow hydrodynamic analysis for the accumulation rate of wetting liquid due to both gradients in interfacial curvature and in applied liquid-phase pressure reveals that wetting-phase pressure gradients significantly increase the frequency of liquid accumulation for snap-off as compared to liquid rearrangement driven only by differences in pore-wall curvature. For moderate and large pressure gradients, the frequency of accumulation increases linearly with pressure gradient because of the increased rate of wetting liquid flow along pore comers. Pore topology is important to the theory, for pores with relatively small throats connected to large bodies demonstrate excellent ability to snapoff gas threads even when the initial capillary pressure is high or equivalently when the liquid saturation is low. A macroscopic momentum balance across the lens resulting from snap-off reveals that lens displacement rates are not linear with the imposed pressure drop. Instead, the frequency of lens displacement scales with powers between 0.5 and 0.6 for pores with dimensionless constriction radii between 0.15 and 0.40. Statistical percolation arguments are employed to form a generation rate expression and connect pore-level foam generation events to macroscopic pressure gradients in porous media. The rate of foam generation by capillary snap-off increases linearly with the liquid-phase pressure gradient and according to a power-law relationship with respect to the imposed gas-phase pressure gradient.

  1. Start-up of flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Rallison, J.M.; Hinch, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    The flow of a FENE-fluid through a 4:1:4 constriction in a tube is computed by a split Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method. In steady flow it is found that the upstream vortex grows with increasing Deborah number, while the downstream vortex diminishes and disappears. The steady pressure drop...

  2. Forma inusitada de Pericardite Crônica Constritiva Idiopática Unusual presentation of Idiophatic Chronic Constrictive Pericarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Fernandes de Godoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino, 55 anos, com queixa progressiva há 1 ano e 8 meses. Estava com 160kg (habitual 95 kg, extremamente edemaciado, com ortopnéia. Trouxe exames ecocardiográficos normais e eletrocardiograma com inversão de onda T. Biópsia endomiocárdica afastou fibrose endomiocárdica ou cardiomiopatia restritiva, mas as curvas pressóricas eram típicas de processo restritivo. Novo ecocardiograma agora mostrou pericárdio bastante espesso. Indicada pericardiectomia, recebendo alta com remissão completa dos sintomas. O estudo anatomopatológico foi inespecífico, sendo a pericardite classificada como idiopática. O caso alerta para a necessidade de alto grau de suspeição de pericardite constritiva em pacientes com ascite volumosa sem causa aparente.A 55-year-old male patient presented in our service with progressive dyspnea and ascitis beginning 1 year and 8 months previously. He weighed 160 kg (normal weight 95 kg, with ascitis and orthopnea. On admission he presented normal echocardiograms. An electrocardiogram showed diffuse inverted T waves. An endomyocardial biopsy was not elucidative. A new echocardiogram confirmed a very thick pericardium. Surgical pericardial resection was indicated. The postoperative period was uneventful with complete remission of symptoms. The anatomopathological analysis was normal. The pericarditis was classified as idiopathic. This case is a warning for the need of much suspicion in patients with apparent causeless voluminous ascitis.

  3. Adenoviral-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer has a protective effect on sciatic nerve following constriction-induced spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good

  4. Reversal by arterial hypercapnia of phorbol ester-induced cerebrovascular constriction in piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busija, D.W.; Smith, T.L.; Jing Chen (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Phorbol 12,13 Dibutyrate (PDB), an activator of protein kinase C, causes pronounced and sustained constriction of piglet pial arterioles. The authors investigated whether a physiological stimulus, namely arterial hypercapnia, could still dilate pial arterioles in the presence of PDB. A closed cranial window was implanted over the parietal cortex of piglets, 1-5 days of age, and diameter of one arteriole determined by intravital microscopy. Diameter was determined during baseline conditions, after topical application of 10{sup {minus}6}M(n = 2) or 10{sup {minus}5}M(n = 4) PDB, and during arterial hypercapnia induced by inhalation of 10% CO{sub 2} air. PDB was flushed out from under the window prior to the latter two measurements. Arteriolar diameter was 130 {plus minus} 14 um (n = 6) during baseline, and decreased to 82 {plus minus} 13 um after PDB application. However, during arterial hypercapnia, diameter increased to 153 {plus minus} 14 um. Following hypercapnia, diameter returned to values seen in the presence of PDB alone. The authors conclude that arterial hypercapnia is able to counteract the effects of PDB, possibly by activating a more potent intracellular mechanism or by interfering with protein kinase C related events involved in smooth muscle contraction.

  5. Folate receptor alpha is necessary for neural plate cell apical constriction during Xenopus neural tube formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Olga A; Visina, Olesya; Borodinsky, Laura N

    2017-03-02

    Folate supplementation prevents up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs), which result from a failure of neural tube closure during embryogenesis. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying folate action has been challenging. This study introduces Xenopus laevis as a model to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in folate action during neural tube formation. We show that knockdown of folate receptor-α (FRα) impairs neural tube formation and leads to NTDs. FRα knockdown in neural plate cells only is necessary and sufficient to induce NTDs. FRα-deficient neural plate cells fail to constrict, resulting in widening of the neural plate midline and defective neural tube closure. Pharmacological inhibition of folate action by methotrexate during neurulation induces NTDs by inhibiting folate interaction with its uptake systems. Our findings support a model for folate receptor interacting with cell adhesion molecules, thus regulating apical cell membrane remodeling and cytoskeletal dynamics necessary for neural plate folding. Further studies in this organism may unveil novel cellular and molecular events mediated by folate and lead to new means for preventing NTDs.

  6. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuna [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Shin [Samsumg Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  7. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  8. High Current-Induced Electron Redistribution in a CVD-Grown Graphene Wide Constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiashain Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the charge transport behavior in one-dimensional quantum confined system such as the localized states and interference effects due to the nanoscale grain boundaries and merged domains in wide chemical vapor deposition graphene constriction is highly desirable since it would help to realize industrial graphene-based electronic device applications. Our data suggests a crossover from interference coherent transport to carriers flushing into grain boundaries and merged domains when increasing the current. Moreover, many-body fermionic carriers with disordered system in our case can be statistically described by mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation via a single wave function by means of the quantum hydrodynamic approximation. The novel numerical simulation method supports the experimental results and suggests that the extreme high barrier potential regions on graphene from the grain boundaries and merged domains can be strongly affected by additional hot charges. Such interesting results could pave the way for quantum transport device by supplying additional hot current to flood into the grain boundaries and merged domains in one-dimensional quantum confined CVD graphene, a great advantage for developing graphene-based coherent electronic devices.

  9. Effect of Right Heart Systolic Function on Outcomes in Patients with Constrictive Pericarditis Undergoing Pericardiectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lin; Rui-Yi Xu; Jian-Zhou Liu; Wei Chen; Lian-Feng Chen; Peng-Hua Yang; Li-Gang Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background:To determine the influence of right ventricular function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP) undergoing surgery and to compare the outcomes of patients who received surgery with those managed medically.Methods:Patients with the diagnosis of CP and healthy volunteers were recruited from January 2006 to November 2011.Patients with CP chose to either receive pericardiectomy or medical management.Echocardiographic measurements were performed to evaluate heart function,and survival was recorded.Results:A total of 58 patients with CP (36 received pericardiectomy,22 managed medically),and 43 healthy volunteers were included.CP patients who received surgery had a higher survival rate than those managed medically (P =0.003),and higher survival was also seen in the subgroup of CP patients with severely impaired right systolic function.Albumin level,left ventricular end-diastolic dimension,and tricuspid regurgitation velocity were associated with survival in CP patients who received surgery.Conclusions:Preoperative right heart function does not affect surgical outcomes.Patients with severely impaired preoperative right systolic function obtain a greater survival advantage with surgery than with medical treatment.

  10. Effect of Right Heart Systolic Function on Outcomes in Patients with Constrictive Pericarditis Undergoing Pericardiectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the influence of right ventricular function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP undergoing surgery and to compare the outcomes of patients who received surgery with those managed medically. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of CP and healthy volunteers were recruited from January 2006 to November 2011. Patients with CP chose to either receive pericardiectomy or medical management. Echocardiographic measurements were performed to evaluate heart function, and survival was recorded. Results: A total of 58 patients with CP (36 received pericardiectomy, 22 managed medically, and 43 healthy volunteers were included. CP patients who received surgery had a higher survival rate than those managed medically (P = 0.003, and higher survival was also seen in the subgroup of CP patients with severely impaired right systolic function. Albumin level, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, and tricuspid regurgitation velocity were associated with survival in CP patients who received surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative right heart function does not affect surgical outcomes. Patients with severely impaired preoperative right systolic function obtain a greater survival advantage with surgery than with medical treatment.

  11. CONSTRICTED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR DESIGN OF COLLINEAR ARRAY OF UNEQUAL LENGTH DIPOLE ANTENNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani Basu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method based on constricted Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm to design a non-uniformly spaced collinear array of thin dipole antennas of unequal height is proposed. This paper presents a method for computing the appropriate excitation and geometry of individual array elements to generate a pencil beam in the vertical plane with minimum Standing Wave Ratio (SWR and fixed Side Lobe Level (SLL. Coupling effect between any two collinear center-fed thin dipole antennas having sinusoidal current distributions is analyzed using induced EMF method and minimized in terms of SWR. DRR of excitation distribution is fixed at a lower value for further mitigation of the coupling effect. Phase distribution for all the elements is kept at zero degree for broadside array. Optimization results show the effectiveness of the algorithm for the design of the array. Moreover method seems very conducive for estimating the mutual impedance between any two collinear center-fed thin dipole antennas having sinusoidal current distributions.

  12. Noradrenergic constriction of cerebral arteries as detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Canova, D; Bosone, D; Micieli, G; Passatore, M

    2003-10-01

    Interpretation of transcranial Doppler (TCD) recordings requires assumptions about flow or diameter of the insonated vessel. This study aimed at assessing if activation of the sympathetic system could affect blood velocity (bv) in basal cerebral arteries. In anaesthetized rabbits, stimulation of cervical sympathetic nerve (cervSN) was used selectively to activate the sympathetic pathway to the head while monitoring bv in all major cerebral arteries. cervSN stimulation at 10 Hz produced: 1. in internal carotid artery (ICA) and ICA-supplied arteries (ICA-s), a consistent bv increase ranging between 20 and 70%, 2. in the basilar artery, a transient decrease by 15-30%. These effects were mimicked, in both territories, by injection of phenylephrine into the ICA. Because cerebral blood flow is known to be reduced by cervSN stimulation, the increase in bv in ICA and ICA-s must be ascribed to constriction of the insonated vessels. These effects should be considered when monitoring bv during sympathetic activation tests or exercise.

  13. Pressure Overload by Transverse Aortic Constriction Induces Maladaptive Hypertrophy in a Titin-Truncated Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the giant sarcomeric protein titin (TTN are a major cause for inherited forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. We have previously developed a mouse model that imitates a TTN truncation mutation we found in a large pedigree with DCM. While heterozygous Ttn knock-in mice do not display signs of heart failure under sedentary conditions, they recapitulate the human phenotype when exposed to the pharmacological stressor angiotensin II or isoproterenol. In this study we investigated the effects of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in heterozygous (Het Ttn knock-in mice. Two weeks after TAC, Het mice developed marked impairment of left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.05, while wild-type (WT TAC mice did not. Het mice also trended toward increased ventricular end diastolic pressure and volume compared to WT littermates. We found an increase in histologically diffuse cardiac fibrosis in Het compared to WT in TAC mice. This study shows that a pattern of DCM can be induced by TAC-mediated pressure overload in a TTN-truncated mouse model. This model enlarges our arsenal of cardiac disease models, adding a valuable tool to understand cardiac pathophysiological remodeling processes and to develop therapeutic approaches to combat heart failure.

  14. Hypoxia-induced 15-HETE enhances the constriction of internal carotid arteries by down-regulating potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanmei; Chen, Li; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Weizhi; Zhu, Daling; Zhu, Yulan

    2010-08-15

    Severe hypoxia induces the constriction of internal carotid arteries (ICA), which worsens ischemic stroke in the brain. A few metabolites are presumably involved in hypoxic vasoconstriction, however, less is known about how such molecules provoke this vasoconstriction. We have investigated the influence of 15-hydroxyeicosatetrienoic acid (15-HETE) produced by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) on vasoconstriction during hypoxia. As showed in our results, 15-LOX level increases in ICA endothelia and smooth muscles. 15-HETE enhances the tension of ICA ring in a dose-dependent manner, as well as attenuates the activities and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv 1.5 and Kv 2.1). Therefore, the down-regulation of Kv channels by 15-HETE during hypoxia may weaken the repolarization of action potentials and causes a dominant influx of calcium ions to enhance smooth muscle tension and ICA constriction.

  15. Non-constrictive bead immobilization leading to decreased and uniform shear stress in microfluidic bead-based ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Chidambaram, Preethi; Maharry, Aaron P; Xu, Ronald X; Tweedle, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic biosensors have been utilized for sensing a wide range of antigens using numerous configurations. Bead based microfluidic sensors have been a popular modality due to the plug and play nature of analyte choice and the favorable geometry of spherical sensor scaffolds. While constriction of beads against fluid flow remains a popular method to immobilize the sensor, it results in poor fluidic regimes and shear conditions around sensor beads that can affect sensor performance. We present an alternative means of sensor bead immobilization using poly-carbonate membrane. This system results in several orders of magnitude lower variance of flow radially around the sensor bead. Shear stress experienced by our non-constrictive immobilized bead was three orders of magnitude lower. We demonstrate ability to quantitatively sense EpCAM protein, a marker for cancer stem cells and operation under both far-red and green wavelengths with no auto-fluorescence.

  16. Effects of Hegu(LI 4)and Taichong(LR 3)on Vascular Dilation and Constriction in Migraine Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽华; 林咸明

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hegu(LI 4)and Taichong(LR 3)are the Yuan-Primary acupoints of the Large Intestine and Liver Meridian,and are collectively named as Si Guan (four gates)point.Combined use of these two acupoints can harmonize yin and yang,regulate qi and blood,and balance ascending or descending.This paper attempts to study the effects of Si Guan point on the vascular dilation and constriction in migraine patients from the perspective of its feature.

  17. The alkylation response protein AidB is localized at the new poles and constriction sites in Brucella abortus

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    Dotreppe Delphine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella abortus is the etiological agent of a worldwide zoonosis called brucellosis. This alpha-proteobacterium is dividing asymmetrically, and PdhS, an essential histidine kinase, was reported to be an old pole marker. Results We were interested to identify functions that could be recruited to bacterial poles. The Brucella ORFeome, a collection of cloned predicted coding sequences, was placed in fusion with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP coding sequence and screened for polar localizations in B. abortus. We report that AidB-YFP was systematically localized to the new poles and at constrictions sites in B. abortus, either in culture or inside infected HeLa cells or RAW264.7 macrophages. AidB is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD homolog, similar to E. coli AidB, an enzyme putatively involved in destroying alkylating agents. Accordingly, a B. abortus aidB mutant is more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the lethality induced by methanesulphonic acid ethyl ester (EMS. The exposure to EMS led to a very low frequency of constriction events, suggesting that cell cycle is blocked during alkylation damage. The localization of AidB-YFP at the new poles and at constriction sites seems to be specific for this ACAD homolog since two other ACAD homologs fused to YFP did not show specific localization. The overexpression of aidB, but not the two other ACAD coding sequences, leads to multiple morphological defects. Conclusions Data reported here suggest that AidB is a marker of new poles and constriction sites, that could be considered as sites of preparation of new poles in the sibling cells originating from cell division. The possible role of AidB in the generation or the function of new poles needs further investigation.

  18. Drechslerella stenobrocha genome illustrates the mechanism of constricting rings and the origin of nematode predation in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Keke; Zhang, Weiwei; Lai, Yiling; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Xiuna; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique group of organisms that can capture nematodes using sophisticated trapping structures. The genome of Drechslerella stenobrocha, a constricting-ring-forming fungus, has been sequenced and reported, and provided new insights into the evolutionary origins of nematode predation in fungi, the trapping mechanisms, and the dual lifestyles of saprophagy and predation. Results The genome of the fungus Drechslerella stenobrocha, which mechanically traps n...

  19. Surgical Management of Massive Pericardial Effusion and Predictors for Development of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Resource Limited Setting

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    Emeka B. Kesieme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnosis and treatment of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade have evolved over the years with a tendency towards a more comprehensive diagnostic workup and less traumatic intervention. Method. We reviewed and analysed the data of 32 consecutive patients who underwent surgery on account of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a semiurban university hospital in Nigeria from February 2010 to February 2016. Results. The majority of patients (34.4% were between 31 and 40 years. Fourteen patients (43.8% presented with clinical and echocardiographic feature of cardiac tamponade. The majority of patients (59.4% presented with haemorrhagic pericardial effusion and the average volume of fluid drained intraoperatively was 846 mL  ± 67 mL. Pericardium was thickened in 50% of cases. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy was performed under local anaesthesia in 28 cases. No postoperative recurrence was observed; however 5 patients developed features of constrictive pericarditis. The relationship between pericardial thickness and development of pericardial constriction was statistically significant (p=0.004. Conclusion. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy is a very effective way of treating massive pericardial effusion. Removing tube after adequate drainage (50 mL/day and treatment of primary pathology are key to preventing recurrence. There is also a need to follow up patients to detect pericardial constriction especially those with thickened pericardium.

  20. Surgical Management of Massive Pericardial Effusion and Predictors for Development of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Resource Limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesieme, Emeka B; Okokhere, Peter O; Iruolagbe, Christopher Ojemiega; Odike, Angela; Owobu, Clifford; Akhigbe, Theophilus

    2016-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis and treatment of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade have evolved over the years with a tendency towards a more comprehensive diagnostic workup and less traumatic intervention. Method. We reviewed and analysed the data of 32 consecutive patients who underwent surgery on account of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a semiurban university hospital in Nigeria from February 2010 to February 2016. Results. The majority of patients (34.4%) were between 31 and 40 years. Fourteen patients (43.8%) presented with clinical and echocardiographic feature of cardiac tamponade. The majority of patients (59.4%) presented with haemorrhagic pericardial effusion and the average volume of fluid drained intraoperatively was 846 mL  ± 67 mL. Pericardium was thickened in 50% of cases. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy was performed under local anaesthesia in 28 cases. No postoperative recurrence was observed; however 5 patients developed features of constrictive pericarditis. The relationship between pericardial thickness and development of pericardial constriction was statistically significant (p = 0.004). Conclusion. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy is a very effective way of treating massive pericardial effusion. Removing tube after adequate drainage (50 mL/day) and treatment of primary pathology are key to preventing recurrence. There is also a need to follow up patients to detect pericardial constriction especially those with thickened pericardium.

  1. A multi-layered protein network stabilizes the Escherichia coli FtsZ-ring and modulates constriction dynamics.

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    Jackson Buss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, forms a ring-like structure (FtsZ-ring at midcell. The FtsZ-ring establishes the division plane and enables the assembly of the macromolecular division machinery (divisome. Although many molecular components of the divisome have been identified and their interactions extensively characterized, the spatial organization of these proteins within the divisome is unclear. Consequently, the physical mechanisms that drive divisome assembly, maintenance, and constriction remain elusive. Here we applied single-molecule based superresolution imaging, combined with genetic and biophysical investigations, to reveal the spatial organization of cellular structures formed by four important divisome proteins in E. coli: FtsZ, ZapA, ZapB and MatP. We show that these interacting proteins are arranged into a multi-layered protein network extending from the cell membrane to the chromosome, each with unique structural and dynamic properties. Further, we find that this protein network stabilizes the FtsZ-ring, and unexpectedly, slows down cell constriction, suggesting a new, unrecognized role for this network in bacterial cell division. Our results provide new insight into the structure and function of the divisome, and highlight the importance of coordinated cell constriction and chromosome segregation.

  2. Relaxation of endothelin-1-induced pulmonary arterial constriction by niflumic acid and NPPB: mechanism(s) independent of chloride channel block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Evans, A M; Kozlowski, R Z

    1999-03-01

    We investigated the effects of the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced constriction of rat small pulmonary arteries (diameter 100-400 microm) in vitro, following endothelium removal. ET-1 (30 nM) induced a sustained constriction of rat pulmonary arteries in physiological salt solution. Arteries preconstricted with ET-1 were relaxed by niflumic acid (IC50: 35.8 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 21.1 microM) in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, at concentrations known to block Ca++-activated Cl- channels, DIDS (constriction. Similar results were obtained when pulmonary arteries were preincubated with these Cl- channel blockers. When L-type Ca++ channels were blocked by nifedipine (10 microM), the ET-1-induced (30 nM) constriction was inhibited by only 5.8%. However, niflumic acid (30 microM) and NPPB (30 microM) inhibited the ET-1-induced constriction by approximately 53% and approximately 60%, respectively, both in the continued presence of nifedipine and in Ca++-free physiological salt solution. The Ca++ ionophore A23187 (10 microM) also evoked a sustained constriction of pulmonary arteries. Surprisingly, the A23187-induced constriction was also inhibited in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner by niflumic acid (IC50: 18.0 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 8.8 microM), but not by DIDS (constriction is independent of Cl- channel blockade. One possibility is that these compounds may block the Ca++-dependent contractile processes.

  3. Aortic Remodeling Following Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice is Attenuated with AT1 Receptor Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Geng, Liang; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Cao, Jiu-Mei; Guo, Steven; Villamizar, Carlos; Kwartler, Callie S.; Ju, Xiaoxi; Brasier, Allan R.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although hypertension is the most common risk factor for thoracic aortic diseases, it is not understood how increased pressures on the ascending aorta lead to aortic aneurysms. We investigated the role of Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation in ascending aortic remodeling in response to increased biomechanical forces using a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model. Approach and Results Two weeks after TAC, the increased biomechanical pressures led to ascending aortic dilatation, aortic wall thickening and medial hypertrophy. Significant adventitial hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in TAC ascending aortas were accompanied by increased adventitial collagen, elevated inflammatory and proliferative markers, and increased cell density due to accumulation of myofibroblasts and macrophages. Treatment with losartan significantly blocked TAC induced vascular inflammation and macrophage accumulation. However, losartan only partially prevented TAC induced adventitial hyperplasia, collagen accumulation and ascending aortic dilatation. Increased Tgfb2 expression and phosphorylated-Smad2 staining in the medial layer of TAC ascending aortas was effectively blocked with losartan. In contrast, the increased Tgfb1 expression and adventitial phospho-Smad2 staining were only partially attenuated by losartan. In addition, losartan significantly blocked Erk activation and ROS production in the TAC ascending aorta. Conclusions Inhibition of the AT1 receptor using losartan significantly attenuated the vascular remodeling associated with TAC but did not completely block the increased TGF- β1 expression, adventitial Smad2 signaling and collagen accumulation. These results help to delineate the aortic TGF-β signaling that is dependent and independent of the AT1 receptor after TAC. PMID:23868934

  4. Pupil constriction can alter the accuracy of dark room provocative test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-song; WANG Ning-li; Nathan Cong-don; LEI Kun; Baskaran Mani

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG)is a major cause of visual morbidity in East Asia.Dark-room provocative test(DRPT)has been used to determine which narrow angles have the risk to develop angle closure.However,the accuracy of DRPT might be altered because that after emerging from the dark room,the configuration of the angle is affected by the light of the slit-lamp and the appositionally closed angle reopens.The aim of this study was to examine the pupillary diameter in different light conditions and use it as a parameter to assess the accuracy of dark-room provocative test.Methods Patients with suspected primary angle-closure glaucoma undergoing DRPT were recruited.The anterior chamber angle was examined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography under the following conditions:(1)in standard room illumination;(2)after short-term dark-adaptation and(3)after DRPT.Mean values of pupil size and numbers of appositionally closed angle under different conditions were compared.Results A total of 47 eyes of 47 patients were analyzed.The pupil size after DRPT was smaller than that after short-term dark-adaptation(P<0.001)and smaller than that in standard room illumination(P=0.026).The numbers of appositionally closed angles after short-term dark-adaptation were significantly larger than those after DRPT(P<0.001).There was no significant difference between the numbers of appositionally closed angles in standard room illumination and after DRPT(P=0.157).Conclusions Constriction of pupil size immediately after prolonged dark room provocative test may lead to change in the angle configuration,which may lead to false negative results.We suggest a modified protocol of recording intraocular pressure immediately after DRPT and performing gonioscopy following short-term dark adaptation to improve the accuracy of angle closure assessment.

  5. Flow structures and red blood cell dynamics in arteriole of dilated or constricted cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaruto, Alberto M

    2016-07-26

    Vessel with 'circular' or 'star-shaped' cross sections are studied, representing respectively dilated or constricted cases where endothelial cells smoothly line or bulge into the lumen. Computational haemodynamics simulations are carried out on idealised periodic arteriole-sized vessels, with red blood cell 'tube' hematocrit value=24%. A further simulation of a single red blood cell serves for comparison purposes. The bulk motion of the red blood cells reproduces well-known effects, including the presence of a cell-free layer and the apparent shear-thinning non-Newtonian rheology. The velocity flow field is analysed in a Lagrangian reference frame, relative to any given red blood cell, hence removing the bulk coaxial motion and highlighting instead the complex secondary flow patterns. An aggregate formation becomes apparent, continuously rearranging and dynamic, brought about by the inter-cellular fluid mechanics interactions and the deformability properties of the cells. The secondary flow field induces a vacillating radial migration of the red blood cells. At different radial locations, the red blood cells express different residence times, orientation and shape. The shear stresses exerted by the flow on the vessel wall are influenced by the motion of red blood cells, despite the presence of the cell-free layer. Spatial (and temporal) variations of wall shear stress patters are observed, especially for the 'circular' vessel. The 'star-shaped' vessel bears considerable stress at the protruding endothelial cell crests, where the stress vectors are coaxially aligned. The bulging endothelial cells hence regularise the transmission of stresses on the vessel wall.

  6. Differences in the effects of turns and constrictions on the resistive response in current-biased superconducting wire after single photon absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotova, A. N.; Y Vodolazov, D.

    2013-07-01

    We study how turns and constrictions affect the resistive response of superconducting wire after instantaneous, localized heating, by modeling the absorption of a single photon by the wire. We find that the presence of constrictions favors the detection of photons with a range of energies whereas the presence of turns increases the ability to detect only relatively ‘low’ energy photons. The main reason is that in the case of a constriction the current density is increased over the whole length and width of the constriction while in the case of a turn the current density is enhanced only near the inner corner of the turn. This results in inhomogeneous Joule heating near the turn and worsens the conditions for the appearance of the normal domain at relatively small currents, where the ‘high’ energy photons could already create a normal domain in the straight part of the wire. We also find that the amplitude of the voltage pulse depends on the location at which the photon is absorbed, being smallest when the photon is absorbed near the turn and largest when the photon is absorbed near the constriction. This effect is due to the difference in the resistance of constrictions and turns in the normal state from the resistance of the rest of the wire.

  7. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  8. Effect of transverse aortic constriction on cardiac structure, function and gene expression in pregnant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of heart failure and pulmonary edema in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. However, in a previous study we found that pregnancy protects against fibrosis and preserves angiogenesis in a rat model of angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy. In this study we test the hypothesis that pregnancy protects against negative effects of increased afterload. METHODS: Pregnant (gestational day 5.5-8.5 and non-pregnant Wistar rats were randomized to transverse aortic constriction (TAC or sham surgery. After 14.2 ± 0.14 days echocardiography was performed. Aortic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV pressure-volume loops were obtained using a conductance catheter. LV collagen content and cardiomyocyte circumference were measured. Myocardial gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Heart weight was increased by TAC (p<0.001 but not by pregnancy. Cardiac myocyte circumference was larger in pregnant compared to non-pregnant rats independent of TAC (p = 0.01, however TAC per se did not affect this parameter. Collagen content in LV myocardium was not affected by pregnancy or TAC. TAC increased stroke work more in pregnant rats (34.1 ± 2.4 vs 17.5 ± 2.4 mmHg/mL, p<0.001 than in non-pregnant (28.2 ± 1.7 vs 20.9 ± 1.5 mmHg/mL, p = 0.06. However, it did not lead to overt heart failure in any group. In pregnant rats, α-MHC gene expression was reduced by TAC. Increased in the expression of β-MHC gene was higher in pregnant (5-fold compared to non-pregnant rats (2-fold after TAC (p = 0.001. Nine out of the 19 genes related to cardiac remodeling were affected by pregnancy independent of TAC. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the hypothesis that pregnancy is cardioprotective against the negative effects of increased afterload. Some differences in cardiac structure, function and gene expression between pregnant and non-pregnant rats following TAC indicated that

  9. A case report of bilateral Brodie bite in early mixed dentition using bonded constriction quad-helix appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Takaku, Sakiko; Murase, Chiaki; Nishii, Yasushi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Brodie bite is a comparatively rare type of malocclusion found in primary and mixed dentition. It not only adversely affects chewing and muscle functions, but also impairs normal growth and development of the mandible. This report describes the therapeutic results of a patient with bilateral Brodie bite in early mixed dentition after using a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance. The patient, a boy aged 9 years and 2 months, first visited our hospital after occlusal abnormality in the molar region was detected at a local dental clinic. Case analysis resulted in a diagnosis of bilateral Brodie bite with slight mandibular retrognathism. Treatment objectives were to reduce the arch width of the maxillary dentition and expand the mandibular arch in order to establish and stabilize molar occlusion and to achieve a Class I molar relation and appropriate overbite and overjet. Treatment comprised covering the occlusal surface of the maxillary molars with resin and attaching a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance joined with a 0.040-inch quad-helix wire. A bi-helix appliance was also fixed to the mandibular dentition. Brodie bite visibly improved after 5 months. Cervical headgear was then fitted and the patient observed until eruption of the permanent dentition was complete. Class I molar relation was achieved after 2 years and 6 months, although spacing remained in the maxillary and mandibular dentitions. Treatment of bilateral Brodie bite in mixed dentition by means of a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance attached to the maxillary dentition enabled effective bite opening and reduction in the width of maxillary arch independent of the patient's cooperation, providing good therapeutic outcome in a short time period.

  10. Maximum opening of the mouth by mouth prop during dental procedures increases the risk of upper airway constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ito

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ito1, Hiroyoshi Kawaai1, Shinya Yamazaki1, Yosuke Suzuki21Division of Systemic Management, Department of Oral Function, 2Division of Radiology and Diagnosis, Department of Medical Sciences, Ohu University, Post Graduate School of Dentistry, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, JapanAbstract: From a retrospective evaluation of data on accidents and deaths during dental procedures, it has been shown that several patients who refused dental treatment died of asphyxia during dental procedures. We speculated that forcible maximum opening of the mouth by using a mouth prop triggers this asphyxia by affecting the upper airway. Therefore, we assessed the morphological changes of the upper airway following maximal opening of the mouth. In 13 healthy adult volunteers, the sagittal diameter of the upper airway on lateral cephalogram was measured between the two conditions; closed mouth and maximally open mouth. The dyspnea in each state was evaluated by a visual analog scale. In one subject, a computed tomograph (CT was taken to assess the three-dimensional changes in the upper airway. A significant difference was detected in the mean sagittal diameter of the upper airway following use of the prop (closed mouth: 18.5 ± 3.8 mm, maximally open mouth: 10.4 ± 3.0 mm. All subjects indicated upper airway constriction and significant dyspnea when their mouth was maximally open. Although a CT scan indicated upper airway constriction when the mouth was maximally open, muscular compensation was admitted. Our results further indicate that the maximal opening of the mouth narrows the upper airway diameter and leads to dyspnea. The use of a prop for the patient who has communication problems or poor neuromuscular function can lead to asphyxia. When the prop is used for patient refusal in dentistry, the respiratory condition should be monitored strictly, and it should be kept in mind that the “sniffing position” is effective for avoiding upper airway

  11. Influence of constriction, wall tension, smooth muscle activation and cellular deformation on rat resistance artery vasodilator reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Ilsley; Mandalà, Maurizio; Morton, Jude; Davidge, Sandra T; Osol, George

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how vasoconstriction (tone), wall tension, smooth muscle activation, and vascular wall deformation influence resistance artery vasodilator reactivity. Resistance arteries, from two different regional circulations (splanchnic, uterine) and from pregnant and non-pregnant rats, were cannulated and pressurized, or mounted on a wire myograph under isometric conditions prior to being exposed to both endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) vasodilator agonists. A consistent pattern of reduced vasodilator sensitivity was noted as a function of extent of preconstriction for both agonists noted in pressurized arteries. A similar pattern regarding activation was noted in wire-mounted arteries in response to SNP but not ACh. Wall tension proved to be a major determinant of vascular smooth muscle vasodilator reactivity and its normalization reversed this pattern, as more constricted vessels were more sensitive to ACh relaxation without any change in SNP sensitivity, suggesting that endothelial deformation secondary to vasoconstriction augments its vasodilator output. To our knowledge, this is the first study to dissect out the complex interplay between biophysical forces impinging on VSM (pressure, wall tension), the ambient level of tone (vasoconstriction, smooth muscle cell activation), and consequences of cellular (particularly endothelial) deformation secondary to constriction in determining resistance artery vasodilatory reactivity.

  12. Cardiac tamponade due to low-volume effusive constrictive pericarditis in a patient with uncontrolled type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William C; Kurklinsky, Andrew; Lane, Gary; Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Blackshear, Joseph L

    2014-03-01

    Type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS), a relatively common endocrine disorder, includes primary adrenal insufficiency coupled with type 1 diabetes mellitus and/or autoimmune primary hypothyroidism. Autoimmune serositis, an associated disease, may present as symptomatic pericardial effusion. We present a case of a 54-year old male with APS who developed pericarditis leading to cardiac tamponade with a subacute loculated effusion. After urgent pericardiocentesis intrapericardial pressure dropped to 0, while central venous pressures remain elevated, consistent with acute effusive constrictive pericarditis. Contrast computerized tomography confirmed increased pericardial contrast enhancement. The patient recovered after prolonged inotropic support and glucocorticoid administration. He re-accumulated the effusion 16 days later, requiring repeat pericardiocentesis. Effusive-constrictive pericarditis, an uncommon pericardial syndrome, is characterized by simultaneous pericardial inflammation and tamponade. Prior cases of APS associated with cardiac tamponade despite low volumes of effusion have been reported, albeit without good demonstration of hemodynamic findings. We report a case of APS with recurrent pericardial effusion due to pericarditis and marked hypotension with comprehensive clinical and hemodynamic assessment. These patients may require aggressive support with pericardiocentesis, inotropes, and hormone replacement therapy. They should be followed closely for recurrent tamponade.

  13. Rab1 interacts with GOLPH3 and controls Golgi structure and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Stefano; Frappaolo, Anna; Fraschini, Roberta; Capalbo, Luisa; Gottardo, Marco; Belloni, Giorgio; Glover, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires a tight coordination between actomyosin ring constriction and new membrane addition along the ingressing cleavage furrow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle trafficking to the equatorial site and how this process is coupled with the dynamics of the contractile apparatus are poorly defined. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rab1 during cleavage furrow ingression in cytokinesis. We demonstrate that the gene omelette (omt) encodes the Drosophila orthologue of human Rab1 and is required for successful cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic dividing cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that Rab1 protein colocalizes with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex Cog7 subunit and the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate effector GOLPH3 at the Golgi stacks. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy and 3D-SIM super-resolution microscopy reveals loss of normal Golgi architecture in omt mutant spermatocytes indicating a role for Rab1 in Golgi formation. In dividing cells, Rab1 enables stabilization and contraction of actomyosin rings. We further demonstrate that GTP-bound Rab1 directly interacts with GOLPH3 and controls its localization at the Golgi and at the cleavage site. We propose that Rab1, by associating with GOLPH3, controls membrane trafficking and contractile ring constriction during cytokinesis. PMID:28100664

  14. PID Controller Design of Nonlinear System using a New Modified Particle Swarm Optimization with Time-Varying Constriction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrijadjis .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proportional integral derivative (PID controllers have been widely used in most process control systems for a long time. However, it is a very important problem how to choose PID parameters, because these parameters give a great influence on the control performance. Especially, it is difficult to tune these parameters for nonlinear systems. In this paper, a new modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is presented to search for optimal PID parameters for such system. The proposed algorithm is to modify constriction coefficient which is nonlinearly decreased time-varying for improving the final accuracy and the convergence speed of PSO. To validate the control performance of the proposed method, a typical nonlinear system control, a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR process, is illustrated. The results testify that a new modified PSO algorithm can perform well in the nonlinear PID control system design in term of lesser overshoot, rise-time, settling-time, IAE and ISE. Keywords: PID controller, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO,constriction factor, nonlinear system.

  15. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystitis - chronic ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. These ...

  16. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  17. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  18. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  19. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  20. Outcomes of vaginal hysterectomy and constricting colporrhaphy with concurrent levator myorrhaphy and high perineorrhaphy in women older than 75 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Töz E

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emrah Töz, Aykut Özcan, Nesin Apaydin, İbrahim Uyar, Betül Kocakaya, Gülin Okay Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey Objectives: We performed constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy with concurrent hysterectomy, and investigated the intraoperative complications, and short-term outcomes of these constricting procedures in patients aged 75 years or older.Methods: We searched our hospital database for cases, between January 2011 and January 2014, of women aged over 75 years who underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse of stage 2 or higher, via vaginal hysterectomy, constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy, with or without treatment of urinary incontinence. All volunteers were evaluated via pelvic examination using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, the modified Decision Regret Scale–Pelvic Floor Disorders form, the Satisfaction Decision Scale–Pelvic Floor Disorders form, and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory form.Results: Fifty-four patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up time was 24.4 months after constricting surgery (range: 8–44 months. There were four cases (7% of de novo urge incontinence (the symptoms resolved upon prescription of anticholinergic medication. Two patients developed de novo stress urinary incontinence after the procedure and were treated via transobturator sling surgery using Safyre T® polypropylene monofilament slings. No anatomical or subjective recurrence of prolapse was noted during the follow-up period. No patient required additional surgery for recurrence of prolapse.Conclusion: Constricting anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, levator myorrhaphy, and high perineorrhaphy with concurrent hysterectomy is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical option in elderly patients at low anesthesiological risk. The decision

  1. A clinico-pathological conference on constrictive pericarditis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis: a case report with expert commentary and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Adam D; Khan, Muhammad E A; Hoey, Edward T; Rassl, Doris; Nashef, Samer A M

    2011-01-01

    Constrictive pericarditis is the commonest cardiac complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two percent of patients with RA develop significant clinical symptoms of pericarditis, which may not correlate with joint disease duration or severity. Symptoms are often vague and non-specific, which frequently delays the diagnosis and subsequent management. Surgical excision of the pericardium is the only definitive treatment option. We present the case of a 60 year-old lady with RA who presented with symptoms due to pericardial constriction and underwent radical pericardectomy.

  2. Familial ainhum: A case report of multiple toe involvement in a father and son, staging of ainhum with insight into different types of constricting bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

  3. Familial ainhum: a case report of multiple toe involvement in a father and son, staging of ainhum with insight into different types of constricting bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Bt; Suganthy, Rajakumari R; Manimegalai, M; Krishnaveni, A

    2015-01-01

    Ainhum, also known as dactylolysis spontanea, is a painful constriction of the base of the fifth toe, frequently followed by spontaneous amputation a few years later. The disease is often symmetrical on both the feet, but, occasionally, other toes are also affected and rarely the distal phalanx of the fifth finger. Pseudoainhum is a similar condition that occurs as a secondary event resulting from certain hereditary and nonhereditary diseases that lead to annular constriction of digits. We hereby present a case of familial ainhum in father and son with multiple toes affected, autoamputation, and more involvement of fourth toe than the fifth toe, which is a very rare finding.

  4. Involvement of glutamate in transmission of afferent constrictive inputs from the airways to the nucleus tractus solitarius in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhiu, M A; Yamamoto, B; Dreshaj, I A; Bedol, D; Ferguson, D G

    2000-04-12

    In this study, we identified the neurons within nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) activated by stimulation of airway sensory systems and examined the expression of AMPA receptor subtype(s) by these cells. We also investigated the possible involvement of endogenously released glutamate and AMPA receptors in the transmission of excitatory inputs from the sensory system of the respiratory tract to the neurons of the nTS. In these experiments we used: (1) immunodetection of c-fos encoded protein (cFos) expression to identify the nTS neurons activated by the stimulation of the airway sensory system; (2) receptor immunochemistry and confocal microscopy to determine the receptor(s) expressed by activated nTS neurons; (3) microdialysis to measure glutamate release, and (4) physiological measurements to examine the effects of selective receptor blockers, and thereby define the role of the glutamate and AMPA glutamatergic receptor subtype(s) in reflexly induced airway constriction. The results showed that activation of airway sensory receptors, by inhalation of aerosolized histamine or capsaicin, induced cFos expression in a subset of nTS neurons that also expressed the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors. Furthermore, activation of sensory bronchoconstrictive receptors induced glutamate release within nTS, and blockade of the AMPA receptor subtype within nTS inhibited reflexly increased cholinergic outflow to the airways. These data indicate for the first time that glutamate and AMPA receptor signaling pathways are involved in the transmission of afferent inputs from the airways to the nTS, and in mediating reflex airway constriction.

  5. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Axial Magnetic Field Distribution on Resisting the Constriction of a High-Current Vacuum Arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zongqian; LIU Zhigang; JIA Shenli; SONG Xiaochuan; WANG Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the axial magnetic field (AMF) on resisting the constriction of a high-current vacuum arc is studied in this paper. Two typical AMF distributions were investigated, i.e., the traditional bell-shaped AMF, and the saddle-shaped AMF. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with a rms arc current in the range of 10 kA to 25 kA. The arc column was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 microseconds. The constriction of the vacuum arc was compared by processing the images of the arc column under the two different field configurations and numerically determining the dimensions of the arc column near the electrodes. It was also confirmed that the AMF distribution had a signifcant influence on its effectiveness in resisting arc constriction, Furthermore, the AMF strength near the periphery of the arc is more influential than that at the centre of the electrodes in resisting arc constriction.

  6. Aracnoidite constritiva causada por pantopaque resultando em siringomielia e paraparesia: relato de caso Thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography causing syringomyelia and paraparesis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de aracnoidite constritiva torácica, verificada 10 anos após o uso de pantopaque, que foi utilizado em mielografia no diagnóstico de cisto aracnóideo.We present an unusual case of thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography, used 10 years before in the diagnosis of intradural arachnoid cyst.

  7. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  8. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  10. Influence of systemically given placebo, trapidil and isosorbide dinitrate on norepinephrine-evoked hand vein constriction in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziegoleit, Werner; Dannenberg, Katrin; Konschak, Ariana; Lautenschläger, Christine; Presek, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Since trapidil (CAS 15421-84-8) is able to dilate human hand veins after local intravenous administration, four studies were carried out in healthy male volunteers using the dorsal hand vein compliance technique to test the influence of common systemic single doses of trapidil (200 mg orally, 100 mg intravenously) and isosorbide dinitrate (CAS 87-33-2, 20 mg orally) on norepinephrine (CAS 51-41-2)-evoked hand vein constriction in comparison with oral placebo. Oral placebo and oral trapidil were studied in a randomized double-blind cross-over design in 10 subjects aged 20 to 30 years, and oral isosorbide dinitrate and intravenous trapidil, in a randomized open cross-over design in 8 subjects aged 22 to 29 years. In the three similar studies with oral medications dose-response curves for venoconstriction by locally infused norepinephrine were established before and 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after oral medication and ED50 values of norepinephrine were calculated. The control dose-response curves and ED50 values of norepinephrine did not differ significantly. After oral placebo administration the dose-response curves of norepinephrine did not change significantly, but the ED50 of norepinephrine increased 3 h after placebo (from 12.1 to 31.7 ng/ min), indicating a lessening in norepinephrine effect at this time. After oral trapidil application the dose-response curves of norepinephrine shifted to the left compared with the pre-treatment curve (significantly 2 h after trapidil) and the corresponding curves after placebo with a significant decrease in the ED50 of norepinephrine 3 h after trapidil compared with placebo (from 31.7 to 12.6 ng/ min). After oral isosorbide dinitrate administration the dose-response curves of norepinephrine did not differ significantly from the pre-treatment curve, but they shifted to the left compared with the corresponding curves after placebo (significantly 3 h after isosorbide dinitrate). The ED50 of norephinephrine decreased significantly 2 h after

  11. Excited State Studies of Polyacenes Using the All-Order Constricted Variational Density Functional Theory with Orbital Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Florian; Krykunov, Mykhaylo

    2015-10-22

    For the polyacenes series from naphthalene to hexacene, we present the vertical singlet excitation energies 1 (1)La and 1 (1)Lb, as well as the first triplet excitation energies obtained by the all-order constricted variational density functional theory with orbital relaxation (R-CV(∞)-DFT). R-CV(∞)-DFT is a further development of variational density functional theory (CV(∞)-DFT), which has already been successfully applied for the calculation of the vertical singlet excitation energies (1)La and (1)Lb for polyacenes,15 and we show that one obtains consistent excitation energies using the local density approximation as a functional for singlet as well as for triplet excitations when going beyond the linear response theory. Furthermore, we apply self-consistent field density functional theory (ΔSCF-DFT) and compare the obtained excitation energies for the first triplet excitations T1, where, due to the character of the transition, ΔSCF-DFT and R-CV(∞)-DFT become numerically equivalent, and for the singlet excitations 1 (1)La and 1 (1)Lb, where the two methods differ.

  12. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray or segregated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-11-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').

  13. Constrictive Pericarditis in the Presence of Remaining Remnants of a Left Ventricular Assist Device in a Heart Transplanted Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rivinius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Constrictive pericarditis (CP is a severe subform of pericarditis with various causes and clinical findings. Here, we present the unique case of CP in the presence of remaining remnants of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD in a heart transplanted patient. A 63-year-old man presented at the Heidelberg Heart Center outpatient clinic with progressive dyspnea, fatigue, and loss of physical capacity. Heart transplantation (HTX was performed at another heart center four years ago and postoperative clinical course was unremarkable so far. Pharmacological cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI stress test was performed to exclude coronary ischemia. The test was negative but, accidentally, a foreign body located in the epicardial adipose tissue was found. The foreign body was identified as the inflow pump connection of an LVAD which was left behind after HTX. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis of CP. Surgical removal was performed and the epicardial tubular structure with a diameter of 30 mm was carefully removed accompanied by pericardiectomy. No postoperative complications occurred and the patient recovered uneventfully with a rapid improvement of symptoms. On follow-up 3 and 6 months later, the patient reported about a stable clinical course with improved physical capacity and absence of dyspnea.

  14. PERICARDITIS CONSTRICTIVA EN UNA MUJER DE 36 AÑOS / Constrictive Pericarditis in a 36 year-old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Negrín Valdés

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPaciente femenina, de 36 años de edad, con antecedentes de dos gestaciones, dos partos y ningún aborto, que en el año 2003 tras su segundo parto, distócico por cesárea, desarrolla una pericarditis de causa no precisada que produjo un derrame pericárdico grave con signos de taponamiento cardíaco, y requirió ingreso hospitalario y pericardiocentesis. Siete años después se identifican, en la consulta de Cardiología, síntomas clínicos de una pericarditis constrictiva, corroborada por ecocardiograma y cateterismo derecho; actualmente ingresa para pericardiectomía, evaluada como alto riesgo quirúrgico. / Abstract36 year-old female patient, with a history of two pregnancies, two births and no abortion, who in 2003 after her second delivery (cesarean for dystocia she developed pericarditis of undetermined cause that produced a severe pericardial effusion with signs of cardiac tamponade and required hospital admission and pericardiocentesis. Seven years later, in the Cardiology service, clinical symptoms of constrictive pericarditis are identified and confirmed by echocardiography and right heart catheterization. This patient has been recently admitted for pericardiectomy, and evaluated as high surgical risk.

  15. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  16. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Patent and Constricted Ductus Arteriosus Tissues Confirms the Systemic Regulation of Ductus Arteriosus Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haifa; Ye, Lincai; Chen, Huiwen; Xia, Yu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Jinfen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate global changes in protein expression associated with patency by undertaking proteomic analysis of human constricted and patent ductus arteriosus (DA). Ten constricted and 10 patent human DAs were excised from infants with ductal-dependent heart disease during surgery. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomics, 132 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of 132 proteins, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.3 (SCN3A), myosin 1d (Myo1d), Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26), and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) were selected for validation by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Significant upregulation of SCN3A, Myo1d, and RP1 messenger RNA, and protein levels was observed in the patent DA group (all P ≤ 0.048). ARHGAP26 messenger RNA and protein levels were decreased in patent DA tissue (both P ≤ 0.018). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that Myo1d, ARHGAP26, and RP1 were specifically expressed in the subendothelial region of constricted DAs; however, diffuse expression of these proteins was noted in the patent group. Proteomic analysis revealed global changes in the expression of proteins that regulate oxygen sensing, ion channels, smooth muscle cell migration, nervous system, immune system, and metabolism, suggesting a basis for the systemic regulation of DA patency by diverse signaling pathways, which will be confirmed in further studies.

  17. Pharmacological reversal of endothelin-1 mediated constriction of the spiral modiolar artery: a potential new treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasospasm of the spiral modiolar artery (SMA may cause ischemic stroke of the inner ear. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 induces a strong, long-lasting constriction of the SMA by increasing contractile apparatus Ca2+ sensitivity via Rho-kinase. We therefore tested several Rho-kinase inhibitors and a cell-permeable analogue of cAMP (dbcAMP for their ability to reverse ET-1-induced constriction and Ca2+-sensitization. Methods The present study employed SMA isolated from gerbil temporal bones. Ca2+sensitivity was evaluated by correlating vascular diameter and smooth muscle cell [Ca2+]i, measured by fluo-4-microfluorometry and videomicroscopy. Results The Rho-kinase inhibitors Y-27632, fasudil, and hydroxy-fasudil reversed ET-1-induced vasoconstriction with an IC50 of 3, 15, and 111 μmol/L, respectively. DbcAMP stimulated a dose-dependent vasodilation (Ec50 = 1 mmol/L and a reduction of [Ca2+]i (EC50 = 0.3 μmol/L of ET-1-preconstricted vessels (1 nmol/L. Fasudil and dbcAMP both reversed the ET-1-induced increase in Ca2+ sensitivity. Conclusion Rho-kinase inhibition and dbcAMP reversed ET-1-induced vasoconstriction and Ca2+-sensitization. Therefore, Rho-kinase inhibitors or cAMP modulators could possess promise as pharmacological tools for the treatment of ET-1-induced constriction, ischemic stroke and sudden hearing loss.

  18. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  19. Therapeutic effect of flurbiprofen axetil on ischialgia in rats with chronic constriction injury%氟比洛芬酯治疗大鼠坐骨神经痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛豪丽; 刘春芳; 姜虹; 黄燕

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察氟比洛芬酯治疗慢性缩窄性损伤(CCI)模型模拟大鼠坐骨神经慢性疼痛的效果.方法 36只雄性Sprague-Dawley(SD)大鼠随机分入6组,每组6只:氟比洛芬酯治疗CCI组,脂肪乳剂治疗CCI组,安慰剂治疗CCI组,CCI组,氟比洛芬酯治疗假手术组,假手术组.制作动物模型前将大鼠称重记录,测试基础疼痛阈值.4个CCI组用线疏松结扎大鼠右侧坐骨神经制备坐骨神经痛模型,疼痛阈值检测确定坐骨神经CCI在术后15 d达到高峰期.2个假手术组大鼠仅暴露但不结扎右侧坐骨神经.在疼痛阈值达峰值的术后15 d,大鼠称重后,氟比洛芬酯治疗CCI组大鼠尾静脉注射氟比洛芬酯5 mg/kg,脂肪乳剂治疗CCI组大鼠尾静脉注射脂肪乳剂5 mg/kg,安慰剂治疗CCI组大鼠尾静脉注射相同容量的0.9%氯化钠溶液,氟比洛芬酯治疗假手术组大鼠尾静脉注射氟比洛芬酯5 mg/kg.用药组注射药物前和注射药物后15 min测定大鼠的疼痛阈值.结果 CCI模型大鼠与行假手术的大鼠间术前体重的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),术后15d的体重均有增加,CCI模型大鼠与术前的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),行假手术的大鼠较术前显著增加(P<0.05).6组间大鼠术前的疼痛阈值的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).4个CCI组大鼠术后15 d注射药物前的疼痛阈值均较同组术前显著降低(P值均<0.05),出现痛觉敏感;2个假手术组大鼠手术前后疼痛阈值的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).注射药物后15 min,氟比洛芬酯治疗CCI组大鼠的疼痛阈值显著高于同组注射药物前(P<0.05),而脂肪乳剂治疗CCI组、安慰剂治疗CCI组和氟比洛芬酯治疗假手术组注射药物前后疼痛阈值的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).结论 氟比洛芬酯治疗CCI模型模拟大鼠坐骨神经慢性疼痛的效果良好.

  20. Renal Denervation Attenuates Multi-Organ Fibrosis and Improves Vascular Remodeling in Rats with Transverse Aortic Constriction Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN on multi-organ fibrosis and vascular remodeling in cardiomyopathy. Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Five weeks later, 28 surviving TAC rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (1 RDN, (2 Sham, (3 Carvedilol. Six male Sham TAC rats served as the Control. Ten weeks after TAC, samples were collected. Results: TAC rats showed an increased diastolic interventricular septal thickness at week 5. At 10 weeks, Masson staining showed that left ventricular and renal glomerular fibrosis were significantly reduced in RDN compared with Sham group. In comparison to Sham group, hepatic perivascular fibrosis was attenuated in both RDN and Carvedilol group, so were the media thickness and the media/lumen of aorta. The plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, Cystatin C (Cys-C, Alanine Transaminase, angiotensin II (Ang II, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, and malondialdehyde increased, and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD decreased in Sham but not in RDN group, compared with Control group. Both RDN and Carvedilol reduced the Cys-C and TGF-β1 levels, and restored T-SOD concentration, compared with Sham group. While only RDN lowered the plasma levels of BNP and Ang II. No significant effects of RDN on blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were oberved. Conclusions: RDN can attenuate multi-organ fibrosis and improve vascular remodeling independent of BP and HR change in TAC-induced cardiomyopathy. These effects of RDN may be associated with the direct inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress.

  1. A mutation in the converter subdomain of Aspergillus nidulans MyoB blocks constriction of the actomyosin ring in cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry W; Jackson-Hayes, Loretta; Wang, Xiao; Hoge, Brianna L

    2015-02-01

    We have identified a mutant allele of the Aspergillus nidulans homologue of myosin II (myoB; AN4706), which prevents normal septum formation. This is the first reported myosin II mutation in a filamentous fungus. Strains expressing the myoB(G843D) allele produce mainly aberrant septa at 30 °C and are completely aseptate at temperatures above 37 °C. Conidium formation is greatly reduced at 30 °C and progressively impaired with increasing temperature. Sequencing of the myoB(G843D) allele identified a point mutation predicted to result in a glycine-to-aspartate amino acid substitution at residue 843 in the myosin II converter domain. This residue is conserved in all fungal, plant, and animal myosin sequences that we have examined. The mutation does not prevent localization of the myoB(G843D) gene product to contractile rings, but it does block ring constriction. MyoB(G843D) rings at sites of abortive septation disassemble after an extended period and dissipate into the cytoplasm. During contractile ring formation, both wild type and mutant MyoB::GFP colocalize with actin--an association that begins at the pre-ring "string" stage. Down-regulation of wild-type myoB expression under control of the alcA promoter blocks septation but does not prevent actin from aggregating at putative septation sites--the actin rings, however, do not fully coalesce. Both septation and targeting of MyoB are blocked by disruption of filamentous actin using latrunculin B. We propose a model in which myosin assembly at septation sites depends upon the presence of F-actin, but assembly of the actin component of contractile rings depends upon normal levels of myosin only for the final stages of ring compaction.

  2. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; dos Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; de Paula, Rafael Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. Methods: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. Results: 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology. PMID:28125138

  3. Intradermal injection of Botulinum toxin type A alleviates infraorbital nerve constriction-induced thermal hyperalgesia in an operant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, A; Matsuka, Y; Spigelman, I; Maruhama, K; Yamamoto, Y; Neubert, J K; Nolan, T A; Watanabe, K; Maekawa, K; Kamioka, H; Yamashiro, T; Kuboki, T; Oguma, K

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that infraorbital nerve constriction (IoNC)-induced mechanical allodynia has been attenuated by administration of highly purified 150-kDa Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). Here, we extend these studies to determine whether BoNT/A could attenuate IoNC-induced symptoms of thermal hyperalgesia. Instead of testing head withdrawal thresholds, a thermal operant assay was used to evaluate cortical processing of sensory input following IoNC. In this assay, a fasted rat's desire to obtain a food reward (sweetened condensed milk) is coupled to its ability to tolerate facial contact with a warm (45 °C) thermode. Bilateral IoNC decreased the ratio of thermode contact duration/event, which is an indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. BoNT/A injection intradermally in the area of infraorbital nerve (IoN) innervation 7 days after IoNC resulted in decreased number of facial contacts and increased the ratio of contact duration/event (measured at 14 days after IoNC). The BoNT/A (2-200 pg) effects were dose dependent and statistically significant at 100 and 200 pg (P thermal hyperalgesia symptoms was obtained with a 200-pg dose, without affecting sham rat behaviour. Off-site (neck) injection of BoNT/A did not relieve thermal hyperalgesia, while co-injection of BoNT/A with a neutralising antibody in the area of IoN innervation prevented relief of thermal hyperalgesia. Neither IoNC nor BoNT/A injection affected operant assay parameters with a 24 °C thermode, indicating selectivity of thermal hyperalgesia measurements. These results strongly suggest that intradermal injection of BoNT/A in the area of IoN innervation alleviates IoNC-induced thermal hyperalgesia in an operant assay.

  4. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. Methods: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed, SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. Results: 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology.

  5. Open thoracotomy and decortication for chronic empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andrade-Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, chronic empyema has been treated by thoracotomy and decortication. Some recent reports have claimed similar clinical results for videothoracoscopy, but with less morbidity and mortality than open procedures. Our experience with thoracotomy and decortication is reviewed so that the results of this surgical procedure can be adequately evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1992 to June 2006, 85 patients diagnosed with empyema were treated at Santo Tomás Hospital by the first author. Diagnosis of chronic empyema was based on the duration of signs and symptoms before definitive treatment and imaging findings, such as constriction of the lungs and the thoracic cage. Thirty-three patients fulfilled the criteria for chronic empyema and underwent open thoracotomy and decortication. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (81.8 % were male and the average age of the study group was 34 years. The etiology was pneumonia in 26 patients (78.8% and trauma in 7 (21.2%. The duration of symptoms and signs before definitive treatment averaged 37 days. All patients had chronic empyema, as confirmed by imaging studies and operative findings. Surgery lasted an average of 139 min. There were 3 (9% complications with no mortality. The post-operative length of stay averaged 10 days. There were no recurrences of empyema. CONCLUSIONS: Open thoracotomy and decortication can be achieved with low morbidity and mortality. Long-term functional results are especially promising. We suggest that the validation of other surgical approaches should be based on comparative, prospective and controlled studies.

  6. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  7. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing. You may also have other tests. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition that keeps coming back or never goes away completely. If you smoke, it is important to quit. Treatment can help with your symptoms. It often includes ...

  8. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  9. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  10. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  11. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  12. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  13. Nav1.7 protein and mRNA expression in the dorsal root ganglia of rats with chronic neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Liu; Jing Cao; Xiuhua Ren; Weidong Zang

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain was produced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats. Behavioral tests showed that the thresholds for thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were significantly reduced in neuropathic pain rats 3-28 days following model induction. The results of immunohistochemistry,western blot assays and reverse transcription-PCR showed that Nav1.7 protein and mRNA expression was significantly increased in the injured dorsal root ganglia. These findings indicated that Nav1.7 might play an important role in the model of chronic neuropathic pain.

  14. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction.

  15. [Neuroendocrine changes in chronic cardiac insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, P; Cohen-Solal, A; Dahan, M; Juliard, J M; Charlier, P; Gourgon, R

    1988-02-01

    Throughout the course of chronic congestive heart failure cardiac and peripheral compensatory mechanisms are at play, most of them under the influence of the neuroendocrine system. The reserves of heart rate and contractility are regulated essentially by the noradrenergic system (NAS), but this mechanism is partial and transient owing to the gradual decrease in the density and sensitivity of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors induced by overstimulation. Adaptation of the heart to exercise may be reduced. This escape phenomenon is also observed with almost all cardiotonic drugs which interfere with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), in contrast with the paradoxically favourable effects of beta-blockers in small doses or of drugs that are both agonists and antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors. The mechanisms which contribute to the induction of left ventricular hypertrophy are imperfectly known. The noradrenergic system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are probably not the only ones involved. The setting in action of Frank-Sterling heterometric regulation, at first during exercise then permanently, requires an increase in filling pressure obtained by venous constriction (predominantly controlled by the NAS) and, mostly, by an increase in circulating blood volume. NAS and RAAS intervene in the kidneys to produce water-and-salt retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The specific triggers ...

  17. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  18. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  19. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  20. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ramchandra Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol.

  1. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

  2. c-Myc Alters Substrate Utilization and O-GlcNAc Protein Posttranslational Modifications without Altering Cardiac Function during Early Aortic Constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolena Ledee

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic stimuli cause transcription of the proto-oncogene c-Myc (Myc. Prior work showed that myocardial knockout of c-Myc (Myc attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we assessed the interplay between Myc, substrate oxidation and cardiac function during early pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc knockout (MycKO-TAC and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n = 7/group. Additional groups underwent sham surgery (Cont-Sham and MycKO-Sham, n = 5 per group. After two weeks, function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. In sham hearts, Myc knockout did not affect cardiac function or substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle. However, Myc knockout altered fractional contributions during TAC. The unlabeled fractional contribution increased in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC, whereas ketone and free fatty acid fractional contributions decreased. Additionally, protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc were significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Cont-Sham and MycKO-TAC. In conclusion, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy, which may regulate Myc-induced metabolic changes.

  3. Prolonged low flow reduces reactive hyperemia and augments low flow mediated constriction in the brachial artery independent of the menstrual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rakobowchuk

    Full Text Available Non-invasive forearm ischemia-reperfusion injury and low flow induced vascular dysfunction models provide methods to evaluate vascular function. The role of oestrogen, an endogenous anti-oxidant on recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been evaluated nor has the impact of prolonged low flow on vascular function been established. Eight healthy women (33±10 yr attended the lab during the follicular, ovulatory and mid-luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. After 30 minutes of rest, brachial artery vascular function was assessed by ultrasound measurements of diameter changes during 5 minutes of forearm ischemia and 3 minutes after. Subsequently, a 20-minute forearm ischemia period was completed. Further, vascular function assessments were completed 15, 30 and 45 minutes into recovery. Flow-mediated dilation, low-flow-mediated constriction, and reactive hyperaemia proximal to the area of ischemia were determined. Flow-mediated dilation was reduced at 15 minutes of recovery but recovered at 30 and 45 minutes (PRE: 7.1±1.0%, POST15∶4.5±0.6%, POST30∶5. 5±0.7% POST45∶5.9±0.4%, p<0.01. Conversely, low-flow mediated constriction increased (PRE: -1.3±0.4%, POST15: -3.3±0.6%, POST30: -2.5±0.5% POST45: -1.5±0.12%, p<0.01. Reactive hyperaemia was reduced throughout recovery (p<0.05. Data were unaffected by menstrual phase. Prolonged low flow altered vascular function and may relate as much to increased vasoconstriction as with decreased vasodilation. Reductions in anterograde shear and greater retrograde shear likely modulate the brachial artery response, but the reduced total shear also plays an important role. The data suggest substantial alterations in vascular function proximal to areas of ischemia with potential clinical implications following reperfusion.

  4. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  5. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  6. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss.

  7. Autonomic fiber sprouting in the skin in chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Geraldine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a major symptom associated with chronic inflammation. In previous work from our laboratory, we have shown that in animal models of neuropathic pain there is a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis, a territory normally devoid of them. However, it is not known whether such sympathetic spouting, which is likely trophic factor mediated, also occurs in chronic inflammation and arthritis. In the present study, we used a rat model of chronic inflammation in which a small single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA was injected subcutaneously, unilaterally, into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. This led to a localized long-term skin inflammation and arthritis in all joints of the hindpaw. Animals were perfused with histological fixatives at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the injection. Experimental animals treated with CFA were compared to saline-injected animals. We then investigated the changes in the pattern of peripheral innervation of the peptidergic nociceptors and sympathetic fibers in rat glabrous hindpaw skin. Antibodies directed towards calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH were used for the staining of peptidergic and sympathetic fibers, respectively. Immunofluorescence was then used to analyze the different nerve fiber populations of the upper dermis. At 4 weeks following CFA treatment, DBH-immunoreactive (IR fibers were found to sprout into the upper dermis, in a pattern similar to the one we had observed in animals with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in a previous publication. There was also a significant increase in the density of CGRP-IR fibers in the upper dermis in CFA treated animals at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-injection. The increased peptidergic fiber innervation and the ectopic autonomic fibers found in the upper dermis may have a role in the pain-related behavior displayed by these animals.

  8. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  9. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  10. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and ...

  11. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  12. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  13. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintaining good health. Can chronic pancreatitis give my child cancer? If your child has chronic pancreatitis, he or she will be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the general population. The degree of ...

  14. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goals Ending Chronic Homelessness Share This: Ending Chronic Homelessness Last updated on January 19, 2017 We can ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  15. Salvianolic Acid B Reducing Portal Hypertension Depends on Macrophages in Isolated Portal Perfused Rat Livers with Chronic Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2012-01-01

    , and d84 in the progression of chronic hepatitis. After constricting with phenylephrine, the portal veins were relaxed with Sal B. The EC50 of Sal B for relaxing portal veins was −2.04×10−9, 7.28×10−11, 1.52×10−11, and 8.44×10−11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56, and d84, respectively. More macrophages infiltrated in portal triads and expressed more iNOS or HO-1 as PH advanced. The areas under the curve (AUCs of Sal B for reducing PH were positively correlated with the levels of iNOS or HO-1 in portal triads, and so did with serum CD163 levels. Sal B reduces PH in IPPRL with chronic hepatitis, via promoting portal relaxation due to macrophage-originated NO or CO in portal triads, partly at least.

  16. Does relative out-group size in neighborhoods drive down associational life of Whites in the U.S.? Testing constrict, conflict and contact theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelkoul, Michael; Hewstone, Miles; Scheepers, Peer; Stolle, Dietlind

    2015-07-01

    We test whether a larger percentage of non-Whites in neighborhoods decreases associational involvement and build on earlier research in three ways. First, we explicitly consider the ethnic composition of organizations, distinguishing involvement in bridging (with out-group members) and bonding (only in-group members) organizations. Second, we start from constrict theory and test competing sets of predictions derived from conflict and contact theories to explain these relationships. Third, we examine whether relative out-group size affects involvement in different types of voluntary organizations equally. Using data from the 2005 U.S. 'Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy' survey, the percentage of non-Whites in neighborhoods is largely unrelated with associational involvement or perceived ethnic threat. However, perceiving ethnic threat is consistently negatively related with involvement in bridging organizations. Simultaneously, a larger percentage of non-Whites fosters intergroup contact, which is negatively related with perceptions of ethnic threat and involvement in bonding leisure organizations. Our results shed more light on the relationship between the relative out-group size in neighborhoods and associational involvement as well as underlying explanations for this link.

  17. Effects of Wenxin Keli on the Action Potential and L-Type Calcium Current in Rats with Transverse Aortic Constriction-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the effects of WXKL on the action potential (AP and the L-type calcium current (ICa-L in normal and hypertrophied myocytes. Methods. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the transverse aortic constriction- (TAC- induced heart failure group. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by TAC surgery, whereas the control group underwent a sham operation. Eight weeks after surgery, single cardiac ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of the rats. The APs and ICa-L were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results. The action potential duration (APD of the TAC group was prolonged compared with the control group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The current densities of the ICa-L in the TAC group treated with 5 g/L WXKL were significantly decreased compared with the TAC group. We also determined the effect of WXKL on the gating mechanism of the ICa-L in the TAC group. We found that WXKL decreased the ICa-L by accelerating the inactivation of the channels and delaying the recovery time from inactivation. Conclusions. The results suggest that WXKL affects the AP and blocked the ICa-L, which ultimately resulted in the treatment of arrhythmias.

  18. A censura e o uso dos prazeres: comunicação sob constrição Censorship and the use of pleasures: communication under constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Rodrigues Gomes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo traz reflexões sobre os resultados parciais do trabalho de pesquisa desenvolvido em relação às expressões censuradas em peças teatrais, a partir do arquivo Miroel Silveira, que contém os processos de censura ao teatro, de 1925 a 1968. No presente estágio da pesquisa, foi possível constatar que a censura privilegiou termos relacionados à condução do corpo — exposição, gestos, trajes, sexualidade —, de um ponto de vista moral. Tornou-se necessário, portanto, um esforço para abarcar motivos e implicações desse tipo de intervenção, esforço aqui apresentado. Censorship and the use of pleasures: communication under constriction — This paper ponders upon the partial results of a research work concerning censored expressions in stage plays, based on the Miroel Silveira Archives, which contain the theater censorship processes dating from 1925 to 1968. At this point in our investigation, we have found that censorship concentrated on expressions relating to body postures — exposure, gestures, costumes, sexuality —, in short, a moral point of view. This finding led to an endeavor to understand the motives and implications of this kind of intervention, an undertaking that is presented herein.

  19. 运用VBA实现EPANET管网拓扑结构的应用%Application of VBA Technology in EPANET Pipe Network Topology Constriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文麒; 闫卿; 江伟; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    EPANET作为目前普遍使用的管网建模软件,在管网设计、运行管理方面发挥巨大的作用.然而,从CAD导入管网拓扑结构时由于缺乏管道直径属性,制约着管网建模效率.EXCEL中的VBA功能具有简单易学特点,通过VBA针对EPAENT管网模型拓扑结构开发的管道直径自动赋值程序简明易懂,操作便捷,大大增强了管网建模速度.%As commonly used water supply system modeling software, EPANET has played a major role in pipe network design, operation and management. However, the lack of pipe diameter properties from CAD export pipe network topology, restricts the efficiency of the pipe network modeling. EXCEL software with VBA function is known as easy to learn. A program of automatic assignment procedure for pipe diameter of the water network, which is based on VBA, is given in the present work. The program is easy-to-understand,and greatly enhances the speed of pipe network modeling constriction.

  20. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  1. Alterations of cardiac and lymphocyte β-adrenoceptors in rat with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 韩启德; 张幼怡; 许开明; 田斌; 吕志珍; 郭静萱; 陈明哲

    1997-01-01

    The alterations of cardiac and lymphocyte β-adrenoceptors were observed in the rats with chronic heart failure produced by constriction of both abdominal aorta and renal artery. The results showed that β1-adrenocep-tor density and mRNA levels were increased, whereas these levels remained unchanged for β2 The concentration-contractile response curve for isoproterenol was shifted to the right in cardiac atrium, whereas the concentration-cAMP accumulation response curve for isoproterenol in myocardium was not changed. The number of β-adrenoceptors in blood lymphocyte was markedly reduced. Thus in the heart-failure rats the density of cardiac β-adrenoceptor was increased accompanying reduced β-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic response, suggesting a post adenylate cyclase dys-function or impaired contractile components. In contrast, the alteration of β-adrenoceptor in lymphocyte is consistent with the reduced β-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic response in heart.

  2. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100. Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction.

  3. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.

  4. Chronic Inflammatory Polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen children with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy monitored between 1975 and 2005 are reported from Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

  5. Rat models of asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James G; Tamaoka, Meiyo

    2006-01-01

    The rat has been extensively used to model asthma and somewhat less extensively to model chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The features of asthma that have been successfully modeled include allergen-induced airway constriction, eosinophilic inflammation and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. T-cell involvement has been directly demonstrated using adoptive transfer techniques. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are activated in response to allergen challenge in the sensitized rat and express Thelper2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). Repeated allergen exposure causes airway remodeling. Dry gas hyperpnea challenge also evokes increases in lung resistance, allowing exercise-induced asthma to be modeled. COPD is modeled using elastase-induced parenchymal injury to mimic emphysema. Cigarette smoke-induced airspace enlargement occurs but requires months of cigarette exposure. Inflammation and fibrosis of peripheral airways is an important aspect of COPD that is less well modeled. Novel approaches to the treatment of COPD have been reported including treatments aimed at parenchymal regeneration.

  6. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  7. Chronic Postoperative Roseomonas Endophthalmitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; WU, WEI-CHI; CHEN, TUN-LU

    2008-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  8. Chronic postoperative Roseomonas endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Tun-Lu

    2009-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  9. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  10. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  11. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  12. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean’s concepts...... of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients’ active role, lifestyle, and health...... behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  13. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies.

  14. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...... from which he eventually died. The glomerulonephritis was of unknown origin, and a possible relationship between CGD and glomerulonephritis is discussed....

  15. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  16. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  17. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  18. 第2例:慢性持续性大量心包积液%Chronic continuous massive pericardial effusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄樱硕; 孙颖; 邢云利; 肖瑶; 王宇朋; 唐梅; 李敏; 王翠英

    2012-01-01

    A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital at July 5th,2010 with an unexplained massive pericardial effusion for 10 years.With dyspnea for one month and normal vital signs without pulsus paradoxus,other physical examination included a small amount of moist rale,normal heart sounds,jugular vein engorgement,positive hepatojugular reflux,hepatosplenomegaly and pitting edema of the extremities.The patient had a complex past history with lymph node tuberculosis,primary artertial hypertension,polycythernia vera,chronic renal insufficiency and hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis),and moreover,received a high dose radiation of 31p in 1967. Family history is negative.The patient had no cardiac tamponade or pericardial constriction during 10 years,he received pericardiocentesis twice,and pericardial effusion was exudative with a high proportion of monocyte.There was no evidences of tuberculosis infection,hypothyroidism,malignant tumor,severe heart failure,uremia,trauma,severe bacterial or fungus infection,chronic myeloid leukemia or bone marrow fibrosis during the admission. The patient refused anti tuberculosis,indwelling catheter drainage or surgical therapy.In this rare case,the aetiology of chronic massive pericardial effusion is most probably chronic idiopathic recurrent pericarditis.

  19. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  1. Chronic sinusitis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cartilage and lined with a mucous membrane. Sinusitis occurs when the membranes becomes inflamed and painful, ... a result of a blocked sinus opening. Chronic sinusitis is often caused by inflammation and blockage due ...

  2. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  3. Zabofloxacin for chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, B; Szabo, D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of lower respiratory tract infection poses as an ongoing challenge among respiratory tract diseases. Bacterial infections are causes of acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis and indications for antibacterial therapy. Several antibiotics were applied to treat bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis, among them fluoroquinolones are considered potent, broad-spectrum agents with excellent tissue penetration. This monograph focuses on zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone agent recently approved and launched in South Korea, and summarizes the drug's antibacterial efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. Recent advances concerning fluoroquinolones in chronic bronchitis will be discussed, along with a comparison between zabofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Zabofloxacin has proved to be noninferior to moxifloxacin against major community-acquired Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features can make it a potential antimicrobial agent in therapy of chronic bronchitis and other lower respiratory tract infections.

  4. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics » Bronchitis » Living With Chronic Bronchitis Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  5. Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient’s situation and on the hospital and city. Do Chronically Critically Ill Patients Regain the Ability ... as the patient. You may feel stress, worry, sadness, or fatigue. Some families worry about financial burdens. ...

  6. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  7. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to treat some chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Platelet apheresis Platelet apheresis is a treatment that uses a special machine ... using interferon alfa or pegylated interferon alpha . Platelet apheresis . A clinical trial of a new treatment. Check ...

  8. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  9. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and oxygen therapy Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44. Read More Cor pulmonale Dilated cardiomyopathy Heart failure - overview Lung disease Patient ...

  11. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  12. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  13. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  14. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor ...

  15. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  16. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    OpenAIRE

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H

    2001-01-01

    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008430 Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WANG Haoyan(王浩彦), et al. Dept Respir Dis, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med Sci Univ, Beijing 100050. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):414-416. Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  18. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  19. Understanding chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chroni...

  20. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  1. Effects of uterine cervix constriction on Wistar rats Efeitos da constrição do cérvix uterino em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Eduardo Raposo-Amaral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify if uterine cerclage can induce craniosynostosis or any cranial deformity in new born Wistar rats. METHODS: One pregnant female Wistar rat underwent laparotomy on day 18 of gestation and the uterus cervix was closed with a 3-0 nylon suture to avoid delivery, that occurs normally on the 21 day. The suture was released after 48 hours beyond the normal gestation period. The female rat delivered 11 pups. Six surviving rats from the delivery (group A - constrained group. Two rats were born from another mother and in the same age were used as control group (group B - 2 nonconstrained controls were allowed to grow. They were sacrificed 1.2 years after their birth all the eight animals. Linear measurement, routine histology and computed tomography of the skull were performed at the time of their death to evaluate the cranial asymmetries by mesurements of the anatomical landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton of the rats on the two groups and compared then. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences in any of the compared measurements (p>0.05 obtained through the morphologic and radiologic methods. Histologic examinations did not reveal any sign of premature fusion or suture imbrications. Critical decrease in longitudinal body size was noticed as the limbs too in all the animals of group A. CONCLUSION: Constriction of uterine cervix leads to fetus suffering, even death for a few animals, associated to small body size, but not to craniosynostosis.OBJETIVO: Verificar se a cerclagem intra-uterina pode induzir, ao nascimento de ratos Wistar, craniossinostose ou qualquer outra deformidade craniana. MÉTODOS: Uma rata Wistar prenhe foi submetida à laparotomia no 18º dia de gestação e o cérvix uterino foi suturado com 3-0 nylon, impedindo o parto normal que normalmente ocorre no 21º dia de gestação. A sutura foi liberada 48 horas após o período gestacional normal. A rata gestante deu à luz 11 animais. Seis

  2. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  3. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  4. Management of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  5. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  6. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  7. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  8. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines.......Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic...

  9. [Histaminergic angioedema and chronic urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, Florence; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bensaid, Benoit; Nicolas, Jean-François; Augey, Frédéric; Goujon, Catherine; Bérard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most angioedemas are histaminergic and correspond to deep urticarial swelling. Recurrent histaminergic angioedema led to the diagnosis of chronic urticaria, even when there are no superficial associated hives. Chronic urticaria is a benign disease, and autoimmune in 40 % of cases. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is not a sign of severity. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is associated with a longer duration of urticarial disease. NSAIDs and/or systemic corticotherapy are classic triggers of angioedema in chronic urticaria. In the absence of clinical endpoints, there is no need to make further assessment in chronic urticaria good responders to antihistamines.

  10. Role of TRPM8 in dorsal root ganglion in nerve injury-induced chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Lin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuropathic pain is an intractable pain with few effective treatments. Moderate cold stimulation can relieve pain, and this may be a novel train of thought for exploring new methods of analgesia. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channel has been proposed to be an important molecular sensor for cold. Here we investigate the role of TRPM8 in the mechanism of chronic neuropathic pain using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve. Results Mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia of CCI rats began on the 4th day following surgery and maintained at the peak during the period from the 10th to 14th day after operation. The level of TRPM8 protein in L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG ipsilateral to nerve injury was significantly increased on the 4th day after CCI, and reached the peak on the 10th day, and remained elevated on the 14th day following CCI. This time course of the alteration of TRPM8 expression was consistent with that of CCI-induced hyperalgesic response of the operated hind paw. Besides, activation of cold receptor TRPM8 of CCI rats by intrathecal application of menthol resulted in the inhibition of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and the enhancement of cold hyperalgesia. In contrast, downregulation of TRPM8 protein in ipsilateral L5 DRG of CCI rats by intrathecal TRPM8 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated cold hyperalgesia, but it had no effect on CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Conclusions TRPM8 may play different roles in mechanical allodynia, cold and thermal hyperalgesia that develop after nerve injury, and it is a very promising research direction for the development of new therapies for chronic neuroapthic pain.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  12. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  13. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke;

    2016-01-01

    strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1,551 hits were obtained. Following cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than two weeks with placebo were included. The review...

  14. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...

  15. Diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J;

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) incorporates symptomatic and endo- scopic criteria in the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), while in epidemiological studies the definition is based on symptoms only. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...

  16. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; van Weissenbruch, Ranny

    2005-01-01

    We report what is, to our best knowledge, the first case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) in which the frontal and sphenoid bones were involved. Characterized by a prolonged and fluctuating course of osteomyelitis at different sites, CRMO is self-limited, although sequelae can oc

  17. CHRONIC PROBLEM FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, EDWARD

    THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…

  18. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...

  20. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  1. Salvianolic Acid B Reducing Portal Hypertension Depends on Macrophages in Isolated Portal Perfused Rat Livers with Chronic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Jia, Hongmei; Yang, Shijun; Liu, Yuetao; Deng, Bo; Xu, Xueyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Hang; Zu, Chengzhe; Yin, He; Li, Ting; Song, Yijun; Wang, Yueqi; Li, Pengtao; Zou, Zhongmei; Cai, Dayong

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the effects of Sal B on portal hypertension (PH). PH with chronic hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. The model was confirmed with elevated portal pressures and increased serum CD163 levels. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in portal triads was assessed. The isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) was performed at d0, d28, d56 , and d84 in the progression of chronic hepatitis. After constricting with phenylephrine, the portal veins were relaxed with Sal B. The EC50 of Sal B for relaxing portal veins was −2.04 × 10−9, 7.28 × 10−11, 1.52 × 10−11, and 8.44 × 10−11 mol/L at d0, d28, d56, and d84, respectively. More macrophages infiltrated in portal triads and expressed more iNOS or HO-1 as PH advanced. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of Sal B for reducing PH were positively correlated with the levels of iNOS or HO-1 in portal triads, and so did with serum CD163 levels. Sal B reduces PH in IPPRL with chronic hepatitis, via promoting portal relaxation due to macrophage-originated NO or CO in portal triads, partly at least. PMID:23118797

  2. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ...

  4. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  6. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  7. Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase Treatment options for people ... a stem cell donor with matching tissue type. Chronic phase The standard treatment for chronic phase CML ...

  8. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2010-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a demyelinating chronic neuropathy of immune origin whose diagnosis is based upon clinical, biological and electrophysiological data; previously critical to the diagnosis the nerve biopsy is now restricted to the rare situations where accurate diagnosis cannot be reached using these data alone. CIDP are mainly idiopathic, but a few associated diseases must be sought for as they require specific attention. Such associated diseases must particularly be discussed when the manifestations are severe or resistant to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive agents. Indeed, idiopathic CIDP are usually responsive to these treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is limited by the importance of the secondary axonal loss. The dependence or the resistance may sometimes justify the association of several immunomodulating treatments. A single randomized controlled trial support the use of cytotoxic drugs and none with rituximab.

  9. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  10. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors...... are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality. METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012....... Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between retreatment of bCSDH and clinical, radiological, and surgical variables. RESULTS Two hundred ninety-one patients with bCSDH were identified, and 264 of them underwent unilateral (136 patients) or bilateral (128 patients...

  11. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  12. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  13. Chronic Stress and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist HU-210 following chronic stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 499(3), 291-295. Holscher, C. (1999...learning and memory, has the highest concentration of GC receptors in the brain and is involved in the stress response. Extensive research has... receptor levels than stressed male rodents (Konkle, 2003; Figueiredo, 2002; Handa, 1994). Males and females react to stress differently, so two models

  14. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  15. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  16. 腰鼓式股静脉环缩术治疗静脉瓣膜功能不全25例分析%Reformative encircling constriction combined with the retrograde venograms in operation for treating primary deep venous insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪波; 明亮; 陈兆永; 周晓春; 王勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价腰鼓式股静脉瓣环缩术结合术中造影治疗下肢浅静脉曲张的疗效.方法 对原发性下肢深静脉瓣膜功能不全的25例患者(共29条下肢)经大隐静脉残端逆行造影,指导股浅静脉瓣膜腰鼓式环缩手术.结果 股浅静脉瓣环缩术者下肢肿胀均好转,溃疡愈合,无深静脉血栓发生.结论 腰鼓式股浅静脉瓣环缩术是治疗深静脉瓣膜功能不全较好手段,结合术中造影可有效解决如何确定缩窄管径的大小及修复瓣膜的数目的 难题.%Objective To evaluate reformative encircling constriction combined with the retrograde venograms in operation for treating primary deep venous insufficiency. Methods The clinical data of 25 cases (29lower extremities) undergoing primary deep venous insufficiency from March 1998 to December 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. 25 eases(29 lower extremities) were treated with reformative encircling constriction combined with the retrograde venograms in operations. Results 25 eases were treated with reformative encircling constriction combined with the retrograde venograms in operations,the leg swelling improved and no deep vein thrombus occurred; all the varicose veins are welt controlled. Conclusion Reformative encircling constriction operations are eutherapeutic for severe femoral venous valve dysfunction, when combined with the retrograde venogram, it can be a guidance in encircling constriction of superficial femoral vein and number of femoral venous valves.

  17. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Nedim Yuceturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a chronic syndrome that effects men with a wide range of age. The etiology, natural history and appropriate therapy models are still unclear. According to the classification of National Institutes of Health; 4 types of prostatitis were defined; acute bacterial prostatitis (category I, chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (category III and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV.Since microorganisms can only be isolated from a small percent of patients, empiric treatment is given to the most of the men. Multidisciplinary approach to the patients with suspected chronic prostatitis will help clinicians to play an active role in the treatment and prevent unnecessary medical therapies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 691-702

  18. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  19. Approaching chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient's daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker's cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis.

  20. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Rigoberto; Bahna, Sami L

    2014-08-01

    Cough is probably the most common cause of seeking medical care in pediatric practice. Most acute cough is caused by infection and usually resolves within less than 4 weeks. If it lasts longer, it is considered chronic and deserves investigation to identify the underlying cause, which can be almost any of a wide variety of illnesses of the respiratory tract and certain extrathoracic conditions. This review provides an optimal approach for diagnosis through a skillful history taking, physical examination, and selection of appropriate tests.

  1. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  2. Treatment Strategies for Chronic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Lord

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic somatic pain, including pain referred to the head, neck, shoulder girdle and upper limb from somatic structures, is addressed. Levels of evidence for the various treatments that have been prescribed for chronic whiplash associated disorders are considered. The challenge to find a treatment strategy for chronic pain after whiplash that completely relieves the condition and prevents its sequelae is reviewed.

  3. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation.

  6. Diagnostic dilemmas in chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubi, E; Grattan, C; Zuberbier, T

    2015-06-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN)/European Dermatology Forum (EDF)/World Allergy Organization (WAO) recently published updated recommendations for the classification, diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria (CU). This article discusses several cases of CU that provide examples of how the recommendations in the guidelines can be implemented in the diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) (also called chronic idiopathic urticaria [CIU]), chronic inducible urticaria (CINDU) or CU with comorbidities.

  7. Influence of chronic stellectomy on reactivity to serotonin in the dog external carotid bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M A; Vidrio, H; Burkle, G

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic stellectomy on external carotid flow responses to i.a. serotonin (5HT) was determined in dogs in which both stellate ganglia had been removed 1, 2, 4 or 8 weeks previously. The effect of this maneuver on carotid and heart rate responses to i.a. and i.v. norepinephrine (NE), respectively, was also assessed for comparison. Constrictor responses to NE in the carotid were moderately increased at 2 and 4 weeks, while its positive chronotropic effects were markedly augmented throughout the observation period. Dilator responses to 5HT increased at 4 and specially at 8 weeks after stellectomy. Results obtained with NE were considered compatible with supersensitivity induced by decentralization in the carotid and by denervation in the heart. Changes in carotid responses to 5HT were interpreted as being due to a prejunctional mechanism similar to that responsible for supersensitivity to NE. Differences in the time course of development of supersensitivity to both amines were attributed to masking of 5HT dilatation by NE released by the indoleamine at the time of increased sensitivity to constriction by the catecholamine.

  8. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  9. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  10. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  11. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  12. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  13. [Chronic pyelonephritis in polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Monov, A

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of chronic pyelonephritis are studied in 37 patients out of a total of 53 patients with proved renal polycystosis. A group of 71 patients with chronic pyelonephritis selected at random are used as a control group. The frequency of chronic pyelonephritis among the patients with renal polycystosis is 69.8%. The difference between the mean age of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and the patients with renal polycystosis without chronic pyelonephritis is 8.6 years. A significant difference is established between these two groups of patients concerning the frequency of symptomatic hypertension--89.2% for the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and 45% for the patients with uncomplicated renal polycystosis. A similar difference is established also for the renal failure--respectively 64.9% and 37.5%. The frequency of hypertension and chronic renal failure is lower in the control group of patients. 59% of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis have significant bacteriuria, E. coli and Proteus being the most frequently isolated bacteria but Pseudomonas shows the highest drug resistance. The isolated bacteria are most sensitive to nitroxoline and aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both conditions. Asthma is also a disease where it is difficult ... with COPD to also have some degree of asthma. What is chronic ... back to their original size. In emphysema, the walls of some of the alveoli have ...

  15. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  16. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years....... Eighty-five investigators reached by email. Proposed criteria were in the format of the International Classification of Headache Disorders III-beta (description, criteria, notes, comments and references). Following this evaluation eight drafts were prepared before the final. Twenty-four (28...

  17. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  18. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.

    1980-07-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets is described by observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complaints although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or no improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3.

  19. Chronic endometritis and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE. PMID:28090456

  20. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M E

    1993-11-01

    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  1. [Conservative therapy of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

    2012-01-01

    The chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as chronic inflammation of the nose and nasal sinuses, with or without nasal polyps. Patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis report about nasal obstruction and secretion, olfactory impairment, head and facial pain. These symptoms cause also considerable impact on quality of life. Therefore, an adequate rhinological diagnostics as well as therapies are essential. This paper reviews the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis. First choice of therapy should be topical glucocorticoids. The application of glucocorticoids causes anti-inflammatory and certain curative effects. Hypertonic salt solutions improve nasal symptoms. Long-term therapy with oral macrolides might improve median to severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. An additional therapy with antihistamines is possible in patients with an allergy. Adaptive desensitization in patients suffering from analgesic-intolerance associating among other with nasal polyps is currently the single causal therapy. Therefore, frequency of endonasal revision surgery is reduced after desensitization.

  2. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  3. Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Amin; Wright, J. Barry; Schultz, Gregory; Burrell, Robert; Nadworny, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background is provided on biofilms, including their formation, tolerance mechanisms, structure, and morphology within the context of chronic wounds. The features of biofilms in chronic wounds are discussed in detail, as is the impact of biofilm on wound chronicity. Difficulties associated with the use of standard susceptibility tests (minimum inhibitory concentrations or MICs) to determine appropriate treatment regimens for, or develop new treatments for use in, chronic wounds are discussed, with alternate test methods specific to biofilms being recommended. Animal models appropriate for evaluating biofilm treatments are also described. Current and potential future therapies for treatment of biofilm-containing chronic wounds, including probiotic therapy, virulence attenuation, biofilm phenotype expression attenuation, immune response suppression, and aggressive debridement combined with antimicrobial dressings, are described. PMID:28272369

  4. Geomorphic analysis of the Sierra Cabrera, an active pop-up in the constrictional domain of conjugate strike-slip faults: The Palomares and Polopos fault zones (eastern Betics, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, G.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Azañón, J. M.; Pérez-Peña, J. V.

    2012-12-01

    The NNE-SSW sinistral Palomares and the conjugate dextral WNW-ESE striking Polopos fault zones terminate in the Sierra Cabrera antiform. In order to test the Quaternary activity and topographic relief control in the termination of these fault zones, here we present new qualitative and quantitative geomorphic analyses supported by a new structural map of the region. The main mountain fronts of the Cabrera antiform are formed by the North and South Cabrera reverse faults that merge laterally into the Palomares and Polopos faults, respectively. These faults produce knickpoints, stream deflections, complex basin hypsometric curves, high SLk anomalies and highly eroded basins in their proximity. Furthermore, the drainage network shows an S-shaped pattern reflecting progressive anticlockwise rotation related to the sinistral Palomares fault zone. The estimated uplift rates determined by the integration between mountain front sinuosity index and valley floor width to height ratio are larger than those obtained for strike-slip faults in the eastern Betics. These larger uplift rates with our geomorphic and structural dataset indicate that the topographic relief of the Sierra Cabrera antiform is controlled by reverse faults that form a pop-up structure in the constrictional domain between the larger Palomares-Polopos conjugate strike-slip faults. Existing GPS geodetic data suggest that the North and South Cabrera reverse faults probably accommodate a large part of Africa-Iberia convergence in the region.

  5. Duloxetine and 8-OH-DPAT, but not fluoxetine, reduce depression-like behaviour in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Doods, Henri; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ceci, Angelo

    2016-04-21

    The current study assessed whether antidepressant and/or antinociceptive drugs, duloxetine, fluoxetine as well as (±)-8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propylamino] tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), are able to reverse depression-like behaviour in animals with chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats was selected as neuropathic pain model. Mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery by "electronic algometer" and forced swimming test (FST), which measured the time of immobility, and active behaviours climbing and swimming. The selective noradrenergic and serotonergic uptake blocker duloxetine (20mg/kg) and the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg) significantly reversed both mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour in CCI animals. Duloxetine significantly reversed depression-like behaviour in CCI rats by increasing the time of climbing and swimming, while 8-OH-DPAT attenuated depression-like behaviour mainly by increasing the time of swimming. However, the selective serotonergic uptake blocker fluoxetine (20mg/kg) failed to attenuate mechanical hypersensitivity and depression-like behaviour, possibly due to confounding pro-nociceptive actions at 5-HT3 receptors. These data suggest to target noradrenergic and 5-HT1A receptors for treatment of chronic pain and its comorbidity depression.

  6. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  7. Chronic cardiac pressure overload induces adrenal medulla hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johanna; Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz; Gilsbach, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Increased activity of the sympathetic system is an important feature contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure. While the mechanisms and consequences of enhanced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves have been intensely studied, the role of the adrenal gland in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression of heart failure is less well known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic cardiac pressure overload in mice on adrenal medulla structure and function. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks. After TAC, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy correlated significantly with adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine storage. In the medulla, TAC caused an increase in chromaffin cell size but did not result in chromaffin cell proliferation. Ablation of chromaffin α(2C)-adrenoceptors did not affect adrenal weight or epinephrine synthesis. However, unilateral denervation of the adrenal gland completely prevented adrenal hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis. Transcriptome analysis of microdissected adrenal medulla identified 483 up- and 231 downregulated, well-annotated genes after TAC. Among these genes, G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (Grk2) and 6 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) were significantly upregulated by TAC. In vitro, acetylcholine-induced Pnmt and Grk2 expression as well as enhanced epinephrine content was prevented by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling. Thus, activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal medulla plays an essential role in inducing adrenal hypertrophy, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and induction of Grk2 expression after cardiac pressure overload.

  8. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  9. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  10. Multimodal Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments.

  11. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  12. [Chronic pain in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, B

    2001-06-01

    Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).

  13. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F; Eckardt, A; Kessler, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed description of the so-called "chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis" (CRMO). The clinical, radiological and histopathological results of an analysis of 29 cases (15 children/adolescents and 14 adults) are presented and correlated to current data from the literature. We could delinate the following points: 1. CRMO is a systemic aseptic inflammation of the bone marrow (Osteitis), it can occur polytopically and association with pustulous dermatologic symptoms is possible. 2. It is not a rare disease 3. Osteomyelitis is probably "reactive" and a plasma-cell sclerotic process with ist own characteristic histologic three-phase course. 4. We could observe 5 specific types of localization which can be documented by X-ray or bone scan. 5. Accompanying arthritis os often present, especially "sympathetic coxitis". 6. The use of drugs in treatment of CRMO (i.e. azithromycin, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates) is discussed. In conclusion we want to point out, that 1. 99mTC bone scan should always be performed when there is suspicion for CRMO to reveal the pattern of affection, 2. the rheumatologist and dermatologist should be contacted, 3. operation is normally not necessary for treatment of the mostly self-limitin disease, and 4. the term "SAPHO syndrome" should be avoided, further differentiation of the diagnosis is necessary.

  14. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Marion R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease occurring primarily in children and adolescents. Episodes of systemic inflammation occur due to immune dysregulation without autoantibodies, pathogens or antigen-specific T cells. CRMO is characterised by the insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness over the affected bones. Clavicular involvement was the classical description; however, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones are frequently affected. Lesions may occur in any bone, including vertebrae. Characteristic imaging includes bone oedema, lytic areas, periosteal reaction and soft tissue reaction. Biopsies from affected areas display polymorphonuclear leucocytes with osteoclasts and necrosis in the early stages. Subsequently, lymphocytes and plasma cells predominate followed by fibrosis and signs of reactive new bone forming around the inflammation. Diagnosis is facilitated by the use of STIR MRI scanning, potentially obviating the need for biopsy and unnecessary long-term antibiotics due to incorrect diagnosis. Treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonates. Biologics have been tried in resistant cases with promising initial results. Gene identification has not proved easy although research in this area continues. Early descriptions of the disease suggested a benign course; however, longer-term follow up shows that it can cause significant morbidity and longer-term disability. Although it has always been thought of as very rare, the prevalence is likely to be vastly underestimated due to poor recognition of the disease.

  15. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  16. Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, John M; Lindheimer, Marshall D

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the association of chronic renal disease and pregnancy. Included are discussions of guidelines for counseling pregnant women with underlying chronic renal disease who are considering conceiving as well as management of those already pregnant. Specifically highlighted are recent studies that question the validity of using estimated glomerular filtration rate and other formulae and questions of whether we should strive to replace the classic counseling approaches based primarily on serum creatinine levels with guidelines based on chronic kidney disease classification. The article concludes with a review as well as a critique of recent research on the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with underlying chronic renal disease, as well as if women with preeclampsia and underlying kidney disease have accelerated courses toward end-stage renal disease.

  17. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  18. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used in the chronic condition reports are based upon CMS administrative enrollment and claims data for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the...

  19. Treatment of chronic inflammatory neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Eftimov

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the efficacy of existing and alternative treatments in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and explores predictors of treatment response in patients with CIDP treated with corticosteroids. The efficacy of intra

  20. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......: the study showed a high prevalence of detrimental life style factors including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity in elderly Danish men. Except for diabetes and respiratory disease, chronic diseases were underreported and in particular erectile dysfunction and osteoporosis were...

  1. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.

  2. Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163171.html Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation Drug designed to stimulate upper gastrointestinal tract To ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat persistent constipation of unknown (idiopathic) cause in adults. Some 42 ...

  3. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  4. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  5. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097

  6. Chronic Constipation: Current Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Wing Cheong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada.

  7. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  8. Guideline of Chronic Urticaria Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Lauren M; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Urticaria is a relatively common condition that if chronic can persist for weeks, months or years and affect quality of life significantly. The etiology is often difficult to determine, especially as it becomes chronic. Many cases of chronic urticaria are thought to be autoimmune, although there is no consensus that testing for autoimmunity alters the diagnostic or management strategies or outcomes. Many times, urticaria is easily managed with antihistamines and/or short courses of oral corticosteroids, but too often control is insufficient and additional therapies must be added. For years, immune modulating medications, such as cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil, have been used in cases refractory to antihistamines and oral corticosteroids, although the evidence supporting their efficacy and safety has been limited. Omalizumab was recently approved for the treatment of chronic urticaria unresponsive to H1-antagonists. This IgG anti-IgE monoclonal antibody has been well demonstrated to safely and effectively control chronic urticaria at least partially in approximately 2/3 of cases. However, the mechanism of action and duration of treatment for omalizumab is still unclear. It is hoped that as the pathobiology of chronic urticaria becomes better defined, future therapies that target specific mechanistic pathways will be developed that continue to improve the management of these often challenging patients.

  9. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mihaela Radu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.

  10. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Peter Y K; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2013-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common autoimmune neuropathy. The diagnosis depends on the clinical presentation with a progressive or relapsing course over at least 2 months and electrophysiological evidence of primary demyelination. Whereas typical CIDP is quite easily recognizable because virtually no other neuropathies present with both distal and proximal motor and sensory deficit, atypical CIDP, focal and multifocal variants in particular, may represent a difficult diagnostic challenge. CIDP very likely is an underdiagnosed condition as suggested also by a positive correlation between prevalence rates and sensitivity of electrophysiological criteria. Since no 'gold standard' diagnostic marker exists, electrophysiological criteria have been optimized to be at the same time as sensitive and as specific as possible. Additional supportive laboratory features, such as increased spinal fluid protein, MRI abnormalities of nerve segments, and in selected cases nerve biopsy lead to the correct diagnosis in the large majority of the cases. Objective clinical improvement following immune therapy is also a useful parameter to confirm the diagnosis. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CIDP remain poorly understood, but the available evidence for an inflammatory origin is quite convincing. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange (PE) have been proven to be effective treatments. IVIG usually leads to rapid improvement, which is useful in severely disabled patients. Repeat treatment over regular time intervals for many years is often necessary. The effect of steroids is slower and the side-effect profile may be problematic, but they may induce disease remission more frequently than IVIG. An important and as of yet uncompletely resolved issue is the evaluation of long-term outcome to determine whether the disease is still active and responsive to treatment.

  11. Remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neurons: effects of β-adrenergic receptor blockade in guinea pig models of chronic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Jean C; Southerland, E Marie; Girasole, Allison E; Ryan, Shannon E; Negrotto, Sara; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2012-11-01

    Chronic heart disease induces remodeling of cardiac tissue and associated neuronal components. Treatment of chronic heart disease often involves pharmacological blockade of adrenergic receptors. This study examined the specific changes in neuronal sensitivity of guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurons to autonomic modulators in animals with chronic cardiac disease, in the presence or absence of adrenergic blockage. Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced by ligature of the coronary artery and associated vein on the dorsal surface of the heart. Pressure overload (PO) was induced by a banding of the descending dorsal aorta (∼20% constriction). Animals were allowed to recover for 2 wk and then implanted with an osmotic pump (Alzet) containing either timolol (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle, for a total of 6-7 wk of drug treatment. At termination, intracellular recordings from individual neurons in whole mounts of the cardiac plexus were used to assess changes in physiological responses. Timolol treatment did not inhibit the increased sensitivity to norepinephrine seen in both MI and PO animals, but it did inhibit the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II on the norepinephrine-induced increases in neuronal excitability. Timolol treatment also inhibited the increase in synaptically evoked action potentials observed in PO animals with stimulation of fiber tract bundles. These results demonstrate that β-adrenergic blockade can inhibit specific aspects of remodeling within the intrinsic cardiac plexus. In addition, this effect was preferentially observed with active cardiac disease states, indicating that the β-receptors were more influential on remodeling during dynamic disease progression.

  12. Substituição valvar mitral com papilopexia cruzada e constrição anular em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca Mitral valve replacement with crossed papillopexy and annular constriction in heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adala Benfatti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados em curto e médio prazo de pacientes portadores de insuficiência cardíaca e insuficiência mitral moderada/grave submetidos a substituição valvar mitral com a técnica da papilopexia cruzada e constrição anular. MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes em classe funcional III ou IV (NYHA, idade média de 54,1 anos, etiologia idiopática, foram submetidos a substituição valvar mitral com constrição do anel e papilopexia cruzada. Foram analisados os parâmetros ecocardiográficos, classe funcional e curva atuarial de sobrevivência. RESULTADOS: Não houve mortes no período trans e pósoperatório imediato. A média dos diâmetros diastólicos e sistólicos ventricular esquerdo reduziu de 71 ± 8,6 mm para 65,3 ± 8,6 mm (p=0,049 e de 59,1 ± 8,5 mm para 50,4 ± 11,1 mm (p=0,002, respectivamente. Os diâmetros atriais variaram de 49,4 ± 6,4 mm para 44 ± 5,9 mm (p=0,017; o percentual de encurtamento sistólico do ventrículo esquerdo foi de 17 ± 4% para 24 ± 8,3% (p=0,014, a fração de ejeção variou de 34 ± 9% para 45 ± 14% (p=0,008, todos estatisticamente significativos. Onze (84,6% pacientes se encontram em classe funcional I e II. A sobrevivência foi de 100%, 82,6%, 71,6%, respectivamente para 1, 6 e 12 meses após a cirurgia de seguimento, mantendo-se 71,6% em período superior a 36 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos, em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e insuficiência mitral moderada/grave submetidos a substituição valvar mitral com papilopexia cruzada e constrição anular, apresentaram evidências de remodelamento cardíaco favorável e significativa recuperação funcional ventricular esquerda.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the short-term and mid-term follow-ups of patients with heart failure and moderate to severe mitral valve insufficiency and who have undergone mitral valve replacement with crossed papillopexy and annular constriction. METHODS: Thirteen patients in NYHA functional class III or

  13. Chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: shifting boundaries and attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A R

    1998-09-28

    The subjective symptom of "fatigue" is one of the most widespread in the general population and is a major source of healthcare utilization. Prolonged fatigue is often associated with neuropsychological and musculoskeletal symptoms that form the basis of several syndromal diagnoses including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and neurasthenia, and is clearly not simply the result of a lack of force generation from the muscle. Current epidemiologic research in this area relies predominantly on self-report data to document the prevalence and associations of chronic fatigue. Of necessity, this subjective data source gives rise to uncertain diagnostic boundaries and consequent divergent epidemiologic, clinical, and pathophysiologic research findings. This review will highlight the impact of the case definition and ascertainment methods on the varying prevalence estimates of chronic fatigue syndrome and patterns of reported psychological comorbidty. It will also evaluate the evidence for a true postinfective fatigue syndrome.

  14. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-12-14

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise.

  15. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.

  16. [Chronic polyradiculoneuritis and its frontiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, J M; Tabaraud, F; Magy, L; Macian, F

    2002-12-01

    The Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) constitute a syndrome whose incidence is difficult to evaluate, and is probably underestimated. In the course of this presentation, we deliberately restricted discussion to issues raised in recent years concerning the extent of this syndrome. We discuss diagnostic criteria, especially electrophysiological ones. As the criteria proposed by the ad hoc committee of the American Academy of Neurology in 1991 have been questioned due to lack of sensitivity, new ones have been proposed recently. We briefly discuss the different types of chronic dysimmune demyelinating neuropathy: not only the CIDP, but also the Lewis and Sumner syndrome or multifocal inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and the multiple conduction block neuropathies. At last, we point out the consistent finding of axonal involvement in the course of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy; over time, it can become pre-dominant, which may make diagnosis difficult by suggesting a chronic axonal neuropathy that may be assumed to be primary. Consideration of these points may help clinicians recognize more chronic dysimmune neuropathies, for which immunosuppressive therapy has been found to be effective.

  17. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  18. [Neurosurgical treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2015-02-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications.

  19. Peripheral neuromodulation in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, F; De Boni, A

    2012-05-01

    Patients with chronic migraines are often refractory to medical treatment. Therefore, they might need other strategies to modulate their pain, according to their level of disability. Neuromodulation can be achieved with several tools: meditation, biofeedback, physical therapy, drugs and electric neurostimulation (ENS). ENS can be applied to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), either invasively (cortical or deep brain) or non-invasively [cranial electrotherapy stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation]. Among chronic primary headaches, cluster headaches are most often treated either through deep brain stimulation or occipital nerve stimulation because there is a high level of disability related to this condition. ENS, employed through several modalities such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential currents and pulsed radiofrequency, has been applied to the peripheral nervous system at several sites. We briefly review the indications for the use of peripheral ENS at the site of the occipital nerves for the treatment of chronic migraine.

  20. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...

  1. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  2. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  3. Management of chronic visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S

    2016-01-01

    ' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations......Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological...... in central pain processing....

  4. Analgesia induced by the epigenetic drug, L-acetylcarnitine, outlasts the end of treatment in mouse models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notartomaso, Serena; Mascio, Giada; Bernabucci, Matteo; Zappulla, Cristina; Scarselli, Pamela; Cannella, Milena; Imbriglio, Tiziana; Gradini, Roberto; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2017-01-01

    Background L-acetylcarnitine, a drug marketed for the treatment of chronic pain, causes analgesia by epigenetically up-regulating type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors in the spinal cord. Because the epigenetic mechanisms are typically long-lasting, we hypothesized that analgesia could outlast the duration of L-acetylcarnitine treatment in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Results A seven-day treatment with L-acetylcarnitine (100 mg/kg, once a day, i.p.) produced an antiallodynic effect in the complete Freund adjuvant mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain. L-Acetylcarnitine-induced analgesia persisted for at least 14 days after drug withdrawal. In contrast, the analgesic effect of pregabalin, amitryptiline, ceftriaxone, and N-acetylcysteine disappeared seven days after drug withdrawal. L-acetylcarnitine treatment enhanced mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal region of the spinal cord. This effect also persisted for two weeks after drug withdrawal and was associated with increased levels of acetylated histone H3 bound to the Grm2 gene promoter in the dorsal root ganglia. A long-lasting analgesic effect of L-acetylcarnitine was also observed in mice subjected to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. In these animals, a 14-day treatment with pregabalin, amitryptiline, tramadol, or L-acetylcarnitine produced a significant antiallodynic effect, with pregabalin displaying the greatest efficacy. In mice treated with pregabalin, tramadol or L-acetylcarnitine the analgesic effect was still visible 15 days after the end of drug treatment. However, only in mice treated with L-acetylcarnitine analgesia persisted 37 days after drug withdrawal. This effect was associated with an increase in mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord. Conclusions Our findings suggest that L-acetylcarnitine has the unique property to cause a long-lasting analgesic effect that might reduce relapses in patients suffering from

  5. 4-Methylcatechol prevents derangements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB-related signaling in anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain with depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kozo; Yasuda, Seiko; Fukuhara, Kayoko; Iwanaga, Yasutake; Ida, Yuika; Ishikawa, Junko; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Ono, Midori; Kakeda, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Toshizo

    2014-03-05

    Chronic pain with mood disorder, resulting from a peripheral nerve injury, is a serious clinical problem affecting the quality of life. A lack of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and abnormal intercellular signaling in the brain can mediate this symptom. BDNF is induced in cultured neurons by 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), but little is known about its role in pain-emotion. Thus, we characterized the actions of 4-MC on TrkB receptor-related pERK and BDNF mRNA in discreet brain regions related to pain-emotion after chronic pain in rat. Rats implanted with a stainless steel cannula into the lateral ventricular were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Pain was assessed by changes in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat stimuli after CCI. Immobility time during the forced swimming testing was measured for depression-like behavior. Analgesic and antidepression modulations with 4-MC were examined by an anti-BDNF antibody (K252a, a TrkB receptor inhibitor). The animals were perfused and fixed (4% paraformaldehyde) for immunohistochemistry analysis (c-FOS/pERK). BDNF mRNA expression (anterior cingulate cortex) was determined using reverse transcription-PCR. Rats showed a sustained decrease in PWL, associated with a prolonged immobility time after CCI. 4-MC reduced decreases in PWL and increased immobility time. 4-MC reduced increases in pERK immunoreactivity and decreases in BDNF mRNA expression in regions related to pain and the limbic system. Anti-BDNF blocked effects induced by 4-MC. We suggest that a lack of BDNF associated with activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the pain-emotion network may be involved in depression-like behavior during chronic pain. 4-MC ameliorates pain-emotion symptoms by inducing BDNF and normalizing pERK activities.

  6. Geomorphic analysis of the Sierra Cabrera, an active pop-up in the constriction domain of conjugate strike-slip faults: the Palomares and Polopos fault zones (eastern Betics, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, F.; Booth-Rea, G.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Pérez-Peña, V.; Azañón, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Segments of the Quaternary sinistral Carboneras and Palomares fault zones, striking NE-SW and NNE-SSW, respectively, terminate in the Sierra Cabrera antiform together with the conjugate dextral WNW-ESE striking Polopos fault zone. In the constriction domain between these fault zones a pop-up structure occurs formed by the North and the South Cabrera reverse faults that bound the northern and the southern hillslopes, respectively. In order to test the Quaternary activity and relief control of these fault zones, here we present new qualitative and quantitative geomorphic analyses for the Sierra Cabrera using the following indices: mountain-front sinuosity, valley floor width-to-height ratio, drainage basin asymmetry factor, basin hypsometric curve and integral, and the SLk index. These analyses were performed with the aid of several maps such as the SLk and the minimum bulk erosion map. Qualitative observations carried out on the drainage network highlight the existence of a Late Miocene fold-related drainage network and a following late Miocene to Plio-Quaternary fault-related one. Integrating the mountain-front sinuosity and the valley floor width-to-height ratio for each mountain front we estimated the uplift rates associated to each of them. Fault-related mountain-fronts with a N50-60°E strike have reverse kinematics and uplift rates larger than 0.5 m ky-1 (e.g. North and South Cabrera reverse faults), whereas those with N20-30°E and N90-100°E strikes show oblique strike-slip kinematics and show lower uplift rates, between 0.05 and 0.5 m ky-1 (e.g. the Palomares and the Polopos fault segments). Furthermore, these faults produce knickpoints, complex basin hypsometric curves, high SLk anomalies and highly eroded basins above the fault traces. The estimated uplift rates are larger than those obtained from other authors for strike-slip faults in the eastern Betics that range between 0.1 and 0.05 m ky-1 (e.g. Palomares and southern Carboneras strike-slip fault

  7. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  8. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  9. Electroacupuncture treatment of chronic insomniacs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Jing-wen; WANG Chu-huai; LIAO Xin-xue; YAN Ying-shuo; HU Yue-hua; RAO Zhong-dong; WEN Ming; ZENG Xiao-xiang; LAI Xin-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the quick rhythm of life and work pressure, more and more people suffer from sleep quality problems. In this study, we investigated the effect of electroacupuncture on sleep quality of chronic insomniacs and the safety of electroacupuncture therapy.Methods Four courses of electroacupuncture treatment were applied to 47 patients. With pre-treatment and post-treatment self-control statistical method, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores were used for evaluating sleep quality. Polysomnogram was used for detecting insomniacs' changes in sleep architecture. The safety of electroacupuncture was evaluated by monitoring the self-designed adverse events and side effects during treatment and post-treatment.Results Electroacupuncture considerably improved insomniacs' sleep quality and social function during the daytime.Electroacupuncture had certain repairing effect on the disruption in sleep architecture. At the same time,electroacupuncture prolonged slow wave sleep (SWS) time and relatively rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) time.There was no hangover, addiction or decrements in vigilance during the daytime (incidence rate was 0). However,insomnia rebound rate was about 23% within one month.Conclusions These results suggest that electroacupuncture has beneficial effect on sleep quality improvement in the patients with chronic insomnia, which may be associated with repairing sleep architecture, reconstructing sleep continuity,as well as prolonging SWS time and REM sleep time. Electroacupuncture treatment for chronic insomnia is safe.Therefore, electroacupuncture therapy could be a promising avenue of treatment for chronic insomnia.

  10. [Chronic prostatitis and Bechterew's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlicek, J; Svec, V

    1977-11-01

    A group of patients between 35 and 65 years old with chronic prostatitis were examined for the presence of Becherew's disease. In this connection the New York and Roman criterions for morbus Bechterew were applied. There were found one ankyosing spondylarthritis, one ankylosis of the sacroiliac joint, and 11 times a tentative sacroileitis were stated. Altogether the proved and tentative findings were only 3.68 per cent of all examinations. In our countries the morbus Bechterew is found in 0,21 per cent of the normal population. So the protion of the Bechterew's disease in patients with chronic prostatitis is indeed a little higher than average, but not so frequent as often pretended in recent times. After a second series 58 patients being treated because of Bechterew's disease of different stages and different terms were examined for the possibility of a simultaneously elapsing chronic prostatitis. A chronic prostatitis was found in 38 per cent of these patients which correspondents to the incidence published in literature for the medium-age manhood. Nobody of the test persons had complaints on the part of the urologenital tract.

  11. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  12. [Operative treatment of chronic pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzhyĭ, I D; Hres'ko, I Ia; Chumak, S O; Elastal, R Z

    2008-09-01

    Basing on the literature data and own experience, grounded on results of follow-up on 2000 patients, suffering an acute pleuritis and performance of more than 200 operative interventions--pleurectomy, the clinic-radiological classification of chronic pleuritis, mostly answering the practical health care necessities, was proposed by the authors.

  13. Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis: management challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charakorn N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natamon Charakorn, Kornkiat Snidvongs Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis is a spectrum of inflammatory diseases in isolated sphenoid sinus which may persist over a period of 12 weeks. It is a different entity from other types of rhinosinusitis because clinical presentations include headache, visual loss or diplopia, and patients may or may not have nasal obstruction or nasal discharge. Nasal endoscopic examination is useful, and computed tomography is mandatory. The disease requires comprehensive knowledge and appropriate imaging technique for diagnosis. To treat patients with chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis, surgical treatment with endoscopic transnasal sphenoidotomy is often required. As there are no recent updated reviews of chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis, in this article, we review the anatomy of the sphenoid sinus and its clinical relationship with the clinical signs and symptoms of the disease, the imaging findings of each diagnosis and the comprehensive surgical techniques. Keywords: sphenoid sinus, sphenoid sinusitis, chronic, rhinosinusitis, fungal rhinosinusitis, mucocele

  14. Management of chronic hand eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, Thomas L.; Agner, Tove; Aberer, Werner; Berth-Jones, John; Cambazard, Frederic; Elsner, Peter; McFadden, John; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Hand eczema (HE) is one of the most frequent skin diseases and has often a chronically relapsing course with a poor prognosis resulting in a high social and economic impact for the individual and the society. In this article, we highlight the results of an expert workshop on the 'management of sever

  15. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674

  16. Children, Sports, and Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1990-01-01

    Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…

  17. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  18. Hyperglycemia, tumorigenesis, and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian

    2016-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells. Therefore, uncontrolled proinflammatory responses could conceivably create a chronic inflammatory state, promoting a tumor-favorable microenvironment and potentially triggering immune overactivation and cancer growth. To further understand how hyperglycemia contributes to immune overactivation, the tumor microenvironment and the development of chronic inflammation-associated tumors may provide insights into tumor biology and immunology. This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperglycemia-associated diseases, followed by a comprehensive overview of the current findings of regulatory molecular mechanisms of glycosylation on proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix under hyperglycemic conditions. Then, the authors discuss the role of hyperglycemia in tumorigenesis (particularly in prostate, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers), as well as the contribution of hyperglycemia to chronic inflammation. The authors end with a brief discussion on the future perspectives of hyperglycemia/tumorigenesis and potential applications of alternative/effective therapeutic strategies for hyperglycemia-associated cancers.

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  20. Pregabalin for Pain Treatment in Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Schou; Bowense, S; Wilder-Smith, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Intractable pain usually dominates the clinical presentation of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythmicity has been associated with abnormal cortical pain processing in other chronic pain disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral distribution...

  1. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Gulf War Veterans Gulf War ... and be at least 10 percent disabling. About Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS is an unexplained, severe and ...

  3. Chronic Condition Public Use File (PUF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Chronic Conditions Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare claims. The CMS Chronic Conditions PUF is an aggregated file in...

  4. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...

  5. 腹主动脉缩窄20周大鼠心肌细胞的自噬通量%Autophagic flux of cardiomyocytes from 20-week transverse abdominal aortic constriction rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔龙彪; 圣娟娟; 王云英; 余志斌

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac autophagy dramatically increases in heart failure induced by sustained pressure overload.However,it has not yet been addressed if enhanced autophagy plays a role in protecting myocardium or mediating progression from compensative hypertrophy to heart failure.The aim of the present study was to detect autophagic flux of cardiomyocytes from 20-week transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAC) rats.Fasting rats were used as the positive control for detecting cardiac autophagy.Echocardiography was applied to find the changes of cardiac structure and function.Immunofluorescent histochemistry and Western blot were used to analyze the related biomolecular indexes reflecting cardiac autophagic flux.After the previous methods for detecting cardiac autophagy were confirmed,the autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes of rats subjected to 20-week TAC was examined.The results showed that fasting had no obvious influence on parameters of cardiac structure in rats,including interventricular septal wall thickness and left ventricle posterior wall thickness,but heart rate,diastolic left ventricle internal dimension,fractional shortening of left ventricle dimension,ejection fraction and mitral inflow velocity decreased in rats after fasting for 3 d.Meanwhile,positively stained particles of LC3 and cathepsin D,but not ubiquitin and complement 9,distributed within cardiomyocytes of 3-day fasting rats,indicating augmented autophagic flux.Compared with sham rats,20-week TAC rats did not show any changes ofLC3,cathepsin D,ubiquitin and complement 9 in myocardium detected by immunofluorescent histochemistry.In addition,protein levels of LC3,cathepsin D and p62 in myocardium of TAC rats did not changed.These results reveal the unchanged autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes at middle or late phase of cardiac hypertrophy in TAC rats,implying a balance between inhibition of hypertrophy and activation of pressure load stress on autophagy.%长期心脏压力超负荷致心衰心肌的自噬

  6. Communication About Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith E.; Mercado, Alice F.; Camhi, Sharon L.; Tandon, Nidhi; Wallenstein, Sylvan; August, Gary I.; Morrison, R. Sean

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite poor outcomes, life-sustaining treatments including mechanical ventilation are continued for a large and growing population of patients with chronic critical illness. This may be owing in part to a lack of understanding resulting from inadequate communication between clinicians and patients and families. Our objective was to investigate the informational needs of patients with chronic critical illness and their families and the extent to which these needs are met. Methods In this prospective observational study conducted at 5 adult intensive care units in a large, university-affiliated hospital in New York, New York, 100 patients with chronic critical illness (within 3–7 days of elective tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation) or surrogates for incapacitated patients were surveyed using an 18-item questionnaire addressing communication about chronic critical illness. Main outcome measures included ratings of importance and reports of whether information was received about questionnaire items. Results Among 125 consecutive, eligible patients, 100 (80%) were enrolled; questionnaire respondents included 2 patients and 98 surrogates. For all items, more than 78% of respondents rated the information as important for decision making (>98% for 16 of 18 items). Respondents reported receiving no information for a mean (SD) of 9.0 (3.3) of 18 items, with 95% of respondents reporting not receiving information for approximately one-quarter of the items. Of the subjects rating the item as important, 77 of 96 (80%) and 69 of 74 (93%) reported receiving no information about expected functional status at hospital discharge and prognosis for 1-year survival, respectively. Conclusions Many patients and their families may lack important information for decision making about continuation of treatment in the chronic phase of critical illness. Strategies for effective communication in this clinical context should be investigated and implemented. PMID

  7. Inspiratory muscle training during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, M; Mialon, P; Le Ber-Moy, C; Lochon, C; Péran, L; Pichon, R; Gut-Gobert, C; Leroyer, C; Morelot-Panzini, C; Couturaud, F

    2015-11-01

    Although recommended by international guidelines, the benefit of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in addition to rehabilitation remains uncertain. The objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of IMT on dyspnea using Borg scale and multidimensional dyspnea profile questionnaire at the end of a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with preserved average maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) of 85 cm H2O (95% of predicted (pred.) value) and admitted for a rehabilitation program in a dedicated center. In a randomized trial, comparing IMT versus no IMT in 32 COPD patients without inspiratory muscle weakness (PImax >60 cm H2O) who were admitted for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for 3 weeks, we evaluated the effect of IMT on dyspnea, using both Borg scale and multidimensional dyspnea profile (MDP) at the end of the 6MWT, and on functional parameters included inspiratory muscle function (PImax) and 6MWT. All testings were performed at the start and the end of PR. In unadjusted analysis, IMT was not found to be associated with an improvement of either dyspnea or PImax. After adjustment on confounders (initial Borg score) and variables of interaction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)), we found a trend toward an improvement of "dyspnea sensory intensity", items from MDP and a significant improvement on the variation in the 2 items of MDP ("tight or constricted" and "breathing a lot"). In the subgroup of patients with FEV1 50% pred. IMT did not significantly improve dyspnea or functional parameter in COPD patients with PImax > 60 cm H2O. However, in the subgroup of patients with FEV1 < 50% pred., MDP was significantly improved.

  8. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  9. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J.; Williams, Frances M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n = 8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry e

  10. Intracerebroventricular 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) ameliorates chronic pain associated with depression-like behavior via induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Kayoko; Ishikawa, Kozo; Yasuda, Seiko; Kishishita, Yusuke; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Kakeda, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Misa; Norii, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Toshizo

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain concurrent with mood disorder from peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem that significantly affects quality of life. Recent studies have suggested that a lack of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the limbic system may cause this pain-emotion. BDNF is induced in cultured neurons by 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), but the role of 4-MC-induced BDNF in pain-emotion is poorly understood. Thus, we assessed the possible involvement of BDNF in brain in depression-like behavior during chronic pain following peripheral nerve injury. In addition, we examined whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) 4-MC prevents chronic pain in rats and produces an antidepressant effect. Sprague-Dawley rats implanted intracerebroventricularly with a PE-10 tube were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Pain was assessed by a reduction in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat stimuli after CCI. We also used a forced swimming testing (FST; time of immobility, in seconds) from day 14 to day 21 after CCI. Modulation of pain and emotional behavior was performed by injection of PD0325901 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor). 4-MC (100 nM) was continuously administered i.c.v. for 3 days during the period from day 14 to day 21 after CCI. To block analgesic and antidepressant effects, anti-BDNF antibody or K252a (a TrkB receptor inhibitor) was injected in combination with 4-MC. Naloxone was also coadministered to confirm the analgesic effect of 4-MC. During the chronic stage after CCI, the rats showed a sustained decrease in PWL (thermal hyperalgesia) associated with extension of the time of immobility (depression-like behavior). PD0325901 significantly reduced the decrease in PWL and the increased time of immobility after CCI. The decreased PWL and increased time of immobility were also reduced by 4-MC and by treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor. These effects of 4-MC i.c.v. were reversed by anti-BDNF and K252a. The analgesic effect of 4-MC i.c.v. was also antagonized by

  11. Effects of chronic doxepin and amitriptyline administration in naïve mice and in neuropathic pain mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, J; Jurga, A M; Starnowska, J; Wasylewski, M; Rojewska, E; Makuch, W; Kwiatkowski, K; Malek, N; Przewlocka, B

    2015-05-21

    Neuropathic pain is a severe clinical problem, often appearing as a co-symptom of many diseases or manifesting as a result of damage to the nervous system. Many drugs and agents are currently used for the treatment of neuropathic pain, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). The aims of this paper were to test the effects of two classic TCAs, doxepin and amitriptyline, in naïve animals and in a model of neuropathic pain and to determine the role of cytokine activation in the effects of these drugs. All experiments were carried out with Albino-Swiss mice using behavioral tests (von Frey test and the cold plate test) and biochemical analyses (qRT-PCR and Western blot). In the mice subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI), doxepin and amitriptyline attenuated the symptoms of neuropathic pain and diminished the CCI-induced increase in the levels of spinal interleukin (IL)-6 and -1β mRNA, but not the protein levels of these cytokines, measured on day 12. Unexpectedly, chronic administration of doxepin or amitriptyline for 12 days produced allodynia and hyperalgesia in naïve mice. The treatment with these drugs did not influence the spinal levels of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA, however, the protein levels of these pronociceptive factors were increased. The administration of ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) significantly weakened the allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by both antidepressants in naïve mice; in contrast, yohimbine (α2-adrenergic receptors antagonist) did not influence these effects. Allodynia and hyperalgesia induced in naïve animals by amitriptyline and doxepin may be associated with an increase in the levels of pronociceptive cytokines resulting from 5-HT3-induced hypersensitivity. Our results provide new and important information about the possible side effects of antidepressants. Further investigation of these mechanisms may help to guide decisions about the use of classic TCAs for therapy.

  12. Chronic pain management: nonpharmacological therapies for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-Lang; Fillingim, Roger; Hurley, Robert W; Schmidt, Siegfried

    2015-05-01

    Nonpharmacologic therapies have become a vital part of managing chronic pain (CP). Although these can be used as stand-alone therapies, nonpharmacologic treatments often are used to augment and complement pharmacologic treatments (ie, multimodal therapy). Nonpharmacologic approaches can be classified as behavioral, cognitive, integrative, and physical therapies. Core principles in developing a treatment plan are explaining the nature of the CP condition, setting appropriate goals, and developing a comprehensive treatment approach and plan for adherence. Clinicians should become familiar with these interventions so that they can offer patients flexibility in the pain management approach. Effective noninvasive treatment modalities for CP include behavioral therapy for short-term pain relief; cognitive behavioral therapy for reducing long-term pain and disability; hypnosis as adjunctive therapy; guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, and muscle relaxation, especially for cancer-related pain; mindfulness-based stress reduction for patients with chronic low back pain; acupuncture for multiple pain conditions; combination manipulation, manual therapy, endurance exercise, stretching, and strengthening for chronic neck pain; animal-assisted therapy; and S-adenosyl-L-methionine for joint pain. Guidelines for use of these treatment modalities are based on expert panel recommendations in combination with data from randomized controlled trials.

  13. Chronic Pancreatitis and Neoplasia: Correlation or Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zografos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Any link between pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis could reflect the malignant potential of a chronic inflammatory process. Four patients with ductal adenocarcinomas had a long history of pancreatic pain (median duration 5 years and showed clearcut evidence of chronic pancreatitis “downstream” of the tumour. Four were alcoholics and two heavy smokers. These four cases arose within a surgical series of approximately 250 patients with chronic pancreatitis, giving an incidence of 1.6 per cent. The incidence and anatomical distribution of carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis could possibly be consistent with a casual relationship.

  14. Magnetic resonance images of chronic patellar tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodne, D.; Quinn, S.F.; Murray, W.T.; Cochran, C.; Bolton, T.; Rudd, S.; Lewis, K.; Daines, P.; Bishop, J.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic patellar tendinitis can be a frustrating diagnostic and therapeutic problem. This report evaluates seven tendons in five patients with chronic patellar tendinitis. The etiologies included 'jumper's knee' and Osgood-Schlatter disease. In all cases magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed thickening of the tendon. Some of the tendons had focal areas of thickening which helped establish the etiology. All cases had intratendinous areas of increased signal which, in four cases, proved to be chronic tendon tears. MRI is useful in evaluating chronic patellar tendinitis because it establishes the diagnosis, detects associated chronic tears, and may help determine appropriate rehabilitation. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...

  16. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation...... and neurohumoral dysregulation found in cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that the ET system is highly activated in most cirrhotic patients. Circulating ET-1 and ET-3 levels have a positive relation to the severity of the disease and fluid retention, with the highest values recorded in patients with functional....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...

  17. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...... and neurohumoral dysregulation found in cirrhosis. Recent studies have shown that the ET system is highly activated in most cirrhotic patients. Circulating ET-1 and ET-3 levels have a positive relation to the severity of the disease and fluid retention, with the highest values recorded in patients with functional...

  18. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  19. Chronic folliculitis in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasinghe S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic folliculitis (CF is a chronic infection of hair follicles leading to atrophy and loss of the affected hairs. This study was done on 51 patients with CF presenting at the Dermatology Clinic at General Hospital Matara, Sri Lanka, to identify specific clinical features and aetiological factors, and to study histopathology. Pus cultures were done on 25 cases. Biopsies were done on 6 patients. CF was commoner in males (59%; 76% were under 34 years, and 39% had occupational exposure to possible irritants. Thirty five precent admitted of scrubbing legs with rough objects. Ichthyosis vulgaris was evident in 47%. All pus cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical features and histopathological features were similar to those described by Harman (1968. Rough scrubbing, ichthyosis and occupational exposure to irritants may be aetiologically relevant.

  20. Clinicomicrobiological study of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha P

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 261 digits affected in 100 patients of chronic paronychia were studied for clinical features. The bacteriological and mycological flora have been examined in 25 cases of the above 100 cases which were most severely affected. Aerobic bacteria were found in all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was seen in 60 percent. Klebsiella in 16 percent, Escherichia coli in 12 percent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 12 percent, Proteus mirabillis in 8 percent, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 4 percent and Streptococcus viridans in 4 percent. Culture for fungus revealed Candida albicans in 64 percent and other species such as C. krusei, C. stellatoides, C. viswanathi, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were present in 1 case each. No fungus was detected in 4 cases(16percent. The present investigation was designed to compare the bacterial and mycotic flora of the nail folds of patients of chronic paronychia with that of western countries.

  1. Management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Tendons transmit force between muscles and bones and, when stretched, store elastic energy that contributes to movement.(1) The tendinous portion of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles merge to form the Achilles tendon, which is the largest and strongest in the body, but one of the most frequently injured.(2,3) Conservative management options for chronic Achilles tendinopathy include eccentric (lengthening) exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), topical nitroglycerin, low level laser therapy, orthoses, splints or injections (e.g. corticosteroids, hyperosmolar dextrose, polidocanol, platelet-rich plasma), while a minority of patients require surgery (using open, percutaneous or endoscopic methods).(4-8) Here we assess the management options for patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (lasting over 6 weeks).

  2. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  3. [Pharmacological treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The pharmacological treatment of chronic pain differs from acute pain management. In chronic non-cancer pain patients pharmacological treatment is only one element of an interdisciplinary approach. Not pain reduction only but gain in physical and social functioning is mandatory for continuation of therapy. The developpement of a strategy is the most important and difficult step toward an individual and sustained pharmacological pain treatment. Simple practical guidelines can help to find an individual therapeutic straight. Outcome parameters have to be determined. Check-ups for discontinuation of the therapy have to be done periodically. Exact documentation of effect and side effects prevents ungrateful and potential dangerous treatments. The WHO ladder remains the cornerstone of pharmacological pain treatment. Further analgesics as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are important in treatment of neuropathic or mixed pain states. Special considerations have to be done in opioid treatment of non-cancer pain regarding the lack of evidence in long term outcome and possible side effects and risks.

  4. Management of chronic visceral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S; Aziz, Qasim; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-10-01

    Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological and psychological interventions, thereby providing a mechanism-orientated approach to treatment. Patients can frequently become disenfranchised, and subsequently disengaged, with healthcare providers leading to repeated consultations. Thus, a key aspect of management is to break this cycle by validating patients' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations in central pain processing.

  5. Chronic radiation enteritis and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwilym James; Brooke, Rachael; De Silva, Aminda Niroshan

    2013-07-01

    Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered. The diagnostic work-up includes serum markers, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and the exclusion of alternative diagnoses such as recurrent malignancy. Management options of CRE include dietary manipulation, anti-motility agents, electrolyte correction, probiotics, parenteral nutrition, surgical resection and small bowel transplantation. Treatment may also be required for coexisting conditions including vitamin B12 deficiency, bile acid malabsorption and depression.

  6. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  7. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  8. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT CHRONIC INSOMNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Dian Puspitha Candra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is defined as difficulty to start sleeping, maintain it, or low quality sleeping, if the condition persist for more than one month, it is called chronic insomnia. Diagnosis is made through anamnesa and sleep wake diaries, aktigraphy, polisomnography. Pharmachologycally drugs that have been used to treat insomnia are benzodiazepin reseptor agonis, antihistamine, antidepressant. Non pharmacological ways include behavioural intervention for insomnia, give significant result in decreasing sleep latency, reducing awakness duration during the night and improving total sleeping time.

  9. Tackling chronic migraine: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK; Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: In the last decade, several diagnostic criteria and definitions have been proposed for chronic migraine (CM. The third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders–3 beta, published in 2013, has revised CM diagnostic criteria. CM is defined as “headache occurring on 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months, which has the features of migraine headache on at least 8 days per month.” Patients who meet the criteria for CM and for medication-overuse headache should be given both diagnoses. Worldwide, CM prevalence ranges 1%–3%, and its incidence has been estimated to be 2.5% per year. CM is associated with disability and poor quality of life. Modifiable risk factors include (among others: migraine progression (defined as an increase in frequency and severity of migraine attacks; medication and caffeine overuse; obesity; stressful life events; and snoring. CM patients have a significantly higher frequency of some comorbid conditions, including chronic pain, psychiatric disorders, respiratory illness, and some vascular risk factors. Management includes identification and control of comorbidities and risk factors that predispose to CM; treatment and prevention for medication overuse; early treatment for migraine attacks; and an adequate preventive therapy for CM. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have shown the efficacy of topiramate, amitriptyline, onabotulinumtoxinA, and cognitive-behavioral therapy in CM. Keywords: chronic daily headache, chronic migraine, epidemiology, medication overuse headache, risk factors, treatment

  10. Biomarkers in chronic adult hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchen Neil D

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Awareness of the importance of chronic adult hydrocephalus has been raised again with the recent emergence of epidemiological studies. It is estimated that between 5 and 10% of patients suffering from dementia might, in fact, have chronic hydrocephalus. Although, surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF represents the only known procedure able to treat the symptoms of this condition, the selection of surgical patients has always been problematic. In the last 40 years, we have become wiser in using appropriate diagnostic tests for the selection of these patients; however, the area of biological markers has so far been overlooked in this condition, in contrast to that for other neurodegenerative disorders and dementias. Biomarkers are biological substances that may be used to indicate either the onset or the presence, and the progression of a clinical condition, being closely linked to its pathophysiology. In such a setting they might assist in the more appropriate selection of patients for shunt surgery. In this article, we have reviewed research carried out in the last 25 years regarding the identification of serum and CSF biomarkers for chronic hydrocephalus, discussed the potential for each one, and finally discussed the limitations for use, as well as future directions and possibilities in this field. It is concluded that tumour-necrosis factor, tau protein, lactate, sulfatide and neurofilament triple protein are the most promising CSF markers for chronic hydrocephalus. At present however, none of these meet the criteria required to justify a change clinical practice. In the future, collaborative multi-centre projects will be needed to obtain more substantial data that overcome the problems that arise from small individual and uncoordinated studies.

  11. Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis: management challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Natamon Charakorn, Kornkiat Snidvongs Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Chronic sphenoid rhinosinusitis is a spectrum of inflammatory diseases in isolated sphenoid sinus which may persist over a period of 12 weeks. It is a different entity from other types of rhinosinusitis because clinical presentations include headache, visual loss or diplop...

  12. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1990-01-01

    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  13. Conversations with chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R

    1979-02-01

    An account is given of some of the topics discussed during a small informal weekly open group meeting of chronic schizophrenic patients, based on occasional notes compiled over eleven years. The main feature of the patients' condition as displayed was poverty--clinical, social, behavioural, material and financial--and certain features suggested an organic aetiology. Reasons are given for considering that the patients' condition was predominantly caused by schizophrenia rather than by institutionalism.

  14. Comprehensive management of chronic pain in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G; Tachdjian, R; Baumann, K; Panopoulos, G

    2014-03-01

    Chronic pain, most often due to haemophilic arthropathy, is a pervasive problem in persons with haemophilia (PWH) that adversely impacts function and quality of life. PWH with inhibitors and older PWH may be especially vulnerable to progressive arthropathy and resulting chronic pain. The development of chronic pain from acute pain involves a complex interplay of biological and psychosocial factors that may all contribute to the perpetuation of chronic pain and the outcome of therapy. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, an individualized, multimodal approach to chronic pain management is proposed, as it is in individuals without haemophilia who have chronic pain. Pharmacological treatment is central to the management of chronic pain and must be modified based on pain intensity, ongoing response to therapy and the risk for adverse events. Non-pharmacological interventions, including physiotherapy, complementary treatments and surgical (e.g. orthopaedic) or other invasive procedures, may be integral to chronic pain management in this population. Ongoing psychosocial assessment is critical to identify those factors that may be contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain or acting as barriers to effective management. Additional study is needed to identify optimal pharmacological treatments for chronic pain in PWH based on the unique pathophysiology of haemophilic arthropathy and on risk profile. Systematic determination of the particular psychosocial factors impacting the experience and management of chronic pain in PWH would likewise add value to the treatment of this pervasive problem.

  15. Chronic Daily Headache - A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache (CDH generally refers to frequent headache occuring more than 15 days/month for over three months. Such headaches may be primary or secondary - the latter referring to headaches related to identifiable intra and extracranial vascular or other pathologies or systemic illnesses. The primary type may be subclassified as short and long lasting ones, depending upon whether the headache spells are more or less than four hours in duration. The present review would deal with the four major types of long lasting primary CDH which include Chronic migraine (CM, Chronic tension type headache (CTTH, New daily persistent headache (NDPH and Hemicrania continua (HC. The first part of the article would focus on the clinical pattern recognising features of these types. The relationship of medication overuse to CM would be critically evaluated. In the second part, the status of CDH in the recently proposed classification of headache disorders by the International Headache Society would be briefly evaluated. In the next section the clinical Profile or CDH in Indian patients would be highlighted based on available published data. Lastly, the pathophysiology of this vexing condition would be discussed specially in relation to CM and postulating on how it may evolve from episodic migraine.

  16. Meditation's impact on chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Ramita

    2003-01-01

    Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology. The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology was derived inductively from the historical figure's (Prince Siddhartha Gautama) diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson's relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes, including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem, and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of consciousness in the human experience of disease.

  17. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  18. Superoxide dismutases in chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švagelj, Dražen; Terzić, Velimir; Dovhanj, Jasna; Švagelj, Marija; Cvrković, Mirta; Švagelj, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Human gastric diseases have shown significant changes in the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. The aim of this study was to detect Mn-SOD activity and expression in the tissue of gastric mucosa, primarily in chronic gastritis (immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis, without other pathohistological changes) and to evaluate their possible connection with pathohistological diagnosis. We examined 51 consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were classified based on their histopathological examinations and divided into three groups: 51 patients (archive samples between 2004-2009) with chronic immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis (mononuclear cells infiltration were graded as absent, moderate, severe) divided into three groups. Severity of gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Gastric tissue samples were used to determine the expression of Mn-SOD with anti-Mn-SOD Ab immunohistochemically. The Mn-SOD expression was more frequently present in specimens with severe and moderate inflammation of gastric mucosa than in those with normal mucosa. In patients with normal histological finding, positive immunoreactivity of Mn-SOD was not found. Our results determine the changes in Mn-SOD expression occurring in the normal gastric mucosa that had undergone changes in the intensity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria.

  19. THROMBOENDARTERECTOMY FOR CHRONIC PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ren; Pi-xiong Su; Chao-ji Zhang; Song Gu; Heng Zhang; Chen Wang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the improving reliability and safety of thromboendarterectomy and perioperative management for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods The clinical data of 12 cases with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, who underwent thromboendarterec tomy assisted by low flow or circulation arrest with deep hypothermia, were reviewed retrospectively. Results Pulmonary artery pressure decreased 20 to 40 mmHg immediately after surgical procedures in 9 cases. The postoperative pulmonary edema at various degrees happened in 12 cases, among them, 1 died of severe lung infection and pulmonary re-embolism at 19 days postoperation. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and angiography of 11 cases indicated that the original obstruction of pulmonary artery disappeared. During the follow-up period of 2 months to 5 years, the clinical symptoms and activity was improved. Conclusion Thromboendarterectomy is an effective treatment for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. The outcome of the surgical procedure needs to be further investigated and followed up regularly according to an evaluative system, because it might be influenced by multiple factors.

  20. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka E-mail: jadranka.buturovic@mf.uni-lj.si; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-05-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option.

  1. [Nutrition and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayúcar Ruiz de Galarreta, A; Cordero Lorenzana, M L; Martínez-Puga y López, E; Gómez Seijo, A; Escudero Alvarez, E

    2000-01-01

    The causes of malnutrition in chronic terminal kidney failure are reviewed in the situation both before and after dialysis, as are the malnutrition rates in both circumstances and their treatment. Malnutrition has a high prevalence in terminal kidney patients, partly as a result of the therapeutic restriction on calories and proteins, but also due to the metabolic reactions typical of the disease and to anorexia. In patients subjected to dialytical methods, certain other mechanisms are added. In addition to malnutrition, there are alterations in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as lipids, thus limiting nutritional therapy's ability to restore the nutritional status to normal. An awareness of energy expenditure in chronic terminal kidney failure and the consequences of malnutrition have led to new challenges in nutritional therapy, both in the dose and quality of the proteins, with a debate raging over the advantages of ketoanalogues, and also in the methods for providing nutrients. The ideal nutritional method for repletion is oral administration, but this can be enhanced with artificial support such as oral supplements, parenteral nutrition during dialysis or such alternatives as enteral nutrition at home in the case of chronic kidney problems in children, using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), in order to nourish the patients and minimize growth disorders.

  2. A study in vitro on accuracy of two kinds of electronic apex locators in canals with destroyed apical constrictions%根尖狭窄破坏情况下两种根尖定位仪定位准确性的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇英; 陈方淳

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare with the accuracy of Propex and Raypex5 electronic apex locators in canals with destroyed apical constrictions.Methods :Apices of 20 extracted human teeth with single root canal were cut off and the apical constrictions were destroyed to different diameters by a cone shaped diamond bur.Apical foramen were located with Propex and Raypex5 electronic apex locators in models and the results and the accuracy of the two in different diameter ranges of apical foramens were compared.Results:On condition of the apical constrictions destroyed,the differences between actual root canal length and measured root canal length of two electronic apex locators in the same root canals were no statistically significant(P0.05),and the differences between actual root canal length and measured root canal length of the same electronic apex locators in root canals with different diameter ranges of apical foramens were statistically significant(P0.05),and the accuracy of two electronic apex locators decreased with the increase of diameters of apical foramens.Conclusion:On condition of the apical constrictions destroyed,the accuracy of Propex and Raypex5 was influenced by diameters of apical foramens.Clinically the measurement error should be considered when Propex or Raypex5 was used to locating apical foramens in roots with destroyed apical constrictions or not well developed apices,and apical foramens locating should be done by electronic apex locators combined with other methods.%目的:比较Propex、Raypex5根尖定位仪在根尖狭窄破坏情况下定位根尖孔位置的准确性。方法:选取20颗新鲜拔除的单根管恒牙,采用锥形金刚砂针截去根尖,顺根管方向逆向自根尖破坏根尖狭窄,并放入实验模型中,使用Propex、Raypex5根尖定位仪定位根尖孔位置,比较两种根尖定位仪在不同根尖孔直径情况下测量结果与准确性的差异。结果:根尖孔开放情况下,同一根

  3. Gut microbiome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Hans C; Eng, Charis; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization-all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients.

  4. Physical Activity and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is chronically activated in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Raghuwansh P; Garg, Sushil K; Dixit, Ajay K; Dudeja, Vikas; Dawra, Rajinder K; Saluja, Ashok K

    2014-10-03

    The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has now been recognized as a pathogenic event in many chronic diseases. However, ER stress has not been studied in CP, although pancreatic acinar cells seem to be especially vulnerable to ER dysfunction because of their dependence on high ER volume and functionality. Here, we aim to investigate ER stress in CP, study its pathogenesis in relation to trypsinogen activation (widely regarded as the key event of pancreatitis), and explore its mechanism, time course, and downstream consequences during pancreatic injury. CP was induced in mice by repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on caerulein hyperstimulation. ER stress leads to activation of unfolded protein response components that were measured in CP and AP. We show sustained up-regulation of unfolded protein response components ATF4, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1 in CP. Overexpression of GRP78 and ATF4 in human CP confirmed the experimental findings. We used novel trypsinogen-7 knock-out mice (T(-/-)), which lack intra-acinar trypsinogen activation, to clarify the relationship of ER stress to intra-acinar trypsinogen activation in pancreatic injury. Comparable activation of ER stress was seen in wild type and T(-/-) mice. Induction of ER stress occurred through pathologic calcium signaling very early in the course of pancreatic injury. Our results establish that ER stress is chronically activated in CP and is induced early in pancreatic injury through pathologic calcium signaling independent of trypsinogen activation. ER stress may be an important pathogenic mechanism in pancreatitis that needs to be explored in future studies.

  6. Rosuvastatin attenuates mucus secretion in a murine model of chronic asthma by inhibiting the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Tao; ZHANG Wei; WANG Dao-xin; HUANG Ni-wen; BO Hong; DENG Wang; DENG Jia

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by reversible bronchial constriction,pulmonary inflammation and airway remodeling.Current standard therapies for asthma provide symptomatic control,but fail to target the underlying disease pathology.Furthermore,no therapeutic agent is effective in preventing airway remodeling.A substantial amount of evidence suggests that statins have anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory activity.In this study,we investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on airway inflammation and its inhibitory mechanism in mucus hypersecretion in a murine model of chronic asthma.Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to induce asthma.The recruitment of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues were measured by Diff-Quik staining and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.ELISA was used for measuring the levels of IL-4,IL-5,IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF.Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining was used for mucus secretion.Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR)32 expression was measured by means of immunohistochemistry,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.Results Rosuvastatin reduced the number of total inflammatory cells,lymphocytes,macrophages,neutrophils,and eosinophils recruited into BALF,the levels of IL-4,IL-5,IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF,along with the histological mucus index (HMI) and GABAAR β2 expression.Changes occurred in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions Based on its ability to reduce the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion by regulating GABAAR activity in a murine model of chronic asthma,rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic agent for treatment of asthma.

  7. Deubiquitinase BRCC36 protects heart against chronic pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ru-jun; FANG Wei; ZHU Hua-jiang; ZHANG Feng-xia; XU Ou-fang; XU Li-juan; ZHANG Zhen-gang; GONG Kai-zheng

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated that BRCC 36-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination modification was involved in diverse cellular functions , including endocytosis , apoptosis and DNA damage repair .We previously showed that activation of cGMP/PKG pathway con-tributed to the binding of BRCC36 and the pro-fibrotic factor Smad3.The current study tested the hypothesis that BRCC 36 functions as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta ( TGF-β)/Smad3 pathway and participates in cardiac remodeling .In isolated adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts , we have demonstrated that TGF-β1 treatment significantly increased the expression of BRCC 36.Over-expression BRCC36 suppressed TGF-β1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, extracellular matrix molecular expres-sion and cell proliferation .On the contrary, silencing BRCC36 by transfection of adenovirus-carrying BRCC36 shRNA potentiated to enhance the pro-fibrotic effect of TGF-β.In vivo, under chronic pressure overload condition-induced by transverse aortic constriction , myocardial pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression were significantly decreased and the pro-apoptosis protein Puma was in-creased.However, the cardiac-specific over-expression of BRCC36 significantly increased myocardial Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and inhibited Puma expression .Interestingly , we also found that sustained pressure overload resulted in a significant myocardial DNA injury in wild type mice, which was characterized by the increase of γH2AX level.However, cardiac-specific BRCC36 over-expression significantly decreased the level of γH2AX in the pressure overloaded heart in the transgenic mice , while effectively enhanced myocardial RAD 51 expression, a marker of DNA damage repair.Furthermore, BRCC36 over-expression effectively attenuated TAC-induced cardiac fibro-sis and remodeling in the transgenic mice , compared with the wild type mice .Collectively , the results have suggested that BRCC 36 ef-fectively protected heart

  8. Chronic pelvic pain: comorbidity between chronic musculoskeletal pain and vulvodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a common condition that has a major impact on the quality of life of both men and women. Male CPP is usually attributable to well-defined urogenital conditions (most frequently infectious/non infectious prostatic diseases or musculoskeletal or bowel diseases, whereas the features of female CPP are much more complex and are of particular clinical and epidemiological importance. It is a multifactorial syndrome that can be due to diseases of the urogenital, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal systems, or to neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. It is not always easy to identify its predominant pathogenesis, although it often occurs as a central sensitization syndrome triggered by an initial stimulus which is no longer detectable and only manifests itself clinically through pain. In this respect, there are some very interesting relationships between vulvodynia and fibromyalgic syndrome, as identified in a preliminary study of women with chronic musculoskeletal pain in which it was demonstrated that vulvar pain plays an important role, although it is often overlooked and undiagnosed.

  9. Nonpharmacologic Management of Chronic Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, David L; Khan, Muneeza

    2015-12-15

    Insomnia affects 10% to 30% of the population with a total cost of $92.5 to $107.5 billion annually. Short-term, chronic, and other types of insomnia are the three major categories according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd ed. The criteria for diagnosis are difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or early awakening despite the opportunity for sleep; symptoms must be associated with impaired daytime functioning and occur at least three times per week for at least one month. Factors associated with the onset of insomnia include a personal or family history of insomnia, easy arousability, poor self-reported health, and chronic pain. Insomnia is more common in women, especially following menopause and during late pregnancy, and in older adults. A comprehensive sleep history can confirm the diagnosis. Psychiatric and medical problems, medication use, and substance abuse should be ruled out as contributing factors. Treatment of comorbid conditions alone may not resolve insomnia. Patients with movement disorders (e.g., restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder), circadian rhythm disorders, or breathing disorders (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) must be identified and treated appropriately. Chronic insomnia is associated with cognitive difficulties, anxiety and depression, poor work performance, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Insomnia can be treated with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies. Nonpharmacologic therapies include sleep hygiene, cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation therapy, multicomponent therapy, and paradoxical intention. Referral to a sleep specialist may be considered for refractory cases.

  10. Managing acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipworth, James R A; Shankar, Arjun; Pereira, Stephen P

    2010-10-01

    Pancreatitis may be acute or chronic. Although both can be caused by similar aetiologies, they tend to follow distinct natural histories. Around 80% of acute pancreatitis (AP) diagnoses occur secondary to gallstone disease and alcohol misuse. AP is commonly associated with sudden onset of upper abdominal pain radiating to the back that is usually severe enough to warrant the patient seeking urgent medical attention. Onset of pain may be related to a recent alcohol binge or rich, fatty meal. The patient may appear unwell, be tachycardic and have exquisite tenderness in the upper abdomen. Overall, 10-25% of AP episodes are classified as severe, leading to an associated mortality rate of 7.5%. Disease severity is best predicted from a number of clinical scoring systems which can be applied at diagnosis in association with repeated clinical assessment, measurement of acute inflammatory markers, and CT. All patients with suspected AP should be referred urgently. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) follows continued, repetitive or sustained injury to the pancreas and 70% of diagnoses occur secondary to alcohol abuse. The characteristic presenting feature of CP is insidious progression of chronic, severe, upper abdominal pain, radiating to the back, caused by a combination of progressive pancreatic destruction, inflammation and duct obstruction. Signs and symptoms include weight loss and steatorrhoea and later on diabetes. CP patients may also present with recurrent episodes mimicking AP, both symptomatically and metabolically. Diagnosis of CP should be based on symptom profile, imaging and assessment of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. CT should be the first-line imaging investigation.

  11. Chronic urticaria and Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Mukesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP have recently emerged as a novel eliciting factor for chronic urticaria (CU. The possible association between HP and CU has enormous potential, as eradicating HP could cure CU. Aims and Objectives: We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of HP infection and effect of bacterium eradication on skin lesions in patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU. Settings and Design: Four hundred sixty patients of CU attending the allergy clinic, SMS hospital, Jaipur during the period February 6, 2004, to February 6, 2006, were screened for possible eliciting factors. Patients with CIU were enrolled and others were excluded. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight patients of CIU and similar number of age and sex matched controls, attending the allergy clinic, SMS Hospital, Jaipur were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent endoscopy with antral biopsy for urease and histopathology to identify HP-associated gastritis. Infected patients were given HP eradication therapy. Eradication of bacterium was confirmed by fecal antigen assay. Subjective response to treatment was judged using chronic urticaria quality-of-life questionnaire (CU-Q 2 oL while objective response to treatment was judged by need for ′rescue medication′ (antihistaminics. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Chi square and paired′t′ test for their level of significance. Results: HP associated gastritis was present in 48 (70.58% patients, out of which 39 (81.25% patients responded to eradication therapy. Ten (50.00% patients without HP associated gastritis showed response to symptomatic therapy. Overall 49 (72.05% patients responded and 19 (27.94% showed no response. The value of χ2 was 28.571 (P = 0.003, which showed significant association between presence of HP and response to eradication regimen. Conclusion: The response of HP eradication therapy in infected patients of CIU is significant. HP should be included in diagnostic

  12. Treatment of refractory chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayushi Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a distressing disease encountered frequently in clinical practice. The current mainstay of therapy is the use of second-generation, non-sedating antihistamines. However, in patients who do not respond satisfactorily to these agents, a variety of other drugs are used. This article examines the available literature for frequently used agents including systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, dapsone, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, H2 antagonists, methotrexate, cyclosporine A, omalizumab, autologous serum therapy, and mycophenolate mofetil, with an additional focus on publications in Indian literature.

  13. Perspectives on "chronic Lyme disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip J

    2008-07-01

    There is much controversy about the treatment of Lyme disease with respect to 2 poorly defined entities: "chronic Lyme disease" and "posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome." In the absence of direct evidence that these conditions are the result of a persistent infection, some mistakenly advocate extended antibiotic therapy (>/=6 months), which can do great harm and has resulted in at least 1 death. The purpose of this brief report is to review what is known from clinical research about these conditions to assist both practicing physicians and lawmakers in making sound and safe decisions with respect to treatment.

  14. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA in both sexes. Early diagnosis is difficult and the overall mortality rate is high. Individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer include smokers, and persons with all forms of chronic alcoholic, metabolic, tropical or hereditary pancreatitis. The duration of exposure to inflammation seems to be the major factor involved in the transition from benign to malignant condition. Smoking, which appears to further accelerate the carcinogenic transformation, remains the strongest risk factor amenable to preventive intervention.

  15. Myeloperoxidase in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudhana Rao, A.; Anand, Usha; Anand, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD...

  16. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with regard to non-healing and recurrence rates. Annually 6% of the total healthcare costs are spent on the treatment of venous diseases. CVD results from ambulatory venous hypertension and is the conse...

  17. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  18. New Directions in Chronic Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Sung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide epidemic of chronic disease, and complications thereof, is underway, with no sign of abatement. Healthcare costs have increased tremendously, principally because of the need to treat chronic complications of non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease, blindness, end-stage renal disease, and amputation of extremities. Current healthcare systems fail to provide an appropriate quality of care to prevent the development of chronic complications without additional healthcare costs. A new paradigm for prevention and treatment of chronic disease and the complications thereof is urgently required. Several clinical studies have clearly shown that frequent communication between physicians and patients, based on electronic data transmission from medical devices, greatly assists in the management of chronic disease. However, for various reasons, these advantages have not translated effectively into real clinical practice. In the present review, we describe current relevant studies, and trends in the use of information technology for chronic disease management. We also discuss limitations and future directions.

  19. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  20. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more f...