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Sample records for chronic cesium-137 gamma

  1. Gamma-ray spectroscopic determination of iodine-131 and cesium-137 in foods: Two collaborative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AOAC method for iodine-131, cesium-137, and barium-140 in milk by gamma-ray spectroscopy (48.025-48.029) was extended to include other foods for the radionuclides iodine-131 and cesium-137. Two collaborative studies were performed to validate this extension. In the first study, a food sample containing 119 pCi 131I/kg and 53 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 45 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 25 responses, the mean of the reported values was 123.8 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 27 responses, the mean was 53.4 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Repeatability (within-laboratory) standard deviations (Sr) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 4.6 and 3.7 pCi/kg, respectively. Reproducibility (among-laboratories) standard deviations (SR) for iodine-131 and cesium-137 were 12.1 and 6.0 pCi/kg, respectively. In the second study, a food sample containing 25 pCi 131I/kg and 27 pCi 137Cs/kg was sent to each of 54 laboratories for triplicate analyses. For 21 responses, the mean of the reported values was 25.0 pCi/kg for iodine-131, and for 19 responses, the mean was 28.9 pCi/kg for cesium-137. Sr Values were 4.0 and 1.6 pCi/kg for iodine-131 and cesium-137, respectively, and SR values were 5.0 and 2.8 pCi/kg, respectively. The method extension was adopted official first action

  2. Effects of acute and chronic experimental contamination on direct cesium 137 uptake by the eel, Anguilla anguilla L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study covers the effects of different types of contamination on direct cesium 137 uptake by the eel. In the first experiment (acute contamination), simulating a waste discharge, the fish were kept in water with a rapidly decreasing cesium 137 activity. In a second experiment (chronic contamination), the water activity increased constantly, simulating increasing waste frequency and activity levels. Irrespective of the type of contamination, radiocesium retention by eels is low (<1% of initial activity); comparable specific activity levels, concentration factors (FC <= 2 after 36 days) and cesium 137 body distribution, were obtained. Therefore, direct cesium 137 uptake by the eel is very low and the water contamination mode alone cannot explain the major concentration factor variations observed in situ

  3. Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Cesium-137

  4. Impact of a chronic ingestion of radionuclides on cholesterol metabolism in the rat: example of depleted uranium and cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted uranium (DU) and cesium-137 (137Cs) are radionuclides spread in the environment due to industrial activities, incidents or accidents. This pollution sets a risk of human exposure to low levels of radiations through contaminated foodstuff. The impact of a chronic ingestion of DU or 137Cs on cholesterol metabolism in the liver and the brain has been studied. Indeed, cholesterol is crucial in physiology, being a component of cell membranes and a precursor to numerous molecules (bile acids...). Disruption of its metabolism is associated to many pathologies such as atherosclerosis or Alzheimer disease. Rats daily ingested a low level of DU or 137Cs over 9 months. For each radionuclide, a reference model (rats contaminated since adulthood) and a more sensitive model (hypercholesterolemic or contaminated since fetal life) were studied. The effects mainly consist of changes in gene expression or enzymatic activity of various actors of cholesterol metabolism. DU mainly affects one catabolism enzyme in both models, as well as membrane transporters and regulation factors. 137Cs mainly affects the storage enzyme in both models as well as catabolism enzymes, apolipoproteins, and regulation factors. No change in the plasma profile or in the tissue concentration of cholesterol (hepatic/cerebral) is recorded, whatever the model and the radionuclide. Thus, a chronic internal contamination with DU or 137Cs induces molecular modifications in cholesterol metabolism in the rat, without affecting its homeostasis or the general health status in all of our experimental models. (author)

  5. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad

  6. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  7. Possibilities for creating high protein bean forms by irradiation with cesium 137 gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six Columbia lines bean plants suitable for direct combine-harvesting are used to induced mutation variations. The seeds are irradiated presowing with gamma-rays (Cs-137) in two ways - only once with 120 Gy and six times 4 hours daily with 20 Gy. The applied irradiation resulted into increase variability in protein content of the seeds of M2 plants. Variations of diverse character are established, depending on the genotype varieties. Mutant forms of more than 29% protein content which are of interest to the plant breeding, are obtained. 12 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  8. Determination of Counting Time for the Small Amount of Cesium-137 in Milk Powder and Parboiled Rice Samples by Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cesium-137 concentrations in milk powder (n=6) and parboiled rice (n=1) contained in Marinelli beaker (1 liter) were determined using two sets of High Purity Germanium gamma spectrometry systems. Correlation graphs between counting time and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) were obtained by varying and increasing counting time (1000 seconds) when identical samples were repeatedly measured. The counting time ranged from 1000 to 50000 seconds. From the correlation graphs, mathematic equations were generated and used to estimate both appropriate sample counting time and MDC. The result showed that MDCs were not significantly different when the samples were measured at 15000 seconds or even longer

  9. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  10. Cesium-137 in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of cesium-137 in environment is reviewed. Problems on 137Cs migration in environment, on metabolism andbiological effects are considered. Data on nuclide accumulation in various plants, ways of their entering the man's organism are presented. It is marked that the rate of 137Cs metabolism in the man's organism depends considerably on age, sex, temperature of environment, conditions for activity, water and mineral metabolism and some other factors. It is shown that the annual effective equivalent dose per capita will increase to 2000 yr. up to 1 μSv, that constitutes 0.05% of the average value of irradiation by a natural source

  11. Decorporation of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 (137Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, 137Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe β, γirradiations and contaminations. 137Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the 137Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  12. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  13. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: sludges and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation. (author)

  14. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

    1993-11-01

    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  15. Cesium 137 in oils and plants from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990 the project of radioactive and environmental contamination started in Guatemala. Studies about the radioactive contamination levels are made within the framework of this project. Cesium-137 has been an interest radionuclide, because it is a fission product released to the environment by the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants accidents. The sampling consisted in collection of soil and grass in 20 provinces of Guatemala, one point by province, and it was made in 1990. The cesium-137 concentration in the samples, was determined by gamma spectrometry, using an hyper pure germanium detector. The results show the presence of radioactive contamination in soil and grass due to cesium-137, at levels that might be considered as normal. The levels found are not harmful for human health, and its importance is the fact that can be used as reference levels for the environmental radioactivity monitoring in Guatemala

  16. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The milk samples have been collected from 30 prefectures by prefectural public health laboratories and institutes (raw milk: 4 times per year for the report to WHO, and raw and city milk: 2 times per year), and analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 content at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. Collected samples were the raw milk and the city ones for the producing districts and the consuming ones, respectively. Three liters of fresh milk were carbonized in each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes, and then it was asked at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides was dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  18. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass ecosystem was monitored for 137Cs, a relatively long-lived radionuclide, for about 16 years since the Chernobyl reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986. Cesium-137 in grass gramineae or poaceae the species, ranged from 122.9 Bq kg-1 (September 4, 1986) to 5.8 mBq kg-1 (October 16, 2001) that is a range of five orders of magnitude. It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T ec of 137Cs in grassland

  19. Standard test method for determining the content of cesium-137 in irradiated nuclear fuels by high-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the number of atoms of 137Cs in aqueous solutions of irradiated uranium and plutonium nuclear fuel. When combined with a method for determining the initial number of fissile atoms in the fuel, the results of this analysis allows atom percent fission (burn-up) to be calculated (1). The determination of atom percent fission, uranium and plutonium concentrations, and isotopic abundances are covered in Test Methods E 267 and E 321. 1.2 137Cs is not suitable as a fission monitor for samples that may have lost cesium during reactor operation. For example, a large temperature gradient enhances 137Cs migration from the fuel region to cooler regions such as the radial fuel-clad gap, or, to a lesser extent, towards the axial fuel end. 1.3 A nonuniform 137Cs distribution should alert the analyst to the potential loss of the fission product nuclide. The 137Cs distribution may be ascertained by an axial gamma-ray scan of the fuel element to be assayed. In a mixed-oxide fu...

  20. In vivo effects of a chronic contamination by uranium or cesium 137 on the pharmaceutical metabolism, of the vitamin D and cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conclusion, an animal model, miming the chronic contamination of the populations exposed to the uranium, was used for the first time to show that the chronic ingestion of a weak dose of depleted uranium can affect the level of active vitamin D without modifying the mineral homeostasis. This study shows that this radionuclide can lead molecular modifications of the CYPs and the nuclear receivers involved in the metabolism of the vitamin D not only at the level of the liver and kidney but also at the level of the independent metabolism in the brain. The deficiency in vitamin D can provoke osseous diseases such as the rickets at the child and the osteomalacia at the adult. The three categories of population the most exposed to this deficiency are the infants, the pregnant women and the old persons. Strong prevalence of the vitamin D deficiency associated with a chronic exposure to uranium could lead to osseous disorders. To verify this hypothesis, it will be necessary secondly to realize this study on individuals animal models predisposed to the rickets or to the osteomalacia. (N.C.)

  1. Spatial variability and Cesium-137 inventories in native forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the nuclear fission discovery and development of nuclear weapons in 1940s, artificial radioisotopes were introduced in the environment. This contamination is due to worldwide fallout by superficial nuclear tests realized from early 1950s to late 1970s by USA, former URSS, UK, France and China. One of theses radioisotopes that have been very studied is cesium-137. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30.2 years and its biological behavior is similar to the potassium. The behavior in soil matrix, depth distribution, spatial variability and inventories values of cesium-137 has been determinate for several regions of the world. In Brazil, some research groups have worked on this subject, but there are few works published about theses properties of cesium-137. The aim of this paper was study the depth distribution, spatial variability, and inventory of cesium-137 in native forest. Two native forests (Mata 1 and Mata UEL) were sampling in region of Londrina, PR. The results shows that there is a spatial variability of 40% for Mata 1 and 42% for Mata UEL. The depth distribution of cesium-137 for two forests presented a exponential form, characteristic to undisturbed soil. Cesium-137 inventory determinate for Mata 1 was 358 Bq m-2 and for Mata UEL was 320 Bq m-2. (author)

  2. Pollution of drug-technical materials by cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug-technical raw materials are medicinal plants (flowers, folium, grasses, mushrooms, roots, fruits, berry, kidney, cortex), used in pharmacy. To limit receipt cesium-137 in people body in 1993 in the Republic of Belarus were created 'Temporary permission levels of the cesium-137 radionuclides contents in drug-technical raw materials' were created (TPL-1993). The permission levels of cesium-137 are following: for drug-technical raw material (flowers, folium, grass, mushrooms, roots and other plants parts) - 1850 Bq/kg, for dried up fruits and berries - 2590 Bq/kg. (Author)

  3. Cesium-137 radioisotope, a fallout component in the study of soil erosion and sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study on the possibility of using Cesium-137, a component of the fallout, to estimate soil erosion and sedimentation was carried out in a small watershed in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (Germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer) was used to detect Cs-137. The fallout standards of the profiles fallout and results of soil losses and gains for the transects are discussed based on these measurements. (author)

  4. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias; Pathologies non cancereuses potentiellement consecutives a une contamination interne chronique par le cesium 137: cataractes et arythmies cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, G

    2008-07-15

    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  5. Cesium-137 levels detected in Georgia otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in the 1940's and continuing through the 50's and early 60's, nuclear devices were tested by aerial detonation in the United States and other countries around the world. Cesium-137 (137Cs) is one of the most important radionuclide by-products due to its abundance and slow decay (30-year half-life). The uptake of 137Cs in animal tissue is the result of its similarity to potassium. The somatic and genetic effects of 137Cs, along with its effect on reproductive cells, can pose great hazards to wildlife species. A reported buildup of 137Cs in white-tailed deer in the lower coastal plain of Georgia during the 1960's was followed by a gradual decline during the 1970's. Although numerous studies have involved terrestrial mammals of Georgia, few have involved aquatic mammals such as the river otter. With continued atmospheric testing by some foreign countries and the increased use of nuclear power as an energy source, there is a need for continued monitoring of radionuclides in wildlife to ascertain the quality of the environment. This study was initiated as part of an overall study of environmental pollutants in the river otter of Georgia and deals with analysis of the 137Cs accumulations in this species

  6. A method for reducing the cesium-137 content in meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports a study of a method for reducing the amount of cesium-137 in meat from wild animals. The method is intended for use in the kitchen and is based on a combined leaching and mechanical process. (K.A.E.)

  7. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  9. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gutleb A.C.; Mraz, G.

    1991-01-01

    Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra). The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  10. In vivo effects of a chronic contamination by uranium or cesium 137 on the pharmaceutical metabolism, of the vitamin D and cholesterol; Effets in vivo d'une contamination chronique par l'uranium ou le cesium 137 sur le metabolisme du medicament, de la vitamine D et du cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, M

    2006-11-15

    In conclusion, an animal model, miming the chronic contamination of the populations exposed to the uranium, was used for the first time to show that the chronic ingestion of a weak dose of depleted uranium can affect the level of active vitamin D without modifying the mineral homeostasis. This study shows that this radionuclide can lead molecular modifications of the CYPs and the nuclear receivers involved in the metabolism of the vitamin D not only at the level of the liver and kidney but also at the level of the independent metabolism in the brain. The deficiency in vitamin D can provoke osseous diseases such as the rickets at the child and the osteomalacia at the adult. The three categories of population the most exposed to this deficiency are the infants, the pregnant women and the old persons. Strong prevalence of the vitamin D deficiency associated with a chronic exposure to uranium could lead to osseous disorders. To verify this hypothesis, it will be necessary secondly to realize this study on individuals animal models predisposed to the rickets or to the osteomalacia. (N.C.)

  11. United States Department of Energy/United States Environmental Protection Agency beneficial uses program for the use of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Beneficial Uses Program for use of Cesium-137 is to identify and develop ways in which this isotope can be utilized to aid in the solution of major national and international problems. Gamma radiation from Cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for safety. The first full-scale demonstration of this technology is being actively pursued in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Similar gamma treatment has also proved effective in ridding food commodities of destructive insects. This paper discusses program research and engineering history related to sludge irradiation, current activities and future plans for sludge irradiation and plans regarding food irradiation

  12. Executive strategy plan for beneficial uses program: cesium-137 sewage sludge irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-efficient disinfection of sewage sludge, permitting its use as a fertilizer and soil conditioner in areas open to public access or on certain food chain crops, is possible using the process technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories under DOE and EPA joint support. This process accomplishes disinfection by gamma ray irradiation with cesium-137, a by-product isotope recovered from reprocessing of defense production waste. Disinfection with cesium-137 gamma irradiation provides an energy-efficient option for the Nation's cities to beneficially utilize sewage sludge, while at the same time conserving energy by utilizing a radioisotope, traditionally considered waste, in a beneficial manner. While the Sandia sludge irradiation technology has successfully completed its research and development phase, a major consideration remains: the introduction of a new technology into a marketplace which traditionally is skeptical of new products or process technologies until their performance is well proven. This document analyzes the factors important to market introduction of this new technology, develops options, and recommends a program strategy for transfer of the Sandia sludge irradiation technology to the marketplace by developing public awareness and acceptance, and by stimulating private sector commercialization interest

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have determined the levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust samples. Dust samples were collected by the aspiration of 3000 m3 or more air at 1.0 -- 1.5 m above the ground surface in 10 prefectural public health laboratories and institutes. The samples collected during three months were combined, and were forwarded to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization. These samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnance at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ash to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The solution was dissolved into hydrochloric and filtered, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 with low background beta-ray spectrometer. (author)

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in airborne dust have been determined by Japan Chemical Analysis Center under the contact with Science and Technology Agency. Dust samples were collected at 1.0 -- 1.5m above the ground surface with electrostatic precipitators or on filter papers by each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes in 9 prefectures, and these samples were forwarded to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after the carbonization. These samples were asked in an electric muffle furnance at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The solution was dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtered, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrate was analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by science and Technology Agency. (author)

  15. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2013-01-15

    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  16. Sorption of cesium 137 by steel from sodium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of cesium-137 radionuclide by Kh18N10T steel from sodium melt at different temperatures (150-450 deg C) has been studied. Equilibrium coefficients of cesium distribution between sodium and steel are determined, which depend on the conditions of sorption realization, such as cesium concentration in sodium melt, the content of oxygen admixture in sodium and the state of sorbing surface

  17. Cesium-137 as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP) seeks to develop and encourage widespread commercial use of defense byproducts that are produced by DOE. Cesium-l37 is one such byproduct that is radioactive and decays with emission of gamma rays. The beneficial use of this radiation to disinfect sewage sludge or disinfest food commodities is actively being pursued by the program. The radiation produced by cesium-l37(Cs-l37) is identical in form to that produced by cobalt-60(Co-60), an isotope that is widely used in commercial applications such as medical product sterilization. The choice of isotope to use depends on several factors ranging from inherent properties of the isotopes to availability and cost. The BUP, although centrally concerned with the beneficial use of Cs-l37, by investigating and assessing the feasibility of various uses hopes to define appropriate circumstances where cesium or cobalt might best be used to accomplish specific objectives. This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when evaluating potential uses for isotopic sources

  18. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m-2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m-2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  19. Peculiarities of presence of cesium-137 in soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The granulometric composition of soil and the distribution of cesium-137 by soil fractions at the Azgir test site was determined. The characterization of cesium-137 presence in the layer of the thickness of 1 cm of the surface soil was gave. (author)

  20. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m-2, 240 ± 65 Bq m-2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m-2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m-2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the Londrina

  1. Cesium-137 accident lessons in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document relates the experience obtained by several professionals which had an important role in the cesium-137 accident occurred in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil in September, 1987. It's divided into chapters, according to the action area - medical, nursing, social assistance, odontological and psychological. At first, some notions of radioprotection are explained, followed by the accident history and by the doctors and nurses action during the emergency phase and the medical, odontological, social and psychological assistance to the victims. The social assistance report shows some statistical data about the economic, occupational and social conditions of the accident victims. It is shown some information about the health institutions and the sanitary care in the ionizing radiation and about the occupational radiological protection in Goiania

  2. Activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in game and mushrooms in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of cesium-134 and cesium-137 was measured in mushrooms and game in 1986-1991. The samples were collected all over Poland and most of the measurements were carried out for export purposes. The results indicate that the activity ratio of cesium-137 to cesium-134 in some samples is not comparable to that with fallout after the Chernobyl accident. The analysis of some samples of mushrooms from 1985 showed that the activity of cesium-137 was higher compared to any other foodstuff. The level of contamination varied greatly throughout Poland

  3. Evaluation of historical sedimentation in the power plant lake by the measurement of cesium-137 and beryllium-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Soil erosion and sedimentation have been widely studied as one of the most serious environmental problems. The eroded sediment transported to water bodies leads to losses such as silting of rivers, lakes and irrigation canals. An unconventional approach that has stood out is the use of radionuclides as tracers of sediment to estimate soil redistribution rates by erosion and siltation. The cesium-137, lead-210 unsupported and beryllium-7 have been used successfully as tracers. In order to evaluate the depositional historic and obtain information about the erosion of a lake of a mini-hydroelectric plant in the Londrina city, PR, the gamma spectrometry technique was applied to survey the profile of cesium-137 and beryllium-7 present in sediments in the lake. Four points were sampled along the lake (U1, U2, U3 and U4). Although it was not possible to collect all the sedimentation profile the distribution of cesium-137 until the depth of sediment collected is similar to the distribution of annual rainfall from 1982. The sedimentation rate for a few points could be determined. The sedimentation rate in the points U3 and U4 was approximately 1.6 cm/year. In the point U2 was found that the sedimentation rate is approximately 1.2 cm/year. The analysis for U1 revealed that in this area there is a great disturbance of these sediments that not allowed obtaining a recent sedimentation rate. The methodology was adequate for its intended purposes. More future studies are needed to take data throughout the reservoir, and improve representatively of erosion and sedimentation that occurred in the basin along the lake since the implementation of this. (author)

  4. Cesium-137 in Lake Michigan sediments: areal distribution and correlation with other man-made materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grab samples of sediment were collected at 530 locations in Lake Michigan, primarily in the southeastern quarter of the lake. Each sample was analysed in the field and in the laboratory for fallout cesium-137. Twenty-five of the samples collected near the mouth of the St. Joseph River, were also analysed in the laboratory for 11 other man-made materials known to be discharged into the river. Two statistical methods were used to determine if cesium-137 can be used as an environmental tracer to predict the areal distributions of other man-made materials. The results show fallout cesium-137 to be a moderate to good tracer for locating areas of accumulation of plutonium-238, plutonium-239, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, dieldrin, DDT and PCB in sediment. Little or no correlation is found between fallout cesium-137 and strontium-90 or nickel. (author)

  5. Assessment of food calcium radioprotection effectiveness against cesium-137, added alone and with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fish product with addition of food calcium had radioprotective properties, resulted in decreased cesium-137 content in organs and tissues of animals by 40-60% and lesser changes in differential blood count and biochemical indexes of blood serum

  6. Distribution of cesium 137 between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigation of distribution of cesium 137 ions between different sorption sites of soils contaminated by Chernobyl catastrophe products are received. Using NH42 and Sr2+ as ousted cations the portion of radionuclide adsorbed by specific (FES) and regular (RES) exchangeable sites have been determined. The distribution of cesium 137 ions and its exchangeable form between soils and liquid phases of water saturated soils have been established. The distribution coefficients have been evaluated. The behavior of cesium 137 in a system 'soil - solution' with different contribution of FES and RES sites into radionuclide adsorption were considered. Effect of solution acidity and cation concentration compete for exchangeable adsorption have been analyzed. Higher cesium 137 mobility during its transfer from solid phase into solution in soils, where content of specific adsorption sites is limited, was revealed

  7. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  8. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department's mission as stated in that document. ''The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.''

  9. Cesium 137 redistribution by horizontal migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During radiation monitoring the local nonuniformities of contamination density were noticed which can not be explained by meteorologic conditions at the moment of fallout. The mathematical model of redistribution of cesium 137 radionuclides of Chernobyl origin for the post accidental period on account of migration with horizontal outflow in the upper layer of soils was developed. It has been shown that for nonuniform landscapes (borders of fields, forests, roads etc.) redistribution of radionuclides with increasing of their concentration at the places, where the objects with different migration characteristics are connected, will take place. In Belarus the typical size of such 'spots' will increase with the time up to 1 m/year. It is possible the increasing of contamination density of territories on account of the process of shifting of radioactive 'spots', caused by horizontal flow. The speed of replacement of such 'spots' along the direction of underground water is about 1 m/year; increasing of their typical size is going on with the speed up to 0.3 m/year. 4 refs., 1 fig

  10. Dosimetry of a Cesium 137 source; Dosimetria de una fuente de Cesio 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres R, J.G.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    It was carried out a dosimetric study of a source of Cesium 137 used in investigations of Radiobiology. This radionuclide has a half life of 30.07 years and it emits photons of 661.657 keV with a probability of 85.2%. The source has been used in a series of experiments trending to observe the cellular response before the gamma rays, as well as for the calibration of equipment of radiological protection. For such reason it is important to determine the dosimetric properties. In this work it was determined the absorbed dose that this source takes when being placed in the center from a methylmethacrylate badge to three distances, 5, 10 and 15 cm. The dose was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters and it was calculated by means of Monte Carlo method, also was derived an expression that allows to determine the dose starting from the information of the activity of the source and of the distance regarding the same one. (Author)

  11. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  12. Psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented work had as objective the accomplishment of a comparative study of cesium-137 radioactive element effects in the psychological and motor development of children which were going submitted the intra-uterus irradiation during the chronological age of three years. The comparison of the results of study is done through a group-control composed for five children without any involvement with the cesium-137 accident - occurred in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil - of same social, economic and cultural level and with the same age of the reached

  13. Summary of cesium-137 sludge irradiation activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research initiated in 1975 has demonstrated that cesium-137 is an effective isotope for reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets criteria for protection of the public health. Complementary research has demonstrated the value of the irradiated sludge in both agronomic and animal science applications. A 7,250 kg/day cesium-137 sludge irradiator is operating at Sandia National Laboratories. A full-scale facility will be constructed and operated by the City of Albuquerque, New Mexico to disinfect the City's sludge prior to reuse. (author)

  14. Strontium 90 and cesium 137 content in man's teeth and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1972, samples from teeth and hair were collected from the following age groups: 1-10 years of age, 10-20 years of age, over 20 years of age. The data show highest concentration of strontium 90 in children's teeth, followed by the second group (10-20 years of age) and the lowest concentration in the age group over 20 years. No reliable age related differences in the hair concentrations of strontium 90 and cesium 137 are found. The data for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content in teeth and hair are in good agreement with the literature data for other European countries. (author)

  15. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, T

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  16. Cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by granulometric fractions of soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measurements of radionuclide specific content in surface soil layer of contaminated territories it is important to determine in what agglomerations of soil particles there is the highest radionuclide concentration. For this purpose granulometric composition of soil at Azgir test site was studied and cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by soil fractions was researched. (author)

  17. Cobalt-60 and cesium-137 for the sterilization of food. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief article discusses the reasons justifying in the eyes of the authors the irradiation of food with ionizing readiation, the irradiation technique applied using cobalt-60 and cesium-137 as a radiation source, and the possible secondary effects of the method. (VHE)

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. 1982 to Dec. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. to Dec. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from 22 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are sown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1982 to Jun. 1983) were determined. Fishes were collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fishes (from Oct. 1981 to Jun. 1982) were determined. Fish was collected from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. PMID:27132251

  2. Cytogenetic evaluation of persons exposed to Cesium-137 radiation accident in Goiania (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes a cytogenetic evaluation of individuals exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation during the radioactive accident of Goiania in 1987. The study group is comprised of 14 individuals who had absorbed doses varying from 1 to 7 Gy. In order to obtain metaphase spreads,peripheral blood collected from exposed individuals 1-1,5 year after ionizing radiation exposure, was cultured following basic protocols for PHA-Lymphocyte stimulation. Individual slides were kept for 12 years at room temperature and in the dark. A control group of unexposed individuals was chosen from the Goiania population. Both groups donated blood voluntarily and the unexposed population had no history of exposure to genotoxic agents. The ordinary methodology, consisting of staining chromosomes with Giemsa 4%, was used to determine the biological half-life of unstable chromosomes aberrations. Using Buckston's model (1967) we predicted the half-life of T-cells carrying unstable chromosome aberrations to be between 204-312 days, which is in agreement with the results of Ramalho (1993) who reported a half-life of 140 days a similar for population. Additionally, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as the chosen method to evaluate 12-year old metaphase spreads. To date, we have no knowledge of the use of FISH methodology applied to samples as old as our. Prior to hybridization, chromosomes showed intense dehydration and signs of severe degradation. A pretreatment of aged slides in Carnoy's fixative for 16 hours, followed by exposing the slides to water vapour at 60 deg C for 4 hours improved the fluorescent signal of whole chromosomes probes, making it possible to evaluate old metaphase spreads. Our results suggest that is possible to validate FISH as a viable tool for retrospective biodosimetric studies, even in those cases when chromosome preparations were dehydrated and showed signs of chromosome degradation. (author)

  3. Use of Fallout Cesium-137 in Soil Erosion Investigations: A Case of Study in Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 (137Cs) measurements offer considerable potential to quantify erosion and sedimentation rates. Some results of using this technique for investigating patterns of soil erosion on small selected study site in the watershed of Maximo River are reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected at the study and reference sites for 137Cs analysis using either a steel core or sampling frame and scraper plate. The soil samples were dried and analysed for 137Cs using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Within this approach considerable importance is place on establishing the local total 137CS fallout or inventory at reference site. This work reports an investigation of the spatial variability of 137CS inventories. Although the total variability may be derived from four sources, the observed variability was due to random spatial variations in 137Cs inventories. The reference inventory range (at the 95% confidence level) was 585-765 Bq.m-2 with a mean value of 674 Bq.m-2 and coefficient of variation of 27.5%. By comparing 137Cs inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory and using the calibration models for converting 137Cs measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates, estimates of soil loss were calculated to be between 11 and 23 t.ha-1.year-1 for the field 9 and between 3 and 5.7 t.ha-1.year-1 for the field 17 depending on the assumptions and methods used. The 137Cs measurements have provided evidence of the feasibility of applying this approach for studying soil erosion and sedimentation in tropical environments. (Author)

  4. Substantiation of permissible level cesium-137 in drug-technical raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of Chernobyl accident about 23% of republic woods or 1,7 millions hectares of woods were polluted with radionuclides. The pollution of the environment with cesium-137 (density more than 37 Bq/m2) about 23 % from all area of the Republic of Belarus. The drug-technical raw materials (DTRM) which made from wild plants, growing in such territories where were not used special measures decreased of transition cesium-137 from ground to DTRM. Also DTRM are cultivated with specialized farms in such agricultural holding where used these special measures. The Belarus 'Temporary permissible levels the contents of caesium radionuclides in drug-technical raw materials' were created in 1993 (TPL-93). According to this document, permissible levels of cesium-137 in DTRM are following: flowers, folium, grass, mushrooms, roots and other plants parts - 1850 Bq/kg, for dried up fruits and berries - 2590 Bq/kg. Because of consummation the Radiation Safety Standards-2000 in Republic of Belarus and changes of quota of annual entrance of the radionuclides it is in necessary to reconsideration of TPL-93. We have analysed 19 260 tests of DTRM (154 sorts) for 1999- 2002 year. As a result, 97,9 % of all tests (18 860 tests) has activity of cesium-137 less than 370 Bq/kg. All kinds of DTRM has average activity of cesium-137 do not exceed 200 Bq/kg. The contents of caesium-137 in DTRM changed in a wide range from 0 to 29 615 Bq/kg. The activity of cesium-137 in tests DTRM which cultivated on agricultural holding did not exceed 100 Bq/kg. As a result of researches, the contents of cesium-137 in DTRM which is above permissible levels (established TPL-93), were registered only in 39 tests (0,20 % from all investigated tests). According to Radiation Safety Standards-2000 the dose limit for the population is 1 mSv/year. This dose limit does not include natural and medical radiation doses, and also doses received from radiation accident. For a substantiation of permissible

  5. Effects of radionuclides (uranium et cesium 137) on the metabolism of vitamin D in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and Cesium 137 (137Cs) are both radionuclides found in the environment as a result of their accidental dispersion and/or natural presence. Consequently, some human populations are exposed to these radioelements mainly through chronic ingestion. Chemical and/or radiological toxicity of uranium and 137Cs has been reported in kidney, liver and brain that play key-roles in vitamin D metabolism. Beside, alterations of both bone and phospho-calcium homeostasis have been reported after an acute or chronic contamination with uranium or 137Cs. However, vitamin D, the major regulator of mineral homeostasis has never been studied up to now. The aim of this work was to investigate in vivo the effects of depleted (DU) or enriched uranium (EU) and of 137Cs on vitamin D3 biosynthetic pathway in liver, kidney and brain. An experimental animal model was used for the first time to demonstrate that chronic exposure with environmental doses of 137Cs and uranium could decrease the vitamin D active form level (1,25(OH)2D3) and lead to molecular modifications of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes involved in this metabolism and associated nuclear receptors. We demonstrated that both UA and UE contamination affected VDR (vitamin D receptor) and RXRa (retinoid X receptor alpha) expression, and consequently could modulate the expression of vitamin D target genes involved in calcium homeostasis in kidney. These results suggest that these effects could be due to the chemical toxicity of uranium. On the contrary, the main molecular targets of 137Cs are CYPs involved in Vitamin D3 biosynthesis (CYP2R1, CYP27B1) in liver and brain. In this adult rat model such perturbations were not associated with a dys-regulation of mineral homeostasis. Conversely, chronic exposure with 137Cs during postnatal development induce alterations of vitamin D metabolism associated with modifications of bone and phospho-calcium homeostasis, suggesting a greater susceptibility of the growing organism to 137Cs

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program) (from Jun. 1982 to Aug. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program from Jun. to Aug. 1982) were determined. Raw milk was collected in six producing districts. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program) (from Oct. 1982 to Feb. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program from Oct. 1982 to Feb. 1983) were determined. Raw milk was collected in six producing districts. The results are shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program) (from Nov. 1981 to Jun. 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program from Nov. 1981 to Jun. 1982) were determined. Raw milk was collected in 11 producing districts. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  10. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May 1984 to July 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil measured throughout Japan from May to July 1984 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km2. Sampling points are total of 8 from Kawabe-gun (Akita) to Ibasuki-gun (Kagoshima). Collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting are described. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without past disturbance on the surface. Soil was taken from two layers of different depths, 0 aproximately 5 cm and 5 approximately 20 cm. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 minutes. (Mori, K.)

  11. Chemical treatment of aqueous radioactive Cesium-137 waste using Ferri Chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferric Chloride 6H2O was used for treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Cesium-137. Various concentration of ferric chloride 6H2O have been added into the waste at different pH and speed of stirrer. The treatment was based on the coagulans-flocculation and coprecipitation mechanisms. The best result of this experiment was achieved by adding 300 ppm of Ferric chloride 6 H2O into liquid waste on following condition the rate Stirrer was 250 rpm. At this condition, it was found that the separation efficiency and the decontamination factor were 83.32 % and 5.99. The activity of decreasing of aqueous radioactive Cesium-137 waste was 2.10 x 10-4 Ci/l to 3.50 x 10-5 Ci/l

  12. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  13. The effects of different factors at the cesium 137 accumulation by tree plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that cesium 137 accumulation by tree plants depended from numerous factors that had to be take into account by utilisation of forest production and conducting of forestry in the whole. It is necessary to elaborate a new classification of contaminated forests which could take into account not only radionuclide density of soils but existence of different tree species and their growth conditions

  14. Aspects of radiation protection to attend the victims of radiological accident with cesium 137 in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological protection measures taken in the general hospital of Goiania (HGG/INAMPS) and in the FEBEM institution, due do the accident involving cesium 137 are described, as well the work of the NUCLEI personnel in the areas of: radiological protection of the medical and auxiliary staff, contamination control of the ward, radiological monitoring of the patients, waste management, personnel and area decontamination and patient transportation. (author)

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May to July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured values in soil of strontium-90 and cesium-137 at a total of 4 locations throughout Japan from May to July, 1983 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km2 in the tables. The method of measurement is also described: collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of the samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without any past disturbance. Soil was taken from two layers having different depths: 0--5 cm and 5--20 cm. The sample solution was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The maximum values were 690 pCi/kg for Sr-90 and 1300 pCi/kg for Cs-137, which were obtained from the samples in the 5-to-20 cm depth, in June 1983, at Akita-ken,Japan. (Mori, K.)

  16. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario)

  17. Cesium-137 concentration of soils in Pest County, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of measurements of 137Cs in soils in Pest County, Hungary. We investigated forty five soil monoliths from monitoring locations of a countrywide Soil Information and Monitoring System (SIMS) at depths of 0–30, 30–60, 60–90, 90–120 and 120–150 cm. The 137Cs concentrations were determined by gamma spectroscopy. We found that only the upper layer of soil (0–30 cm) contained 137Cs above the detection limit (0.5 Bq kg−1). The 137Cs concentration values ranged from the detection limit to 61.1 Bq kg−1 ± 2.2 Bq kg−1 and were lognormally distributed. The concentrations had a geometric mean 6.4 Bq kg−1 and a geometric standard deviation 2.3 (an arithmetic mean 9.5 Bq kg−1, an arithmetic standard deviation 11.3 Bq kg−1). We constructed a 137Cs map for Pest County this is the first detailed 137Cs map in Hungary. Concentrations were systematically higher (10.0–61.1 Bq kg−1) than average in the Pilis and Buda Mountains and the Northern part of the Gödöllő Hills. In contrast, low concentrations (0.0–10.0 Bq kg−1) characterized the southern part of the Gödöllő Hills, the Pest Plane and the Börzsöny Mountains. Two highest values were 46.9 Bq kg−1 and 61.1 Bq kg−1: one of these localities, a loamy brown forest soil was chosen to study relationship between 137Cs migration and clay materials of the soil. According to differential thermal analysis (DTA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, illite and kaolinite were dominant in the soil. The amount of clay was closely proportional to 137Cs concentration (R = 0.89). At the locality having the highest surface concentration, 78% of the total detected 137Cs concentration was measured in the top 3 cm layer of soil profile and there was no detectable concentration below 20 cm. This result indicates that penetration of 137Cs into the soil is a very slow process in this case. Analysis of this depth profile showed lower 137Cs migration parameter values (effective

  18. Cesium-137 and Iodine-131 in drinking water in Sweden after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident an extensive program of tests and measurements was started in Sweden. The purpose of the program was to track the fallout of radioactive nuclides over Sweden. The program included aerial surveys throughout the entire country, monitoring of air activity and measurements of radioactive nuclides in milk and other foodstuffs. The program also included measurements of different radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Samples were taken from public surface water plants and private wells from those parts of the country where the fallout had been most extensive. The test sites were chosen in collaboration with the local health authorities. Initially the drinking water program included 16 private wells and 12 public water plants. In 1987 it was cut down to 10 wells and 6 water plants. The main body of this report presents measurements of cesium-137 in water samples from these sites from the beginning of May 1986 to December 1989. Also included are measurements from the first weeks after the accident of iodine-131 an some other radioactive nuclides with relatively short half-lives such as rutenium-103, tellurium-132 and barium-140. Some of the surface water plants had concentrations of 10-15 Bq/l of cesium-137 in the beginning of May 1986. In 1989 some water plants still had concentrations of about 1 Bq/l. In the private wells the concentrations of cesium-137 have been low all the time, except for one sample where surface water had leaked into the well during the snow melting period. (authors)

  19. Distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 in taiga and tundra catenae at the Ob River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.

    2015-03-01

    The classification of soil catenae at the Ob River basin is developed and applied. This classification reflects the diverse geochemical conditions that led to the formation of certain soil bodies, their combinations and the migration fields of chemical elements. The soil and geochemical diversity of the Ob River basin catenae was analyzed. The vertical and lateral distribution of global fallouts cesium-137 was studied using the example of the four most common catenae types in Western Siberia tundra and taiga. In landscapes of dwarf birches and dark coniferous forests on gleysols, cryosols, podzols, and cryic-stagnosols, the highest 137Cs activity density and specific activity are characteristic of the upper soil layer of over 30% ash, while the moss-grass-shrub cover is characterized by low 137Cs activity density and specific activity. In landscapes of dwarf birches and pine woods on podzols, the maximum specific activity of cesium-137 is typical for moss-grass-shrub cover, while the maximum reserves are concentrated in the upper soil layer of over 30% ash. Bog landscapes and moss-grass-shrub cover are characterized by a minimum activity of 137Cs, and its reserves in soil generally decrease exponentially with depth. The cesium-137 penetration depth increases in oligotrophic histosols from northern to middle taiga landscapes from 10-15 to 40 cm. 137Cs is accumulated in oligotrophic histosols for increases in pH from 3.3 to 4.0 and in concretionary interlayers of pisoplinthic-cryic-histic-stagnosols. Cryogenic movement, on the one hand, leads to burying organic layers enriched in 137Cs and, on the other hand, to deducing specific activity when mixed with low-active material from lower soil layers.

  20. A major technological accident: the dispersion of a radioactive cesium - 137 pellet in Goiania, Brazil (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns the accidental dispersion of cesium 137 chloride via an abandoned radiotherapy device in Brazil, in september 1987. Since the accident occurred recently in a confined area and concerned a single radiochemical agent, it was possible to delimit the study parameters in each discipline: post-accident management, physics, medicine, environment, law, psychology, socio-economics and communication. Costs are difficult to evaluate but obviously very important. It is difficult to analyze all consequences. No official has been accused, there were no sentence. The results demonstrate the critical importance of the human factor in technological accidents. (A.L.B.)

  1. The transfer of fallout cesium-137 from browse to moose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating the transfer of fallout cesium-137 from soil to browse to moose (Alces alces) to wolf (Canis lupis) to promote our understanding of the movement of radionuclides through natural food chains. The first part of this study is concerned with moose food habits. Early winter food habits of moose from Hecla Island and Manitoba Game Hunting Area 26 in south central and south eastern Manitoba were studied. In 86 rumen samples, 25 food types were identified. Three methods of food habit determination were used: (1) percentage occurrence of food types, (2) subjective abundance scores and (3) percentage dry weight. All three methods yielded very similar results

  2. Forage intake rates of mule deer estimated with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forage intake rates of 87 wild, Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) collected over a 2-year period from the Cache la Poudre Drainage, Colorado, were estimated utilizing available data on fallout cesium-137 concentrations in the deer and their inferred diet. The method employed involved the convolution of an intake function and a retention function. Ingestion rates are reported and analyzed by sex, season, and age class. An overall mean forage intake of 21.9 grams air dry forage/kg carcass weight/day was calculated. Adult animals consumed significantly (less than 0.01) more than adults throughout the year. (U.S.)

  3. Prospect, Practices and Safety for Quality Management of the Gamma Greenhouse, a Novel Facility for Chronic Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has a special facility for chronic irradiation, known as the Gamma Greenhouse (GGH), located at MINT-Tech Park in Jalan Dengkil, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). The Gamma Greenhouse source of chronic irradiation comes from a 137Cs double encapsulated 800 Ci Cesium-137 pencil, producing a low dose rate, which is considered to be more effective in recovering and producing useful mutants in comparison to acute irradiation at higher dose. The irradiation facility comprises an open-topped irradiation area, 30 m in diameter, protected by a partial concrete wall, with entrance maze and site topography. High safety features are in place, where the facility is protected by a sophisticated interlock system that only allows the source to be exposed when all the prerequisite safety conditions are met, and automatically returns the source to the safe storage position if any safety device is compromised. The main irradiation area is further protected by a 300 m diameter exclusion zone that is also protected by the safety interlock circuit. The facility can accommodate a wide range of plant materials such as seeds, seedlings in pots, cuttings, calluses, somatic embryos and suspension cell cultures. In practice, plant samples will be exposed to low dose gamma radiation over long periods of time (hours, weeks, months), depending on their nature and sensitivity. All procedures generate data for evaluation, which require accuracy; quality management is essential in irradiation service. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is in research and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbe strains. Services are provided to academicians, planters, students and researchers working with plants and microorganisms. In addition, it is also useful in the teaching and training on breeding, nuclear and radiation technology. The activities in utilization the gamma greenhouse cover mainly Research and Development, Research

  4. Effects of potassium and nitrogen groundwater pollution on the migration of cesium-137 through the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of potassium and nitrogen groundwater pollution on the migration of cesium-137 through the geological environment were studied for the territories of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus. Migration rate of cesium-137 deposited as a result of the Chernobyl accident increases in geologic media (soils, rocks, and groundwater) polluted by potassium and ammonium originating from long-term fertilizers use. This effect manifests itself in the fact that radiocesium penetrates deeper into soils of arable lands than it does into virgin soils. Laboratory experiments show the sorption capacity of sandy soils with respect to cesium-137 is 2.5-9.2 times lower in the presence of solutions of chlorides and nitrates of potassium and ammonium and is 1.3-2.0 times lower in the presence of sodium nitrate solution. 26 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from May 1985 to Jul. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is aimed at listing measurements of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil made at eight places across Japan during the period from May to July in 1985. Collection and pretreatment methods are described for samples of rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water, sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, as well as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The methods for the preparation of these samples for analysis are also outlined. Sample solutions were neutralized with sodium hydroxide, and the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated after sodium carbonate was added. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After being precipitated as oxalates, strontium and calcium were separated by successive fuming nitric acid separations. For the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, soil and sediment were treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid for extraction while other samples were ashed and digested. Calcium, separated as oxalate, was determined by titration while stable strontium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy, respectively. Couting for activity was carried out using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper results of soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone are presented. It is shown that more than 70% of the Belarusian territory of 30-km NPP zone occupies soils in which mobility Cs 137 is low or moderated. (authors)

  7. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  8. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of 137Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg-1 at the current 137Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg-1). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of 137Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of 137Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers (130 - 150 Bq*km-1) to sedge-sphagnum and shrub

  9. Study and modelling of cesium 137 trapping on carbon materials during fast reactors primary sodium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fast neutrons reactors, the liquid sodium is used as coolant. During accidental cracks of the fuel claddings, the cesium 137 goes in the sodium and accumulate in the circuit, leading to purification works. The actual adsorbent is the RVC (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon). This work deals with the RVC micro-texture and the fixation mode of the alkali metals. A dimensional model has been proposed. The RVC has been characterized by Raman diffusion and small angle scattering. A simple thermal treatment revealed the porosity. These laboratories results are completed by dynamic trapping tests on ELCESNA with the observation of the matter-transfer area and the limiting phenomena. A global modelling of the purification process is proposed taking into account the elementary states of the fixation. Simulation tests and a parametric study confirm the internal diffusion as the limiting state of the process. (A.L.B.)

  10. A model for cesium-137 tranfer in the compartments of a simplified freshwater ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 transfer was monitored in an experimental ecosystem comprising water, sediment, a benthic organism (midge larvae), a macroplankton (waterfleas) and a fish (carp). A transfer equation was derived from experimentation at each exchange level. It was shown experimentally that these exchanges are cumulative, and their equations can be integrated in a model that takes account of the quantity and quality of the food uptake; the biological half-life and the fish growth. The model reveals the influence of factors such as the contamination duration, or the age and dietary habits of the fish; it can be used to predict their activity level according to the activity of the water, and shows the relative importance of the contamination vectors. The calculated results are coherent with the cesium content measured in fish in the Rhone river

  11. Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou estimated with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou herds in northern Alaska during 1963 to 1970 were estimated by applying a two-compartment, eight parameter cesium-137 kinetics model to measured fallout 137Cs concentrations in lichen and caribou. Estimates for winter equilibrium periods (January to April) for each year ranged from 3.7 to 6.9 kg dry weight lichens per day for adult female caribou. Further refinement of these estimations were obtained by calculating probabilistic distributions of intake rates by stochastic processes based upon the mean and standard error intervals of the eight parameters during 1965 and 1968. A computer program generated 1,000 randomly sampled values within each of the eight parameter distributions. Results substantiate the contention that lichen forage ingestion rates by free-roaming caribou are significantly greater than previously held

  12. Germline mutations in people descendants occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, resulted in a serious episode of human contamination, animal, plant and environmental were exposed to Cesium 137 chloride (137CsCl) that caused contamination and accidental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental components that causes most cellular stress in complex organisms. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces breaks in nucleic acids, especially, DNA double and single strand breaks. Chromosomal microarray analysis is an important tool for the detection and microdeletion and microduplications in the genomes. In this study we proposed to analyze the effect of exposure to RI on the formation of CNVs in an exposed human population occupationally to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137 during the accident in Goiania. The exposed group consisted of 07 families, of which at least one parent was occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137, including a total of 25 individuals, do not know the absorbed dose of the military who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. 11 families with a group of individuals not exposed to IR was used as control were used including a total of 33 individuals with no history of exposure to RI. The genotyping microarray was conducted in CytoScan HD system (Affymetrix®) without then analyzes was performed in ChAS® software. The statistical tests used were: Shapiro-Wilk, Mann- Whitney U, Spearman correlation, discriminant function analysis, binomial test, χ2 test. All analyzes were performed using the statistical package SPSS 21.0, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). The frequency of CNVs were estimated loss / generation, gain / generation and burden / generation, representing 3,9 x 10-5, 6,8 x 10-6 and 4,6 x 10-5 respectively for the exposed group. For the control group, the frequencies were 2,1 x 10-5, 5,9 x 10-6 and 3,1 x 10-5 respectively. Thus, the frequency of CNVs showed statistically significant

  13. CETESB`s actions in Goiania in what concerns cesium-137 accident; Atuacao da CETESB em Goiania com relacao ao acidente do cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penteado Filho, Azor Camargo; Derisio, Jose Carlos; Albuquerque, Antonio Martins de [CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    This work presents several actions performed by CETESB, the sanitary engineering agency of Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil, in what concerns the accident involving cesium-137 in Goiania, Goias State - Center Brazil. The adopted procedures are described in details

  14. Extended treatment of radiocontamination with cesium 137 by colloidal Prussian Blue. Test on a preparation which does not involve hepatic retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prussian blue, which is applied per os, is recommended in radiocontamination treatment with cesium 137. It has been tried to increase product efficiency in using dispersed forms, such as ferrocyanide - anion - ion exchanger resins or colloidal form

  15. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. H. Eikelmann

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are based on measurements of cesium-134 and cesium-137 content in meat and blood and by whole-body monitoring of live animals. In 1987 the increase of radiocesium content in reindeer in Vågå were 4x from August to January. The mean reductions in radiocesium content from the winter 1986/87 to the winter 1987/88 were 32%, 50% and 43% in the areas of Vågå, Østre-Namdal and Lom respectively.

  16. The turnover of cesium-137 within a forest ecosystem described by a compartment modelling approach: Gidea study site, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new comprehensive data base including catchment area characteristics and information about radionuclides deposition, migration in soil and transport in groundwater within the catchment 'Orrmyrbaecken' has been studied when modelling the turnover of cesium-137 within the Gidea study site. The BIOPATH code (compartment technique) was used to describe the long-term transfer within the whole catchment area. The concentrations of cesium-137 in surface water and soil were used for evaluation of the model. The model describes the concentration in surface water quite well. The initial transfer to the water, during the time when the snow melted cannot be evaluated due to lack of observed data. One of the results, was that about 5% of the initially deposited cesium-137 had left the catchment area after 5 years. Uncertainty analysis has been performed to identify the importance of different parameters. The source term, i.e. the deposition, initially contributes most to the uncertainty of the concentration in surface water and groundwater as well as in soil and peat. Furthermore, the water turnover and Kd-values in soil will increase their importance with increasing time

  17. The blue drama: narratives of the victim's suffering of Cesium-137 radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents a dramatic approach to the Cesium-137 Radiological Event. The event, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The ethnography’s output follows a theoretical experiment with the notions of drama and event. In order to better understand the pattern of this event, I analyzed narratives such as romances, arts, photographs, news, documentaries, films, academic bibliography and stories that emerged from the research field. I argue that the narratives politicize the discourses of victimization and the suffering experience. The dramatic form of narratives and symbols concentrates on emotions and promotes the emotional commitment of the subjects on the trial. The drama articulates the relationship between the narratives and the event and creates a tactful space that arouses the recognition of victims through the narrative form and the suffering language. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. (author)

  18. Ruptured cesium-137 well-logging source at Shelwell Services, Inc., Hebron, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the circumstances surrounding the September 13, 1983, cesium-137 sealed source rupture incident at the Shelwell Services, Inc., facility in Hebron, Ohio. It focuses on the period from approximately 4:00 p.m. (EDT) on September 13, 1983 when the source ruptured, to October 5, 1983, when the radiological emergency response aspects of the event were concluded. Information outside these periods is recounted as necessary. The incident resulted in radiation doses to two licensee employees that exceeded the regulatory limits for whole-body and extremity exposures, and contamination of the licensee's facility, private residences, public buildings, and the personal effects of the licensee's employees, families, and friends. The emergency response required the combined efforts of NRC, US Department of Energy, and state personnel. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the event and, thereby, provides a data base for subsequent detailed analyses and recommendations by various NRC offices. 4 references, 30 figures, 4 tables

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water from December, 1981, to July, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Service water, 100 liters each, was collected at an intake of a water-treatment plant and at a tap after water was left running for five minutes. Water, to which the carriers of strontium and cesium were added immediately after sampling, was vigorously stirred and filtered. The sample was then passed through a cation exchange column. After radiochemical separation, the precipitates were counted for the activity using a low-background beta counter, normally for 60 min. The measuring techniques are first described; i.e. the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting. The measured results are given in a table for the following locations: source water - Tokyo, Osaka, Hokkaido, Kyoto, Kanagawa, Aichi, Fukuoka; tap water - Hokkaido, Akita, Fukushima, Tokyo, Fukui, Shizuoka, Shimane, Okayama, Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Wakayama, Okinawa, Hiroshima, Aomori, Yamagata, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Niigata, Ishikawa, Nagano, Aichi, Osaka, Hyogo, Tottori, Yamaguchi, Ehime, Kochi, Kagoshima. (Mori, K.)

  20. Direct absorption and transfer of cesium 137 in a simplified fresh water supply line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimentally the transfer of Cesium 137 through the supply line: Daphnia Magna Straus→Lebistes Reticulatus Peters→Anguilla Anguilla L. starting from water at 50μCi/l is studied. In the direct transfer water→organisms, the three links used have a concentration factor comprised between 2 and 4. The organisms retain a maximum of 0,3% of the water's radioactivity. The muscular mass of the eel represents 60% of the animal's total activity. The biological period is close to 400 days indicating that the fixed Cesium is strongly retained. Through the absorption of a contaminated meal, the Lebists, after two days, retain 67% of the activities of the Daphnies and the Eels, after seven days, 39% of the activity of the Guppys. At the end of the experiment, the Eels contaminated by food 3.500. It takes 63 meals for the level of contamination due to food to equal that due to water. The concentration factors measured in situ are always distinctly higher than those obtained in the laboratory. The experiment proves the possibilities of concentration through the food supply line

  1. Cesium-137 in ash from combustion of biofuels. Application of regulations from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Cesium-137 i aska fraan foerbraenning av biobraenslen. Tillaempning av Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens regler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (SE))

    2009-03-19

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, has issued an ordinance on ash contaminated with Cesium-137. It implies amongst other things that ash containing 0,5 - 10 kBq/kg Cesium-137 (so-called contaminated ash) can be used for geotechnical purposes provided that the content in a near-by well does not exceed 1 Bq/litre and that the increase in a near-by fish producing recipient does not exceed 0,1 Bq/litre. The initial plan with the presently reported work was to provide a compilation of how the ordinance for Cesium-137 can be applied in practical work. It became evident, however, in the course of the work that issues related to the co-variation between potassium and Cesium needed further investigation. As a result, the present report comprises also a compilation of this extended information search. Cesium-137 is present in ash as a result of the accident in a nuclear power reactor in Chernobyl in 1986 during which material having a very small grain size was spread to a high altitude. A few days later, Cesium-137 was deposited during rains over large parts of Sweden. This activity penetrated to a depth of one or a few decimetres during the course of the subsequent few days and weeks, after which it was partially taken up by plants and spread in the ecosystem. Section 2 has the character of a handbook. It provides basic information on radiation, and also about the ordinance and other material from the SSI. Section 3 comprises compilations of relevant international status of knowledge. This regards how potassium and Cesium behave in soil and ash, and also how spreading of Cesium can be modelled. Cesium behaves similarly to Potassium but with the difference that Cesium is bonded much more strongly to mineral soil and ash. Potassium and Cesium appears in soil in four different forms: dissolved in the pore water, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and as bonded to minerals. The amount dissolved in the pore water is the smallest and that bonded to minerals is the largest

  2. Cesium-137 in ash from combustion of biofuels. Application of regulations from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, has issued an ordinance on ash contaminated with Cesium-137. It implies amongst other things that ash containing 0,5 - 10 kBq/kg Cesium-137 (so-called contaminated ash) can be used for geotechnical purposes provided that the content in a near-by well does not exceed 1 Bq/litre and that the increase in a near-by fish producing recipient does not exceed 0,1 Bq/litre. The initial plan with the presently reported work was to provide a compilation of how the ordinance for Cesium-137 can be applied in practical work. It became evident, however, in the course of the work that issues related to the co-variation between potassium and Cesium needed further investigation. As a result, the present report comprises also a compilation of this extended information search. Cesium-137 is present in ash as a result of the accident in a nuclear power reactor in Chernobyl in 1986 during which material having a very small grain size was spread to a high altitude. A few days later, Cesium-137 was deposited during rains over large parts of Sweden. This activity penetrated to a depth of one or a few decimetres during the course of the subsequent few days and weeks, after which it was partially taken up by plants and spread in the ecosystem. Section 2 has the character of a handbook. It provides basic information on radiation, and also about the ordinance and other material from the SSI. Section 3 comprises compilations of relevant international status of knowledge. This regards how potassium and Cesium behave in soil and ash, and also how spreading of Cesium can be modelled. Cesium behaves similarly to Potassium but with the difference that Cesium is bonded much more strongly to mineral soil and ash. Potassium and Cesium appears in soil in four different forms: dissolved in the pore water, exchangeable, non-exchangeable and as bonded to minerals. The amount dissolved in the pore water is the smallest and that bonded to minerals is the largest

  3. An Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Approach to Cesium-137 Transport in Forested Fukushima Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirila-Woodburn, E. R.; Steefel, C. I.; Williams, K. H.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in Japan resulted in a significant dissemination of cesium-137 (Cs-137) over a wide area west of the plant, including the contamination of many watersheds and the subsequent evacuation of many communities. Today approximately 90% of on-land Cs-137 fallout following the accident resides in the upper 5 cm of forest soils. While this can be partially attributed to the forested composition of the prefecture (70%), there is also difficulty in cleanup efforts in these regions due to a lack of understanding and predictive capability of radioisotopes transport at the catchment to watershed scale. Subsequently, there is an uncertain, but likely long-term impact on local communities with implications for the use of nuclear energy use worldwide. Due to the complex nature of forest eco-hydrology, sophisticated modeling tools to accurately predict Cs-137 fluxes across different spatial and temporal scales are required. High fidelity, high resolution numerical modeling techniques in conjunction with parallel high performance computing is required to accurately determine transport and feedbacks in these complex systems. To better understand the fundamental transport of Cs-137, a watershed near the FDNPP is modeled with an integrated hydrologic model that includes variably saturated groundwater and overland flow in addition to atmospheric and vegetative processes via a coupled land surface model. Of specific interest is the impact of land cover type on hydrologic flow in the area, which will likely play an important role in erosion patterns and the consequent transport of Cs-137 strongly sorbed to surface soils. Risk management practices (for example, passive remediation versus active remediation such as targeted logging) for two principal tree types (evergreen and deciduous) are informed given the simulated responses to flow patterns assuming different quantities and spatial distribution patterns of each tree type.

  4. Analysis of cesium-137 and stable lead in soil and plant samples grown at the former ammunition dump area in Clark Special Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and plant samples from a farm formerly used by the US Air Base as ammunition dump area in Clark Special Economic Zone in Angeles, Pampanga were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs) and stable lead (Pb). 137Cs activity concentration was analyzed by gamma spectrometry while stable Pb concentration was analyzed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Results showed mean activity concentration of 137Cs in ten soil samples analyzed (0.42 ± 0.40 Bq/kg) lower than the activity concentration measured earlier by Duran (4) in Clark topsoil (range: 0.98 - 4.64 Bq/kg) and within range of the country baseline data previously obtained (range: 0.09 - 12.77 Bq/kg). In five plant samples analyzed for 137Cs, the mean activity was relatively less than the lower limit of detection (LLD). For stable Pb, the mean concentration obtained in soil samples is 22.2 ± 7.14 mg/kg, while in plant samples, the concentration was less than the detectable level of the equipment used. The stable Pb concentration in soils is way below the industrial risk base concentration (RBC), which is 1000 mg/kg. Thus, the study shows 137Cs radioactivity concentration and stable Pb concentration in soil and plants collected from the farm are within background values normally measured in soil and plants collected elsewhere in the country and do not pose any risk to public health. (Author)

  5. Cesium-137, a tool for the assessment and the management of erosion risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 (137Cs) is a radioisotope that was artificially introduced in the environment through the extensive high-atmosphere bomb tests that took place in the 1950s and 1960s. Due to its environmental behavior in soils, this isotope is a particularly interesting soil movement indicator. Its spatial redistribution reveals global soil movements that were initiated some 35 years ago. The rates and spatial extent of soil loss and deposition areas can be established, and thus soil movement budgets are easily estimated, at scales ranging from small plots to watersheds. Generally, soil movements are estimated by comparing the activity of 137Cs (expressed in Bq.m-2) of cultivated soils to that of so-called reference sites (old prairie or forest soils) assumed to be uneroded. Different models to translate soil 137Cs variations into soil movements have been suggested over the years (equations 3 to 5). The authors used this technique in Quebec and France. The sampling of 63 cultivated fields near Quebec City, led to an average soil loss estimate of nearly 6 Mg.ha-1.yr-1. The erosion rates varied according the land use and slope steepness (Table 2). The results of this study also suggest that redeposition is an important component of the overall erosive process, particularly under low grade slopes and protective plant cover conditions. From 137Cs measurements obtained on a 180 ha unit watershed near Vierzy (France), it was estimated that 45% and 14% of the watershed area had experienced a net soil loss and gain respectively (Figure 4). The net sediment output was evaluated at less than 1.9 Mg.ha-1.yr-1. In a still on-going study, 137Cs is used to shed some light on the origins of the sedimentation problem impairing the waters of Boyer River (Québec). Soils from cultivated fields, stream bank soils and sediments from the river bed are counted for 137Cs. It was estimated that 78% of the counted bottom sediments originated from cultivated fields, while the other 22% was from

  6. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate

  7. Assessing relationships between forest structure and soil erosion in mountainous forest using a Cesium-137 tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwanghun; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) particularly Cesium-137 are known as a quantitatively reliable means of estimating sediment redistribution rates within agricultural landscapes and forested area. However, fewer studies have done using FRNs in forested areas even though understanding soil redistribution patterns in mountainous forest areas is one of the important issues for forest management. The objective of this study is to figure out key forest structures affecting soil redistribution rate. In this study, we estimated soil loss and gain rate at 50 points with various forest types and topography in steep mountainous forest area in the Experimental Forest of Kangwon National University in Kangwon Province, South Korea by the Cesium-137 tracing technique. The results show the factors related to the topography such as slope and water accumulation have little effect on soil redistribution rate. The shrub and small tree layer affect more on soil redistribution rate. Additionally, the data shows relatively higher erosion rate in Korean Pine tree plantation area (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) than semi-natural deciduous and Quercus forests where shrubs and small trees are more prevalent.

  8. Application of radioactive fallout cesium-137 for measuring soil erosion and sediment accumulations rates and patterns: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive fallout 137Cs (cesium-137) deposited across the landscape from atmospheric nuclear tests is strongly absorbed on soil particles limiting its movement by chemical and biological processes. Most 137Cs movement in the environment is by physical processes; therefore, 137Cs is a unique tracer for studying erosion and sedimentation. Cesium-137 loss from a watershed has been shown to correlate strongly with soil loss calculated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) or measured from small runoff plates. By measuring spatial patterns of 137Cs in vertical and horizontal planes across the landscape, rates of soil loss or deposition can be measured for different parts of a watershed. Even within landscape units, redistribution of soil can be mapped and erosion or deposition rates for different parts of individual fields measured and mapped. Sediment accumulation rates can be measured by comparing the vertical distribution of 137Cs in sediments with the temporal deposition of fallout 137Cs from the atmosphere to locate sediment horizons. Using these dated sediment horizons, sediment accumulation rates can be measured. Interpretations about the location of these dated horizons must consider particle size of the sediments, reworking of deposited sediments, diffusional movement of 137Cs, and time rates of physical process in the sedimentation process. The 137Cs technique can be used to determine sediment accumulation rates in a wide variety of depositional environments including reservoirs, lakes, wetlands, coastal areas, and floodplains

  9. Treatment of low-level radioactive cesium-137 and technetium-99 liquid wastes by inorganic ion-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been directed towards the testing and evaluation of selected inorganic ion-exchangers that are inexpensive and suitable for the conditioning and disposal of radioactive wastes. The experiments were based on sorption characteristics of inorganic ion-exchange materials and their ability to retain radionuclides. The sorption efficiency of cesium-137 and technetium-99 on exchangers was tested under various conditions including the effect of pH, equilibrium time, temperature and concentration for bentonite, kaolinite, sand and sandy soil, which are classified as natural inorganic exchangers. Titanium dioxide, zeolite, antimony pentioxide and hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) were used as synthetic inorganic exchangers. This report also includes a basic study of the cementation process along with the measurement of several important waste from properties such as physical stability, compressive strength and leachability. The percentage sorption efficiency of cesium-137 was found to be 99, 98, 88, 87, 86 and 85 respectively for zeolite, kaolinite, antimony pentoxide, sandy soil, sand and HAP, at 25-500C, pH range 3-9 and 10-20 minutes contact time. The sorption of technetium-99 on antimony pentoxide was 80-90, at 250 C, pH range 1-9 and 5 days contact time. The physical stability tests indicated that all specimens had good homogeneity. Percentages of weight-loss after 28 day cure times at ambient room temperature were in the range of 7-15, 2-6, 6-9, 3-10 and 4-5 for bentonite, kaolinite, zeolite, titanium dioxide and sand respectively. The compressive strength of conditioned waste form consisting of various simulated waste compositions are reported. For the purpose of this study, an arbitrary compressive strength value of 150 kgm/cm2 was established. The proper percentage composition of cemented wastes were 19, 24, 25, 45 and 54 for bentonite, kaolinite, zeolite, titanium dioxide and sand respectively. The leachability for kaolinite cemented waste containing

  10. The method of correction of irradiation history in burn-up determination using fission product cesium-137, cerium-144, and neodymium-148 as monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, for cesium-137, cerium-144 and neodymium-148 nuclids the average yield, the quantity of correction for (n, γ) reaction, the quantity of correction for radioactive decay in reactor and the average fission energy of fissionable nuclide were calculated. The result improved precision of parameter and gave quite well value of burn-up

  11. Phenomenological and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposit in France consecutive to the accident of Chernobylsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works presented in this report allow to give two conclusions: the first one bears on the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposits induced by the Chernobylsk accident; the second one bears on the methods improvement of post accident consequences evaluation induced by the radioactive atmosphere fallout. (N.C.)

  12. Distribution of cesium 137 and other chemical elements on the physical chemical barriers of a boundary zone of the Belarus Poles'e marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effect of the physical chemical barriers on distribution of cesium-137 and other chemical elements has been considered on the example of landscape-geochemical profile 'White Marsh' formed under conditions typical of Poles'e landscape-geochemical characteristics of the profile is presented. (authors). 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  13. Determinations of cesium-134, cesium-137 and potassium-40 as a measure of intrauterine exposure to rays and contamination of human milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain better insights into the degree of intrauterine exposure to rays after the Chernobyl reactor accident, placental measurements of the activity levels of cesium-134 and cesium-137 were carried out in 125 expectant mothers from the Munich area using four thallium-activated sodium iodine crystal detectors. The lower limit of detection determined for this technique was 1-2 bq/kg. Parallel tests were performed on human milk samples to establish their contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40. The ultrapure germanium detector used for this purpose measured levels down to a detection threshold of 1 bq/l. In a total of 13 placentae (10 %) and 56 milk samples (57%) the activity of cesium-137 was found to be so low as to preclude detection. The highest values measured were 18.6 bq/kg for the placentae and 10.6 bq/l for the milk samples. The activity concentrations of potassium-40 were frequently seen to exceed those of cesium-137, the highest value determined here being 73.6 bq/l. The author has come to the conclusion that the alleged increases in radiation levels remain within the range of variations generally expected to occur with natural radiation. Mothers are not discouraged from breast-feeding, even though their attention must be drawn to the fact that the rates of malignant diseases and genetic damage tend to rise on a global scale. (KST)

  14. Cytogenetic evaluation of persons exposed to Cesium-137 radiation accident in Goiania (Brazil); Avaliacao citogenetica de individuos expostos acidentalmente a radiacao ionizante de Cesio-137 em Goiania (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Claudio Carlos da

    2000-07-01

    This dissertation describes a cytogenetic evaluation of individuals exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation during the radioactive accident of Goiania in 1987. The study group is comprised of 14 individuals who had absorbed doses varying from 1 to 7 Gy. In order to obtain metaphase spreads,peripheral blood collected from exposed individuals 1-1,5 year after ionizing radiation exposure, was cultured following basic protocols for PHA-Lymphocyte stimulation. Individual slides were kept for 12 years at room temperature and in the dark. A control group of unexposed individuals was chosen from the Goiania population. Both groups donated blood voluntarily and the unexposed population had no history of exposure to genotoxic agents. The ordinary methodology, consisting of staining chromosomes with Giemsa 4%, was used to determine the biological half-life of unstable chromosomes aberrations. Using Buckston's model (1967) we predicted the half-life of T-cells carrying unstable chromosome aberrations to be between 204-312 days, which is in agreement with the results of Ramalho (1993) who reported a half-life of 140 days a similar for population. Additionally, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as the chosen method to evaluate 12-year old metaphase spreads. To date, we have no knowledge of the use of FISH methodology applied to samples as old as our. Prior to hybridization, chromosomes showed intense dehydration and signs of severe degradation. A pretreatment of aged slides in Carnoy's fixative for 16 hours, followed by exposing the slides to water vapour at 60 deg C for 4 hours improved the fluorescent signal of whole chromosomes probes, making it possible to evaluate old metaphase spreads. Our results suggest that is possible to validate FISH as a viable tool for retrospective biodosimetric studies, even in those cases when chromosome preparations were dehydrated and showed signs of chromosome degradation. (author)

  15. Specific activity and derived intervention levels for cesium-137 in Costa Rican export goods: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of 235U and 239Pu. After a major nuclear accident, it is released into the atmosphere and in the far field region it will produce radioactively contaminated food and drinking water. This paper will study the specific activity of 137Cs in three Costa Rican export products: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk. The average specific activities found are as follows: 0.89 ± 0.41, 1.16 ± 0.76 and 4.53 ± 2.00 Bq kg-1. They represent low values compared to their derived intervention levels: 1.25 x 107, 1.25 x 107 and 2.44 x 105 Bq kg-1, respectively. (Author)

  16. [Gamma glutamly transpeptidase in chronic anicteric hepatopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magris, D; Mian, G; Minutillo, S; D'Agnolo, B

    1975-09-01

    Serum levels of gammaGT were determined in 51 patients suffering from bioptically verified chronic anictereric liber disease. GammaGT proved to be much more sensitive than the other enzymes studied and presented a significant increase particularly in cases of steatosis and chronic "alcoholic" liver disease with a markedly steatosic character. PMID:241034

  17. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the functional state of some radiosensitive and radioresistant tissues of rat organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional state of such radiosensitive tissues as testis and spleen and such radioresistant one as liver was investigated after the exposure of the rats to chronic gamma-irradiation at the total 6,0 Gy dose. It was investigated nucleic acids and common protein content in this organs as well as testis and spleen weight and blood leukocytes amount. Male rats (24-28 days old) was irradiated in special block of Germicide mounting (the source of gamma rays was cesium 137), dose rate 57,6 mGy/day for a 105 days. The animals was examined in a 1 and 30 days after irradiation. In a first term of the experiment the reduction of leukocyte content in blood more than two times and the decrease of the testis weight to 46,1% to the control was observed. The reduction of DNA content was found in all tissues examined and was more expressed for testis. In this organ the content of RNA and common protein was also reduced significantly. In 30 days since irradiation the content of testis DNA and common protein was higher than in the control reflecting the active proliferate process in this tissue, but the weight of the organ didn't restore. In the spleen the content of DNA and common protein was near the control level but the content of RNA was rather higher. In a 30 days after irradiation in the liver cells the content of RNA and common protein continued to reduce. Leucopenia was preserved to the end of the experiment. The result have shown that such high radiosensitive organs as testis and spleen have the ability to compensation of the disturbances and that changes in the relatively radioresistant liver tissue preserved for a long time

  18. Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the possibility of sterilization of certain pharmaceuticals and materials involved by gamma radiation from cobalt-60 and cesium-137 sources, and illustrates the importance of gamma ray sterilization compared with other sterilization methods. The paper also reviews some pharmaceuticals and materials involved, which proved the possibility of gamma ray sterilization. (author)

  19. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 in honey bees and cheese samples collected in the U.S. after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 25, 1986, possible radioactive contamination of honey bees and cheese sampled in several areas of the United States were measured. Of bees collected in May and June of 1986 in both Oregon and New York, only those from Oregon showed detectable levels of cesium-134 (T1/2 = 2.05 years), a radionuclide which would have originated from the Chernobyl incident. Cheese produced in Oregon and New York before the accident showed only cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30.23 years) but cheese produced afterwards (May and September, 1986) in Oregon contained cesium-134. Cheese produced in Ohio and California at the time of the accident and thereafter contained only cesium-137. In general, the levels of radioactivity were higher in the West coast samples as compared to those taken in the East. The levels of radioactivity detected were considered to be toxicologically of no consequence. (author)

  20. Radiation WBC monitoring of cesium 137 contents in children from the Chernobyl regions of Belarus and necessity of their long-term radiation protection by pectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Radiation Safety 'Belrad' has performed 270 thousand measurements of cesium 137 in children of the Chernobyl regions of Belarus. In some cases there are some big value of the specific activity. In connection with this the Institute performed the pectin cures with the application of the preparation 'Vitapect' applied as means of radiation protection of the health of children with the purpose of the decrease of internal radiation dose. (authors)

  1. Applicability of 100 TBq cesium 137 release into environment as a safety criterion for consequence assessment at reactor design approval stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, a severe accident consequence assessment has to be able to include all quantifiable consequences on people and the environment. Our previous studies on estimation of cost per severe accident succeeded in quantifying aforementioned consequences. However, the estimation requires enormous quantity of data, time and human resources, thus it may be inappropriate at the reactor design approval stage. Finnish government uses “100 TBq cesium 137 release into environment”, which was proved to generate limited health effects, as one of the reactor design criteria for accident consequences. In this study, we perform an evaluation of annual dose from the 100 TBq cesium 137 release and confirm limited health effects. We form the environmental impact index based on insights from our previous studies and used it to assess consequences to the environment. The estimated environmental impact index is very small, which confirms the limitedness of the environmental impacts of the release. These findings ensure the applicability of 100 TBq cesium 137 release into environment as a safety criterion for consequence assessment at reactor design approval stage. (author)

  2. Estimating soil erosion from the redistribution of fallout cesium 137 in an agricultural land of province of Camaguey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. Significant amounts of fallout Cesium-137 ( Cs) from nuclear weapons tests were introduced to the landscape during the 1950s and 1960s. Once Cs reaches the soil surface it is strongly and quickly adsorbed by clay particles, and is essentially nonexchangeable in most environments. Thus, in recent years, the fallout Cs has found increasing application in investigations of soil erosion on agricultural land. By comparing Cs inventories from different points in fields with the reference inventory for the area it is possible to assemble information on the rates and patterns of soil loss. An investigation of soil erosion was undertaken in the 4 ha field of La Victoria 1 Farm. Three models for converting Cs measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied cultivated field have been used, The Proportional Model, The Gravimetric Approach and Simplified Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 9.6 t.ha .year . Estimates of soil loss using the gravimetric method and simplified mass balance model were found to be 9.5 and 14.9 t.ha .year ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Cs technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss

  3. Radiometric evaluation of graves of victims of the accident with Cesium 137 in Goiania, GO, Brazil: 25 years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five years after the radiation accident in Goiania, this study aims to evaluate the radiological situation in the area demarcated by the graves of the victims of the accident with cesium-137. Radiometric survey was carried out on the surface that encompasses the four graves and vicinity, from a pre-established mesh. Dose rate measurements were carried out, using the IdentFINDER equipment, positioned at 1 m height from the ground. The values of dose rates at the points measured ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 μSv/h. This variation of dose rate is less than those obtained in the local graveyard and are in the range of background radiation observed in Goiania. Considering the results obtained 25 years after the accident, it was concluded that engineering barriers adopted at that time are effective, stating the place absolutely safe from a radiological point of view, both for the individual from the public as to the environment

  4. Radiation from Radioactive Cesium (137 Cs) and Strontium (90Sr) Contaminated soil during the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Triggers Rice Immune Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 that exposed most of the population of the Northern hemisphere to various degrees of radiation, the public's perception of nuclear risk was completely changed. other than the obvious and much studied health impact, the agriculture and environmental impacts still pose a serious problem. Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30.1 years, is the most important radionuclide left from Chernobyl's catastrophic explosion, and is present at high concentrations (activity, gamma-and beta-emitter) in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Strontium-90 (beta.emitter), which has a half-life of 29.1 years also constitutes a problem for plants. The effect of these radionuclides, and importantly show the radiation released therein affects plants has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leaves of two-week-old rice (japonica-type c, Nipponbare) seedlings (that constitutes a well-established in-vitro assay system) would respond to radiation (from the contaminated soil from Masany. Belarus, with major radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 sr) by inducing various biochemical/molecular changes associated with the defense/stress response, including those involving mechanisms affecting the inactivation of damaging reactive oxygen specie. Rice (oryza sativa L.) is an enormously important food and monocot cereal crop research model whose draft genome sequence has recently been released. A molecular (northern analysis which provides a picture of the transcriptional changes of a particular gene), proteomics (two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful tool in understanding which proteins are present in particular tissue under given condition), and metabolomic (determining the metabolic profiles of metabolites induced during stress) approach was employed to monitor the changes in defense(stress-related (D/S-.r) genes, proteins (using 2-DE coupled with amino acid sequencing and immunoblotting) and metabolites (in particular

  5. Identification of environmentally derived cesium-137 burdens in a worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1990, whole body measurements of a number of workers with little probability of onsite occupational exposure showed positive evidence of 137Cs. Further investigation revealed that many of these workers supplemented their diet with a significant portion of wild game, mainly deer and elk. To validate the assumption of an environmental source, donated samples of venison and other game were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Results ranged from less than 0.1 to almost 100 Bq kg-l (0.003 to 2.7 nCi kg-1) and showed a correlation with the habitat from which the game was taken. Venison samples obtained from the two workers with the highest body burdens showed the highest activity. A questionnaire is now used to identify workers with an elevated potential for environmental-intakes

  6. Mechanisms of potassium and cesium-137 uptake by radish in the field under water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of potassium (K) and cesium (137Cs) uptake by plants were studied using radish as an example. The investigations were performed at three experimental field sites within the 10 km Zone of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 2012 and 2013. Radish seeds were sown, and plants and their corresponding soil solutions were sampled, several times during each growing season. The value r = (137Cs/K)p/(137Cs/K)ss was estimated for each paired sample. Here, (137Cs/K)p is the quotient of 137Cs and K concentrations in the plant and (137Cs/K)ss is the same for the corresponding soil solution. It was observed that potassium and cesium entered plant roots, as a rule, through a complement of transporters with low selectivity when the concentration of dissolved potassium (CK) in the soil solution was greater than 2 to 4 μg/cm3. In this case the value of r was near 1. However, when CK was between 0.5 and 2 to 4 μg/cm3, potassium also appeared to enter plant roots through highly-selective potassium transporters, whilst cesium entered roots only through the transporters with low selectivity. In this case the value of r was much less than 1. When CK was less than 0.5 μg/cm3, cesium appeared to enter roots through a complement of transporters with greater selectivity for cesium than potassium. The value of r in this case could exceed 1

  7. Website application for calculating cesium-137 ingestion doses from consumption of locally grown foods in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout deposition from the US nuclear weapons test program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) resulted in widespread nuclear fallout contamination of the northern Marshall Islands. About 85-90 % of the nuclear test-related dose delivered to resident populations is derived from ingestion of cesium-137 (137Cs) contained in locally grown tree-crop food products. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a series of interactive internet applications to provide the public with an open access platform to learn more about radiological conditions in the Marshall Islands. The ingestion dose calculator application described here is one such feature whereby users can calculate hypothetical ingestion doses from 137Cs based on interactive user input matched to environmental data on the activity concentration of 137Cs contained in food plants such as coconut, breadfruit, Pandanus, and arrowroot. Users are asked to enter a date, an island and atoll location, a plant food type, and a daily intake amount (highlighted by the number of portions eaten per day in estimated gram equivalents). The application computes the user daily dose and the user equivalent annualized dose, and then compares the results with default settings based on dietary models developed for the Marshall Islands from independent dietary surveys. The default diets are based on a local plus imported food diet (or IA diet model) and an imported foods unavailable diet (or IUA diet model). Environmental data are decay corrected to the date entered by the user using an effective half-life of 137Cs of 8.5 years (http://marshallislands.llnl.gov). (author)

  8. Studies of cesium-137 from the Chernobyl accident in a contaminated coastal area at the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very soon after the Chernobyl accident it was obvious that parts of Sweden were heavily contaminated by the fallout. At the end of April 1986 the Swedish Environmental Protection Board initiated an investigation program. The purpose was to follow the pathways for the ''new'' nuclides in the aquatic ecosystem and specially the uptake and turnover time for Cs-137 at different trophical levels. A regional survey of the nuclide concentration in the green algae Cladophora have been made twice; in May and July 1986. The concentrations in algae obviously reflect the geographical pattern of the fallout along the coast. In the beginning (May-June 1986) there were very high concentrations of fission products in primary producers such as benthic diatoms (100-1000 KBq/kg d.w.) and brown and green algae (10-100 KBq/kg d.w.). At higher trophic levels the nuclide concentrations decrease. Invertebrates have concentrations about 1-5 KBq/kg d.w., fishfry 10-1000 Bq/kg d.w. and adult fish (e.g. perch and pike) even lower values. The concentration of cesium-137 in seawater from this area increased during May-June 1986, reached a relatively constant level of about 3 Bq/l during the summer 1986 and has since then slowly decreased to 0.5 Bq/l Mars-December 1987. The studies showed a rapid decrease in algae, in general also a decrease in invertebrates, but a pronounced increase in fish. Depending on the cesium concentration in the perferred food organism the different fish species reaches maximum at different times. It seems that most fish species will have reached or passed the maximum of Cs-137 concentration at the end of 1988

  9. Predicting the Surface Redistribution of Possibly Contaminated Tephra Deposits at the Yucca Mountain Repository Using Cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, C. D.; Whitney, J. W.; Ebert, K.

    2003-12-01

    In the event a volcanic eruption occurred through the proposed Yucca Mountain repository, Nevada, radioactive waste particles could be incorporated into the eruption products and deposited with the volcanic ash. The objective of this study was to predict the surface redistribution of the contaminated tephra deposits in order to evaluate how the critical group (located 20 km south of the repository within the Fortymile Wash drainage area) might be affected. We calculated the volume of material that has been eroded or deposited within the past ~50 years using cesium (Cs)-137. Radioactive Cs-137 was distributed worldwide as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during the 1950's, and has been used as an anthropogenic tracer. In most earlier cesium-137 studies, the investigated sites were either along several transects or on plots of a few dozen km2, whereas this study covers an area of >1500 km2. Fortymile Wash is an 800-km2 drainage basin that includes the entire eastern slope of Yucca Mountain and the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan; therefore, understanding the surface processes along Fortymile Wash are important to the volcanic-eruption consequence. To assess erosion rates on the Fortymile Wash fan, alluvium samples were analyzed for Cs-137 concentrations, for the vertical cesium profile down to ~10 cm depth, and for particle-size composition of the upper 3-5 cm. The results of Cs-137 concentrations in the samples from the upper fan indicate that the upper fan interstream divide areas have been eroding over the last 50+ years and have lost 1 cm to 2 cm of the upper soil horizon, mainly as the result of eolian processes.

  10. Anomalously high values of cesium-137 in soils on the Peninsula de Paraguana (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of 137Cs in surface soils (2-5 cm) was determined at twenty-one sampling sites along the northwestern and eastern coast of the Paraguana peninsula (Venezuela), as well as, at nine locations, between 95 and 535 m.a.s.l. on Cerro Santa Ana. The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy employing a compatible IBM computer. Most of the values were much higher than those found along the coastline of the mainland; four sites were found to be anomalously high, with 137Cs values greater than 10 Bq/kg. It is difficult to explain these anomalous 137Cs values by geographical or climatological factors since there is little rainfall here and the clouds and fog are rarely if never present along the coast of the peninsula. Possibly, some mechanism of the mist that is blown ashore could explain these anomalies. The values of the 137Cs versus altitude on the Cerro Santa Ana show an increase of two or three times at 500 m.a.s.l. level, thus we have concluded that the base of the clouds was at this height when the fallout was directly deposited by condensation in this cloud forest. These results in the Cerro Santa Ana cloud forest are similar to those of other cloud forests along the Venezuelan coast, but the altitude (m.a.s.l.) of the base of the clouds here are much lower. (author)

  11. A survey of Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 in the lower part of the stream Verkmyraan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A higher deposition of 137Cs than in the surroundings has earlier been recognised in the lower part of the stream Verkmyraan which is the outlet from the lake Hille. In this study, this area with a higher deposition is examined with a portable gamma spectrometer connected to a GPS, back pack. Five different areas were recognised and measured, an alder forest, a spruce grove within the alder forest, which had showed higher 137Cs37 Cs levels than the surrounding alder forest, two reed areas and a coniferous forest. The results show that elevated levels of 137Cs are found in the alder forest and the reed areas which were all adjacent to stream. In these areas, the deposition varied between 500 - 1500 kBq/m2. In the coniferous forest nearer the alder forest but further away from the stream, the deposition was 200 kBq/m2. Soil samples from the different areas were also taken and sectioned before analysis of 137Cs and 90Sr. The same big difference in the deposition as for 137Cs was not seen for 90Sr in the different areas, the 90Sr deposition varied between 1.5 - 3.5 kBq/m2. Vertical distribution profiles were plotted for the two radio nuclides and the results show that 137Cs and 90Sr have almost the same distribution pattern with a peak in activity at - 5 cm depth. The conclusion from this survey is that the elevated levels of 137Cs in the vicinity of the outlet of the stream Verkmyraan come from redistribution from the lake Hille, primarily in 1986. 90Sr was not redistributed from the lake to the wetland at the outlet in the same amount as 137Cs

  12. Effects of Escherichia coli B/R ORNL membranes on the growth and characterization of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and the induction of mutants by means of cesium-137 ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current methodologies used in the production, screening and characterization of bacterial mutants poses inherent problems when these methods are applied to strict anaerobes. Inclusion of sterile stable Escherichia coli B/r ORNL membranes in the cell suspension fluid during irradiation resulted in the scavenging of oxygen radicals and peroxides produced during exposure. This decreases bacterial death caused by these factors and increases the possibility that the radiation will produce changes in the chromosome. The P2 membranes eliminate the need for cysteine-HCI which acts as a radioprotective agent and allow aerobic culturing techniques to be applied to strict anaerobes in mutation studies. P. anaerobius VPInumber 4330 was exposed to Cesium-137 gamma radiation. Cell survival, biochemical activities and changes in antibiotic resistance as effected by the inclusion of the P2 membranes were determined on the prototype and the isolated variants. Resistance parameters were established, with and without the presence of the P2 membranes, using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). The P2 membranes were also used to investigate changes in tyrosine degradation and cell sensitivity to sodium polyanethol sulfonate, both of which are used in P. anaerobius identification

  13. Study of soil redistribution in cultivated fields using fallout cesium-137 at Fateh Jang, Attock, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to investigate soil redistribution and net soil losses from two cultivated fields located in the dissected loess plains in the Pothwar Plateau at Mangial (33.6 N; 72.8 E), District Attock, Pakistan. For reference site, soil samples were collected by scrapper plate at 2 cm intervals and bulk cores in a grid, while the cultivated fields were sampled taking bulk cores in grid and along transect. /sup 137/Cs was measured by gamma spectroscopy using Soil 6 (IAEA) as a standard. The established reference inventory of /sup 137/Cs for this area is 3204 Bq/m/sup 2/. The technique provides very clear quantitative information on medium-term erosion and deposition rates at different locations, and net soil loss from cultivated fields, while no other methods available can be applied so simply. Gradient of the cultivated fields play an important role in the soil redistribution and net soil loss. Due to higher gradient of Field 2, the net soil losses determined by PM and MBM-1 using 20 cm plough layer (14.18 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 16.37 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ respectively) are much higher than that for Field 1 determined by the same models (0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 and 3.84 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Therefore, the cultivated fields should be as much leveled as possible. Major implication arises in using soil conversion models when thickness of /sup 137/Cs bearing layer becomes more than the normal plough layer due to deposition of eroded soil at low-lying areas. In case of Field 2, using 30 cm thickness of plough layer having significant /sup 137/Cs in the deposition areas the net erosion estimates using by PM and MBM-1 are 8.71 t ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ and 10.05 t ha-1 yr/sup -1/, respectively, which seem more reliable because maximum /sup 137/Cs inventory is taken into accounted. The herbicide residue varies spatially in the field, but these three distributions corresponding to the three sampling dates indicate reduction in the residue with time. The

  14. Separating cesium 137 from liquid radioactive wastes by using inorganic exchangers using static and dynamic procedures at various concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium 137 was separated from liquid wastes by ion exchange using ammonium molybdenum phosphate, potassium hexa cyano cobalt ferrate, zirconium hydro phosphate and antimony penta oxy hydrate ion exchangers. The investigation was done by static and dynamic procedures. In static procedure required time for reaching the system to equilibrium or ion exchange completion, the measurement of each exchanger, the effect of nitric acid and concentration of sodium nitrate on the capacity of ion exchangers was investigated. Also in dynamic procedure nitric acid and sodium nitrate concentration ratio on the power of and thereof the capacity of each ion exchanger was determined

  15. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 (137Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the 137Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of 137Cs within forest ecosystems, because 137Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of 137Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of 137Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of 137Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of 137Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The 137Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta 15N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of 137Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. 137Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated 137Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through the detritus food chain, whereas the transfer through grazing food chain was relatively low at

  16. Mutant quantity and quality in mammalian cells (AL) exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation: Effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) on the quantity and quality of mutations in cultured mammalian AL human-hamster hybrid cells exposed to 137Cs γ radiation. At a dose (1.5 mg/ml for 16 h) that reduced the plating efficiency (PE) by 20%, caffeine was not itself a significant mutagen, but it increased by approximately twofold the slope of the dose-response curve for induction of S1- mutants by 137Cs γ radiation. Molecular analysis of 235 S1- mutants using a series of DNA probes mapped to the human chromosome 11 in the AL hybrid cells revealed that 73 to 85% of the mutations in unexposed cells and in cells treated with caffeine alone, 137Cs γ rays alone or 137Cs γ rays plus caffeine were large deletions involving millions of base pairs of DNA. Most of these deletions were contiguous with the region of the MIC1 gene at 11p13 that encodes the S1 cell surface antigen. In other mutants that had suffered multiple marker loss, the deletions were intermittent along chromosome 11. These open-quotes complexclose quotes mutations were rare for 137Cs γ irradiation (1/63 = 1.5%) but relatively prevalent (23-50%) for other exposure conditions. Thus caffeine appears to alter both the quantity and quality of mutations induced by 137Cs γ irradiation. 62 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Suicide with cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on first case of suicide with radioactive substance in Bulgaria is given. A defectoscopist with cyclothymic structure of character and psychotraumatic family environment made a second and successful attempt at suicide, this time by means of external irradiation with 137Cs with an activity of 5.3 C in the course of two hours. He irradiated his heart region and the first three fingers of his right hand. A grave picture of acute, local irradiation injury lasting four months with lethal outcome. The authors treat the psychological motives in the behaviour of these suicides and the reasons which determine the small number of suicide carried out with radioactive substance. (author)

  18. Use of cesium-137 to assess soil erosion rates under soybean, coffee and pasture; Uso do cesio-137 para avaliar taxas de erosao em cultura de soja, cafe e pastagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, A.C. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil); Appoloni, C.R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Guimaraes, M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia]. E-mail: andrello@uel.br; appoloni@uel.br; mfatima@uel.br

    2003-04-01

    The methodology cesium-137 was used to assess soil erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed with varied crops, at 23 deg 16' S and 51 deg 17' W, in a district of Cambe, Parana State, Brazil. A theoretical equation which considers soil loss or gain directly proportional to the cesium-137 redistribution was utilized in this study. In the watershed, soil redistribution was assessed by transect sampling, and the regional input of cesium-137 by radioactive rainfall determined based on samples from a point in the native forest. Most sampled pasture points presented soil loss, as well as the points in the soybean area under conventional tillage, while in the coffee crop there was neither soil loss nor gain. (author)

  19. Investigation of the unusual behavior of cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the Florida environment. Progress report, September 1, 1976--November 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pangola digitgrass experiment with treatments inoculated with endomycorrhizal species has been planted in meter-square plots in a fumigated soil in south-central Florida. The first harvest was made after two months growth. Yield differences were minimal between treatments, the non-mycorrhizal control plots were slightly higher. Cesium-137 activity levels were ten times that of pangolagrass in the area. Yields after the second harvest, one month later, were similar and cesium-137 activity was four times that of established fields. The established fields of pangolagrass range from 35 to 75% mycorrhizal infection of their roots. After four months, mycorrhizal control in the check plots continued to be nearly complete. A greenhouse experiment utilizing a fungicide for mycorrhizal control in a field soil failed to limit development of endophyte infection on pangolagrass. Another greenhouse study using inoculations of two indigenous species of V.A. mycorrhizae did not show any differences in growth or uptake of radiotracer cesium-134 between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. In both experiments, the non-mycorrhizal pangola in sterilized soil grew as well or slightly better than inoculated pangola or pangola growing in naturally V.A. mycorrhizal soil. Neither were there any growth differences between treatments as the plants depleted the soil nutrients in the pots and died after six months. A low level of nitrogen was the only nutrient added to the pots

  20. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R

    2007-06-08

    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  1. Psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137; Avaliacao psicomotora de criancas expostas intra-utero a radiacao com o cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Celia Marly

    1995-07-01

    The presented work had as objective the accomplishment of a comparative study of cesium-137 radioactive element effects in the psychological and motor development of children which were going submitted the intra-uterus irradiation during the chronological age of three years. The comparison of the results of study is done through a group-control composed for five children without any involvement with the cesium-137 accident - occurred in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil - of same social, economic and cultural level and with the same age of the reached.

  2. The spectrum of mutation of the hprt gene in human t-lymphocytes following in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study comprises individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation of Cesium-137 after a highly radioactive radiotherapy source was removed from its protective housing and subsequently ruptured, leading to internal and external exposure of several people to significant levels of Cesium-137. Because of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of radiation, the genetic health of the accident victims has been studied. The genetic marker used in this study is the hprt gene and the selective assay using 6-thioguanine was performed with peripheral T-lymphocytes. Samples were drawn from 10 individuals 3.3 years after the original exposure and yielded 221 mutants from which 146 mutants were recovered for molecular analysis. From those, 110 cDNAs have been sequenced using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer. The results indicate that the mutants are comprised of 46% base substitution, 12% frameshifts, 24% exon skipping and 18% of other mutations including insertions, duplications, deletions, etc. The cDNA molecular analysis based on TCR showed that only 2% of the mutants were clonally related. Out of the 36 genomic DNAs studied, 7% involved the total deletion of the hprt gene, 11% partial deletion, while 5.5% retained all the exons, but produced no cDNA. There was only 0.7% clonality as detected by TCR analysis. The nature of mutations recovered in vivo provides more detailed insights into the spectrum of mutations for the hprt gene. Such data will give us a better idea of how exposure to environmental mutagens, such as radiation, affects human populations and their health

  3. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of

  4. Germline mutations in people descendants occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137; Mutacoes germinativas na prole de pessoas expostas ocupacionalmente a radiacao ionizante de Cesio 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana Ferreira da

    2016-07-01

    The radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, resulted in a serious episode of human contamination, animal, plant and environmental were exposed to Cesium 137 chloride ({sup 137}CsCl) that caused contamination and accidental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental components that causes most cellular stress in complex organisms. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces breaks in nucleic acids, especially, DNA double and single strand breaks. Chromosomal microarray analysis is an important tool for the detection and microdeletion and microduplications in the genomes. In this study we proposed to analyze the effect of exposure to RI on the formation of CNVs in an exposed human population occupationally to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137 during the accident in Goiania. The exposed group consisted of 07 families, of which at least one parent was occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137, including a total of 25 individuals, do not know the absorbed dose of the military who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. 11 families with a group of individuals not exposed to IR was used as control were used including a total of 33 individuals with no history of exposure to RI. The genotyping microarray was conducted in CytoScan HD system (Affymetrix®) without then analyzes was performed in ChAS® software. The statistical tests used were: Shapiro-Wilk, Mann- Whitney U, Spearman correlation, discriminant function analysis, binomial test, χ{sup 2} test. All analyzes were performed using the statistical package SPSS 21.0, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). The frequency of CNVs were estimated loss / generation, gain / generation and burden / generation, representing 3,9 x 10{sup -5}, 6,8 x 10{sup -6} and 4,6 x 10{sup -5} respectively for the exposed group. For the control group, the frequencies were 2,1 x 10{sup -5}, 5,9 x 10{sup -6} and 3,1 x 10{sup -5} respectively. Thus, the

  5. Investigation of environmental change on the Tega Lake based on lake sediment analysis. Pt. 2. Dating of sediment by the lead-210/cesium-137 method and environmental change detected by the diatom assemblage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment collected in the Tega Lake was dated by lead-210/cesium-137 method and environmental change in the Tega Lake was investigated by analysis of diatom remain assemblages in the sediment. Dating of the lead-210/cesium-137 method proved that the surface 30 cm-thickness of sediment in the Tega Lake was deposited during the recent 50 years. Diatom remain assemblage change in the Hon-Tega Lake sediment started in the early half of 1960's and the changes is characterized decrease of Fragilaria construens, that does not prefer to inhabit eutrophic water, and increase of Cyclotella meneghiniana that prefers to inhabit eutrophic water. This diatom assemblage change indicates that the Tega Lake was eutrophicated, and probably suggests water pollution in the Tega Lake. It is detected that influence of residential development around the Tega Lake and reclaiming by drainage on the Tega Lake. (author)

  6. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight) ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight), and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight). Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1) when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2) when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3) when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a ''conventional'' radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau

  7. Concentration levels of cesium-137 in soils of the municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas before the accident of Fukushima Daiichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the emitter radioisotopes of gamma-rays in soil is very important considering damages to the health and quality of the environment. The main objective of this work is the study of the concentration of the artificial radioisotope 137Cs in soil of the cities and municipalities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe of the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The study was carried out in two stages for different times, the first stage corresponded to the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe in 2000; and the second corresponded to the municipalities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe in 2008. The first study region was the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, and environs where 20 soil samples were obtained. The second study region was inside the municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas and 44 samples of near soil to the communities with major population in both municipalities were obtained. A spectrometry system of gamma-rays was used based on a coaxial detector of germanium hyper pure of high resolution, and was calculated the concentration of the 137Cs with the energy photo-pick 661.66 KeV. In this work the activity concentrations of the 137Cs in soil are presented and their variation in function of the time. These data will be a reference to evaluate a possible increment of the 137Cs because of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi (Japan) nuclear power plant happened March 11, 2011. (Author)

  8. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  9. Occurrence of natural radionuclides and fallout cesium-137 in dry-season agricultural land of South Western Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of the Opa river - irrigated farmlands in the south western Nigeria was determined using an HpGe based, low-level passive gamma-counting system. With the exception of two isotopes, the main radionuclides analysed in the sample were the progenies of 238U and 232Th. The other two isotopes were the naturally occurring 40K and the anthropogenic 137Cs. The result obtained showed elevated levels of radioactivity from all detected radionuclides compared to the published data for this area. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides is attributed to the use of phosphatic fertilizers for dry season vegetable cultivation along this river banks. The presence of the fission product 137Cs could be traced to the fallouts occasioned by the various French nuclear tests in the Sahara desert, and probably, some effect of the more recent nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986. (author)

  10. Gamma spectroscopy in water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma spectroscopy analysis of spent fuels in power reactors; study of two typical cases: determination of the power distribution by the mean of the activity of a low periodic element (Lanthanum 140) and determination of the burnup absolute rate by examining the ratio of Cesium 134 and Cesium 137 activities. Measures were realized on fuel solutions and on fuel assemblies. Development of a power distribution map of the assemblies and comparison with the results of a three dimensional calculation of core evolution

  11. Source term estimation using air concentration measurements and a Lagrangian dispersion model - Experiments with pseudo and real cesium-137 observations from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Draxler, Roland; Stein, Ariel

    2015-04-01

    A transfer coefficient matrix (TCM) was created in a previous study using a Lagrangian dispersion model to provide plume predictions under different emission scenarios. The TCM estimates the contribution of each emission period to all sampling locations and can be used to estimate source terms by adjusting emission rates to match the model prediction with the measurements. In this paper, the TCM is used to formulate a cost functional that measures the differences between the model predictions and the actual air concentration measurements. The cost functional also includes a background term which adds the differences between a first guess and the updated emission estimates. Uncertainties of the measurements, as well as those for the first guess of source terms are both considered in the cost functional. In addition, a penalty term is added to create a smooth temporal change in the release rate. The method is first tested with pseudo observations generated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model at the same location and time as the actual observations. The inverse estimation system is able to accurately recover the release rates and performs better than a direct solution using singular value decomposition (SVD). It is found that computing ln(c) differences between model and observations is better than using the original concentration c differences in the cost functional. The inverse estimation results are not sensitive to artificially introduced observational errors or different first guesses. To further test the method, daily average cesium-137 air concentration measurements around the globe from the Fukushima nuclear accident are used to estimate the release of the radionuclide. Compared with the latest estimates by Katata et al. (2014), the recovered release rates successfully capture the main temporal variations. When using subsets of the measured data, the inverse estimation method still manages to identify most of the

  12. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of 137Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ''hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

  13. The spatial distribution of cesium-137 in surface soils in the Gran Sabana and Sierra de Pacarima (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than fifty surface (2-10 cm) soil samples were collected in the Gran Sabana and Sierra de Pacarima, State of Bolivar (Venezuela) and analyzed for their 137Cs activity. The measurements were performed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry employing a hyperpure germanium detector with an energy resolution of about 1.8 keV for the 1.33 MeV line of 60Co and a counting efficiency greater than 25%. About 500 ml portions of dried soil samples with less than 85 mm particle size were counted for 20,000 seconds and the data were collected, stored and analyzed with an IBM-compatible computer. The concentrations of 137Cs in most samples were below the detection limit of 1.2 Bq/kg, but many of these soil samples could have been disturbed not only by man but the nature itself, for example, by the large amount of rainfall in the wet season. Only 15% of the soil samples were determined to have values equal or greater than 2 Bq/kg and only two of these were greater than 10 Bq/kg. The study area was divided into five zones, which had different environmental characteristics: climate, annual average rainfall, temperature ranges, elevations (m.a.s.l.), soil types and vegetation. Finally, it was concluded that the high 137Cs activities could be associated with the areas of higher annual rainfall and with very humid pre-mountainous climate rather than with humid tropical climate. (author)

  14. A tentative assessment of cesium 137 direct and indirect transfer rates in a simplified fresh water food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the direct transfer of cesium from water to carps and the indirect transfer via the food. In a first experiment on chronic contamination of carps by water, the kinetics and distribution of cesium in the organs of the carps were studied. Equilibrium was not reached on the 56th day, 4% of the initial water activity had been retained by the carps and the concentration factor was below 10. The highest specific activities were found in the transit organs. In a second experiment, the water activity varied by alternating contamination and decontamination. A fluctuating equilibrium was reached on the 22nd day. The concentration factor was of the same order of magnitude than in the previous experiment. Indirect contamination of fish by ingestion of contaminated daphnids was studied in a third experiment. Cesium levels in carps increased with the cumulated activities in meals, and the uptake rate in fish was 4%. Both decorporation and biological half-lives (30-40 days) were independent of the contamination routes. The respective significance of the transfer pathways is discussed taking into account the biomass pyramids to be found in the nature. It is estimated that in a cesium environment, 70% of the carp activity should come from the diet and 30% from the water. The concentration factor would then be 75 instead of 22 when only direct transfer of cesium from water to fish is considered

  15. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, 60Co and 137Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for 60Co and 30.1 years for 137Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly

  16. Some notes on the direct gamma ray densitometry of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood density was determined for various wood species representing a wide range of densities, moisture contents, and sample thicknesses, using collimated soft gamma radiation from two radio-active sources, i.e. Americium241 and Cesium137. Detectors used included both Geiger and Sodium Iodide crystal counters. The density of the vast majority (more than 95 per cent) of wood types investigated could be calculated with relatively high accuracy (within 0,04 g.cm-3) using gamma ray absorption as an indirect measure. Cesium137, which is a higher energy radiation source and less sensitive to differences in the mass attenuation coefficient, gave slightly better results with species known to contain substances with a marked effect on the mass attenuation coefficient

  17. TRIGA fuel burn-up calculations supported by gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy based non-destructive methods is employed to measure spent fuel parameters. By this method, the axial distribution of Cesium-137 has been measured which results in an axial burn up profiles. Knowing the exact irradiation history of the fuel, four spent TRIGA fuel elements have been selected for on-site gamma scanning using a special shielded scanning device developed at the Atominstitute. Each selected fuel element was transferred into the fuel inspection unit using the standard fuel transfer cask. Each fuel element was scanned in one centimetre steps of its active fuel length and the Cesium-137 activity was determined as a proved burn up indicator. The absolute activity of each centimetre was measured and compared with the reactor physics code ORIGEN2.2 results. This code was used to calculate average burn up and isotopic composition of fuel element. The comparison between measured and calculated results shows good agreement. (author)

  18. Phenomenological and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposit in France consecutive to the accident of Chernobylsk; Interpretation phenomenologique et analytique de la relation pluie-depot utilisee pour la reconstitution des depots de {sup 137}Cs en France consecutifs a l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, D.; Renaud, Ph.; Metivier, J.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Pourcelot, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. de l' environnement et de l' intervention 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2005-11-15

    The works presented in this report allow to give two conclusions: the first one bears on the reconstitution of the cesium 137 deposits induced by the Chernobylsk accident; the second one bears on the methods improvement of post accident consequences evaluation induced by the radioactive atmosphere fallout. (N.C.)

  19. The behaviour of cesium 137, chromium 51, cobalt 60, Manganese 54, sodium 22 and zinc 65 in simulated estuarine environments. Effects of suspended mineral particles and dissolved organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This laboratory investigation studied the retention of 6 radionuclides (cesium 137, chrome 51, cobalt 60, manganese 54, sodium 22 and zinc 65) on three types of clay particles (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite) and on sediments, suspended in media with salinities ranging between 0 and 34 per mill, with or without organic matters. Measurement of the radioactivity retained by the particles after 5 days' contact with the radionuclide made it possible to calculate the percentages retained and the distribution coefficients, and to follow their evolution versus salinity. Parallel experiments studied the behaviours of the 6 radionuclides as a function of experimental factors (wall effect, contact time..). An exhaustive bibliographic review gives the state-of-the-art of the knowledge. The following conclusions were derived: - the retention of all the radionuclides but chromium 51 decreased as soon as a low salinity appeared. Chromium (available as Cr3+) precipitated quickly and strongly during fixation whatever the surfaces or the conditions: - as for the role of the clay type, illite showed a strong affinity for cesium 137; manganese 54 had a particular behaviour with montmorillonite that enhanced its precipitation into MnO2; with cobalt, sodium and zinc, the percentages retained were always <= 20% and the type of clay had little effect; - dissolved organic matters had little effect on the behaviour of cesium or chromium; for sodium and zinc, strong complexation occured with the organic matter which was retained on the particles; cobalt and manganese gave intermediate results; - attempts to modeling emphasized the specific feature of the various reactions (adsorption by exchange with some compensating cations, absorption in the crystal lattice, surface retention of particular compounds)

  20. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    or acid soils with considerable among of dissolve organic matter. And {sup 137}Cs accumulates in slightly alkaline soils with mull in topsoil. The data obtained show that global fallout cesium-137 runoff from undisturbing humid first-order river basins (n=1) is less than 0.5 Ci*km{sup -1}. Runoff from arable semi-humid first-order river basins (n=2) varies from 3 to 35 Ci*km{sup -1}. According to GIS, internal flow areas occur 23% of the Ob' river basin total area and accumulate whole {sup 137}Cs. Humid and semi-humid river basins cover 40% and 8% of study area, respectively. We assume these basins yield as the main contribution in {sup 137}Cs runoff from the Ob' river basin. Thus global fallout caesium-137 runoff is 0.9-6.1 kCi including radioactive decay (0.5-3.4% of total storage) from the Ob' river basin to the Kara sea. Comparable among of caesium-137 could enter to the Kara sea due to liquid radioactive wastes by the nuclear plants located in the Ob' and the Enisey river basins. As a result, global fallout caesium-137 runoff from the background landscapes of the Ob' and the Enisey river basins plays an important role in radioactive contamination of the Kara sea. Conducted research results proved to estimate yield of radiochemical plants to radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. (authors)

  1. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment decreases the inflammatory response in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Hougen, H P; Rygaard, J;

    1996-01-01

    In a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied whether the inflammatory response could be altered by intraperitoneal treatment with recombinant rat interferon-gamma (rrIFN-gamma). Rats were treated either before or after intratracheal...

  2. Compton scattering of gamma rays in nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system constituted of a Cesium 137 source with activity of 7,4 x 1010 Bq, whose gamma rays energy is 662 KeV and a NaI (Tl) of 50 x 50 mm as surface inspection techniques is presented. The physical basic principle is the gamma radiation interaction with matter, where the predominant interaction is the comption scattering. The scattering angle chose is 900. Aluminium blocks, are used as sample with defects in surfaces of several diameters. Defects with measurements higher than 1,6 mm, were detected. (C.M.)

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 3. Records relating to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Operations Office: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-21

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the documents and record series pertaining to the production, release, and disposal of radioactive barium-lanthanum (RaLa), iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role. It provides information on the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), particularly ORNL. Specific attention is given to the production of RaLa and the fission products iodine-131 and cesium-137. This introduction also describes the methodologies HAI used in the selection and inventorying of documents and record series pertaining to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137, and in the production of this guide. Concluding paragraphs describe the arrangement of the record series, explain the information contained in the record series descriptions, and indicate restrictions on access to the records.

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Volume 3. Records relating to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Operations Office: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the documents and record series pertaining to the production, release, and disposal of radioactive barium-lanthanum (RaLa), iodine-131, and cesium-137 at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role. It provides information on the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), particularly ORNL. Specific attention is given to the production of RaLa and the fission products iodine-131 and cesium-137. This introduction also describes the methodologies HAI used in the selection and inventorying of documents and record series pertaining to RaLa, iodine-131, and cesium-137, and in the production of this guide. Concluding paragraphs describe the arrangement of the record series, explain the information contained in the record series descriptions, and indicate restrictions on access to the records

  5. Gamma greenhouse for chronic irradiation in plant mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma greenhouse makes use of chronic irradiation from a 137Cs source (double encapsulated 800 Ci caesium-137 pencil) producing a low dose rate, which is considered to be more effective in recovering and producing useful mutants in comparison to acute irradiation. The irradiation facility comprises an open topped irradiation area 30 m in diameter, protected by a partial concrete wall with entry maze and site topography. For safety, the facility is protected by a sophisticated interlock system, which only allows the source to be exposed when all the prerequisite safety conditions are met, and automatically returns the source to the safe storage position if any safety device is compromised. The main irradiation area is further protected by a 300 m diameter exclusion zone that is also protected by the safety interlock circuit. The facility can accommodate a wide range of plant materials such as seeds, seedlings in pots, cuttings, callus, somatic embryos and suspension cell cultures. Plant samples will be exposed to low dose gamma radiation over long periods of time (hours, weeks, months), depending on their nature and sensitivity. There was evidence whereby exposure of tissue culture materials to continuous low dose gamma irradiation resulting in considerably elevated somaclonal variation frequency without negative effects on culture response. It is not surprising that in vitro culture generating somaclonal variation together with in vitro mutagenesis inducing mutation lead to a higher variation frequency due to possible addition of mutagenic effect by in vitro mutagenesis to somaclonal variability arising from in vitro culture as well as the interaction between them. (Author)

  6. The blue drama: narratives of the victim's suffering of Cesium-137 radiological event; O drama azul: narrativas sobre o sofrimento das vitimas do evento radiologico do Cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2014-07-01

    This research presents a dramatic approach to the Cesium-137 Radiological Event. The event, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The ethnography’s output follows a theoretical experiment with the notions of drama and event. In order to better understand the pattern of this event, I analyzed narratives such as romances, arts, photographs, news, documentaries, films, academic bibliography and stories that emerged from the research field. I argue that the narratives politicize the discourses of victimization and the suffering experience. The dramatic form of narratives and symbols concentrates on emotions and promotes the emotional commitment of the subjects on the trial. The drama articulates the relationship between the narratives and the event and creates a tactful space that arouses the recognition of victims through the narrative form and the suffering language. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. (author)

  7. Radiometric evaluation of graves of victims of the accident with Cesium 137 in Goiania, GO, Brazil: 25 years after; Avaliacao radiometrica das sepulturas das vitimas do acidente com o Cesio 137 em Goiania: 25 anos apos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo B.; Correa, Rosangela da S.; Santos, Eliane E. dos, E-mail: leonardobl@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil); Freitas-Junior, Ruffo, E-mail: uffojr@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Mastologia

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-five years after the radiation accident in Goiania, this study aims to evaluate the radiological situation in the area demarcated by the graves of the victims of the accident with cesium-137. Radiometric survey was carried out on the surface that encompasses the four graves and vicinity, from a pre-established mesh. Dose rate measurements were carried out, using the IdentFINDER equipment, positioned at 1 m height from the ground. The values of dose rates at the points measured ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 μSv/h. This variation of dose rate is less than those obtained in the local graveyard and are in the range of background radiation observed in Goiania. Considering the results obtained 25 years after the accident, it was concluded that engineering barriers adopted at that time are effective, stating the place absolutely safe from a radiological point of view, both for the individual from the public as to the environment.

  8. ''Determination of the mass attenuation coefficient for the contrast agent Iohexol using 662 keV photons from a Cesium-137 source''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iohexol is an iodinated chemical compound (C19 H26I3N3O9) which is currently used as a contrast agent in x-ray radiography. Due to its composition including iodine has the property to enhance the attenuation of photons in the biological material in which has been injected. This work is part of a more extensive study to determine the optimal dilution of Omnipaque (Iohexol) in serum providing good images with minimal toxic effects and less radiation dose to individuals. Here, results of an experimental determination of its mass attenuation coefficient at dilutions of 50% and 100 % performed at energies of 662 keV provided by a Cs-137 source, and 59.5 keV from an Am-241, are presented. Measurements were performed using calibrated gamma sources and a standard gamma spectroscopy system available at the nuclear physics laboratory of the Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. As quality control the attenuation coefficient for water was determined at both energies finding an agreement with accepted values within 2 %. The system was also checked at 662 keV with lead sheets obtaining similar agreement with values in tables and computer codes. For a dilution to 50% of Iohexol the attenuation coefficient is reduced to 61 % at the energy of 59.5 keV. Calculations made with the computer code XCOM for Omnipaque at 100% at both energies were close the experimental values within 2 %. (author)

  9. The determination of Fukushima-derived cesium-134 and cesium-137 in Japanese green tea samples and their distribution subsequent to simulated beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew C; Stukel, Matthew J; Zhang, Weihua; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Cooke, Michael W

    2016-03-01

    Health Canada's Radiation Protection Bureau has identified trace quantities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in commercially available green tea products of Japanese origin. Referenced to March 11, 2011, the activity ratio ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) has been determined to be 1:1, which supports an origin from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The upper limits of typical tea beverage preparation conditions were applied to the most contaminated of these green tea samples to determine the proportion of radiocesium contamination that would be available for human consumption. The distribution of radiocesium among the components of the extraction experiments (water, residual tea solid, and filter media) was determined by both conventional and Compton-suppressed gamma spectroscopy. The latter aided tremendously in providing a more complete radiocesium distribution profile, particularly for the shorter-lived (134)Cs. Cesium extraction efficiencies of 64 ± 7% and 64 ± 5% were determined based on (134)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively. Annual, effective dose estimates from ingestion of (137)Cs and (134)Cs (1.8-3.7 μSv), arising from the consumption of tea beverages prepared from the most contaminated of these samples, are insignificant relative to both total (∼ 2.4 mSv) and ingested (∼ 0.28 mSv) annual effective doses received from naturally occurring radioactive sources. As such, there is no health concern arising from the consumption of green tea beverages contaminated with radiocesium at the levels encountered in this study. PMID:26714059

  10. The history of Cesium-137 liquid emissions by Mühleberg Nuclear Power Plant (Switzerland) is recorded in Lake Biel sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardclos, Stéphanie; Faessler, Jérôme; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Zehringer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Lake sediments record changes happening in their upstream river catchment and regional environment which includes traces of artificial radionuclides emissions deriving from human activities. 137Cs emissions started worldwide in the early 1950's and peaked in 1963-64 due to nuclear bomb tests in the high atmosphere. A second 137Cs activity peak, due to the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe is recorded in sediment archives from central Europe. These two events (1963/64 and 1986) serve routinely as time markers for recent lake records. Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are often constructed along river course for cooling purposes. Since 1972, Mühleberg NPP (central Switzerland) lies 18 km upstream Lake Biel and releases radioactive liquid emissions into the Aare river which adds to the diffuse - above mentioned - radioactive pollution, as revealed by Albrecht et al. (1995; 1998) and recently confirmed by Thevenon et al. (2013) from Lake Biel sediments. The water of Lake Biel is used as drinking water for ca. 60'000 inhabitants and its outflowing water is further used by downstream cities lying on the Aare-Rhine course such as Basel (200'000 inhab.) In this study, the 137Cs activity curve of a 90-cm-long sediment core (BIE10-8), retrieved in April 2010 from the central Lake Biel basin at ca. 50 m depth, and measured by gamma ray spectrometry using high resolution germanium detectors, confirms previous work and reveals a new peak for the year 1998-2000, as observed by Thevenon et al. (2013). This peak is most certainly due to Mühleberg NPP as shown by the good correlation with declared 137Cs liquid emissions indicating a significant increase in 1998-99. Decay corrected activity data, converted into 137Cs fluxes, point to water pollution by Mühleberg NPP in 1975-1985 as being similar to those linked to the catastrophic events in 1963-64 and 1986 (about 75%). As former study showed that Lake Biel sediments scavenge only a portion of the total radionuclide in water, i.e. 30-55% for

  11. The effect of the tropical cloud (fog) forest on the spatial distribution of cesium-137 in soils in the Henri Pittier National Park (Edo, Aragua, Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils were collected at different elevations (m.a.s.l.) near the two roadways, that pass through the Henri Pittier National Park (Edo, Aragua, Venezuela) in order to determine the distribution of the concentrations of the 137Cs fallout and its relation to the tropical cloud forest. Duplicate samples were taken at most elevations between 2-5 cm below the soil surface to confirm that the samples were representative of the area. In many cases, it was difficult or impossible to locate areas that were undisturbed by man or nature. The 137Cs (Bq/kg) content was determined by conventional high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy employing a standard comparison method. The background of the 137Cs fallout in soils, below the cloud (fog) baseline was calculated to be about 5 Bq/kg on both the south (land) side and north (ocean) side for both roadways. The concentrations of 137Cs (Bq/kg) were between 2-3 times higher at the baseline of the cloud (fog) on both sides of the mountain range. The 137Cs values at the highest elevations (1105 and 1625 m.a.s.l.) near the roadways were about 5-6 times higher than the determined background levels. Our estimates of the baseline of the cloud (fog) are in good agreement with other visual observations. It was concluded that the distribution of 137Cs in soils in cloud forests can be employed to estimate the baseline and the concentrations of 137Cs fallout can be related to the relative density of the cloud (fog) when it was deposited. (author)

  12. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-02-15

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  13. Cesium-137 contamination in Arctic Ocean ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea ice and ice-borne sediment samples were collected across the western Arctic basin on the joint US/Canada Arctic Ocean Section during August 1994. Samples were processed on board and returned at the completion of the cruise to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis. Sediment was observed on the surface and in the ice from the southern ice limit in the Chukchi Sea to the North Pole. Preliminary results on the ice-borne sediment samples show widespread elevated concentrations of 137Cs, ranging from 4.9 to 73 mBq g dry weight-1. An analysis of the measurements indicate that sea ice is primary transport mechanism by which contaminated sediments are redistributed throughout the Arctic Ocean and possibly exported into the Greenland Sea and North Atlantic through Fram Strait. The wide variability in the ice-borne sediment concentrations of 137Cs measured along the transect argues that contaminants incorporated on the Siberian shelves can follow much more variable trajectories than is suggested by mean ice drift calculations. 2 figs

  14. Distribution of cesium-137 in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Rissanen

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 on the Finnish reindeer herding area was much smaller than the effects of the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s. Only in one small area somewhat more Cs-137 was deposited than in the rest of the reindeer herding area. From that area 20 reindeer were chosen for investigation of the distribution of Cs-137. All tissues, organs, the skeleton, digestive tract, hide, head and hooves were sampled quantitatively. Three reindeer were pregnant and also the foetuses were studied. The Cs-137 amounts were determined by gammaspectrometric measurements. The results showed that the differences in the Cs-137 concentrations between muscle tissue from different parts of an individual reindeer were not more than 10 percent. Thus it is not essential from which part of the reindeer meat samples for surveillance purposes are taken. The concentration of Cs-137 in edible tissues other than muscle was lower except in the kidneys and scapula cartilage.

  15. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  16. Measurements of cesium-137 internal decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the accident with Cs 137 which took place in Goiania, it could be verified that the majority of the victims presented internal and external contamination. In order to minimize deposits in internal organs and tissues and to enhance the excretion of Cs 137 we started treating the patients with: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in about 46 patients, (2) Diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients, and (3) Increasing the Cs 137 elimination by the sweat. Those proceedings were done under rigourous clinical evaluation and with data from radiochemical assay of excreta and afterwards with data obtained through the ''in vivo'' analysis though Whole Body Counting (Body Burden). (author)

  17. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137Cs. The concentrations of 137Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m2 of 137Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137Cs concentrations

  18. The Cellular Differences between Acute and Chronic Neutron and Gamma-Ray Irradiation in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the shortening of the life span in mice by radiation show that an acute dose of gamma-rays may be as much as four times as effective as an equal dose of the same radiation administered chronically. However, for neutrons, chronic and acute administrations are equally effective. An analysis of these effects shows that for gamma-rays a certain fraction of the radiation injury is reparable, and that the value of this fraction depends on the dose and the dose rate. With neutrons, none of the damage appears reparable. For acute irradiation, the RBE is about 2 for shortening of the life span, but for chronic, may be as high as 8. Chromosome aberrations have been scored in liver cells of mice when treated with both chronic and acute doses of both gamma-rays and thermal neutrons. In all cases the percentage of aberrent cells is proportional to the shortening of the life span produced by the treatment. Further, with neutrons, acute and chronic irradiation is equally effective in producing chromosome abberations. For gamma-rays, acute irradiation may produce as much as four times the chromosomal damage as does chronic irradiation. This shows that some chromosomes can heal themselves following small doses of gamma-rays, but there is no chromosome healing following any dose of neutrons. The RBE using chromosome aberrations as a criterion is the same as for life shortening. These results give a firm cellular basis for the known biological differences between gamma rays and neutrons, and in addition give strong support to the concept that natural and radiation-induced aging are caused by spontaneous and radiation-induced mutations, respectively, in the somatic cells of animals. (author)

  19. Effect of chronic gamma-irradiation on chipmunks kept in vivarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity, the dynamics of changes in the body mass and the weight of some internal organs of chipmunks at different physiological status were studied in normal conditions (0.86 pA/kg) and during chronic gamma-irradiation at low dose-rates (46.3 pA/kg). The stated higher indications of body mass and the lower activity of the animals from the experirental group during the hbernation period can be regarded as the favourable protective reaction of the organism to the chronic effects of gamma-irradiation with low doses

  20. Gamma Greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agro biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, 60Co and 137Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for 60Co and 30.1 years for 137Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/ hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma

  1. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  2. Cytogenetic effects in rat spermatogonia under single and long-term gamma-irradiation at different ontogenesis periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define and predict the posterity health a study of the effect of low dose irradiation and action chronic irradiation on the chromosome system of gametes in the variable periods of the evolution of mammal are very important. The aim of the article is an investigate and a comparison of the chromosomal aberration frequency coming up in the rat spermatogonia by means of prompt or long-term low dose gamma-irradiation on the different stages of the ontogenesis. The experiments was carried out on the white rats. The five month age males and two groups of pregnant females on the 9 and 15 days of a pregnancy were irradiated with dose 0.5 Gy (dose rate is 0.062 Gy/min). The long-time irradiation was continued 20 days (dose rate 10-3 Gy/h; total dose 0.48 Gy). Cesium 137 source was used. Spermatozoa of the irradiating males and the males from the posterity of irradiating females was researched. Genetic effect in the gametes was defined on the chromosomal aberration frequency coming up in the spermatogonia and discovering by cytological standard methods on the first meiotic fission stage. It was detected that for external gamma-irradiation with dose 0.5 Gy the chromosomal aberration frequency in the rate spermatogonia was more in 10-20 times. For long-time irradiation of the nature males the chromosomal aberration frequency was equal to control level. At the same time a considerable increase of the aberration frequency was observed in the conditions of long-time irradiation in the embryonic growth period. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Literature study of the radiobiological parameters of Caesium-137 required for evaluating internal irradiation doses as a function of age; Etude bibliographique des parametres radiobiologiques du cesium-137 necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This document reassembles information published in scientific literature on radiobiological parameters of Cs-137, necessary for the estimate of the internal irradiation dose of man according to his age (during growth). The data are completed by a commented review of the mathematical models, proposed in order to value the irradiation doses from ingested cesium and the biological parameters. (author) [French] Ce document rassemble les informations publiees dans la litterature scientifique, concernant les parametres radiobiologiqueo du cesium-137, necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne de l'homme en fonction de l'age. Ces donnees sont completees par une revue commentee des modeles mathematiques proposes en vue de l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation a partir des quantites de cesium ingerees et des parametres biologiques. (auteur)

  4. Methylation status of the interferon-gamma gene promoter in chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the methylation status at CpG site -55 in the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene promoter and its effect on IFN-γ expression in chronic hepatitis B. Method The authors recruited 30 patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 30 HBeAg-negative CHB patients, and 30 healthy blood donors. Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation status at CpG site -55 in the IFN-γ gene promoter following bisulfite treatment of DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The expres...

  5. Colony formation of the western harvester ant in a chronic gamma radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A colony of Western harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, became established in a chronically exposed gamma radiation field located on the native short-grass plains of Colorado. The exposure level at the nest site was 18 R/hr. At the end of the colony's first and second seasons the nest mound diam were 25 and 36 cm, respectively. There were no apparent habitat modifications to suggest any avoidance response to the radiation. (U.S.)

  6. Progression of cerebellar chronic encapsulated expanding hematoma during late pregnancy after gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Watanabe; Hideki Nagamine; Shogo Ishiuchi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The etiology and appropriate management strategy of chronic encapsulated expanding hematoma during pregnancy after gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) remain unclear. Case Description: A 34-year-old female developed chronic encapsulated expanding hematoma during late pregnancy, after angiographic disappearance of cerebellar AVM following two courses of gamma knife radiosurgery. The present case implicates pregnancy as a potential promoter of growth an...

  7. Gamma environmental dosimetry and radon concentration in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental radiation levels have been determined in Venezuela by means of different techniques including the passive dosimeters and the alpha and gamma dosimetry besides the gross alpha/beta counting. The most important conclusion is that the presence of artificial radionuclides (Cesium-137, Beryllium-7 and Cadmium-109) was observed in different environmental samples and in food considered contaminant. The values of gamma levels are between 28 and 40 mGy/day and the mean value of radon concentration in closed environment is 36 Bq/m3 ; the higher values of a factor 10 have been measured in the Andes region. The 20% of analysed drinking water has a concentration of alpha radionuclides emitters less than 0.005 Bq/l and only the 8% is greater than 0.450 Bq/l. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  8. A case of acoustic neurinoma associated with chronic subdural hematoma after gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sho, Atsuko; Asaeda, Masahiro; Ohtake, Minoru [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). Inst. of Neurological Sciences] [and others

    2002-09-01

    A 72-year-old female presented with a unique case of acoustic neurinoma with a cystic component followed by the chronic subdural hematoma manifesting as trigeminal neuralgia, facial palsy and trunchal ataxia 7 months after gamma knife radiosurgery. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a loss of central contrast enhancement at the postoperative residual tumor mass and a large cyst associated with a hematoma in the subdural space. A right suboccipital craniectomy was performed. A biopsy of the mass and the membrane was performed following aspiration of the brown-reddish fluid collection. The histological diagnosis was acoustic neurinoma with a hemorrhagic necrosis. The membranous tissue mimicked an outer membrane obtained from chronic subdural hematoma. The postoperative course was satisfactory and preoperative symptom have been alleviated. In this case, the chronic subdural hematoma occurred at posterior fossa during the development of cysts caused by the radiosurgery, because the subdural space had been connected with the subarachnoid space after the first operation. The development of cysts or hematoma should be taken into consideration as possible complications following treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic neurinomas. (author)

  9. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation on adventitious plantlet formation of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) detached leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of adventitious plantlets on unrootedly detached leaves of two African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) cultivars, pink and violet flowers, chronically gamma-irradiated in gamma room at The Gamma Irradiation Service and Nuclear Technology Research Center, Kasetsart University was compared. Detached leaves were immediately planted after detachment in plastic trays containing peat moss, 18 leaves per treatment with 3 replications. Three dose rates (rad/h) with 3 doses (rad)/dose rate, were applied to the irradiated samples while the controls were placed outside the gamma room. Three months after irradiation, the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf were recorded. After that, the young plantlets were transferred to the new pots for further observation on plant growth and mutation characters. The results revealed that the number of survived leaves, the number of leaves producing adventitious plantlets and the number of plantlets per leaf varied slightly with radiation doses but were not significantly different at different dose rates. Radiosensitivity was noticed to be higher in pink flower cultivar than the violet one. M 1 V 1 plantlets will be followed up for growth and mutation character observations

  10. The catecholaminergic system in the hypothalamus of chronically gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of continuous gamma-irradiation of rats at 1.1 and 2.1 cGy/day dose rate on the content of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in the hypothalamus responsible for relation between the nerve and endocrine systems playing very important role in genesis of many pathologic states in organism was studied. Abrupt changes of the content of catecholamines (DA and NA) in hypothalamus at 9-165 cGy dose range irradiation (dose rate constituted 1.1 cGy/day) and at 17-315 cGy dose range irradiation (dose rate - 2.1 cGy/day) were detected. Dose dependence of the effect was of non-monotonic nature. Conclusion was made as to high sensitivity of sympathetic-adrenal system to the effect of chronic low-dose gamma-irradiation

  11. Recombinant interferon gamma augments phagocyte superoxide production and X-chronic granulomatous disease gene expression in X-linked variant chronic granulomatous disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekowitz, R A; Orkin, S H; Newburger, P E

    1987-01-01

    We examined the potential of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to ameliorate the physiologic defect of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) by studying its effects on CGD phagocyte superoxide generation, NADPH oxidase kinetics, cytochrome b559 content, and expression of X-CGD (the gene for the X-linked disease). Granulocytes and macrophages from three patients in two kindreds with "variant" X-linked CGD (i.e., with very low, but detectable, baseline superoxide-generating activity) responded to IFN-...

  12. GAMMA GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE IMPACT IN THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Albuquerque de QUEIROGA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C is the administration of pegylated interferon α2a or α2b in combination with ribavirin, but adverse effects can be observed, as well as the high cost of this therapy. Therefore, there is interest in understanding the predictors of sustained virologic response, as the gamma glutamyltransferase.ObjectiveTo evaluate the serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase as a predictor of response to treatment with pegylated interferon α and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C.MethodsThis is a systematic review of literature, conducted by consulting PUBMED, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane electronic databases, and active search of articles selected between January 2000 and April 2013.ResultsA total of 4,785 titles were iden tified. Out of those material, following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 273 abstracts were selected, by two independent researchers. After reading those texts, the reviewers consensually included ten studies for systematization and classification, according to the criteria of the Oxford Scale. 1B studies are predominant (prospective cohort study - six studies. Rapid virologic response and early virological response were considered as estimates for the sustained virological response. The frequency of virologic response was identified in three studies and early virological response in two, with a total of 392 and 413 patients, respectively; sustained virologic response was reported in nine articles corresponding to 3,787 patients (76.5 %.ConclusionGamma glutamyltransferase is a predictor of sustained virologic response in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon α2a or α2b associated with ribavirin.

  13. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes, chronically exposed to different doses of gamma radiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man's blood, not stimulated with phytohemagglutinin has been subjected to a chronic gamma irradiation from the 226Ra(99 mg) source at the temperature of 37 deg C. The obtained metaphase plates have been used to carry out the quantitative analysis of separate types of structural chromosomal aberrations. Quantitative results on aberrant cells have been statistically processed. It is established, that the increase of dose rate lends to the increase in the share of those dicentrics, that appeared as a result of one-trail process, while that output of two-trail dicentrics remains constant

  14. Chronic gamma radiation-induced changes in the content of fatty acids in spring rape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic gamma irradiation of spring rape plants having no erucic acid and eicosanoic acid in seed oil induced changes both in the growth and in the morphological composition of the plants. The contents of erucic acid and eicosanoic acid did not increase. The greatest changes occurred in unsaturated acids, especially in macromutants resulting from irradiated plants located in the closest proximity of the radiation source or in places with the most significant plant growth inhibition. Nutants with a low, or a high, content of linolenic acid were obtained. (author)

  15. Interferon-gamma in progression to chronic demyelination and neurological deficit following acute EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Taupin, V; Bourbonnière, L;

    1998-01-01

    The cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) is implicated in the induction of acute CNS inflammation, but it is less clear what role if any IFNgamma plays in progression to chronic demyelination and neurological deficit. To address this issue, we have expressed IFNgamma in myelinating oligodendrocytes...... of transgenic mice. MHC I immunostaining and iNOS mRNA were upregulated in their CNS, but such transgenic mice showed no spontaneous CNS inflammation or demyelination, and the incidence, severity, and histopathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were similar to nontransgenic...

  16. Employment of whole-body. gamma. -irradiation in chronic lymphoid leukemia and malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilova, N.B.; Baranov, A.E.; Khrushchev, V.G.; Grammatikati, V.S.; Murav' eva, L.I.; Strashnenko, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    There are presented data showing that whole-body therapeutic ..gamma..-irradiation is an effective method of treatment of chronic lymphoid leukosis and lymphomas. Rapid lymphopenic effect, satisfactory diminution of lymph nodes and spleen sizes testify to the effect. The necessity of further investigation of the treatment method is underlined. It is of interest to trace the fate of lymphocyte subpopulations in the course and after treatment. The urgency of working out a most rational scheme for whole-body therapeutic irradiation and for investigating indications for local irradiation of various groups of lymphatic nodes is indicated.

  17. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10-7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Chronic caffeine or theophylline exposure reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor site interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, D J; Schiller, G D; Farb, D H

    1988-05-01

    Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are adenosine receptor antagonists that exert dramatic effects upon the behavior of vertebrate animals by increasing attentiveness, anxiety, and convulsive activity. Benzodiazepines, such as flunitrazepam, generally exert behavioral effects that are opposite to those of methylxanthines. We report the finding that chronic exposure of embryonic brain neurons to caffeine or theophylline reduces the ability of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to potentiate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor. This theophylline-induced "uncoupling" of GABA- and benzodiazepine-binding site allosteric interactions is blocked by chloroadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, indicating that the chronic effects of theophylline are mediated by a site that resembles an adenosine receptor. We speculate that adverse central nervous system effects of long-term exposure to methylxanthines such as in caffeine-containing beverages or theophylline-containing medications may be exerted by a cell-mediated modification of the GABAA receptor. PMID:2835648

  19. Interferon-gamma deficiency modifies the effects of a chronic stressor in mice: Implications for psychological pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteljohn, Darcy; Cummings, Amie; Brennan, Ashley; Gill, Anudip; Chunduri, Siri; Anisman, Hymie; Hayley, Shawn

    2010-03-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote behavioral and neurochemical variations similar to those evident following stressor exposure, and have been implicated in promoting depressive illness. Indeed, immunotherapeutic application of the cytokine, interferon-alpha, promoted depressive illness in cancer and hepatitis C patients. We assessed the possibility that another interferon cytokine family member, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), might contribute to the behavioral and biochemical alterations provoked by a chronic stressor regimen that has been used to model neuropsychiatric pathology in rodents. As predicted, IFN-gamma-deficient mice displayed basal differences in behavior (e.g., reduced open field exploration) and altered neurochemical activity (e.g., increased noradrenergic and serotonergic activity within the central amygdala), relative to their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, stressor-induced elevations of corticosterone and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were attenuated in IFN-gamma-deficient mice. Similarly, the IFN-gamma null mice were refractory to the chronic stressor-induced alterations of dopamine metabolism (within the prefrontal cortex, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and central amygdala) evident in wild-type mice. Yet, the chronic stressor provoked signs of anxiety (e.g., reduced open field exploration) and depression-like behavior (e.g., increased forced swim immobility, reduced consumption of a palatable solution) among both wild-type and IFN-gamma knockout mice alike, suggesting a dissociation of behavioral functioning from the stressor-induced alterations of immunological, hormonal and dopaminergic activity. Together, these data suggest a complex neurobehavioral phenotype, wherein IFN-gamma deletion engenders a state of heightened basal emotionality coupled with increased monoaminergic activity in the amygdala. At the same time, however, IFN-gamma deficiency appears to blunt some of the neurochemical

  20. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation: a multigenerational study using Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of chronic exposure to 137Cs gamma radiation (dose rate ranging from 6.6 to 42.7 mGy h−1) on growth and reproductive ability were carried out over three generations of Caenorhabditis elegans (F0, F1, and F2). Exposure began at the egg stage for the first generation and was stopped at the end of laying of third-generation eggs (F2). At the same time, the two subsequent generations from parental exposure were returned to the control conditions (F1’ and F2’). There was no radiation-induced significant effect on growth, hatchability, and cumulative number of larvae within generations. Moreover, no significant differences were found in growth parameters (hatching length, maximal length, and a constant related to growth rate) among the generations. However, a decrease in the cumulative number of larvae across exposed generations was observed between F0 and F2 at the highest dose rate (238.8 ± 15.4 and 171.2 ± 13.1 number of larvae per individual, respectively). Besides, the F1′ generation was found to lay significantly fewer eggs than the F1 generation for tested dose rates 6.6, 8.1, 19.4, and 28.1 mGy h−1. Our results confirmed that reproduction (here, cumulative number of larvae) is the most sensitive endpoint affected by chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. The results obtained revealed transgenerational effects from parental exposure in the second generation, and the second non-exposed generation was indeed more affected than the second exposed generation. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to γ-radiation is studied using 3 generations of Caenorhabditis elegans. • Reproduction is the most sensitive endpoint affected by exposure to gamma radiation. • The results obtained revealed transgenerational effects from parental exposure

  1. Characterization of radioactive orphan sources by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sealed radioactive sources are widely applicable in industry. They must have a permanent control and must be registered with the Technical Office of the National Authority (OTAN). However, at times it has identified the presence of abandoned sealed sources unknown to the owner. These sources are called 'orphan sources'. Of course these sources represent a high potential risk because accidents can trigger dire consequences depending on your activity and chemical form in which it presents the radioisotope. This paper describes the process and the actions taken to characterize two orphan radioactive sources from the smelter a Aceros Arequipa. For characterization we used a gamma spectrometry system using a detector NaI(Tl) 3″ x 3″ with a multichannel analyzer Nucleus PCA-II. The radioisotope identified was cesium - 137 (137Cs) in both cases. Fortunately, the sources maintained their integrity would otherwise have generated significant pollution considering the chemical form of the radioisotope and easy dispersion. (author)

  2. Effects of chronic whole-body gamma irradiation on cell mediated immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test has been used to estimate the effects of chronic, whole-body, gamma irradiation in the dog. At lower dose levels, 0.07 and 0.33 R/day to cumulative dose of about 50 and 250 R, there was no change in cell mediated immunity. Dogs at high dose levels were affected. Dogs which succumbed to aplastic anemia at high doses had reduced immunological responses. Dogs which survived these high doses showed a temporary depression. When aplastic anemia was initially noted, there was a differential response to PHA and Con-A stimulation. The response to the former mitogen was profoundly reduced, but Con-A stimulated cells were unaffected, indicative of the development of radioresistant cell lines. As the dogs progressed toward aplastic anemia, all T lympocytes were negatively affected

  3. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  4. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  5. Effect of Acute and Chronic Gamma Irradiation on in vitro Growth of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a perennial herb that belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It is a natural sweetener plant known as sweet leaf, which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. In this study, micropropagation and in vitro mutagenesis of this natural herb was successfully conducted. It was found that shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l Kinetin showed the highest shoot induction and multiplication after 3 weeks of culture. Radiosensitivity test was conducted to identify the LD50 for in vitro stevia shoots and to select effective doses to be used for the in vitro mutagenesis. Shoot tips were irradiated with acute and chronic gamma radiation at 0, 10.00, 20.00, 30.00, 40.00, 60.00, and 80.00 Gy. At 60 Gy and 80 Gy, the shoot tips demonstrated 0 % survival, all were killed. LD50 for stevia (the dose that killed 50 % of the irradiated explants) was at 29 Gy. In this study, LD 50 for the stevia (the dose that killed 50 % of the irradiated explants) was at 29 Gy for acute irradiation and was at 45 Gy for chronic irradiation. The effective doses were selected at 10, 20 and 30 Gy. These three selected doses were applied for the in vitro mutagenesis of the stevia shoots. (author)

  6. Effects of acute and chronic gamma irradiation on the shoot apex and general morphology of Lupinus albus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinus albus L. plants were grown from seeds and irradiated at various stages of development with acute or chronic gamma rays. All plants were greenhouse grown (pre- and post-irradiation) and allowed to proceed through their normal growth cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to establish a Plactochron Index for Lupinus albus L. and to determine the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on development at the macro and microscopic levels. A Plastochron Index was calculated and used as an indirect time scale to evaluate the effects of gamma rays from a common base line. Acute radiation treatment lasted for a period of a few days, whereas chronic treatment was initiated at the seedling stage and lasted for the entire growth season. Vegetative plants were used to study the effects of acute radiation exposure on apical meristem morphology, Plastochron Index, phyllatoxis and gross morphology

  7. Modelling population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We modelled population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions. We used Leslie matrices to combine life-history characteristics (duration of life stages, survival and fecundity rates) and dose rate-response curves for hatching, survival and reproduction fitted on effect data from the FREDERICA database. Changes in net reproductive rate R0 (offspring per individual) and asymptotic population growth rate λ (dimensionless) were calculated over a range of dose rates in two marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Ophryotrocha diadema) and a freshwater gastropod (Physa heterostropha). Sensitivities in R0 and λ to changes in life-history traits were analysed in each species. Results showed that fecundity has the strongest influence on R0. A delay in age at first reproduction is most critical for λ independent of the species. Fast growing species were proportionally more sensitive to changes in individual endpoints than slow growing species. Reduction of 10% in population λ were predicted at dose rates of 6918, 5012 and 74,131 μGy·h−1 in N. arenaceodentata, O. diadema and P. heterostropha respectively, resulting from a combination of strong effects on several individual endpoints in each species. These observations made 10%-reduction in λ a poor criterion for population protection. The lowest significant changes in R0 and λ were respectively predicted at a same dose rate of 1412 μGy h−1 in N. arenaceodentata, at 760 and 716 μGy h−1 in O. diadema and at 12,767 and 13,759 μGy h−1 in P. heterostropha. These values resulted from a combination of slight but significant changes in several measured endpoints and were lower than effective dose rates calculated for the individual level in O. diadema and P. heterostropha. The relevance of the experimental dataset (external irradiation rather than contamination, exposure over one generation only, effects on survival and reproduction only

  8. Chronic exposure to gamma radiation of wild populations of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free-ranging, wild meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were exposed to gamma radiation from a 137Cs irradiator in a series of experiments conducted on six 1-ha meadows within a mixed deciduous forest in Manitoba, Canada. Over a period of 1-1.5 years in each of three experiments, vole populations were monitored with capture-mark-release techniques at nominal exposure rates of 200x, 9000x and 40,000x background. No effects on population or individual characteristics were detected up to the highest exposure rate (81 mGy/d). At this level, third generation voles were monitored up to a lifetime dose of about 5.7 Gy, at a measured dose rate of 44 mGy/d. Smaller numbers of overwintered animals survived and reproduced normally at doses up to 10 Gy. These results are discussed in terms of low-LET, external chronic radiation effects on rodents in the laboratory and the field, relative to current views on appropriate benchmarks for the protection of biota

  9. Elevated Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) Activity and the Development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Noborisaka, Yuka; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamazaki, Michiko; Honda, Ryumon; Yamada, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is predictive of various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated serum GGT has been recognized in smokers who are likely to develop CKD, but no study has focused on serum GGT and CKD in smokers. Objectives The aim of this study was to clarify the associations between cigarette consumption, elevation of serum GGT and the development of proteinuria and CKD. Patients and Methods A retrospective 6-...

  10. Persistent virus infection despite chronic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation in gamma interferon-deficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Wodarz, D;

    2000-01-01

    The role of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in the permanent control of infection with a noncytopathic virus was studied by comparing immune responses in wild-type and IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gamma -/-) mice infected with a slowly invasive strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV Armstrong......). While wild-type mice rapidly cleared the infection, IFN-gamma -/- mice became chronically infected. Virus persistence in the latter mice did not reflect failure to generate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) effectors, as an unimpaired primary CTL response was observed. Furthermore, while ex vivo CTL activity...

  11. Studies on the effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on chickens infected with Eimeria tenella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body exposure of one- and three-week-old White Leghorn cockerels to 600 R gamma radiation (Cesium-137) 24 hours before oral inoculation with 500, 2500, 5000, or 50,000 Eimeria tenella oocysts produced a pattern of mortality differing markedly from nonirradiated, infected (NRI) control birds. When oocyst dosage was held constant (2500) and radiation exposure increased (250, 450, 600, 800, or 1000 R) a gradual increase in mortality rate with higher radiation dosages was observed among both one- and three-week-old birds. Birds irradiated 24 hours or more before inoculation were less able to survive infection than were those irradiated one hour before and one, two, three, or four days after inoculation. (U.S.)

  12. Changes in blood sugar content of dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation for 6 years. [Combined effects of physical stress, heat stress, and acute radiation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhunov, A.A.

    1978-10-26

    There have not been many studies of blood sugar concentration in animals exposed to chronic gamma radiation, and the results thereof are contradictory. Therefore, data on blood sugar levels in dogs during a 6-year exposure to gamma radiation and after discontinuation thereof are reported.

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in raw milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have measured the levels of 90Sr and 137Cs in milk samples. Sampling was done as follows: 4 times of raw milk samples a year in 10 prefectures for the report to WHO, 2 times of raw milk samples a year in 4 prefectures; and 2 times of city milk samples a year in 29 prefectures. Three litters of fresh milk were collected and carbonated in the prefectural public health laboratories and institutes of each prefecture, and the carbonated samples were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for 90Sr and 137Cs using the method applied for the analysis of the radionuclides contents in total diet materials. (author)

  14. Irradiation of sewage sludge using cesium-137: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation using 137CS is a recently developed process for disinfecting sewage sludge before applying it to the land. Irradiation, composting, and heat drying are Processes to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) when operated to meet the guidelines set forth under Title 40, Code of the Federal Register, Part 257 (40 CFR 257). This report identifies and develops technical, operational, and environmental considerations for sludge handling systems incorporating these PFRP to determine the economic advantages of each process. The results indicate that sludge irradiation systems are cost-competitive with composting and heat drying systems for wastewater treatment plants with or without existing anaerobic digesters. Irradiation can thus be considered for new as well as upgrading existing facilities for sludge disinfection. An attractive aspect of the irradiation process is that significantly less conventional energy is used for operation when compared to composting and heat drying. In the final analysis, however, the applicability and desirability of any process is best determined by more evaluations specific to a given community

  15. Cesium-137 monitoring of aquatic and terrestrial environment in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Goiania radiological accident, aprox. 1200 Ci of Cs - 137 were inadvertently manipulated and an unknown fraction of this total was available for environmental dispertion during at least 6 weeks, before efficient remedial action could be undertaken. The main dispersion pathways were rainwater run-off and soil ressuspension and further deposition. Cs-137 monitoring in the local environment started in the first week of October, including to date aprox. 1300 measurements of soil, vegetable (fruits and kitchen-gardens), ground and drinking water, sediments and fish, aerosol, precipitation and external dose measurement with TL dosimeters, in the surroundings of the main contamination spots. Until the conclusion of de-contamination activities in late December, the ranges of Cs-137 in a 50m radius of evacuated areas were as follows: 102-104 Bq/Kg for surface soils and edible vegetables, 100-101mBq/m3 in air and 10 Bq/l in all water types. River sediment and fish 5-10 Km downstream the accident are ranged respectively 102-103 and 102/Kg. These data indicated the pathways and locations for intervention for further reduction of radiation exposure. This intervention consisted mainly in tree-tipping and surface soil removal. (author)

  16. Patterns of cesium-137 distribution across two disparate floodplains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil 137Cs concentration was studied across upstream and downstream floodplain sites of Lower Three Runs Creek, an Upper Coastal Plain stream draining a portion of the Savannah River Plant. Soil samples were collected laterally and vertically at each floodplain location and analyzed for several edaphic characteristics. The results showed that these floodplains were differentiable by their edaphic characteristics both between sites and between depths within a site. The surface distribution of 137Cs was related to microtopographic variation at each site, but predictive relationships for estimating surface-soil 137Cs content from edaphic parameters were not as well defined. A difference in upstream to downstream 137Cs cycling was explained on the basis of the change from direct to indirect nutrient cycling pathways in a downstream direction. This change was coincident with higher sedimentation, greater cation adsorptive capacity, and higher potassium concentrations found downstream

  17. Cesium-137 seasonal balance in the Nemuna River, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal variations of 137Cs outflow to the Curonian Gulf from the Nemunas-Neris waters were studied under the non-typical climate conditions of 1996. 137Cs accumulation dominated in the total annual balance of this nuclide in the Nemunas-Neris water system, since high concentrations were characteristic only in the spring flood season. The removal of 137Cs from the Nemunas-Neris River bed was the main process in autumn and winter. Presented data indicate the main inputs and outputs of radioactive pollution in the main water system of Lithuania and show that radionuclide input to Lithuania from Belarus is still important. (author)

  18. Transfer of cesium-137 from pasture to milk after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1986, the year of the Chernobyl accident, the Cs-137 activity concentration in the milk and pasture of some dairy farms in the northern part of the county of Uppsala was studied. In 1987, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was investigated on 11 dairy farms in the northern part of the county during the first month on pasture. These farms had been studied also during a previous period when the cows were kept in the stable. In 1988, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was followed intensively on 5 dairy farms in the same area during the first month on pasture. The Cs-137 activity concentration was measured continuously in feeds and milk during the study periods in 1987 and 1988. All feedstuffs fed in the stable were weighed twice a week, and the amount of forage grazed was calculated from the cows requirements of nutrients. Samples of all feed were taken for Cs-137 determination and chemical analyses. The transfer coefficient for 10 of the 11 dairy farms during the first month on pasture in 1987 was, on average, 0.005 d kg-1. The Cs-137 activity concentration was significantly lower in the milk of the farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 than during the same period in 1987. The mean transfer coefficient for 4 of the 5 dairy farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 was 0.007 d kg-1. (au) (27 refs.)

  19. Distribution of fallout cesium-137 in the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique was developed for simple analysis of 137Cs concentrations in water, sediments, and biota in the fractional picocurie per liter range. These measurements are important, since fallout 137Cs will be present in estuarine environments for a generation. The concentration of 137Cs in water is important to studies of distribution coefficients, or concentration factors between water and sediment or organisms. Fallout 137Cs is also a natural tracer, making possible experiments on a span of space and time that is impossible with intentionally added tracers. Thus, one can determine an approximate residence time for a body of brackish water with a few 137Cs concentration measurements, given the average depth and typical fallout deposition rate. This estimate is good enough for first estimates as to the capacity of the body of water for various pollutants. Measurements at several sites, and at all seasonal conditions, can be used to solve the mass and concentration balance equations that more rigorously describe the hydrography of the estuary. (U.S.)

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from seven sampling locations. Only edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 49.0 +- 1.30 pCi/kg and 8.5 +- 0.64 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus collected from Kyoto and Fukui, respectively, in December 1983. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Cesium-137 and mercury contamination in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, T; Ueno, T; Chandradjith, R L; Amano, H; Okumura, M; Hashitani, H

    1999-07-01

    The contribution of fluvial discharge and global fallout of 137Cs and mercury to sedimentation fluxes in Lake Shinji and Lake Nakaumi, Japan, was studied. The fluvial flux through soil erosion accounted for 11 to 27% of accumulated 137Cs in the sediments in the 1950's and 1960's, which were the periods of the most extensive atmospheric input, and for 90 to 100% in the 1990's. The vertical profiles of mercury concentrations in the lake sediments studied showed a maximum between 1959 and 1963, which was originated mostly from the extensive use of mercury-agrochemicals in paddyfields of the watershed in the past. These findings are representative examples of long-term contamination of lake sediments caused by the contaminated ground soil erosion. PMID:10399844

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1984, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 88+-3.7 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kyoto; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 99.0+-3.60 pCi/kg collected from Kagoshima. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. A Lower Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Level Does Not Predict a Sustained Virological Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1

    OpenAIRE

    Güzelbulut, Fatih; Sezikli, Mesut; Çetinkaya, Züleyha Akkan; ÖZKARA(), Selvinaz; GÖNEN, Can; ÖVÜNÇ, Ayşe Oya KURDAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Low gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level was shown to be an independent predictor of a sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to determine factors associated with high GGT level, and to evaluate whether low GGT level is an independent predictor of a SVR in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our data of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. Baseline feature...

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray tomography for image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo simulations of known density and shape object was validate with Gamma Ray Tomography in static experiments. An aluminum half-moon piece placed inside a steel pipe was the MC simulation test object that was also measured by means of gamma ray transmission. Wall effect of the steel pipe due to irradiation geometry in a single pair source-detector tomography was evaluated by comparison with theoretical data. MCNPX code requires a defined geometry to each photon trajectory which practically prevents this usage for tomography reconstruction simulation. The solution was found by writing a program in Delphi language to create input files automation code. Simulations of tomography data by automated MNCPX code were carried out and validated by experimental data. Working in this sequence the produced data needed a databank to be stored. Experimental setup used a Cesium-137 isotopic radioactive source (7.4 × 109 Bq), and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector of (51 × 51) × 10−3 m crystal size coupled to a multichannel analyzer. A stainless steel tubes of 0,154 m internal diameter, 0.014 m thickness wall. The results show that the MCNPX simulation code adapted to automated input file is useful for generating a matrix data M(θ,t), of a computerized gamma ray tomography for any known density and regular shape object. Experimental validation used RMSE from gamma ray paths and from attenuation coefficient data. (author)

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray tomography for image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Karlos A.N.; Moura, Alex; Dantas, Carlos; Melo, Silvio; Lima, Emerson, E-mail: karlosguedes@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Meric, Ilker [University of Bergen (Norway)

    2015-07-01

    The Monte Carlo simulations of known density and shape object was validate with Gamma Ray Tomography in static experiments. An aluminum half-moon piece placed inside a steel pipe was the MC simulation test object that was also measured by means of gamma ray transmission. Wall effect of the steel pipe due to irradiation geometry in a single pair source-detector tomography was evaluated by comparison with theoretical data. MCNPX code requires a defined geometry to each photon trajectory which practically prevents this usage for tomography reconstruction simulation. The solution was found by writing a program in Delphi language to create input files automation code. Simulations of tomography data by automated MNCPX code were carried out and validated by experimental data. Working in this sequence the produced data needed a databank to be stored. Experimental setup used a Cesium-137 isotopic radioactive source (7.4 × 109 Bq), and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector of (51 × 51) × 10−3 m crystal size coupled to a multichannel analyzer. A stainless steel tubes of 0,154 m internal diameter, 0.014 m thickness wall. The results show that the MCNPX simulation code adapted to automated input file is useful for generating a matrix data M(θ,t), of a computerized gamma ray tomography for any known density and regular shape object. Experimental validation used RMSE from gamma ray paths and from attenuation coefficient data. (author)

  6. Cesium-137 in soil texture fractions and its impact on Cesium-137 soil-to-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies at two sites contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout showed 137Cesium (Cs) soil-to-plant transfer factors in wheat, rye and potato. Transfer values ranged from 0.0017 (potato tuber) to 0.07 (wheat straw). Generally transfer coefficients in cereal grains and potato tubers were significantly below the values of the shoots. A comparison of the two sites led to the conclusion that for all plants investigated 137Cs transfer factors were higher in Lower Austria (Calcic Chernozem) than in Upper Austria (Eutric Cambisol). The specific activities of the texture fractions of the two soil types increased from sand to silt and clay. In the Calcic Chernozem the ratio of the 137Cs activity in the silt fraction to the total activity in the soil was considerably higher than in the Eutric Cambisol. At the same time extractability of 137Cs from the silt fraction of the latter soil was clearly lower. Both results mainly were attributed to the differences between the soils according to the organic matter content of the silt fractions, the Calcic Chernozem being seven times higher. Therefore, the differences in the 137Cs-soil-to-plant transfer can be attributed partly to these soil characteristics. (authors)

  7. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length. PMID:27340887

  8. Life-cycle chronic gamma exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana induces growth effects but no discernable effects on oxidative stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Horemans, Nele

    2010-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to low-dose chronic gamma irradiation during a full life cycle (seed to seed) and several biological responses were investigated. Applied dose rates were 2336, 367 and 81 microGy h(-1). Following 24 days (inflorescence emergence), 34 days (approximately 50% of flowers open) and 54 days (silice ripening) exposure, plants were harvested and monitored for biometric parameters, capacities of enzymes involved in the antioxidative defence mechanisms (SOD, APOD, GLUR, GPOD, SPOD, CAT, ME), glutathione and ascorbate pool, lipid peroxidation products, altered gene expression of selected genes encoding for antioxidative enzymes or reactive oxygen species production, and DNA integrity. Root fresh weight was significantly reduced after gamma exposure compared to the control at all stages monitored but no significant differences in root weight for the different dose rates applied was observed. Leaf and stem fresh weight were significantly reduced at the highest irradiation level after 54 days exposure only. Also total plant fresh was significantly lower at silice riping and this for the highest and medium dose rate applied. The dose rate estimated to result in a 10% reduction in growth (EDR-10) ranged between 60 and 80 microGy h(-1). Germination of seeds from the gamma irradiated plants was not hampered. For several of the antioxidative defence enzymes studied, the enzyme capacity was generally stimulated towards flowering but generally no significant effect of dose rate on enzyme capacity was observed. Gene analysis revealed a significant transient and dose dependent change in expression of RBOHC indicating active reactive oxygen production induced by gamma irradiation. No effect of irradiation was observed on concentration or reduction state of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, ascorbate and glutathione. The level of lipid peroxidation products remained constant throughout the observation period and was not affected by dose rate. The comet assay

  9. Development and applications of radiotracers technologies and gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotracers and gamma scanning technologies are very consolidated tools for studying, analyzing and evaluating of industrial processes. The development and the results of radiotracers and gamma scanning technologies applied in laboratory and more complex systems, are reported. The radiotracers technology was used to study boron diffusion during the curing process of the wood, to evaluate a lagoon of sewage treatment with aquatic iris plants and to carry out experimental work with controlled variables in a laboratory hydraulic circuit (flow rig). The gamma scanning technique was used to analyze a pilot tower in the laboratories. The main results achieved with the experiments were the following: 1) the boron absorption as a wood curing agent depends on the section of wood exposed to the curing solution; 2) during the tests effectuated with Iodine 131, the aquatic iris plants situated in the water treatment lagoon absorb part of the radiotracer, making difficult the residence time determination; 3) the sensibility of the system Cesium 137 source and detector is sufficiently high and can detect low radioactive absorption materials, situated inside columns with steel walls. (author)

  10. Physical exercise tolerance in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative diseases after whole-body therapeutic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that physical workability remains practically at the initial level after a course of fractionated whole-body therapeutic gamma irradiation at the integral doze of 1 Gy obtained during two weeks and at the integral dose of 2 Gy obtained during 4 weeks. Tendency to decrease of systolic arterial pressure (AP) is noted under fractionated whole-body therapeutic gamma irradiation at the integral dose of 1 Gy that should be necessarily taken into account under irradiation of patients with reduced AP and patients receiving hypotensive preparations for accompanying arterial hypertension

  11. Characterization of radioactive orphan sources by gamma spectrometry; Caracterizacion de fuentes huerfanas radiactivas por espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz W, H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (PGRR/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Planta de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    The sealed radioactive sources are widely applicable in industry. They must have a permanent control and must be registered with the Technical Office of the National Authority (OTAN). However, at times it has identified the presence of abandoned sealed sources unknown to the owner. These sources are called 'orphan sources'. Of course these sources represent a high potential risk because accidents can trigger dire consequences depending on your activity and chemical form in which it presents the radioisotope. This paper describes the process and the actions taken to characterize two orphan radioactive sources from the smelter a Aceros Arequipa. For characterization we used a gamma spectrometry system using a detector NaI(Tl) 3″ x 3″ with a multichannel analyzer Nucleus PCA-II. The radioisotope identified was cesium - 137 ({sup 137}Cs) in both cases. Fortunately, the sources maintained their integrity would otherwise have generated significant pollution considering the chemical form of the radioisotope and easy dispersion. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of gamma-ray chronic irradiation on in vitro mutagenesis in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of chronic or acute irradiations were compared using in vitro culture on inducing the mutation in model crops. In chrysanthemum, combined method with irradiation and in vitro culture can solve the problem of chimera formation in induced mutants, and provided 10 times greater mutation frequency than usual plant irradiation. The chronic culture method showed the widest color spectrum, whereas, the acute culture indicated a relatively low mutation rate and a very limited flower color spectrum in chrysanthemum. Flower color mutation of the regenerators could be induced more from petals and buds than from leaves. These facts are supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture. It may be likely to control a direction of desired mutation on using explants with specific gene loci activated. In sugarcane, the chronic culture method extended quantitative characteristics of regenerated clonal lines toward not only the negative but positive direction. On the other hand, the acute culture method showed lower quantitative mutation as the irradiation dose rose. In chronic irradiation, regenerated mutant lines in sugarcane indicate generally little decrease in chromosome number and wider variations with relatively less damage. In acute irradiation, regenerated mutant lines show remarkable decrease of chromosome numbers in sugarcane mutant lines as the irradiation dose rose. There is close positive correlation between chromosome number and biomass of each mutant line. The chromosome number estimation is a proper indicator to monitor damage of adopted irradiation methods. Possible reason why the chronic culture methods indicate higher frequency and wider spectrum on mutation is demonstrated. . Problems solved and prospect of chronic irradiation and in vitro techniques are discussed. (Author)

  13. The modification of the function of the systems of the second messengers in present of dexamethasone in thymocytes of rats after chronic gamma-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the study was the thymocytes of intact rats and the cells of rats after chronic gamma-irradiation (1 Gy) on the 30th day after the irradiation. The level of the cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i was investigated by using fluorescent probe Fura-2/AM. It was foundation that the effect of the influence of the dexamethasone was more vivid in the cells after the irradiation. The radio-immune method was used for investigating the level of the cAMP in the thymocytes. It was discovered that chronic gamma-exposure to dose 1,0 Gy caused the change in the level of the intracellular cAMP. We can proposal that the influence of gamma-irradiation probably may initiate the modification of the system of the calcium homeostasis and the cyclic nucleotides. (authors)

  14. New method for the estimation of the mutation rate in acute and chronic gamma-ray irradiation of growing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of irradiation of seeds of self-pollinated and disomic plant materials, the frequency of mutated plants appearing in the M2 generation divided by the Mendelian ratio is an index, as proposed by Gaul (1960), that enables the direct estimation of the mutation rate, representing the ratio of the number of mutated cells to the number of survived cells after treatment of mutagen. In the case of chronic irradiation of growing plants throughout the entire life cycle from germination to maturity, on the other hand, the mutations induced at the stage preceding the differentiation of the male and female organs appear at the M2 generation, the but mutations induced after this critical time are observed in the M2 plants in the heterozygous condition and are detected only at the M3 generation. Therefore, the mutation rate can not be correctly estimated only on the basis of the frequency of mutants either in the M2 or M3 generation. A new method for the estimation of the mutation rate by combining the data of the frequency of mutants and the M2 and M3 generation, which is comparable to Gaul's method for seed irradiation, is proposed. Application of this method to the data of acute and chronic gamma-ray irradiation of growing barley revealed that a much higher mutation rate was observed after irradiation at a higher daily exposure rate, when the plants were treated with the same accumulated dose

  15. Production and standing crop of litter and humus in a forest exposed to chronic gamma irradiation for twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous exposure since 1961 of an oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory to chronic gamma irradiation has shown: (1) progressive reduction in litter production from the first year through 1965; (2) greater litter production in 1973 compared to 1965 at exposure rates below 9 R/day primarily because of the prolific sprouting of the oaks, especially Quercus alba; (3) further reduction in litter production in intermediate zones (14-49 R/day) from 1965 to 1973 as a result of replacement of the forest by a Carex pensylvanica mat; (4) increased litter production in the high exposure zone (125 R/day) in 1973 as a result of colonization by adventive species; (5) reduction in the standing crop of litter by 1973 at the lowest exposure rate studied (3.5 R/day) although in 1965 there was no reduction at exposure rates up to 15 R/day; (6) decline in humus content at 4.6 R/day and above with the standing crop in the Carex zone exceeding that of the shrub and damaged forest zones of lower exposures. Both further losses and partial recovery in the production and storage of organic matter have occurred since 1965. These changes constitute a portion of the long-term response of the forest to chronic disturbance. The pattern of response is the result of ecosystem processes that are still not in equilibrium with the chronic disturbance and which were not predictable from short-term studies, even those spanning as much as 4 yr

  16. The Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Interferon in Chronic Bronchiolitis Due to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2005-06-01

    In the two groups, FEV1 did not have statistical differences at base line (49.3±2.9 and 48.7±4.1, respectively, p = 0.6, whereas after treatment the data for FEV1 showed a significant increase in the case group (66.3±5.4 when compared with those in the control group (57.3±8.6, p=0.001. The findings of this study indicate that a 6-month treatment with interferon gamma -1b plus a low-dose of prednisolone is associated with the improvement of the lung function in mustard gas exposed patients with bronchiolitis

  17. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male beagles chronically exposed to low daily doses of 60Co γ rays show one of three hematopoietic patterns, which reflect three different distinctly responding subgroups: (1) low radioresistance with progressing aplastic anemia and shortened survival (-S-AA subgroup); (2) high radioresistance with a complex of progressing myeloproliferative disorders (+R-MPD group); or (3) high radioresistance with other nonMPD syndromes (+R-nonMPD group). Blood cell levels (granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets) were assessed and fitted to a flexible polynomial spline model. Results showed that relative to the overall magnitude of blood cell loss as well as to the maximum rate of suppression during the initial phase, the subgroups were generally ranked -S-AA >> +R-MPD > +R-nonMPD. Relative to the overall strength of the recovery response, the subgroups were generally ranked +R-MPD > +R-nonMPD >>> -S-AA. In terms of overall maintenance levels of circulating blood cells during the recovery phase, however, the +R-nonMPD subgroup consistently exhibited stronger responses than the +R-MPD subgroup. These results support our contention that selected subgroups of dogs have strong propensities to specific hematopathologies (i.e. aplastic anemia and myeloid leukemia) under chronic irradiation and that these pathology-prone animals exhibit a series of marked differential hematopoietic responses during early preclinical phases, which serve effectively to prognosticate subsequent pathological progression. (author)

  18. Impact of chronic gamma irradiation on a Mediterranean forest ecosystem in Cadarache (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area of mixed forest, white oak and evergreen oak in Cadarche (southern France) has been irradiated for 18 years by a 137Cs source. The irradiation effects on the soil system were investigated at five stations along a transect, from 116 mGy h-1 to 0.3 mGy h-1, towards the source and at a control area of non-irradiated forest. The key factor was that there were no ongoing litter inputs to soils in the most irradiated area because of the destruction of trees and shrubs. The responses of the edaphic characteristics, biological activities and invertebrate populations of the soils indicated the existence of two main zones, one receiving litter, the second without litter input. In the latter the C and total N fluxes by respiration were significantly reduced. Chronic exposure reduced the carbon biomass and the dehydrogenase activity by around 50% and increased the amount of nitrate in the soil. The structure and composition of animal communities in the soil were changed: microarthropod density was low, 'other mites' were dominant. The chronic nature of the irradiation maintained the ecosystem under a long-term state of stress. (author)

  19. Development of a Small-Sized, Flexible, and Insertable Fiber-Optic Radiation Sensor for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Lee, Dong Eun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated a small-sized, flexible, and insertable fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) that is composed of a sensing probe, a plastic optical fiber (POF), a photomultiplier tube (PMT)-amplifier system, and a multichannel analyzer (MCA) to obtain the energy spectra of radioactive isotopes. As an inorganic scintillator for gamma-ray spectroscopy, a cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) crystal was used and two solid-disc type radioactive isotopes with the same dimensions, cesium-137 (Cs-137) and cobalt-60 (Co-60), were used as gamma-ray emitters. We first determined the length of the LYSO:Ce crystal considering the absorption of charged particle energy and measured the gamma-ray energy spectra using the FORS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed FORS can be used to discriminate species of radioactive isotopes by measuring their inherent energy spectra, even when gamma-ray emitters are mixed. The relationship between the measured photon counts of the FORS and the radioactivity of Cs-137 was subsequently obtained. The amount of scintillating light generated from the FORS increased by increasing the radioactivity of Cs-137. Finally, the performance of the fabricated FORS according to the length and diameter of the POF was also evaluated. Based on the results of this study, it is anticipated that a novel FORS can be developed to accurately measure the gamma-ray energy spectrum in inaccessible locations such as narrow areas and holes. PMID:26343667

  20. Development of a Small-Sized, Flexible, and Insertable Fiber-Optic Radiation Sensor for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a small-sized, flexible, and insertable fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS that is composed of a sensing probe, a plastic optical fiber (POF, a photomultiplier tube (PMT-amplifier system, and a multichannel analyzer (MCA to obtain the energy spectra of radioactive isotopes. As an inorganic scintillator for gamma-ray spectroscopy, a cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO:Ce crystal was used and two solid-disc type radioactive isotopes with the same dimensions, cesium-137 (Cs-137 and cobalt-60 (Co-60, were used as gamma-ray emitters. We first determined the length of the LYSO:Ce crystal considering the absorption of charged particle energy and measured the gamma-ray energy spectra using the FORS. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed FORS can be used to discriminate species of radioactive isotopes by measuring their inherent energy spectra, even when gamma-ray emitters are mixed. The relationship between the measured photon counts of the FORS and the radioactivity of Cs-137 was subsequently obtained. The amount of scintillating light generated from the FORS increased by increasing the radioactivity of Cs-137. Finally, the performance of the fabricated FORS according to the length and diameter of the POF was also evaluated. Based on the results of this study, it is anticipated that a novel FORS can be developed to accurately measure the gamma-ray energy spectrum in inaccessible locations such as narrow areas and holes.

  1. Response of shortgrass Plains vegetation to chronic and seasonally administered gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, L. Jr.

    1971-08-01

    In order to determine the effect of radiation on the structure of native shortgrass plains vegetation, an 8750 Ci 137Cs source was installed on the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado; The experimental area was divided into 6 treatment sectors, a control, 2 sectors for chronic exposure (irradiation initiated April 1969 and continuing as of August 1971), and one each for spring, summer and late fall seasonal semi-acute (30 day), exposures which were administered during April, July and December, 1969, respectively. Community structure was measured by coefficient of community and diversity index. Yield was determined by clipping plots in September 1970 and visual estimates in September 1969 and 1970 for the grass-sedge component of the vegetation. Individual species sensitivity was determined by density data recorded in April, June and September of 1969 and 1970 and by a phenological index recorded at weekly intervals during the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons. The response of the vegetation was similar whether determined by coefficient of community or diversity with diversity being a more sensitive measure of effects. In the chronically exposed sectors, the exposure rate which resulted in a 50 per cent reduction in these 2 parameters (CC50 or D50) was still decreasing the second growing season and was approximately 18 R/hr for the CC50 as of June 1970 and 10 R/hr for the D50 as of September 1970. For the seasonally exposed sectors, the late fall period (December, 1969) was the most sensitive, summer (July, 1969) the least sensitive and spring (April, 1969) intermediate with CC50 and D50 values of 195 and 90, 240 and 222, and 120 and 74 R/hr for the spring, summer and late fall exposed sectors, respectively. Yield and density data indicated a rapid revegetation of the spring and summer exposed sectors during 1970 as a result of an influx of invader species such as Salsola kali tenuifolia, Chenopodium leptophyllum and Lepidium densiflorum and the

  2. Rat behaviour reactions and brain synaptic membrane lipids under the chronical gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of low level chronical ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensor, visual, odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15 and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatdylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased

  3. Does gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA influence the development of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges S Louis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. Integrating these data suggests that GABA may play a role in downregulating mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory agents such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 – agents implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic studies have also associated RA with members of the p38 MAPK pathway. Hypothesis We propose a hypothesis for an inefficient GABA signaling system that results in unchecked proinflammatory cytokine production via the p38 MAPK pathway. This model also supports the need for increasing research in the integration of immunology and neuroscience.

  4. Radionuclide analysis by gamma-ray spectrograms of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radionuclide analysis of environmental samples are carried out at laboratory gamma-spectrometric device SARI-2 (system of radiometric measurements automation) that consists of standard blocks - the analyser of impulses AI-1024, scintillation gauge NaJ (Tl) type 6931-20 (size of crystal 150x100, FEU-49), blocks of power such as BNVZ-05, BPZ-591. The detector is protected from natural radiation by a special leaden small house, with thickness of walls 100 mm and with a three-layer facing of Cd-Cu-Al. Using this device nuclear composition in various liquid and solid objects has been studying in Azerbaijan. The nature of radioactive anomalies at the fields contaminated by oil and their uranium-radium origin were revealed. Radionuclide composition of water from surface and underground channels within oil fields territories and samples from different industrial sites were also investigated. Analysing building materials (bricks, suspended ceilings, etc.) high level of radium in some of them was determined. Presence of Cesium-137 in several food products was established. More over increment of natural radioactive background in Maycopian rocks (Oligocene- Miocene) associated with the presence of great amount of elements of uranium-radium series. So the radionuclides anomalies nature, elements content and relation to different technogenical and geological processes were revealed. (author)

  5. The cotton bolloworms Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cotton bollworms, Helicoverpa armigera (Huebner) were reared on an artificial medium consisting of mungbeans, brewer's yeast, vitamins, water, preservatives and antibiotic (Tetracycline hydrochloride) at 26 +- 1 deg C, 70-75% R.H., and 8-hr light duration. The development of this species were not significantly different (p = 0.05) in percent egg hatch, pupal recovery, adult eclosion, and pupal weight in each of 4 successive generations. Effects of gamma irradiation, obtained from Cesium-137 source, on eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of the cotton bollworm were also studied. All sterilizing doses, for various stages of the cotton bollworm, did not reduce the longevity both sexes of the insect. However, sterilized males emerged from eggs, larvae, pupae appeared to mate less frequently than normal males did. In contrast, males sterilized as adults mated as frequently as normal males. The sperms of sterilized males emerged from various stages were probably less motile and possibly less numerous than sperms from normal males. The results of this experiment can be concluded that, it is more effective to control this insect by sterilization in both pupal and adult stages with 150 and 200 gray respectively

  6. Calibration of extremity dosemeters for gamma radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the kerma conversion factor are free in air, dose equivalent H(d,0) are presented, they were obtained theoretical and experimentally in finger and arm for gamma radiation fields. Extremity dosemeters put on surface finger and arm phantom have been irradiated. The finger phantom is a solid cylinder of PMMA polymethylmethacrylate 19 mm diameter and 300 mm height. The arm phantom is a 73 mm external diameter cylinder with PMMA walls 2.5 mm thick fill with water and 300 mm height. The radiation sources were cobalt 60 and cesium 137 from the Regional Center of Reference (CRR) of the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). Also in ISO wide X ray spectra W60, W110 and W200 have been irradiated. The results obtained show a good correlation with those published, they have a difference less than 7%. The factors will be applied to the evaluation of the equivalent doses coming from workers whose main irradiated zone is in the hands. (author)

  7. Evolution of microbial activity in a mediterranean ecosystem submitted to chronic gamma irradiation. Investigation of nitrogen transfer with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mediterranean ecosystem located on the site of Cadarache (France) has been experimentally by irradiated over the past fifteen years. The potential effects of ionizing radiations for different doses of its ecological system has been studied. The objective of the work was to demonstrate the level of soil microbial population and its activity. Chronic exposures reduced the biomass and the dehydrogenase activity by a factor of 50% and increased the amount of nitrate in the soil. To measure the direct impact of irradiations on soil microorganisms, we have irradiated soil sample in laboratory at 0.1; 0.5; 1 kGy, and observed its evolution during a period of six weeks thereafter. We have a reduction of the dehydrogenase activity and an increase of nitrate being proportionaly to the dose delivered. Using nitrogen labelled, we state that this high rate of nitrate production is due to an inhibition of the organization of this form of nitrogen. Conversely, the ammonification and the nitrification are not affected. Also, for anaerobic conditions created by glucose, the nitrate labelled (15N) permitted us to show that in untreated soil, 45% of nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas by denitrification and 24% of nitrate was reduced to ammonium by dissimilation in the irradiated soil. These experiments show that gamma irradiations are of great interest for studying soil microorganisms. As of now, very little is known on the effects of this kind of stress for attention and need to be pursued on such ecosystems. Further investigations call

  8. Characterizing dose response relationships: Chronic gamma radiation in Lemna minor induces oxidative stress and altered polyploidy level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-12-01

    The biological effects and interactions of different radiation types in plants are still far from understood. Among different radiation types, external gamma radiation treatments have been mostly studied to assess the biological impact of radiation toxicity in organisms. Upon exposure of plants to gamma radiation, ionisation events can cause, either directly or indirectly, severe biological damage to DNA and other biomolecules. However, the biological responses and oxidative stress related mechanisms under chronic radiation conditions are poorly understood in plant systems. In the following study, it was questioned if the Lemna minor growth inhibition test is a suitable approach to also assess the radiotoxicity of this freshwater plant. Therefore, L. minor plants were continuously exposed for seven days to 12 different dose rate levels covering almost six orders of magnitude starting from 80 μGy h(-1) up to 1.5 Gy h(-1). Subsequently, growth, antioxidative defence system and genomic responses of L. minor plants were evaluated. Although L. minor plants could survive the exposure treatment at environmental relevant exposure conditions, higher dose rate levels induced dose dependent growth inhibitions starting from approximately 27 mGy h(-1). A ten-percentage growth inhibition of frond area Effective Dose Rate (EDR10) was estimated at 95 ± 7 mGy h(-1), followed by 153 ± 13 mGy h(-1) and 169 ± 12 mGy h(-1) on fresh weight and frond number, respectively. Up to a dose rate of approximately 5 mGy h(-1), antioxidative enzymes and metabolites remained unaffected in plants. A significant change in catalase enzyme activity was found at 27 mGy h(-1) which was accompanied with significant increases of other antioxidative enzyme activities and shifts in ascorbate and glutathione content at higher dose rate levels, indicating an increase in oxidative stress in plants. Recent plant research hypothesized that environmental genotoxic stress conditions

  9. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marjolaine; Neti, Prasad V S V; Kemp, Francis W; Azzam, Edouard I; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Howell, Roger W

    2015-11-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  10. Acute and chronic exposure in mussel (aulacomya ater) and clam (semelle solida) with Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the most common Peruvian benthonic molluscs, have been shown to be effective concentrators of Cesium-137 and have also proven useful as indicators of that radionuclide in their natural environment, according with results in this paper. However the clam is a better indicator, when determining environmental acute release of Cesium-137 due to reactor accidents, nuclear tests, accidents in nuclear ships, submarines and radioactive material transport, and the mussel for a continuous monitoring of environmental radio contaminant levels. (author). 11 refs

  11. DNA double strand breaks in fibroblast cell lines from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients showing increased sensitivity to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured skin fibroblast cell lines from two non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (NHL) and a normal subject were studied for cell killing, chromosomal aberrations (breaks, translocations, dicentrics and rings) and DNA double strand breaks (dsbs) following chronic gamma irradiation. Compared to the cell line from the normal donor, the NHL patients' fibroblasts showed enhanced radiosensitivity for both cell survival and chromosomal aberrations. While spontaneous breaks were observed in both normal and patients' cells, spontaneous translocations and radiation-induced dicentrics and rings were found only in the latter. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) were determined by CHEF electrophoresis. After chronic irradiation with gamma rays the fraction of residual dsb was significantly increased from 1.4% in controls to 1.9% in the NHL cell lines. These data, thus suggest that the cellular and chromosomal sensitivity to chronic irradiation observed in NHL patients may be due to a deficiency in the repair of a small fraction of DNA double strand breaks. (author)

  12. Influence of low doses chronic contamination on the progression of atheromatous pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of radionuclides were released in the environment after the Chernobyl (1986) or Fukushima-Daichii (2011) nuclear accidents, and mostly cesium 137. Populations living in contaminated territories are chronically exposed to radionuclides by ingestion of contaminated food. There is a real interrogation about the potential effects that could be induced following such ionizing exposure on physiological functions in the long term. Concerning the cardiovascular system, there is a correlation between the irradiation dose and the appearance of cardiovascular diseases. However, when we focused on post-accidental situations, with a low dose exposure, available data are not all in accordance, due to multifactorial aspect of these pathologies. Epidemiological results should be interpreted carefully. Thus, the aim of my thesis is to complete epidemiological studies about chronic internal? low dose exposure, using cesium 137, in an atheromatous context. Atherosclerosis and its consequences are known to be the main cause of mortality/morbidity in industrialized countries. Predisposed animals (ApoE-/- mice) were exposed to 137Cs through the drinking water. The concentration range was 4 to 100 kBq.L-1, to surround concentration found in contaminated territories around Chernobyl. Exposure times were 3, 6 or 9 months to follow atherosclerosis progression. After 3 months exposure, for the early stages, mice exposed to the highest dose presented an increase in some inflammatory cytokines, notably IFN-γ and VCAM-1, with an intimal-medial thickness increased compared to non-exposed animals. Moreover, at this time exposure, we noticed concomitant variation of gene expression of pro and anti-oxidative enzymes (p47, p67, GPx). These effects are only transient and do not persist over the time. Indeed, after 6 and 9 months exposure, atheromatous plaque observed in the aortic sinus, present more stability parameters than the control group (collagen), with also a decrease in pro

  13. Gamma radiological surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, 1990-1993, and overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three gamma radiological surveys have been conducted under auspices of the ER Remote Sensing Program: (1) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (1992), (2) Clinch River (1992), and (3) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) (1993). In addition, the Remote Sensing Program has acquired the results of earlier surveys at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) (1990) and PORTS (1990). These radiological surveys provide data for characterization and long-term monitoring of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contamination areas since many of the radioactive materials processed or handled on the ORR, PGDP, and PORTS are direct gamma radiation emitters or have gamma emitting daughter radionuclides. High resolution airborne gamma radiation surveys require a helicopter outfitted with one or two detector pods, a computer-based data acquisition system, and an accurate navigational positioning system for relating collected data to ground location. Sensors measure the ground-level gamma energy spectrum in the 38 to 3,026 KeV range. Analysis can provide gamma emission strength in counts per second for either gross or total man-made gamma emissions. Gross count gamma radiation includes natural background radiation from terrestrial sources (radionuclides present in small amounts in the earth's soil and bedrock), from radon gas, and from cosmic rays from outer space as well as radiation from man-made radionuclides. Man-made count gamma data include only the portion of the gross count that can be directly attributed to gamma rays from man-made radionuclides. Interpretation of the gamma energy spectra can make possible the determination of which specific radioisotopes contribute to the observed man-made gamma radiation, either as direct or as indirect (i.e., daughter) gamma energy from specific radionuclides (e.g., cesium-137, cobalt-60, uranium-238)

  14. Chronic stimulation of cultured neuronal networks boosts low frequency oscillatory activity at theta and gamma with spikes phase-locked to gamma frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Leondopulos, Stathis S.; Boehler, Michael D.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Slow wave oscillations in the brain are essential for coordinated network activity but have not been shown to self-organize in vitro. Here, the development of dissociated hippocampal neurons into an active network with oscillations on multi-electrode arrays was evaluated in the absence and presence of chronic external stimulation. Significant changes in signal power were observed in the range of 1-400 Hz with an increase in amplitude during bursts. Stimulation increased oscillatory activity p...

  15. Sensitivity of T lymphocytes to gamma rays in patients with cervix tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we studied the effect of radiotherapy on normal cells in patients with cervix tumors treated only by gamma rays. In our laboratory, after lymphocytes separation, we tested the proliferation system of these cells against the phytohemagglutinin and the concanavalin a antigens; at the same time we tested their sensitivity to lys the erythroid tumor cells line K 562. According to the clinical stage of disease the 25 patients studied were divided in two groups; group I composed of 14 patients at stage I and II proximal, received 50 Gy from a cesium 137 source, in intrauterine and in continuous treatment during 4 days. The second group composed of 11 patients at stage II distal and III, received 50 Gy from a cobalt-60 source in extra uterine, the treatment is fractioned in 3 to 5 times per week, at each time the patient received 1,5 - 3 Gy. To compare with their immunological status before treatment, until 1 month after total dose received, all of our patients lost transitory their capacity to prolifere in vitro. Although the capacity to lys the tumor cells is diminished in cancer patients, the drop of this activity is principally. The selective recuperation of T lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A is also observed. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Burn up calculations and validation by gamma scanning of a TRIGA HEU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan).; Karimzadeh, S.; Boeck, H.; Villa, M.; Stummer, T. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Atominstitut

    2013-03-15

    The TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated by Atominstitut (Vienna/Austria) is one of the few TRIGA reactors, which still utilizes several High Enriched Uranium (HEU) Zirconium-Hydride (U-Zr-H) fuel elements. Its current core is a completely mixed core with 3 different types of fuel elements including one HEU type with 70 % enrichment and a stainless steel cladding. The present paper calculates the burn up of the FLIP (Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program) fuel using the burn up code ORIGEN2 and validates the theoretical results by high resolution gamma spectrometry using a unique fuel scanning device (FSD) developed at the Atominstitut especially for TRIGA fuel. For this purpose a FLIP fuel element was removed from the reactor core and stored in the research reactor pool for an appropriate cooling period. The fuel element was then transferred into the fuel scanning device to determine the Cesium-137 isotope distribution along the axis of the fuel element. The comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results is the highlight of the present paper. (orig.)

  17. Burn up calculations and validation by gamma scanning of a TRIGA HEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated by Atominstitut (Vienna/Austria) is one of the few TRIGA reactors, which still utilizes several High Enriched Uranium (HEU) Zirconium-Hydride (U-Zr-H) fuel elements. Its current core is a completely mixed core with 3 different types of fuel elements including one HEU type with 70 % enrichment and a stainless steel cladding. The present paper calculates the burn up of the FLIP (Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program) fuel using the burn up code ORIGEN2 and validates the theoretical results by high resolution gamma spectrometry using a unique fuel scanning device (FSD) developed at the Atominstitut especially for TRIGA fuel. For this purpose a FLIP fuel element was removed from the reactor core and stored in the research reactor pool for an appropriate cooling period. The fuel element was then transferred into the fuel scanning device to determine the Cesium-137 isotope distribution along the axis of the fuel element. The comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results is the highlight of the present paper. (orig.)

  18. Concentration levels of cesium-137 in soils of the municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas before the accident of Fukushima Daiichi; Niveles de concentracion de cesio-137 en suelos de los municipios de Guadalupe y Zacatecas antes del accidente de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mireles, F.; Davila, J. I.; Pinedo, J. L.; Lopez, H.; Rios, C.; Saucedo, S. A.; Flores, F. E., E-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (MX)

    2011-11-15

    The study of the emitter radioisotopes of gamma-rays in soil is very important considering damages to the health and quality of the environment. The main objective of this work is the study of the concentration of the artificial radioisotope {sup 137}Cs in soil of the cities and municipalities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe of the Zacatecas State, Mexico. The study was carried out in two stages for different times, the first stage corresponded to the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe in 2000; and the second corresponded to the municipalities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe in 2008. The first study region was the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, and environs where 20 soil samples were obtained. The second study region was inside the municipalities of Guadalupe and Zacatecas and 44 samples of near soil to the communities with major population in both municipalities were obtained. A spectrometry system of gamma-rays was used based on a coaxial detector of germanium hyper pure of high resolution, and was calculated the concentration of the {sup 137}Cs with the energy photo-pick 661.66 KeV. In this work the activity concentrations of the {sup 137}Cs in soil are presented and their variation in function of the time. These data will be a reference to evaluate a possible increment of the {sup 137}Cs because of the accident of Fukushima Daiichi (Japan) nuclear power plant happened March 11, 2011. (Author)

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Immunotherapy with Interferon-Gamma in the Management of Chronic Sulfur Mustard-Induced Cutaneous Complications: Comparison with Topical Betamethasone 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present trial investigated the efficacy of immunotherapy with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in the treatment of sulfur mustard (SM-induced chronic skin complications. Forty subjects who were suffering from chronic skin complications of SM and were diagnosed to have severe atopic dermatitis, were assigned to IFN-γ (50 μg/m2 subcutaneously three times per week (n=20 or betamethasone valerate topical cream 0.1% (n=20 every night for 30 days. Extent and intensity of cutaneous complications was evaluated using scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index, and quality of life using dermatology life quality index (DLQI at baseline and at the end of trial. SCORAD-A and SCORAD-B scores were significantly decreased in both IFN-γ and betamethasone. However, SCORAD-C score was decreased only in the IFN-γ group. There were significant reductions in overall as well as objective SCORAD scores in both groups. As for the magnitude of changes, treatment with IFN-γ was associated with greater reductions in overall, objective and segmented SCORAD scores compared to betamethasone. DLQI reduction was found to be significantly greater in the IFN-γ group. Promising improvements in quality life and clinical symptoms that was observed in the present study suggest the application of IFN-γ as an effective therapy for the management of SM-induced chronic skin complications.

  20. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were

  1. Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Cesium-137 Adsorption on Olive Waste from Aqueous Solutions Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Cesium-137 Adsorption on Olive Waste from Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agricultural by-product olive pomace either in its raw material or carbonized form was used for the removal of 137Cs from aqueous solutions. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate and optimize some affecting factor such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, ph value and initial 137Cs concentration ions. The sorption process was described by pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Intra-particle diffusion models. Data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The obtained data showed that 120 minutes are sufficient time to attain equilibrium and maximum % removal of 137Cs was found 80% and 99% for raw olive pomace and its carbonized form, respectively. The maximum sorption capacity of raw and carbonized adsorbent for cesium removal was 0.360 and 0.565 mol/g respectively.

  2. Effect of chronic 'Agria 1050' poisoning and gamma irradiation on the amino acid compositions of lamb meat protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of preslaughter treatment of lambs with organophosphoric pesticide 'Agria 1050' and gamma irradiation on the amino acid composition of lamb meat was studied. Three groups of animals are tested: 1) healthy lambs; 2) lambs treated with 'Agria 1050' for 5 weeks at weekly dose of 50 mg/kg b wt; 3) lambs exposed to 'Agria 1050' (as in group 2) and 2 Gy gamma irradiation. Differences in the amino acids were obtained in all the three groups of meat after 6 hours post mortem as well as after 24, 48 and 120 h of refrigeration storage. Certain differences in the amino acid composition were also observed in different muscles of the lamb carcasses. It is concluded that the combined effect of 'Agria 1050' and gamma irradiation caused accumulation of higher amount of glutamic acid, lysine, serine, threonine and proline, as well as a relative reduction in quantity of some essential amino acid like tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, arginine, glycine and to a lesser extent - histidine and alanine. (author)

  3. Effect of hormonal stimulation with Folistiman (FSH) and of chronic gamma irradiation on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands of ewes in anestral period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trials were performed with 15 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed in the period of physiological anoestrus. The first group was used as control (n=5). The ewes of the second group were exposed to gamma radiation for five days (total dose 2.48 Gy). After irradiation, they were given the total dose of 450 I.U. FSH for hormonal stimulation. The third group was hormonally stimulated by FSH without irradiation. Chronic exposure of the whole body to gamma radiation and the hormonal stimulation by FSH significantly reduced the concentrations of norepinephrine in the studied hypothalamus regions of the ewes (by 70%, on an average, compared with the control values). The content of epinephrine in the medial hypothalamus of the ewes decreased by 63%. The concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the adrenal glands of the irradiated and hormonally stimulated ewes decreased by 32.9% and 16%, respectively, and in their pituitary glands by 35% and 43.1%, respectively. The hormonal treatment of the ewes without irradiation did not induce any great reduction in catecholamine concentration in the hypothalamus of ewes but significantly reduced their proportions in the pituitary glands where the concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine were observed to have decreased by 82% and 67.3%, respectively. In the adrenal glands of this gorup of ewes, the concentration of epinephrine decreased by 63.9% but the concentrations of norepinephrine did not change, compared with the control values. It follows from the results that gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation by FSH significantly reduced the concentrations of catecholamines in the cerebroneural system regions involved in the control of the reproduction processes. (author). 4 figs., 25 refs

  4. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated

  5. Environmental ionising radiation study: Assessment of the public exposure to the environmental gamma and X rays, and to radon in Antananarivo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity is one of the indicators of the environmental state because humankind is continuously exposed to ionising radiations. Knowledge of the various components of this natural radioactivity becomes a necessity. As Antananarivo is the most populated city of Madagascar, its environmental radioactivity and radiation dose were assessed with the aim of establishing a database for radioactivity levels. The present work is entitled 'Assessment of the Public Exposure to the Environmental Gamma and X-rays, and to Radon in Antananarivo City'. This paper is the synthesis of several works carried out within the frame of a research project that lasted three years (April 1998-April 2001), consisting of more than a hundred in-situ measurements campaigns and laboratory sample analyses. Ionising radiations were measured through gamma and X ray global counting. Environmental material radioactivity was characterized by in-situ and laboratory gamma spectrometry. Alpha, gamma and X ray dosimetric measurements were done indoor and outdoor, in daytime and at night. The results obtained were the basis for three scientific communications at the Madagascar National Academy of Arts, Letters and Sciences. The first is entitled 'The Cesium-137 Artificial Radioisotope Pollution in Antananarivo City' (June 1998), the second 'the Atmospheric Radon in Antananarivo City '(May 1999), and the third 'Kerma in Air and Counting Rate of the Environmental Gamma and X Rays in Antananarivo City' (December 2000). From this work, the environmental gamma and X ray , and radon contribution to natural radiation doses were obtained. We have found that the population of Antananarivo is exposed to an annual average effective dose of 5.3 mSv.y-1, which is two times higher than the world quoted value.

  6. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  7. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  8. The state of glutathion system of blood, brain and liver of white rats after chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 3-fold gamma-irradiation in total dose 0,75 Gy on the glutathion system in different periods after exposure (1 hour, 1 day, 1 and 4 weeks) in blood, brain and liver of white rats were studied. It was concluded that liver and brain have higher ability to maintain the stability of antioxidant system than blood has. After shot disturbances caused by irradiation in brain and liver the state of glutathion system of detoxication has normalized, while concentration of malonic dialdehyde was raised in all terms. The most pronounced changes of antioxidant system were registered in blood at early terms (1 hour) after irradiation that was manifested in increasing of reduced glutathion content, raising of glutathion reductase and catalase activity. In remote period the activity of this system in blood was exhausted

  9. Stimulatory effects of chronic gamma radiation on growth and development of young custard apple (Annona squamosa) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four month old seedlings of custard apple were transplanted in a sector of a Gamma Garden having a 600 Ci 60Co γ-source in the center. The dose rates were 90-105, 195-240 and 480-640 mR/h. The cumulative doses averaged to 946, 2,064 and 5,300 R. Observations of tree height, trunk thickness and number of branches were performed at regular intervals. During the first fruiting season the number of fallen fruits and the number and weight of edible fruits were recorded. The trees in all 3 radiation zones grew taller than the controls for about 18 months. Radiation-induced greater thickness of the trunk was seen for 27 months, while an increase in the number of branches was observed throughout the experimental period (4 years). As to the fruiting pattern, inspite of the fewer fruits in the irradiated trees they gave higher fruit yield per tree. (MG)

  10. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We exposed three successive generations of Daphnia magna to chronic gamma radiation. • We examined DNA alterations and effects on survival, growth and reproduction. • DNA alterations were accumulated over a generation and transmitted to the progeny. • Effects on survival and reproduction, and delay in growth increased over generations. - Abstract: This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h−1). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h−1 increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h−1 in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h−1 in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h−1 in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h−1 in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h−1 at hatching to 0.007 mGy h−1 after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h−1 at hatching to 0.007 mGy h−1 after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h−1 and DNA alterations significant at highest dose rates only. The study improved our understanding of long term

  11. Effects of chronic gamma radiation on the growth and survival of juvenile clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) and scallops (Argopecten irradians)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenile clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) and scallops (Argopecten irradians) from North Carolina were exposed to five intensities of chronic γ radiation for 3 to 14 months during 1973/1974. Exposure rates ranged downward from 37 rads/hr to levels slightly higher than background radiation. Deleterious effects on growth and survival of clams occurred only at the highest exposure rate (37 to 16 rads/hr). Clams exposed to low radiation levels (0.007 to 0.008 rads/hr) increased in weight, but not in length, faster than the controls. One-half of the clams exposed to the highest radiation level survived to 159 days, after a cumulative dose of 132 krads, and only 10 % survived to 14 months after a cumulative dose of 150 to 346 krads. No deleterious effects on growth and survival of scallops were apparent during 84 days of exposure to a cumulative radiation dose of 71.7 krads. (author)

  12. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. PMID:26113293

  13. Dose-rate effects and chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells from mice that are chronically exposed to gamma-ray at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-rate effects have not been examined in the low dose-rate regions of less than 60-600 mGy/h. Mice were chronically exposed to gamma-ray at 20 mGy/day (approximately 1 mGy/h) up to 700 days and at 1 mGy/day (approximately 0.05 mGy/h) for 500 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at both low dose-rates. Unstable aberrations increased in a biphasic manner within 0-2 Gy and 4-14 Gy in 20 mGy/day irradiation. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy in 1 mGy/day irradiation. Chromosome aberration rates at 20 mGy/day and 1 mGy/day were compared at the same total doses of 0.5 Gy and 0.25 Gy. They were 2.0 vs. 0.53, and 1.0 vs. 0.47 respectively. Thus, dose-rate effects were observed in these low dose-rate regions. (author)

  14. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of 137Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for 137Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music 137Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that 137Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium 137Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium 137Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative 137Cs burden of the population was 4.9 x 106 Bq, representing 137Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of 137Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of 137Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, 137Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program); Feb. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw milk was collected in producing districts. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The results obtained in February 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk; October, 1977 to March, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling is done both in a producing place and consuming place. In the producing place, sample is taken from raw milk, and in the consuming place, commercial milk is purchased. Milk sample is put in a stainless pan or porcelain dish. After evaporation to dryness, the stuff is carbonized and ashed. The results obtained from October 1977 to March 1979 were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  17. Volatilization of cesium-137 from soil with chloride amendments during heating and vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During vitrification of soil and soil:limestone mixtures, significant volatilization (> 10%) of the radioisotope 137Cs occurred particularly in the presence of small amounts (99% of the 137Cs by repeated amendment and treatment at 1000 degree C. Amendment with sodium borate and subsequent heating to 1200 degree C also stimulated significant volatilization of 137Cs. However, amendments up to 10% of other chemicals including carbonates, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, fluorides, polystyrene, graphite, stainless steels, iron, zinc oxide, and antimony oxide did not increase 137Cs volatilization compared to unamended samples. The majority of the chloride-induced volatilization occurred between 800 and 1000 degree C for sodium chloride-amended samples of both soil and soil:limestone mixtures. Thus, an effective and potentially efficient soil decontamination technique for 137Cs has been identified. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137Cs and 90Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137CS and 90Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137Cs and I.5% of the 90Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137Cs and 4.5% of the 90Sr. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137Cs and 90Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  19. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium (137Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of 137Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total 137Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and 137Cs in spring. Deposition of 137Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m-2 and accounted for 67% of the total 137Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high 137Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to 137Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric 137Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent

  20. Sediment budgets and source determinations using fallout Cesium-137 in a semiarid rangeland watershed, Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of soil redistribution and sediment sources in semiarid and arid watersheds provides information for implementing management practices to improve rangeland conditions and reduce sediment loads to streams. The purpose of this research was to develop sediment budgets and identify potential sediment sources using 137Cs and other soil properties in a series of small semiarid subwatersheds on the USDA ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed near Tombstone, Arizona, USA. Soils were sampled in a grid pattern on two small subwatersheds and along transects associated with soils and geomorphology on six larger subwatersheds. Soil samples were analyzed for 137Cs and selected physical and chemical properties (i.e., bulk density, rocks, particle size, soil organic carbon). Suspended sediment samples collected at measuring flume sites on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were also analyzed for these properties. Soil redistribution measured using 137Cs inventories for a small shrub-dominated subwatershed and a small grass-dominated subwatershed found eroding areas in these subwatersheds were losing -5.6 and -3.2 t ha-1 yr-1, respectively; however, a sediment budget for each of these subwatersheds, including depositional areas, found net soil loss to be -4.3 t ha-1 yr-1 from the shrub-dominated subwatershed and -0.1 t ha-1 yr-1 from the grass-dominated subwatershed. Generally, the suspended sediment collected at the flumes of the six other subwatersheds was enriched in silt and clay. Using a mixing model to determine sediment source indicated that shrub-dominated subwatersheds were contributing most of the suspended sediment that was measured at the outlet flume of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. The two methodologies (sediment budgets and sediment source analyses) indicate that shrub-dominated systems provide more suspended sediment to the stream systems. The sediment budget studies also suggest that sediment yields measured at the outlet of a watershed may be a poor indicator of actual soil redistribution rates within these semiarid watersheds. Management of these semiarid rangelands must consider techniques that will protect grass-dominated areas from shrub invasion to improve rangeland conditions.

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from Jul. 1978 to Sep. 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of soil were collected from the locations in spacious and flat areas without past disturbance on the surface caused by dust-storm, inflow and outflow due to precipitation and so on. The samples were taken from two layers of different depth, 0 - 5 cm and 5 - 20 cm. In the course of air drying, lumps were crushed by hand, and plant roots, pebbles and small gravels were removed. The air-dried soils were sieved, and heated in the presence of Sr and Cs carriers together with sodium hydroxide. Then, the samples were heated with hydrochloric acid, and Sr-90 and Cs-137 were separated from the sample solutions by the methods described. Their activities were counted with low background beta counters. The net rate of sample counting was corrected for the counter efficiency, recovery, self-absorption and decay. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in soil obtained from July, 1978, to September, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months, locations and depth (cm) of sampling, air soil (%), Sr (%) and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/kg, mCi/km2) are shown. The maximum values are 66 mCi/km2 of Sr-90 found in Tokai, Ibaraki Prefecture, in August, 1979, and 160 mCi/km2 of Cs-137 found in Minami-takaki County, Nagasaki Prefecture, in July, 1979. (Kako, I.)

  2. Specific activity and concentration model applied to cesium-137 movement in a eutrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A linear systems-analysis model which simulates time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radiocesium in lake ecosystems was applied to a shallow, eutrophic lake that had received a pulse input of 137Cs. Best estimates of transfer coefficients for abiotic compartments (sediment, interstitial water, and water) and macrophyte compartment which control mass balance of cesium in water were determined by tuning our initial estimates of the transfer coefficients to observed data on 137Cs concentrations and contents of these compartments. In most cases, the optimized transfer coefficients of the abiotic compartments were not greatly different from our independently-derived initial estimates, and the simulations for optimized coefficients were close to those based on initial estimates. The simulations of 137Cs concentration in water predicted by the optimized transfer coefficients were used to derive 137Cs kinetics in biota other than macrophytes. In general, model simulations were close to concentrations observed in the biota. The agreement between 137Cs concentrations and simulations in bottom invertebrates supported our assumption that bottom sediments are not a major source of Cs to the biota. (U.S.)

  3. Distribution of cesium-137 in Japanese forest soils. Correlation with the contents of organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial and vertical distributions of 137Cs in surface soils were surveyed and analyzed then correlated with the contents of organic carbon in the hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) plantation forest and secondary forest dominated by red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in Japan. The spatial variation of 137Cs activity was observed in the surface soil around the red pine. The average activity of 16 samples around the tree is 42.4 Bq/kg and the standard deviation is 25.9 Bq/kg. This finding indicates the importance in the selection of a sampling site and the number of samples from the surface soils especially around a tree. For the vertical distribution of 137Cs activity, it was found that the concentration in the surface soil is highest, 149 Bq/kg in the hinoki stand and 101 Bq/kg in the red pine stand, and decreases with depth. The relationship between 137Cs activity and carbon content in the forest soil was investigated in two undisturbed forest stands. The relations were more precisely expressed using an exponential equation than by a linear equation. From the same forest, similar regression equations were obtained. This indicates that the distribution of 137Cs could be characterized by the organic carbon content in an undisturbed forest. It is also suggested that the coefficient values in the regression equation help to define the movement of 137Cs accompanying the decomposition of organic matter

  4. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J.; Tompkins, J.A.; Haff, K.W.; Case, F.N.

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-seven fully loaded /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 1500/sup 0/C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of /sup 137/Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded /sup 137/Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10/sup -10/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10/sup -12/ kg m/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level /sup 137/Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10/sup -16/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, 6.88 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, and 1.35 x 10/sup -17/m/sup 2/s/sup -1/, respectively.

  5. Effectivity of Prussian Blue for Cesium-137 decontamination in White Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Study on the effectivity of Prussian Blue (PB) for Cs-137 decontamination orally post internal contamination of cesium nitrate in white rat body had been carried out. Cesium nitrate with activity of 527.97 Bq was orally given and followed by oral administration of 25 mg of PB at 0,3,6,24,0+24 hours post contamination. The contents of Cs-137 in various organs and tissues were observed on 0,1,3,7 and 14 days after the contamination. The daily excretions of Cs-137 through urine and faeces were observed for 14 days. The results showed that the PB administration immediately post contamination was very effective to bind Cs-137 in gastrointestinal tract and to enhance the elimination of the radionuclide from the body up to about 84.89% within 14 days. Whereas PB administration twice (0+24 hours) could only excrete Cs-137 about 54.38%. From statistical analysis it is known that there is a significant difference (P<0.01) among the observation days and among the PB treatments, and also between observation days and treatments of PB

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil; April, 1977 to September, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and sea weed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in soil obtained from April to September, 1977, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months, the locations and the depth of sampling, air soil (%), Sr(%) and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/kg or mCi/km2) are shown. The maximum values are 55 mCi/km2 of Sr-90 and 150 mCi/km2 of Cs-137 found in Obama, Nagasaki Prefecture, in July, 1977. (Kako, I.)

  7. Characterization of pollucite as a material for long-term storage of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollucite (Cs2O.Al2O3.4SiO2) may be an acceptable material for the long-term storage of purified 137CsCl. Pollucite is made at near theoretical yields when CsCl (or any cesium salt) reacts at approx. = 9700K with a montmorillonite-containing clay. Pollucite dissolves in deionized water at rates -7 kg/(m2 d) based on cesium. Microstructural analyses showed that cesium reacts with montmorillonite clay to form ill-defined pollucite crystals containing low concentrations of the impurities found in the clay. Although further work needs to be done, pollucite is considered to be an excellent materials for the long-term storage of 137Cs

  8. Characterization of pollucite as a material for the long term storage of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of nuclear waste requires materials which are thermodynamically stable. Pollucite (Cs2O . Al2O3 . 4SiO2) may be an acceptable material for the long-term storage of the purified 137CsCl. Pollucite is made at near theoretical yields when CsCl (or any cesium salt) reacts at about 9700K with a montmorillonite-containing clay. Pollucite dissolves in deionized water at rates which are less than 2 x 10-9 kg/(m2 . s) based on cesium. Microstructural analyses show that cesium reacts with the montmorillonite clay to form ill-defined pollucite crystals which contain low concentrations of the impurities found in the clay. Although further work needs to be done, pollucite is considered to be an excellent material for the long-term storage of 137Cs

  9. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and 137Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of 137Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations

  10. Cesium-137 in the teeth of patients exposed to a radioactive accident in Goiania, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten teeth from patients involved in a radioactive accident in Goiania, Brazil, were analysed for 137Cs content. Most of the 137Cs was on the external root surface of the tooth. Teeth with the highest values were from patients with high whole body content of radiation. (author)

  11. Study of soil erosion using environmental isotope cesium-137 (137Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental tracer hay a potential to be used to trace sediment movement. Caesium (Cs), a radionuclide released from nuclear weapon tests is strongly absorbed on clay. The '1'3'7 Cs content in soil profile has been used to estimate soil loss due to water erosion in agricultural land. Soil samples were collected at the study and reference sites using a sampling frame with dimensions of 20 cm x 50 cm x 24 cm. In each depth-incremental soil sampling, the plate was placed on the soil surface and hammered into the soil, a scrapper plate was used to slice off soil in 2 cm increment to a depth of 40 cm. The '1'3'7 Cs content in an undisturbed site accumulated in the upper portion of the soil profile whereas in the disturbed sites the contents are nearly mixed within the plough layer. The eroded soil contained less '1'3'7 Cs compared to the uneroded sites. An empirical model is used to quantify the soil loss. The estimated erosion rates on slopes located at D, E, F are found to be 0. 54 ± 0. 03 tonne/hectare/year, 1.42 ± 0.12 tonne/hectare/year and 0.060 ± 0.009 tonne/hectare/year giving the average of 0.069 ± 0.08 tonne/hectare/year. This result suggest '1'3'7 Cs have the considerable value in data collection for long term-erosion studies. (author)

  12. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of the dosage of 137Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by γ spectrometry enable the determination of the 137Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors)

  13. Metabolism of 137cesium, 137barium in the rat. Therapeutics of the contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors carry out research into the distribution kinetics, the metabolism and the excretion of 137Cs - 137Ba in the rat. They show that these phenomena are independent of the method of applying a single dose. The distribution tends to adopt in all cases a typical shape which remains the same depending on the body burden. Biological analysis of the state of the cesium in the biological media shows that it is transported in the free and ionised form. Considering the problem of the method of penetration of the cesium ion in the intracellular medium, and in particular by the in vivo and in vitro kinetic study of the plasma - red cell system, the authors make the assumption that an active transport of cesium occurs by the cell membrane. They thus arrive at an overall picture of the cesium distribution in the organism which is essentially characterized by a dynamic distribution equilibrium between two compartments: 99 per cent of the cesium accumulates in the intracellular pool, 1 per cent in the extracellular liquids. This latter compartment is open to the emunctories. Because, of the active transport by the cell membranes, the intracellular pool is filled rapidly but discharge is slow. This phenomenon is the limiting factor in the decrease of the body burden. From this representation, the authors deduce the reasons for the relative failure of the various therapeutic methods examined up till now by themselves or by other authors. The stimulation of the natural emunctories in the case of diuretics for example, can only improve the purification of the extracellular compartment. Now this latter contains only 1 per cent of the body burden and recharging is slow. Furthermore the methods designed to counteract or inhibit the active transport of cesium by the cell membrane are still at the present time incompatible with the survival of the cell. (authors)

  14. Neurobehavioral effects of concurrent exposure to cesium-137 and paraquat during neonatal development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of nuclear power plants accidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima, some people were exposed to external and internal ionizing radiation (IR). Human brain is highly sensitive to IR during fetal and postnatal period when the molecular processes are not completely finished. Various studies have shown that exposure to low doses of IR causes a higher incidence of cognitive impairment. On the other hand, in industrialized countries, people are daily exposed to a number of toxicant pollutants. Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as paraquat (PQ), may potentiate the toxic effects induced by radiation on brain development. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation (137Cs) and PQ during neonatal brain development. At the postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 137Cs (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or PQ (7 mg/kg). To investigate the spontaneous behavior, learning, memory capacities and anxiety, behavioral tests were conducted in the offspring at two months of age. The results showed that cognitive functions were not significantly affected when 137Cs or PQ were administered alone. However, alterations in the working memory and anxiety were detected in mice exposed to 137Cs combined with PQ

  15. Psycho-social impact of the cesium-137 accident in the Brazilian society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author intends to question the assumed current public opinion that the psycho-social impact, resulting from the Goiania accident, is related with the ignorance of those who handled the caesium-137 source capsule, as well as the way media explained the accident. Some important aspects related to social behaviour during and after the accident are also shown. (B.C.A.)

  16. Cesium-137 in biota from the Bothnian sea after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl fallout in April 1986 hit the Swedish Bothnian Sea coast to a relatively large extent. Extended sampling programs to follow uptake and mobilization of Cs-137 at different trophic levels in the aquatic environment started immediately after the accident. Water, sediment, algae, fish and food organisms for fish have regularly been sampled during 1986 and 1988. The highest cesium concentration (3400 Bq/m3) in water from the Bothnian sea was detected in May-July 1986. Since September 1986 the cesium concentration has been decreasing and was about 500 Bq/m3 in March-June 1987. During the same period, green algae (Cladophora), from early top values at 17000 Bq/kg d.w., have rapidly decreased to about 200 Bq/kg d.w. Of the investigated food organisms, fish-spawn rapidly got high values (3000 Bq/kg d.w.) of cesium. There is also reason to believe that this was the case for plankton. The cesium concentration on the other food organisms was lower, about (500-1200 Bq/kg d.w.). The decrease was fast and already during August 1986 they had relatively low concentrations (less than 500 Bq/kg d.w.). The cesium metabolism was rapid in species that feed on plankton and filtered material from the pelagial, such as mussles and herring. The maximum concentration was reached (1000-1500 Bq/kg d.w.) in September 1986. Fish species with algae in the nutrient chain (e.g. roach) reached concentrations of about 1000 Bq/kg d.w. and the decrease is slower. The accessible cesium for prey fish became relatively good depending on the high concentrations in fish-spawn. The maximum value for the cesium concentration in perch and pike was 2000-3000 Bq/kg d.w. and the decrease is slow. From the results from late 1988 the concentration factor (CF) has been calculated for several fish species in brackish water

  17. Atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium (137Cs) associated with dust events in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the cessation of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1980, there has been no known serious atmospheric contamination by radioactive cesium (sup(137)Cs) apart from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in 1986. There now remain only small amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere that can be directly related to past testing. However, sup(137)Cs is still regularly found in atmospheric deposition samples in Japan. In this study, we analyzed sup(137)Cs monitoring data, meteorological data, and field survey results to investigate the recent transport and deposition of sup(137)Cs associated with dust phenomena. Monthly records of nationwide sup(137)Cs deposition in Japan during the 1990s show a consistent seasonal variation, with higher levels of deposition occurring in spring. In March 2002, an unexpectedly high amount of sup(137)Cs was deposited in the northwestern coastal area of Japan at the same time as an Asian dust event was observed. Analysis of land-based weather data showed that sandstorms and other dust-raising phenomena also occurred in March 2002 over areas of Mongolia and northeastern China where grassland and shrubs predominated. Furthermore, radioactivity measurements showed sup(137)Cs enrichment in the surface layer of grassland soils in the areas affected by these sandstorms. These results suggest that grasslands are potential sources of sup(137)Cs-bearing dust. Continued desertification of the East Asian continent in response to recent climate change can be expected to result in an increase in sup(137)Cs-bearing soil particles in the atmosphere, and their subsequent re-deposition in Japan. However, soil dust is also raised around Japanese monitoring sites by the strong winds that are common in Japan in spring, and this local dust might also contribute to sup(137)Cs deposition in Japan. To estimate the relative contributions of local and distant dust events to the total sup(137)Cs deposition, we monitored deposition of mineral particles and sup(137)Cs weekly in spring 2007. During one week of the period of weekly monitoring in 2007, we observed an Asian dust event. During that week, atmospheric sup(137)Cs deposition reached 62.3 mBq/square m and accounted for 67% of the total deposition of sup(137)Cs during the entire eight-week monitoring period. This result suggests that the primary source of sup(137)Cs deposition in this part of Japan in spring is likely to be dust transported from the East Asian continent

  18. Depth distribution of cesium-137 in paddy fields across the Fukushima pollution plume in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radiocesium were deposited across a 3000 km2 area northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant after the March 2011 accident. Although many studies have investigated the fate of 137Cs in soil in the months following the accident, the depth distribution of this radioactive contaminant in rice paddy fields requires further examination after the typhoons that occurred in this region. Such investigations will help minimize potential human exposure in rice paddy fields. Radionuclide activity concentrations, organic content and particle size were analysed in 10 soil cores sampled from paddy fields in November 2013, 20 km north of the Fukushima power plant. Our results demonstrate limited depth migration of 137Cs with the majority concentrated in the uppermost layers of soils (<5 cm). More than 30 months after the accident, between 46.8 and 98.7% of the total 137Cs inventories was found within the top 5 cm of the soil surface, despite cumulative rainfall totalling 3300 mm. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between 137Cs depth distribution and the other parameters. We attributed the maximum depth penetration of 137Cs to grass cutting (73.6–98.5% of 137Cs in the upper 5 cm) and farming operations (tillage – 46.8–51.6% of 137Cs in the upper 5 cm). As this area is exposed to erosive events, ongoing decontamination works may increase soil erodibility. We therefore recommend the rapid removal of the uppermost – contaminated – layer of the soil after removing the vegetation to avoid erosion of contaminated material during the subsequent rainfall events. Further analysis is required to thoroughly understand the impacts of erosion on the redistribution of radiocesium throughout the Fukushima Prefecture. - Highlights: • Depth migration of 137Cs were investigated in soil cores collected on contaminated paddy field. • Major part of 137Cs remain in the uppermost 5 cm even 30 months after the accident. • More than 50% of contamination could remain in tilled soil after decontamination. • Radiocesium migrate in the uppermost 3 cm after grass cutting

  19. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I remedial investigation: Sediment and Cesium-137 transport modeling report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapp, R.B.; Bao, Y.S.; Moore, T.D.; Brenkert, A.L.; Purucker, S.T.; Reece, D.K.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow-up information to the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that may present immediate risk to public health at the Clinch River and ecological risk within WAG 2 at ORNL. A sixth report, on groundwater, in the series documenting WAG 2 RI Phase I results were part of project activities conducted in FY 1996. The five reports that complete activities conducted as part of Phase I of the Remedial Investigation (RI) for WAG 2 are as follows: (1) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Seep Data Assessment, (2) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Tributaries Data Assessment, (3) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Ecological Risk Assessment, (4) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Human Health Risk Assessment, (5) Waste Area Grouping 2, Phase I Task Data Report: Sediment and {sup 137}Cs Transport Modeling In December 1990, the Remedial Investigation Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was issued (ORNL 1990). The WAG 2 RI Plan was structured with a short-term component to be conducted while upgradient WAGs are investigated and remediated, and a long-term component that will complete the RI process for WAG 2 following remediation of upgradient WAGs. RI activities for the short-term component were initiated with the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This report presents the results of an investigation of the risk associated with possible future releases of {sup 137}Cs due to an extreme flood. The results are based on field measurements made during storms and computer model simulations.

  20. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of offering a new application for 137Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator for TL and OSL dosimeters by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25 × 25 × 25 cm3. It has three different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards.

  1. Revised Methodology for Determining Cesium-137 Content of HN-200 Grout Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHELOR, J.L.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this technical paper is to examine the accuracy of the existing method of determining the Cs-137 content of HN-200 grout containers and compare that accuracy to the accuracy attainable by other methods of measurement. The methods of measurement to be compared include: Contact measurements on a grouted container (existing method); Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of a grouted container; Measurements at 10 feet from a grouted container; Measurements on contact with the surface of an ungrouted container; Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container; and Measurements at 10 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container. Once the most accurate and useable method is determined, the precepts for an operating procedure will be provided for determining the Cs-137 content of newly generated and future HN-200 grout containers as well as the grouted legacy containers currently stored in B Cell.

  2. Separation of cesium-137 from uranium fission products via a NeoflonR column supporting tetraphenylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium is a member of the Group I alkali metals, very reactive earth metals that react vigorously with both air and water. The chemistry of cesium is much like the chemistry of neighboring elements on the periodic table, potassium and rubidium. This close relation creates many problems in plant-life exposed to cesium because it is so easily confused for potassium, an essential nutrient to plants. Radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs are also chemically akin to potassium and stable cesium. Uptake of these radioactive isotopes from groundwater by plant-life destroys the plant-life and can potentially expose humans to the radioactive affects of 134Cs and 137Cs. Much experimental work has been focused on the separation of 137Cs from uranium fission products. In previous experimental work performed a column consisting of Kel-F supporting tetraphenylboron (TPB) was utilized to separate 137Cs from uranium fission products. It is of interest at this time to attempt the separation of 134Cs from 0.01M EDTA using the same method and Neoflon in the place of Kel-F as the inert support. The results of this experiment give a separation efficiency of 88% and show a linear relationship between the column bed length and the separation efficiency obtained. (author)

  3. Impact of the production process of drugs on cesium-137 transition into liquid medicinal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrees of 137Cs transformation from medicinal plants to the solution depending on the technology of medicinal form (MF) preparation are determined. Analysis has shown that the part of a radionuclide transforming into water MF (infusions and decoctions) is considerably higher than in alcohol MF (infusions and extracts) and it constitutes in the average 70±10%. The degree of 137Cs transformation to infusions and extracts prepared on the alcohol base equals 25±5%. Good coincidence of specific activity of the initial sample with the sum of specific activities of liquid MF and dry sample residues was observed

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in air-borne dust; October, 1977 to March, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of rain and dry fallout, air-borne dust, service water and fresh water, soil, sea water, sea sediment, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfishes and seaweed, and fresh water fishes, their sampling and prior treatment are described. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 and their measurement are explained. The estimations of stable Sr, K and Ca are made by atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame spectrophotometry and potassium permanganate titration, respectively. The general plan of radioactivity survey in Japan is shown. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in air-borne dust obtained from October, 1977, to March, 1978, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the locations of sampling, the period of sampling, the absorbed volume (m3), and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (10-3 pCi/m3) are shown. The maximum values are 4.4 x 10-3 pCi/m3 of Sr-90 and 6.0 x 10-3 pCi/m3 of Cs-137 found in Okuma, Fukushima Prefecture, from October to November, 1977. (Kako, I.)

  5. Preparation and characterization of cesium-137 aluminosilicate pellets for radioactive source applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-seven fully loaded 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were fabricated in a hot cell by the vacuum hot pressing of a cesium carbonate/montmorillonite clay mixture at 15000C and 570 psig. Four pellets were selected for characterization studies which included calorimetric measurements, metallography, scanning electron microscope and electron backscattering (SEM-BSE), electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction, and cesium ion leachability measurements. Each test pellet contained 437 to 450 curies of 137Cs as determined by calorimetric measurements. Metallographic examinations revealed a two-phase system: a primary, granular, gray matrix phase containing large and small pores and small pore agglomerations, and a secondary fused phase interspersed throughout the gray matrix. SEM-BSE analyses showed that cesium and silicon were uniformly distributed throughout both phases of the pellet. This indicated that the cesium-silicon-clay reaction went to completion. Aluminum homogeneity was unconfirmed due to the high background noise associated with the inherent radioactivity of the test specimens. X-ray diffraction analyses of both radioactive and non-radioactive aluminosilicate pellets confirmed the crystal lattice structure to be pollucite. Cesium ion quasistatic leachability measurements determined the leach rates of fully loaded 137Cs sectioned pollucite pellets to date to be 4.61 to 34.4 x 10-10 kg m-2s-1, while static leach tests performed on unsectioned fully loaded pellets showed the leach rates of the cesium ion to date to be 2.25 to 3.41 x 10-12 kg m-2s-1. The cesium ion diffusion coefficients through the pollucite pellet were calculated using Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. The diffusion coefficients calculated for three tracer level 137Cs aluminosilicate pellets were 1.29 x 10-16m2s-1, 6.88 x 10-17m2s-1, and 1.35 x 10-17m2s-1, respectively

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2006-10-09

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2007-04-04

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  8. Investigations into the transfer of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in selected exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project investigates the behaviour of radiocesium and strontium 90 in natural conifer forest sites and derives corresponding transfer factors for radioecological calculations. As a point of particular interest the question was investigated in how far the requirements of the different mushroom species and the properties of the forest soil bear on the dynamics and transfer rate of radiocesium and strontium 90. To complement the investigations, autotrophic plants were included. The results of these studies are compared with the behaviour of the same radionuclides on farmland. The differences are discussed. (orig./HP)

  9. EFFECTIVE HALF-LIFE OF CESIUM-137 IN VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Paller, M.; Baker, R.

    2013-12-12

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly {sup 137}Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (T{sub e}) of {sup 137}Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the T{sub e}s of {sup 137}Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These T{sub e}s were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall T{sub e} of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the T{sub e} for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of {sup 137}Cs removal. The shortest T{sub e}s were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid {sup 137}Cs removal. Long-term data show that T{sub e}s are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of {sup 137}Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate T{sub e}s beyond this period unless the processes governing {sup 137}Cs removal are clearly understood.

  10. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish; from July 1978 to December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The results obtained from July 1978 to December 1978 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish; from Nov. 1978 to Jan. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The results obtained from November 1978 to January 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish; from Nov. 1978 to Dec. 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The results obtained from November 1978 to December 1979 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh-water fish; April, 1977 to March, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each sample is washed in water and wiped with filter paper. Only the estable portion is used in case of a large-sized fish, and the whole is used in case of a small fish. Each is weighed, placed on a stainless pan or porcelain dish, carbonized and further ashed in an electric oven. The results obtained from April 1977 to March 1978 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish; from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The results obtained from January 1980 to December 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish; from Dec. 1979 to Dec. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The results obtained from December 1979 to December 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish (from Jul. 1984 to Dec. 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 96 +- 1.7 pCi/kg in Cyprinus carpio collected from Akita in July 1984; and that of Cs-137 was 11 +- 0.7 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus from Fukui in December 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Determination of cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios for vegetables in Goiania City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological accident that occurred in Goiania City, Brazil, in September 1987, led to the spreading of 137Cs in the urban area. Even after the decontamination procedure, there was a reminiscence of 137Cs activity in the soil of residential gardens. This activity was enough to conduct preliminary experiments for determination of soil to vegetable concentration ratios. Experiments were conducted for carrots, lettuce and radishes. Two types of experimental patterns were used to determine the concentration ratios: lysimeters cultivation under greenhouse condition and soil cultivation in open field plot. The concentration ratios measured for cultivation under greenhouse and field plot conditions are considerably higher than those mentioned in the International Union of Radioecologist (IUR) data bank for the same vegetables and cultivation condition. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in vegetables; April, 1977 to March, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable materials divide into edible herbs (green vegetable) and edible roots. In principle, spinach represents green vegetable, while Japanese radish, edible roots. Each material is washed with water to remove mud. Green vegetable gets rid of leaves and roots which are not eaten. After dried, each sample is carbonized on a stainless pan or porcelain dish. The results obtained from April 1977 to March 1978 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  19. Behavior appropriateness of cesium-137 and strontium-90 radionuclides within transsuperaqual landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for different elements of transsuperaqual landscape. Their lateral and radial differentiation were estimated, their activity in vegetative cover of different parts of mentioned landscape as well. Possibilities of one or another agricultural land use type are considered depending on contamination density caused by given nuclides. (Authors)

  20. Cesium 137 and natural radioactive isotopes in the sediments of lake Zarzar in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study comprises both natural and industrial radioactive isotopes in the sediments of lake Zarzar. The study utilises the measurements obtained for uranium and thorium concentration in the sediments and the ratio of their isotopes. The decrease in Lead 210 activity with the depth of sediments, and the analysis of cesium concentrations measured to determine the level of the radioactive contamination caused by Thiocarbonyl accident and to accurately calculate sedimentation rate. The study revealed that both uranium and thorium concentrations in lake Zarzar sediments were very near to the normal international values. It also showed that average 234U/238U ratio were 1 indicating later uranium accumulation in reduced water. Cesium measurements revealed the presence of high levels of 137 Cs in sediment which was attributed to the Thiocarbamoyl accident. The rate of sedimentation calculated from cesium and 210Pb measurements were approximately similar (0.81 cm/year for cesium and 0.65 cm/year for lead). This helped in verifying the accuracy of the methods used in obtaining these measurements in this study. (author)

  1. Development of cesium 137 plant uptake predicting model using geographical information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-plant system is a critical component of food chain in processes of Cs 137 migration. In this component it is possible to decrease greatly Cs 137 uptake in food chain. Development of Cs 137 migration model in soil-plant system enable to determine amount of Cs 137 in plant uptake and evaluate agricultural produce accordance with modern ecological requirements. Also this model can help with management of agricultural production. Geographical information systems (GIS) have a wide propagation in radioecology at present time. Models using GIS have several advantages: relative simplicity of evaluation, visualization of evaluated results etc. As a result, plots with possible Cs 137 uptake increasing could be easily discovered. Physical decay, Cs 137 sorption and fixation by soil, Cs 137 vertical migration in soil profile and plant uptake are the main components of the Cs 137 migration model in soil-plant system. Content of biologically available Cs 137 calculated taking into account all of these components. Using GIS with Cs 137 migration model in soil-plant system lets efficiently discover those factors that have major influence on Cs 137 plant uptake increasing. This model improves agricultural production on territories, which polluted by Cs 137

  2. Biological proliferation of cesium-137 through the detrital food chain in a forest ecosystem in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masashi; Ohte, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Igarashi, Yoshiaki; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides, including (137)Cs, were released from the disabled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and had been deposited broadly over forested areas of north-eastern Honshu Island, Japan. In the forest, (137)Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. Monitoring of the distribution of (137)Cs among functional groups clearly showed the role of the detrital food chain as the primary channel of (137)Cs transfer to consumer organisms. Although many studies have reported the bioaccumulation (or dilution) of radioactive materials through trophic interactions, the present results highlight the importance of examining multiple possible pathways (e.g., grazing vs. detrital chains) in the proliferation of (137)Cs through food webs. These results provide important insight into the future distribution and transfer of (137)Cs within forest ecosystems. PMID:24398571

  3. Zirconium phosphate waste forms for low-temperature stabilization of cesium-137-containing waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of waste streams that are not amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes because volatiles are present in the wastes. A composite of zirconium-magnesium phosphate has been developed and shown to stabilize ash waste contaminated with a radioactive surrogate of 137Cs. Excellent retainment of cesium in the phosphate matrix system was observed in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests. This was attributed to the capture of cesium in the layered zirconium phosphate structure by intercalation ion-exchange reaction. But because zirconium phosphate has low strength, a novel zirconium/magnesium phosphate composite waste form system was developed. The performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfy the regulatory criteria. Test results indicate that zirconium-magnesium-phosphate-based final waste forms present a viable technology for treatment and solidification of cesium-contaminated wastes

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (green tea); from May 1978 to July 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The results obtained from May 1978 to July 1978 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) (from Jun. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1985, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 53 +- 3.0 pCi/kg in tea collected from Shuzenji-machi, Shizuoka; and that of Cs-137 was 36 +- 2.3 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kaya-machi, Kyoto. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Jun. 1984 to Dec. 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Twelve species of fish (Hexagrammos otakii, Trachurus japonicus, Sardinops melanostictus, Sebastiscus marmoratus, Limanda herzensteini, Spratelloides gracilis, Oncorhynchus keta, Scomber japonicus, Chrysophrys major, Seriola quiqueradiata, Mugil cephalus, and Decapterus muroadsi) were collected during the fishing season from 22 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in cases of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in cases of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 2.1 +- 0.32 pCi/kg in Chrysophrys major collected from Akita in September 1984; and that of Cs-137 was 8.7 +- 0.44 pCi/kg in Oncorhynchus keta collected from Hokkaido in November 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish from Nov. 1983 to Jun. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Seven species of fish (Branchiostegus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, Limanda herzensteini, Sillago sihama, Pneumatophorus japonicus, Caesio chrysozonus cuvier, and Sebastes Inermis) were collected during the fishing season from 8 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 was 1.0+-0.25 pCi/kg in Sebastes Inermis collected from Yamaguchi in April 1984; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 14.0+-0.60 pCi/kg in Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kochi in May 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Nov. 1984 to Jun. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Seven species of fish (Branchiostegus sp., Katsuwonus pelamis, Limanda herzensteini, Sillago sihama, Scomber japonicus, Caesio chrysozonus cuvier, and Sebastes Inermis) were collected during the fishing season from nine sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in cases of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in cases of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonization, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 0.9 +- 0.26 pCi/kg in Limanda herzensteini collected from Hiroshima in March 1985; and that of Cs-137 was 12 +- 0.5 pCi/kg in Katsuwonus pelamis collected from Kochi in May 1985. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea fish (from Aug. 1983 to Dec. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in sea fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Thirteen species of fish (Hexagrammos otakii, Trachurus trachurus, Sardinops melanosticta, Sebastiscus marmoratus, Limanda herzensteini, Spratelloides gracilis, Oncorhynchus keta, Scomber japonicus, Chrysophrys major, Arctoscopus japonicus, Seriola quinqueradiata, Mugil cephalus, and Decapterus muroadsi) were collected during the fishing season from 22 sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in cases of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in cases of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 1.9 +- 0.34 pCi/kg in Mugil cephalus collected from Okayama in November 1983; and that of Cs-137 was 9.0 +- 0.46 pCi/kg in Seriola quinqueradiata collected from Ishikawa in October 1983. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Cesium-137 activity in soil from an agricultural land in West Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the radiocesium derived from the accident at Chernobyl in 1986 deposited on the soil, this study presents experimental data on Cs-137 activity concentrations in soil samples taken from agricultural land of Aegean Region in Turkey in 1997 and 1998. The activity of Cs-137 for these soil samples was found in the range between 0.92±0.15 Bq/kg and 20.75±0.29 Bq/kg. The distribution of Cs-137 in the soil can differ, being dependent on soil properties

  11. Cesium-137 in the soils of forest ecosystems of the Saarland (South-western Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopes and main features: In order to explain the behaviour of the artificial radioisotope 137Cs towards landscape resources in the Saar-Lor-Lux-Region, the cross-border region between southwestern Germany/Saarland, France/Lorraine and Luxembourg, regional distribution as well as downward translocation and depth functions of 137Cs in the main soil substrates of forest ecosystems in the Saarland were investigated. Results: The study shows that the highest 137Cs activities are found in the north of the Saarland, whereas the south and south-easten regions show distinctly lower concentrations of 137Cs. Migration rates range between 0.25 cm/a and 1.0 cm/a. On an average, the highest migration rates were found in the clayey-silty substrates of the lime stone areas in the Muschelkalk regions (Middle Triassic) (0.66 cm/a), followed by the loamy substrates of Lower Permian clastic sediments (Unterrotliegendes) (0.53 cm/a) and the sandy substrates of the Buntsandstein areas (Lower Triassic sandstone) (0.41 cm/a). 90 to 95% of the 137Cs activities in the clay-poor soils of the Unterrotliegendes and the Buntsandstein were traced in the upper 10 cm of the humus topsoil. The substrates of the lime stone areas (Muschelkalk), in contrast to this, reveal a 137Cs activity of only 70-76% at the same depth. Conclusions: Due to the fact that the primary and secondary pores of the soil pore system, in their function as translocation pathways, decrease with increasing soil depth, a significant reduction in the migration rates of 137Cs can be expected with increasing soil depth. On the other hand, the maximal migration depth of 40 cm found in shallow soils on jointed parent material, as well as on sites with high groundwater tables, implies a possible contamination of near-surface groundwater. Future outlook: Based on the results of this study, a permanent monitoring of 137Cs was added to the long-term Soil Monitoring Program run by the Federal Administrative Office of Environment of the Saarland (Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz des Saarlandes). (orig.)

  12. Cesium-137 urinary excretion by northeastern (Pordenone) Italian people following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the radiological consequences in humans due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (5 May 1986), we have determined both the 137Cs concentration in food and the 137Cs daily urinary excretion on 198 residents of the Pordenone area. The resulting experimental data have been compared with those estimated from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 10A model (ICRP 1971) using a suitable dietary intake, and they were found to be in reasonable agreement

  13. Simulation software of radioactive decay, β and γ disintegration of cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a software dedicated to radioactivity studies, in particular to radioactive decays. The software has been developed to model the C.R.A.B. (Alpha Beta radioactivity counter), a device constructed in the seventies for use as an educational support for radioactive studies in french schools. The evolution of safety rules prevents nowadays the use of such educational devices in schools. At the origin, the software was developed to train students before a tutorial session using a real radioactive source of Cesium 237 and now the software substitutes entirely the experiments. Indeed, the simulation reassures parents and students who are always afraid of radioactivity. Various studies are proposed: study of the exponential nuclear radioactive decay on a network of radioactive nuclei and roll of dices, Poisson and Gauss distributions, influence of the source-detector distance, radiation absorption by aluminum or by lead. This software is currently used either in the last year of high school or at the University for students in their first year. (author)

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater; from Oct. 1978 to June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of fresh water, 100 l each, were collected. The carriers of Sr and Cs were added immediately after the sampling, and the samples were vigorously stirred and filtered, then passed through cation exchange columns. Sr and Cs were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange columns. Sr-90 and Cs-137 were separated from the sample solutions by the methods described, and their activities were counted with low background beta counters for 60 min. The net rate of sample counting was corrected for the counter efficiency, recovery, self-absorption and decay. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in fresh water obtained from October, 1978, to June, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months and the locations of sampling, pH, and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (pCi/l) are shown. The maximum values are 0.39 pCi/l of Sr-90 and 0.09 pCi/l of Cs-137 found in Miho County, Fukui Prefecture, in December, 1978. (Kako, I.)

  15. Using of cesium - 137 for the soil erosion and sedimentation process assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil erosion and the sedimentation of the eroded material in flood plain and water body represent a major problem in many parts of the world. Classical methods for erosion assessment have a lot of disadvantages that can be avoided by measurement of soil radionuclide content. Cs-137 monitoring for erosion and sedimentation assessment has the advantage of giving data about this phenomena mediated on a long time period. Cs-137 is a radioactive isotope with special chemical and physical characteristics that permit its use in long term investigation of the environment problems, especially in erosion and sedimentation process assessment. Cesium is strongly adsorbed on clay fraction of soil and for this reason the soil movement involves the cesium content too. Due to the nuclear tests in atmosphere done especially in the years '50 and the beginning of '60, but mainly due to the nuclear accident from Chernobyl in 1986, a great amount of Cs-137 was deposited on the Romanian territory. The deposition from nuclear test could be considered uniform over Romania, but the deposition of Cs-137 originating from Chernobyl accident was extremely non-uniform because of meteorological conditions from the spring of 1996, when many local rains were registered. In Romania there are several areas strongly affected by erosion especially in the central part of Moldavian Table Land, where many conservation actions were implemented to prevent the environment degradation. To characterize the inventory of Cs-137, samples of soil, sediment and water were taken. The investigated area is located in Moldavia; samples were collected from Tutovei Hill, Moldavian Central Table Land and Moldavian Plain. The erosion rates on the investigated agricultural terraces (located far away from the top of the slope) are high, up to 2 cm/year. The sedimentation has also high values in these areas ranging from 2 to 4 cm/year. (authors)

  16. Depth distribution of cesium-137 in paddy fields across the Fukushima pollution plume in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Hugo; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lefèvre, Irène; Laceby, J Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Large quantities of radiocesium were deposited across a 3000 km(2) area northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant after the March 2011 accident. Although many studies have investigated the fate of (137)Cs in soil in the months following the accident, the depth distribution of this radioactive contaminant in rice paddy fields requires further examination after the typhoons that occurred in this region. Such investigations will help minimize potential human exposure in rice paddy fields. Radionuclide activity concentrations, organic content and particle size were analysed in 10 soil cores sampled from paddy fields in November 2013, 20 km north of the Fukushima power plant. Our results demonstrate limited depth migration of (137)Cs with the majority concentrated in the uppermost layers of soils (decontamination works may increase soil erodibility. We therefore recommend the rapid removal of the uppermost - contaminated - layer of the soil after removing the vegetation to avoid erosion of contaminated material during the subsequent rainfall events. Further analysis is required to thoroughly understand the impacts of erosion on the redistribution of radiocesium throughout the Fukushima Prefecture. PMID:26026933

  17. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisot, Florian [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul [UMR 5805 EPOC – OASU, Station marine d’Arcachon, Université Bordeaux 1, Arcachon 33120 (France); Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Alonzo, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, St Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We exposed three successive generations of Daphnia magna to chronic gamma radiation. • We examined DNA alterations and effects on survival, growth and reproduction. • DNA alterations were accumulated over a generation and transmitted to the progeny. • Effects on survival and reproduction, and delay in growth increased over generations. - Abstract: This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h{sup −1}). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h{sup −1} in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h{sup −1} at hatching to 0.007 mGy h{sup −1} after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h{sup −1} at hatching to 0.007 mGy h{sup −1} after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h{sup −1} and DNA alterations significant at highest

  18. Effect of chronic exposure to gamma radiation and of hormonal stimulation with serum gonadotropin on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenals of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects were studied of exposure to whole body continuous irradiation and of the administration of serum gonadotropin (SG) on the concentration of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenal glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized estrus. The first group (young barren ewes) and second group (older ewes) were exposed to continuous radiation of 60Co for five days. The radiation was applied at a rate of 0.020 Gy per hour. After the termination of irradiation the ewes were subjected to hormonal stimulation by fractionated administration of 1500 I.U. SG. The third and fourth experimental groups of ewes were stimulated with 1500 I.U. SG without irradiation. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by adsorption chromatography and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Chronic exposure to gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation with SG reduced the concentration of norepinephrine in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of the adult ewes and in the rostral and caudal hypothalamus regions of the young ewes. A decrease in norepinephrine concentration, statistically significant in the caudal (P<0.01) and medial hypothalamus was recorded in the group of adult ewes after hormonal stimulation with SG without irradiation. The experimental group of young ewes responded to hormonal stimulation by a greater reduction of norepinephrine contents as compared with combined exposure to radiation and hormonal stimulation. It is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after hormonal stimulation with SG is associated with the increase in the contents of estrogens which act on the adrenergic receptors of the hypothalamus. (author). 4 figs., 21 refs

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  20. Exposure to chronic psychosocial stress and corticosterone in the rat : Effects on spatial discrimination learning and hippocampal protein kinase C gamma immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krugers, HJ; Douma, BRK; Bohus, B; Korf, J; Luiten, PGM; Krugers, Harm J.

    1997-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated a striking increase of the immunoreactivity of the gamma-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC gamma-ir) in Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus (DC) of rodent hippocampus after training in a spatial orientation task. In the present study, we investigated how 8 days of psycho

  1. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Florian; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Alonzo, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h(-1)). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h(-1) increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h(-1) in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h(-1) at hatching to 0.007 mGy h(-1) after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h(-1) at hatching to 0.007 mGy h(-1) after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h(-1) and DNA alterations significant at highest dose rates only. The study improved our understanding of long term responses to low doses of radiation at the molecular and organismic levels in a non-human species for a better radioprotection of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25840277

  2. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  3. Radioecological state of some surface water systems of contaminated areas of both Gomel and Mogilev Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioecological situation of different ecosystems of Belarus and their components has been analysed. Such components of the surface water ecosystems as water, suspensions, sediments and soils of water-collection areas were used for the investigation of the content of cesium 137 and strontium 90. The received data were given since 1990. The content of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in the components of water ecosystems was counted in the laboratory conditions by means of standard methods of beta radiometry, semiconductor gamma spectrometry and radiochemistry. The error of measurement of radioactivity was not higher than 25 and 35% for cesium 137 and strontium 90 accordingly. Water ecosystems were distinguished by the state of contamination of water-collection areas and hydrological parameters. These and some other reasons considered in the article influence on the character of cesium 137 and strontium 90 behaviour in water ecosystems

  4. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  5. Chronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation of epididymally derived white adipocyte cultures reveals a population of thermogenically competent, UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Natasa; Walden, Tomas B; Shabalina, Irina G;

    2009-01-01

    The recent insight that brown adipocytes and muscle cells share a common origin and in this respect are distinct from white adipocytes has spurred questions concerning the origin and molecular characteristics of the UCP1-expressing cells observed in classic white adipose tissue depots under certain...... physiological or pharmacological conditions. Examining precursors from the purest white adipose tissue depot (epididymal), we report here that chronic treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone promotes not only the expression of PGC-1alpha and mitochondriogenesis...... factors now associated with classic brown adipocytes (Zic1, Lhx8, Meox2, and characteristically PRDM16) or for myocyte-associated genes (myogenin and myomirs (muscle-specific microRNAs)) and retain white fat characteristics such as Hoxc9 expression. Co-culture experiments verify that the UCP1-expressing...

  6. Age and sex dependence in tumorigenesis in mice by continuous low-dose-rate gamma-ray whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the dependency of sex and age in mice in the induction of neoplasms by gamma-rays from cesium-137 at a low dose rate of 0.375Gy/22h/day. Thymic lymphomas occurred significantly at the same incidence in both sexes, and more frequently when younger mice were exposed to radiation. Strain C57BL/6J mice were divided into 8 groups, which were whole-body irradiated with a total dose of 39Gy for 105 days each. The exposure was begun at 28 days of age (male:AM1, female:AF1), and then stepwise increasing the starting age by 105 days, i.e., from 133 days (AM2 and AF2), from 238 days (AM3 and AF3), and from 343 days (AM4 and AF4), respectively. Unirradiated mice served as control (UM and UF). The incidence of thymic lymphomas was about 60 % in AM1, AM2, AF1 and AF2, 40 % in AM3 and AF3 and 20 % in AF4 and AF4, demonstrating no sex dependency, but a distinct age dependency, for lymphomogenesis. It was proven that mice showed a tendency to become less susceptible to radiation induced thymic lymphoma with increasing age. Concomitantly, life-shortening also was caused, and the greater the degree of life-shortening was, the younger the mice were the start of exposure. Life-shortening was attributed to thymic lymphoma, and hemorrhage and infectious diseases due to the depletion of bone marrow cells. (author)

  7. Whole body retention of Se-75-homotaurocholic acid (SeBCAT) using a Gamma Camera: A new test in chronic diarrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, H.; Palma, R.; Pfau, J.; Coudeu, I.; Bauer, K.

    1985-05-01

    Bile acid malabsorption has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea. Se-75HCAT, a bile acid, is absorbed in the terminal ileum. Therefore, measurement of its body retention indicate ileal function not requiring fecal collections. The authors studied 8 normal volunteers presenting with chronic recurrent diarrhea for more than 2 years. Each received orally a 10 ..mu..Ci capsule of SeHCAT (Amersham Intl.) and 3 hours later anterior and posterior whole body activity was measured using a digital camera without collimator. Measurements were repeated daily for 7 days and expressed as % of retention. Three patients had normal retention (1 celiac disease, 1 inactive Crohn disease and 1 functional diarrhea), another was borderline (an immunodeficiency) and 4 patients presented abnormal bile acid absorption (2 had vagotomy, 1 Crohn disease and 1 idiopathic diarrhea). This last group was treated with cholestyramine showing improvement of the diarrhea, and relapse on drug withdrawal. These findings demonstrate that this technique can identify bile acid malabsorption as the cause of chronic diarrhea by external counting.

  8. CD161+CD4+ T cells are enriched in the liver during chronic hepatitis and associated with co-secretion of IL-22 and Interferon-gamma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hoi eKang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. CD4+ T cells play a key role in disease outcome. However, the critical functions and associated phenotypes of intrahepatic CD4+ T cells are not well defined. We have previously shown that CD8+ T cells expressing the C type lectin CD161 are highly enriched in the human liver, especially during chronic hepatitis. These cells are associated with a type 17 differentiation pattern and express cytokines including IL-17A, IL-22 and IFNγ. We therefore analysed expression of CD161 on CD4+ T cells in blood and liver and addressed the relevant phenotype and functional capacity of these populations. We observed marked enrichment of CD161+CD4+ T cells in the liver during chronic hepatitis such that they are the dominant subtype (mean 55% of CD4+ T cells. IL-22 and IL-17 secreting CD4+ cells were readily found in the livers of HCV+ and NASH donors, although not enriched compared to blood. There was, however, specific enrichment of a novel subset of IL-22/IFN-γ dual secretors (p=0.02 compared to blood, a result reconfirmed with direct ex vivo analyses. These data indicate the dominance of CD161+ expressing lymphocyte populations within the hepatic infiltrate, associated with a distinct cytokine profile. Given their documented roles as antiviral and hepatoprotective cytokines respectively, the impact of co-secretion of IFNγ and IL-22 in the liver may be particularly significant.

  9. Whole body retention of Se-75-homotaurocholic acid (SeBCAT) using a Gamma Camera: A new test in chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bile acid malabsorption has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea. Se-75HCAT, a bile acid, is absorbed in the terminal ileum. Therefore, measurement of its body retention indicate ileal function not requiring fecal collections. The authors studied 8 normal volunteers presenting with chronic recurrent diarrhea for more than 2 years. Each received orally a 10 μCi capsule of SeHCAT (Amersham Intl.) and 3 hours later anterior and posterior whole body activity was measured using a digital camera without collimator. Measurements were repeated daily for 7 days and expressed as % of retention. Three patients had normal retention (1 celiac disease, 1 inactive Crohn disease and 1 functional diarrhea), another was borderline (an immunodeficiency) and 4 patients presented abnormal bile acid absorption (2 had vagotomy, 1 Crohn disease and 1 idiopathic diarrhea). This last group was treated with cholestyramine showing improvement of the diarrhea, and relapse on drug withdrawal. These findings demonstrate that this technique can identify bile acid malabsorption as the cause of chronic diarrhea by external counting

  10. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  11. Influence of preliminary chronic irradiation and treatment with. cap alpha. -tocopherol on the frequency of chromosome aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells induced by acute. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, A.A.; Akhundov, V.Yu.; Alekperov, U.K.; Gamzaeva, I.A.; Asadova, A.I.; Shekhtman, A.B.; Gabaj, N.S. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Inst. Botaniki)

    The incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of femur did not exceed the spontaneous one in CBA mice exposed, during 70 days, to ..gamma..-radiation at dose-rates of 33.7-35.8 nA/kg and cumulative dose of 2.75 Gy. A single acute exposure of intact animals to a dose of 2.98 Gy increased significantly the mutation level. Preirradiation with small doses increased the resistance of hereditary structures to sublethal radiation doses. Exogenous ..cap alpha..-tocopherol (0.06 mg/20 g mass) protected the genetic apparatus of cells from total-body irradiation and was an additional factor decreasing the mutaton level after acute exposure of mice at the background of long-term irradiation with small doses.

  12. Effects of chronic gamma irradiation and inbreeding on manifestations of some quantitative traits in G3I1 generation of winter rye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 3 doses of radiation upon the manifestation and extension of phenotypic variability in some quantitative traits (4 experimental treatments A to D) were estimated in the G3I1 generation after chronic irradiation with 60Co and inbreeding in the G2 generation. Treatment A involved doses of 0.8927 to 0.6966 C.kg-1, treatment B 0.3354 to 0.3011 C.kg-1, treatment C 0.1014 to 0.0916 C.kg-1 and treatment D no irradiation (controls). The efficiency of the doses was evaluated according to the height of plants, the weight of 1000 grains, the number of grains per ear, and gross protein content in grains. An increase in the phenotypic variability was demonstrated in the major part of traits under study. Statistically significant differences between individual treatments were found. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the oxidative stress modulation in Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous antioxidants and with chronic exposure to casiopeina Cas II-gly and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The casiopeinas are a family of coordination compounds with copper metallic center that have shown to have antineoplastic activity. The experimental evidences suggest that its action mechanism is through the generation of free radicals. The casiopeina (Cas II-gly) is believed to causes oxidative damage in the mitochondria, leading to the cellular death. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the tetrapyrroles: cupro-sodica chlorophyllin (CSC), protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) and the bilirubin (Bili) against the oxidant action of the Cas II-gly. The present study will also contribute in the characterization of the biological activity of the Cas II-gly. For this purpose is quantifies the effect of these compounds in the enzymes activity, superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) in wild Drosophila melanogaster strains Canton-S and in the deficient in Sod and Cat. Two protocols were used, in the first male of 1-24 h of age were pre-treated with 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 m M of Cas II-gly and later on they were treated with radiation (15 Gy), and the second 69 m M of CSC, Pp-Ix or Bili, during 8 days and later they were treated with 0.1 m M of Cas II-gly during 24 h. The enzymatic activity was measured with the detection packages of enzymes Sod and Cat of Sigma. It was found that none of the three pigments increment the Sod activity but, if they diminished that of Cat (p≤0.007). The three concentrations of Cas II-gly did not increase the Sod activity significantly, only the concentration of 0.1 m M diminishes in 5.6 U the Cat activity (p <0.03) the same as the treatment with 15 Gy of gamma rays (8 U, p <0.004). The Cas II-gly combination 0.1 m M with the pigments does not modify the Sod and Cat activity. These results suggest that the proven pigments act as antioxidants, avoiding the induction of exogenous antioxidants caused by the gamma rays or the Cas II-gly. (Author)

  14. Use of cesium-137 as a tracer in the study of rates and patterns of floodplain sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates and patterns of contemporary floodplain sedimentation have proved difficult to document using conventional monitoring techniques due to both operational and spatial sampling constraints. The use of fallout radionuclide tracers, particularly 137Cs, offers an alternative approach to investigating floodplain sedimentation. The 137Cs content of floodplain sediments reflects two primary sources; firstly atmospheric fallout to the floodplain surface and, secondly, the deposition of sediment-associated 137Cs during flood events. By analyzing either the depth distribution of 137Cs or the total 137Cs inventory of sediment cores, it is possible to derive estimates of average deposition rates over the past 35 years. Spatial variation of the grain size composition of deposited sediment must, however, also be considered when interpreting inventory data. This paper describes a procedure for deriving estimates of sedimentation rates for individual points on the floodplain based on measurements of the total 137Cs inventory and the 137Cs content of surface sediment. (Author)

  15. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of cesium-137 on Rhodosporidium fluviale strain UA2 isolated from cesium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify a more efficient biosorbent for 137Cs, we have investigated the biosorption behavior and mechanism of 137Cs on Rhodosporidium fluviale (R. fluviale) strain UA2, one of the dominant species of a fungal group isolated from a stable cesium solution. We observed that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 was a fast and pH-dependent process in the solution composed of R. fluviale strain UA2 (5 g/L) and cesium (1 mg/L). While a Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of 137Cs was a monolayer adsorption, the biosorption behavior implied that R. fluviale strain UA2 adsorbed cesium ions by electrostatic attraction. The TEM analysis revealed that cesium ions were absorbed into the cytoplasm of R. fluviale strain UA2 across the cell membrane, not merely fixed on the cell surface, which implied that a mechanism of metal uptake contributed largely to the cesium biosorption process. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS analyses showed that ion-exchange was another biosorption mechanism for the cell biosorption of 137Cs, in which the decreased potassium ions were replaced by cesium ions. All the above results implied that the biosorption of 137Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 involved a two-step process. The first step is passive biosorption that cesium ions are adsorbed to cells surface by electrostatic attraction; after that, the second step is active biosorption that cesium ions penetrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Microorganisms isolated from a cesium solution are considered as a biosorbent to remove cesium ions. • The biosorption equilibrium is fitted well to a Langmuir model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997. • First attempt to explore biosorption mechanisms using PIXE and EPBS. • Living and dead microorganisms have different biosorption mechanisms. • The biosorption of 137Cs involved a two-step process: passive and active

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program); from Nov. 1978 to Nov. 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw milk was collected in producing districts. Milk in a stianless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The results obtained from November 1978 to November 1979 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program); from June 1980 to Oct. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw milk was collected in producing districts. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The results obtained from June 1980 to October 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for domestic program); from Feb. 1979 to Oct. 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw milk was collected in producing districts. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The results obtained from February 1979 to October 1979 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program) (from Dec. 1984 to Jun. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk from producing districts for WHO program were determined using radiochemical analysis. Raw milk was collected from ten sampling locations. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 5.5 +- 0.34 pCi/l in milk from Tokyo in February 1985; and that of Cs-137 was 24 +- 0.6 pCi/l in milk from Tokyo in May 1985. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program) (from Apr. 1981 to Nov. 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Sr and 137Cs in milk (producing districts for WHO program) were determined. Raw milk was collected in producing districts. The results from April to November 1981 are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program); from April 1980 to Nov. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw milk was collected in producing districts. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The results obtained from April 1980 to November 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (producing districts for WHO program); from Aug. 1979 to Jun. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw milk was collected in producing districts. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The results obtained from August 1979 to June 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  3. Dose distribution and risk factors in tele cobalt therapy and intracavitary treatment with sealed sources of Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate dose to organs, outside the treatment volume. The experimental measurements were done using TLD dosemeters, placed in various regions of a Rando Alderson Phantom. The theoretical absorbed doses were calculated using the Monte Carlo method applied to a mathematical phantom. (author)

  4. Report about decontamination and follow-up of Cesium-137 radiation victims at the FEBEM unit in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired experience and the facts related to treatment and external decontamination of contaminated people of the primary group of the Goiania accident are reported. This group was sent to Unidade FEBEM from October 10 to December 20, 1987. The external decontamination methods and the observed results obtained by daily monitoring reports are presented. Furthermore, the applied methodology to release people or to ask them for further periodical check ups at the radiological control units is also presented. (author)

  5. 76 FR 44378 - Policy Statement of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Protection of Cesium-137...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... as immunology, hematology, stem cell research, bone marrow transplantation, cancer research, in-vivo... medical research. To develop its draft policy statement, the NRC initiated and completed a number of... Register on July 31, 2008 (73 FR 44780), and discussed with stakeholders in a public workshop held...

  6. 75 FR 37483 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on the Protection of Cesium-137 Chloride...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... biomedical research, CsCl irradiation has been used for over 40 years in fields such as immunology, stem cell research, cancer research, in-vivo immunology, systemic drug research, chromosome aberrations, DNA damage... devices for biological and medical research. To develop its draft policy statement, the NRC initiated...

  7. The transfer of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from soil to food crops after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil to plant transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr was studied at seven locations in Finland over 4 and 2 years, respectively. The plant/soil concentration ratio of 137Cs for field crops in the southern area (60o-63oN) ranged from 0.001 to 0.26 and in the northern area (64o-67oN) from 0.01 to 2.29, and that of 90Sr in the whole area from 0.02 to 2.44. The mean concentration ratio of 90Sr was about nine times higher than that of 137Cs in the southern area. The concentration ratio of 137Cs for leaf vegetables fluctuated between years, and that for carrot, potato and especially cereals decreased gradually after the first year. In the fourth year, the mean concentration ratio of 137Cs in the southern area was about 60% of the first year value for coarse mineral soils and 80% of that for clay and silt soils. There was no difference in the average 90Sr ratios between the 2 years studied. The concentration ratio of 137Cs was lower for clay and silt soils than for coarse mineral soils, and the 90Sr ratio was lowest for organic soils. The concentration ratio of 137Cs for vegetables and grain decreased in the order: lettuce, cabbage > carrot, potato > cereals, onion; for fruits in the order: blackcurrant > strawberry > apple, and the concentration ratio of 90Sr decreased in the order: lettuce, cabbage > carrot, onion > cereals > potato

  8. Determination of Cesium - 137 in the Oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) Meat and Seawater Samples from the Lower Gulf of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cs-137 radioactivity was determined in the oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) meat samples which were collected on October 2010 and August 2011. The seawater samples were collected in 3 different provinces of the Lower Gulf of Thailand. The oyster meat samples were prepared as oven dried at 80±C. The seawater samples were prepared with AMP precipitation technique. The results of Cs-137 radioactivity in oyster meat samples in October 2010 were 3.179±2.2929, 3.1797±2.2929 and 3.1797±2.2929 mBq/kg-ww respectively and in August 2011 were 2.5437±2.2029, 1.9078±2.1091 and 3.1797±2.2929 mBq/kg-ww respectively. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of oyster meat samples were estimated to be 10.4723 mBq/kg-ww. Statistic calculation of critical limit (Lc) values of 2.9634mBq/kg-ww was used to confirm the value of Cs-137 radioactivity in oyster meat samples. The Cs-137 radioactivity in seawater samples which had been collected on October 2010 were 4.7806±0.1113, 3.7161±0.0868 and 3.19330.0745 mBq/L, respectively and the average of MDA was 0.4562 mBq/L, on March 2011 were 3.2213±0.0756, 2.7824±0.0653 and 1.9566±0.0462 mBq/L respectively and the average of MDA was 0.3142 mBq/L. The third collection of seawater samples on August 2011 after Fukushima Daiichi crisis accident were 4.9673±0.1155, 3.8469±0.0897 and 3.5294±0.0826 mBq/L respectively and the average of MDA was 0.4793 mBq/L) The results from calculation of radiation dose assessment for general public consumption were found lower than the accepted value (1 mSv/y).

  9. Development of a carousel ion-exchange process for removal of cesium-137 from alkaline nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic model-based approach is used for development of an efficient carousel ion-exchange process for the selective removal of radioactive 137Cs+ from alkaline nuclear waste solutions. Equilibrium data for two resorcinol-formaledhyde (R-F) cation-exchange resins are correlated by an empirical equation of the Freundlich-Langmuir type over cesium/sodium concentration ratios of 10-9 to 10-2 and sodium concentrations of 1 to 6 N. The standard deviations are 3.5 and 6.6%, respectively. The data cannot be accurately described by mass action equations. A detailed rate model, developed in this study for the periodic countercurrent multicolumn operation of carousel systems, is used with the equilibrium correlations to simulate cesium breakthrough curves from R-F resin columns. Results show that accuracy of the predicted breakthrough curves are directly related to the accuracy of the isotherm data and correlations. Cesium breakthrough position is generally predicted to within 5% or less for 10 of 13 runs over linear superficial velocities of 0.16 to 8.8 cm/min, column lengths of 3.14 to 118.5 cm, and particle radii of 145 to 200 microm. One run shows later breakthrough than predicted as a result of a low potassium concentration in the feed. Two other runs show early breakthroughs as a result of channeling in poorly packed columns of a carousel system. Despite the channeling, strong thermodynamic self-sharpening effects helped establish constant pattern waves in the downstream columns. A case study for a pilot-scale carousel unit shows that 100% utilization of cesium capacity and maximum throughput can be achieved while containing the mass transfer zone within the downstream columns. Since intraparticle diffusion controls spreading of the breakthrough curves, reducing the particle radius from 200 to 145 microm increases throughput by 40%

  10. In-vivo determination of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in exposed persons in the Tscheljabinsk region (southern Ural)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the Russians have been busy for decades determining the doses received by, and resulting health effects to, the concerned population - which falls into three groups: (a) workers at the Majak plutonium factory, (b) the population along the Techa river, and (c) the population from the area contaminated by the Kyschtym accident - it is also true that the integral strontium 90 exposure has been, and is being, determined subsequently via whole-body bremsstrahlung measurement (both on the part of the Russians and as a German scheme in 1993). In accordance with what was indicated by the Russian side, the Majak workers were found to have a distinctly higher risk of cancer. The population along the Techa river, too, with an average dose of 0.4 Gy for the red bone marrow, showed a significant increase in the rate of leukemia. By contrast, the persons affected by the Kyschtym accident, with a distinctly lower mean dose of about 0.02 Gy, so far have not shown any long-term effects.-As yet no exact quantitative statement regarding the cancer risks can be made, for two reasons: the comprehensive data material collected by the Russians has not yet been sufficiently evaluated, and suitable control persons need yet to be found. (orig./HP)

  11. An Inorganic Microsphere Composite for the Selective Removal of Cesium 137 from Acidic Nuclear Waste Solutions - Parts 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; T. A. Vereschchagina; V. Utgikar

    2009-03-01

    A new inorganic ion exchange composite for removing radioactive cesium from acidic waste streams has been developed. The new material consists of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C), which are produced as a by-product from coal combustion. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated in bench-scale column tests using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Total cesium loading on the columns at saturation agreed very well with equilibrium values predicted from isotherm experiments performed previously. A numerical algorithm for solving the governing partial differential equations (PDE) for cesium uptake was developed using the intraparticle mass transfer coefficient obtained from previous batch kinetic experiments. Solutions to the governing equations were generated to obtain the cesium concentration at the column effluent as a function of throughput volume using the same conditions as those used for the actual column experiments. The numerical solutions of the PDE fit the column break through data quite well for all the experimental conditions in the study. The model should therefore provide a reliable prediction of column performance at larger scales. A new inorganic ion exchange composite consisting of ammonium molybdophosphate, (NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4•3H2O (AMP), synthesized within hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (AMP-C) has been developed. Two different batches of the sorbent were produced resulting in 20% and 25% AMP loading for two and three loading cycles, respectively. The selective cesium exchange capacity of this inorganic composite was evaluated using simulated sodium bearing waste solution as a surrogate for the acidic tank waste currently stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Equilibrium isotherms obtained from these experiments were very favorable for cesium uptake and indicated maximum cesium loading of approximately 9 % by weight of dry AMP. Batch kinetic experiments were also performed to obtain the necessary data to estimate the effective diffusion coefficient for cesium in the sorbent particle. These experiments resulted in effective intraparticle cesium diffusivity coefficients of 4.99 x 10-8 cm2/min and 4.72 x 10-8 cm2/min for the 20% and 25 % AMP-C material, respectively.

  12. Evaluation and Testing of IONSIV IE-911 for the Removal of Cesium-137 from INEEL Tank Waste and Dissolved Calcines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of waste treatment processes for the remediation of radioactive wastes is currently underway. A number of experiments were performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Environmental Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) with the commercially available sorbent material, IONSIV IE-911, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), manufactured by UOP LLC. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the removal efficiency, sorbent capacity and selectivity of CST for removing Cs-137 from actual and simulated acidic tank waste in addition to dissolved pilot-plant calcine solutions. The scope of this work included batch contact tests performed with non-radioactive dissolved Al and Run-64 pilot plant calcines in addition to simulants representing the average composition of tank waste. Small-scale column tests were performed with actual INEEL tank WM-183 waste, tank waste simulant, dissolved Al and Run-64 pilot plant calcine solutions. Small-scale column experiments using actual WM-183 tank waste resulted in fifty-percent Cs-137 breakthrough at approximately 589 bed volumes. Small-scale column experiments using the tank waste simulant displayed fifty-percent Cs-137 breakthrough at approximately 700 bed volumes. Small-scale column experiments using dissolved Al calcine simulant displayed fifty-percent Cs-137 breakthrough at approximately 795 bed volumes. Column experiments with dissolved Run-64, pilot plant calcine did not reach fifty-percent breakthrough throughout the test

  13. Cesium-137 inventories in Alaskan Tundra, lake and marine sediments: An indicator of recent organic material transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tundra sampling was accomplished in 1989--1990 at Imnavait Creek, Alaska (68 degree 37' N, 149 degree 17' W). Inventories of 137Cs (102--162 mBq/cm2) are close to expectations, based upon measured atmospheric deposition for this latitude. Accumulated inventories of 137Cs in tundra decrease by up to 50% along a transect to Prudhoe Bay (70 degree 13' N, 148 degree 30' W). Atmospheric deposition of 137Cs decreased with latitude in the Arctic, but declines in deposition would have been relatively small over this distance (200 km). This suggests a recent loss of 137Cs and possibly associated organic matter from tundra over the northern portions of the transect between Imnavait Creek and Prudhoe Bay. Sediments from Toolik Lake (68 degree 38' N, 149 degree 38' W) showed widely varying 137Cs inventories, from a low of 22 mBq/cm2 away from the lake inlet, to a high between 140 to >200 mBq/cm2 near the main stream inflow. This was indicative of recent accumulation of cesium and possibly organic material associated with it in arctic lakes, although additional sampling is needed

  14. Exploring techniques applied to select a candidate repository site for cesium-137 radioactive waste from the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology covering aspects of geosciences such as geophysical, geochemical, hydrogeological, geotechnical and surface geological research, were applied to select a candidate site for caesium-137 waste deposition from the Goiania accident. Among the options one with the best characteristics was selected, located about 300 meters west from the provisional site. This article presents a summary of the studies involved. (B.C.A.). 10 refs, 01 fig, 02 tabs

  15. Cesium-137 in the aquatic food-web in Haestholms Bay of the Lovisa area in 1988-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1988-1989 samples from every significant member of the local aquatic ecosystem were taken in order to determine the content of radionuclide concentrations in all the trophic niveaux in the ecosystem. The aim was also to search for eventual top concentrations in the food chain's upper extremities and to find new elements to be used in environmental control. It was also essential to register the content of cesium originating from the Chernobyl accident in the Haestholmen lake, 3 years after the event. The methods and results of this investigation are described. (AB)

  16. Use of radioactive fallout cesium-137 to estimate soil erosion on three farms in west central Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the impact of soil erosion on productivity and environment quality requires comprehensive and credible estimates of erosion. Measuring concentration of 137Cs fallout is a relatively simple and rapid technique for determining long-term mean annual rates of soil erosion and deposition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the 137Cs activity-soil depth relationship in estimating soil erosion from arable land in west central Ohio. Thus, soil samples obtained from three to four genetic horizons of four erosion phases at three farms in Clark Co., Ohio, (hereafter called Sites A, B, and C) were analyzed for 137Cs activity. Relationships between 137Cs activity and soil depth at undisturbed reference sites were used to calculate the depth of soil eroded and mean annual erosion rates. Cumulative 137Cs activities ranged from 6.8 mBq g-1 for the severely eroded phase at Site C to 16.6 mBq g-1 for the deposition phase at Site A. These activities corresponded to soil erosion rates of 125.9 Mg ha-1 y-1 for severe to 26.6 Mg ha-1 y-1 for deposition phases. A general trend of increasing soil erosion (by 24 to 85%) from slightly to severely eroded phases was observed although the data were highly variable. Estimated soil erosion rates depended on the regression model used and were more than an order of magnitude higher than those determined using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. Sampling rigorously at small depth increments by means of a core sampler, careful selection of reference sites, and calibration or validation of this technique with other models can improve estimation of soil erosion using 137Cs. The 137Cs technique is, however, limited to local scale estimates of erosion because the empirical models are site specific

  17. Geographic and vertical distribution of global fallout americium 241, plutonium isotopes and cesium 137 in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we present results concerning the activity concentrations of 241Am, 239-240Pu, 238Pu and 137Cs in lake sediments. Bulk cores for radionuclide inventories and high resolution cores for depth distribution are analysed

  18. Migration cesium 137 in the soils of pine-tree plantings of resettlement zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were conducted since 1986 up to 1992 on sand soils for average-aged pine-tree planting. Density of contamination of soil surface with 137Cs was about 5-225 Ci/km2. It has been shown that dissemination of 137Cs in the soil vertically with the time is changed very slowly. To the 1992-nd in the layer 0-10 cm is contained over 90% of 137Cs, what is differ a little bit from the data obtained after the accident. 3 refs., 1 tab

  19. Fallout of cesium-137 on a forest ecosystem in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest canopies intercepted airborne radionuclide-bearing particles released by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the Savannah River Plant producing higher concentrations and accumulations of 137Cs, 238Pu and sup(239,240)Pu in the forest litter and mineral soil. This impact resulted in 137Cs contents usually more than double that for the control samples not influenced by the plant release. The variations in accumulation and distribution patterns of 137Cs, 238Pu and sup(239,240)Pu were caused by the apparent greater mobility of 137Cs in the soil profile and the time of deposition of the Pu isotopes. The use of 137Cs as an environmental analog for Pu appears questionable as indicated by inconsistent relationships in samples between 137Cs and 238Pu or 137Cs and sup(239,240)Pu. However, its use looks promising in situations elsewhere where erosional transport mechanism determines the mobility of these radionuclides. (author)

  20. Cesium-137 kinetics within soil-plants-agricultural products food chains in the vicinity of ChNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the significance of Cs-137 value within soil-forage-milk and meat of agricultural animals food chains observation of cows has been provided since 1987. Some of these cows have been within 5 km-to-8 km zone of ChNPP. Lower Cs-137 radionuclide kinetics into plants and milk within the nearest zone of ChNPP in comparison with remote districts has been demonstrated. The conclusion has been made that essential sedimentation of the fuel phase of the radionuclide withdrawal that took place within the nearest zone of ChNPP has resulted in low concentrations of radiocesium mobile form in soils in this region. Therefore milk and meat whose contamination levels comply with sanitary standards can be produced at soils where contamination levels are sufficiently high. 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Cesium-137 and potassium contents in low-teens in areas of different fall-out levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative measurements were made by a whole body counter equipped in the University of Tokyo with regard to the 137Cs body burden of 88 Japanese male low-teens in Akita and Tokyo. In spite of the heavy fall-out level in Akita, the mean 137Cs body burden was significantly lower than that in Tokyo where the fall-out deposition was about half. The major cause of the difference in the body burden was considered to be the difference in the daily volume of milk consumption in the two groups which was disclosed from the results of an interview with each subject. The 137Cs content showed a very low correlation with the potassium content in each group. The fact raised an important question concerning the effectiveness of the concept of ''cesium unit'' for describing the level of internal contamination in man. (auth.)

  2. Oak Ridge D and D Plan 3515 Project - Technology Review (2007) and GammaCam Technology Demonstration for Characterizing Building 3515 at Oak Ridge (2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results from the Characterization, Decontamination and Decommissioning (CD and D) Study performed by MSE Technology Application, Inc. (MSE) to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the preparation of a Project Execution Plan and Remediation Plan for Building 3515 at ORNL. Primary objectives of this study were to identify innovative CD and D technologies and methodologies and recommend alternatives applicable to the CD and D of Building 3515. Building 3515 is a small heavily shielded concrete and cement block structure centrally located in the Bethel Valley portion of the ORNL. The building's interior is extensively contaminated with Cesium 137 (Cs-137), the primary contaminant of concern. A previous attempt to characterize the building was limited to general interior area radiation exposure level measurements and a few surface smears gathered by inserting monitoring equipment into the building on long poles. Consequently, the spatial distribution of the gamma radiation source inside the building was not determined. A subsequent plan for D and D of the building presented a high risk of worker radiation dose in excess of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) because the source of the interior gamma radiation field is not completely understood and conventional practices required workers to be in close proximity of the building. As part of an initial literature search, MSE reviewed new generation gamma source characterization technologies and identified the GammaCamTM portable gamma ray imaging system as an innovative technology applicable to locating the dominant gamma ray sources within the building. The GammaCamTM gamma-ray imaging system is a commercially available technology marketed by the EDO Corporation. This system consists of a sensor head with a co-aligned camera and a portable computer. The system is designed to provide two-dimensional spatial mappings of gamma ray emitting nuclides

  3. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m2 and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that could

  4. HI-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements of U-238, TH-232, K-40 and CS-137 concentrations in soil samples from Capao Island at CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Oliveira, Celio J.V.; Vilela, Paulo R.T.; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DDQBN/CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Secao de Defesa Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Absolute soil concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 samples collected from Capao Island have been measured by using Hi-Resolution Gamma HPGe Spectrometry. The area of interest encompasses an embankment in a mangrove swamp in Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, where nuclear, chemical and biological defense laboratories of the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) are located. In order to ensure that no significant environmental impact has resulted from neutron physics experiments performed in a graphite subcritical assembly in addition to the operation of two cesium-driven irradiating facilities, routine monitoring of those isotopes have been regularly performed. A total of eight 250 ml samples of mangrove and embankment soils were extracted from four sites of known coordinates within an area of 300 x 300 m{sup 2} and remained stored for a minimum thirty-day period to allow equilibrium to be reached. Collection and preparation of samples were made according to previously established procedures. High purity germanium detectors were used to obtain high-resolution gamma spectra and counting times were required to exceed 30 hours in order to yield sufficient statistical accuracy. Energy and efficiency calibration curves of the counting system were determined by using the GENIE 2000 software for analysis of the gamma spectrum generated by nine standard sources with a total of 11 peak energies ranging from 0.05 to 1.3 MeV. The results, corrected for background, have been expressed as absolute specific activities. All experiments have been made in the Laboratory for Identification of Radiological Agents (LIAR) at CTEx. No trace of cesium-137 has been found and the measured levels of uranium-238, in the order of 10 Bq/kg, are close to the global mean. However, some data have been found to slightly exceed the expected normal range for thorium-232 (60% of samples) and potassium-40 (20% of samples). Since there is no handling of those isotopes in the site or others that

  5. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  6. Measuring the Luminosity of a gamma gamma Collider with gamma gamma -> l+ l- gamma Events

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko, V.; Moenig, K.; Shishkina, T.

    2003-01-01

    The process gamma gamma -> l+ l- is highly suppressed when the total angular momentum of the two colliding photons is zero so that it cannot be used for luminosity determination. This configuration, however is needed for Higgs production at a photon collider. It will be shown that the process gamma gamma -> l+ l- gamma can be used in this case to measure the luminosity of a collider with a precision that is good enough not to limit the error on the partial decay width Gamma(H -> gamma gamma).

  7. Single-field isodose charts for high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this guide comprises isodose chart specifications divided into four sections: cesium-137 gamma rays, cobalt-60 gamma rays, high-energy x-rays and electron beams. In each section the information is further classified according to the equipment model and the institution of origin. 1 fig

  8. REGULATION OF NEURONAL PLCγ BY CHRONIC MORPHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Nestler, Eric J.; Russell, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Alterations in neurotrophic signaling pathways may contribute to the changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system induced by chronic morphine exposure. In a rat model of morphine dependence, we previously identified increased levels of phospholipase C gamma-1 (PLCγ1) immunoreactivity specifically within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) following chronic morphine treatment. Using an antibody specific for the tyrosine-phosphorylated, activated form of PLCγ1, we now show that chronic morphine also ...

  9. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  10. Gamma-ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques using gamma radiation are described. The methods include gamma-ray induced reactions, selective gamma-ray scattering and methods which rely on natural radioactivity. The gamma-ray resonance scattering technique can be used for the determination of copper and nickel in bulk samples and drill cores. The application of gamma-gamma methods to iron ore analysis is outlined

  11. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  12. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  13. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  14. Gamma sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal action of gamma radiation is based on the disruption of DNA molecules. The sensitivity of (micro)organisms towards radiation varies. In industrial sterilization generally a radiation dose of 25 kGy is applied. Industrial radiation facilities consist of a radiation source, a biological shield and an automatic transport system. Radiation penetrates from all directions into the product and at all positions approximately the same dose is received. The only variable parameter is the velocity of the transport, which in turn determines the total dose received by the product. A number of provisions ensure that the product receives the correct treatment. Some materials show dose-dependent changes resulting from a radiation treatment. Several manufacturers of plastics offer radiation-stable compositions. Hospitals and other users of an irradiation facility have to ensure that the product they offer for gamma sterilization, can stand a treatment. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. GARCH Gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Engle; Joshua V. Rosenberg

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of hedging option positions when the underlying asset exhibits stochastic volatility. By parameterizing the volatility process as GARCH, and utilizing risk- neutral valuation, we estimate hedging parameters (delta and gamma) using Monte-Carlo simulation. We estimate hedging parameters for options on the Standard and Poor's 500 index, a bond futures index, a weighted foreign exchange rate index, and an oil futures index. We find that Black-Scholes and GARCH delta...

  16. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high

  17. Limits on the quartic couplings $Z\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ and $ZZ\\gamma\\gamma$ from $e^+e^-$ colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A; Montano, J; Pérez, M A

    2013-01-01

    We obtain limits on the quartic neutral gauge bosons couplings $Z\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ and $ZZ\\gamma\\gamma$ using LEP 2 data published by the L3 Collaboration on the reactions $e^+e^-\\to \\gamma\\gamma\\gamma, Z\\gamma\\gamma$. We also obtain $95 {0.8mm}%$ C. L. limits on these couplings at the future linear colliders energies. The LEP 2 data induce limits of order $10^{-5}$ for the $Z\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ couplings and of order $10^{-2}$ for the $ZZ\\gamma\\gamma$ couplings, which are still above the respective Standard Model predictions. Future $e^+e^-$ linear colliders may improve these limits by one or two orders of magnitude.

  18. Gamma bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vela satellite series has recently detected gamma bursts in the 0.2-1.5MeV energy range. These bursts last an average of from 0.1 to 10s and have a fine time structure, with pulses lasting less than several tens of milliseconds. With simultaneous observations from different satellites it has been possible to determine the spatial origin of some of the bursts. No correlation, however, has been made with known objects. In spite of the fragmentary character of the information received to date, several theories have already been proposed to account for these phenomena

  19. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  20. Water and sewage sludge disinfection by irradiation. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations can be used for disinfection of sewage because few processes are efficient and cheap. Electrons from accelerators and gamma rays from cobalt 60 or cesium 137 are used. Effects of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and on some biological molecules are given. Dosimetry and legal aspects are briefly treated

  1. Order of 4 November 1988 on treatment by ionizing radiation of rice flour and its products obtained by turbo-separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Order fixes the conditions for the sale of rice flour and products obtained from its turbo-separation whose microbial decontamination was obtained through exposure to cobalt 60 or cesium 137 gamma-rays or accelerated electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 Mev. (NEA)

  2. ANIMAL INVESTIGATION PROGRAM, 1981 ANNUAL REPORT: NEVADA TEST SITE AND VICINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues, collected from animals that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, cesium-137 was the only gamma-emitting radionuclide frequently detected and was within a narrow range of a...

  3. Liquid-Level Sensor for Containers in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Nonintrusive technique monitors fluid contents of sealed vessels, regardless of fluid distribution inside vessels. Technique based on differences in cesium-137 gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in air and test liquids. Used to measure fluid content in closed containers on high-maneuvering aircraft where accelerations cause fluid to become distributed throughout container.

  4. Radiological situation on private farms after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 concentration in the samples was measured by means of gamma-spectrometer Nokia LPA 4900 with germanium-lithium detector. The samples of foodstuffs were taken from the typical families of Ukrainian Polessye, which consist of 3-4 adults and 2-3 children below 16

  5. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  6. Fuzzy Gamma-hypersemigroups

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ameri; Sadeghi, R.

    2013-01-01

    We introduced and study fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroups, according to fuzzy semihyper- groups as previously defined [33] and prove that results in this respect. In this regard first we introduce fuzzy hyperoperation and then study fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroup. We will proceed by study fuzzy gamma-hyperideals and fuzzy gamma-bihyperideals. Also we study the relation between the classes of fuzzy gamma-hypersemigroups and semigroups. Precisely, we associate a gamma-hypersemigroup to every fuzzy hypers...

  7. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  8. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  10. On semi-exclusive measurement of $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Staszewski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The two-photon production of photon pairs, i.e. the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ process, is studied. Different production modes regarding the elastic or inelastic coupling of the intermediate-state photons to the protons are considered. The semi-exclusive measurement, where one intact proton is registered by a dedicated forward proton detector, is discussed. As an example, the signal and background simulations are performed for the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ process mediated by the hypothetical 750 GeV resonance.

  11. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  12. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  13. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  14. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  15. Modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility to control dynamic processes in a matter through gamma-resonance modulation by high-frequency external variable fields in excess of inverse lifetimes of the Moessbauer nuclei excited states, that is, within the megahertz frequency range lies in the heart of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy. Through the use of the gamma-resonance process theoretical analysis methods and of the equation solution method for the density matrix with the secondary quantization of gamma-radiation field one attacks the problems dealing with the effect of both variable fields and relaxation on gamma-resonance. One has studied the gamma-radiation ultrasound modulation stages. One points out a peculiar role of the gamma-magnetic resonance effect in modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy formation. One forecasts development of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy into the nonlinear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

  16. Precision calculations for gamma gamma --> WW --> 4fermions(+gamma)

    CERN Document Server

    Bredenstein, A; Roth, M

    2005-01-01

    The O(alpha) electroweak radiative corrections to gamma gamma --> WW --> 4f within the electroweak Standard Model are calculated in double-pole approximation (DPA). Virtual corrections are treated in DPA, and real-photonic corrections are based on complete lowest-order matrix elements for gamma gamma --> 4f+gamma. The radiative corrections are implemented in a Monte Carlo generator called COFFERgammagamma, which optionally includes anomalous triple and quartic gauge-boson couplings in addition and performs a convolution over realistic spectra of the photon beams. A brief survey of numerical results comprises O(alpha) corrections to integrated cross sections as well as to angular and invariant-mass distributions.

  17. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  18. Depth distributions of uranium-236 and cesium-137 in the Japan/East Sea; toward the potential use as a new oceanic circulation tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kadokura, A.; Steier, P.; Takahashi, Y.; Shizuma, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2012-04-01

    137Cs (T1/2=30.2 y) has been spread all over the world as a fission product of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. This nuclide has been used as a powerful tool for oceanography due to the well-defined origin and conservative behaviour in water . However, the number of atoms has decayed already to one thirds compared with its initial levels, and it will become more difficult to measure. In this situation, we focus on 236U (T1/2=2.342-107 y) as a candidate for a new isotopic tracer for oceanography. The detection of 236U in the environment has become possible only recently, by the development of measuring techniques with high sensitivity based on AMS. Our group showed that global fallout from bomb tests contains 236U, which might be produced as nuclear reactions of 235U(n,γ) and/or 238U(n,3n). So 236U has been therefore globally distributed in the surface environment. Thus, 236U has a similar potential as a tracer for environmental dynamics as 137Cs, especially for oceanography. In this study, a comprehensive attempt was made to measure the concentration of 236U in marine samples such as water, suspended solid and bottom sediments to clarify the environmental behaviour of this isotope. Furthermore, the discussion of the circulation of deep and bottom water in "Miniature Ocean", the Japan Sea, has been attempted. Bottom sediments (4 sites) and seawater samples (7 sites) were collected from the Japan Sea. The sediment core was cut into 1 cm segments from the surface to 5 cm in depth within a few hours after the sampling. About 20 L of seawater samples were collected from some depths in each site, and immediately after the sampling, the water was filtered with 0.45 μm pore-size membrane-filters. After the appropriate pre-treatment for each sample, uranium isotope and 137Cs were measured with AMS and Ge-detector, respectively. 236U was successfully detected for all seawater samples, and 236U/238U atom ratios in seawater were in the range of (0.19-1.75)-10-9. The dissolved 236U concentration showed a subsurface maximum and decreased steeply with depth. The minimum value was found at a depth of 2500 m and bottom (about 3000 m in depth) in the northern and the southern areas, respectively. These profiles are markedly different from that of natural 238U which is nearly constant over the depth, suggesting that 236U has not yet reached steady state. For the SS sample, 236U could not be detected in significant levels. The total 236U inventory of the water column was estimated at 1012-1013 atom/m2. This value is nearly the same as the global fallout level (17.8-1012 atom/m2). 236U was also found in the bottom sediments, and the inventory was about 1/40 compared with that in water column. All above characters are comparable with 137Cs which is anthropogenic conservative nuclide in ocean. Actually, the diffusion coefficients for both nuclides show the nearly same value. The detail discussion including the circulation of deep-water in the Japan Sea will be given in our presentation.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the potential for using cesium-137 technique to estimate rates of soil erosion on cultivated land in La Victoria I, Camaguey province of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a growing awareness that erosion on cultivated land in Cuba is a potential hazard to long term productivity, there is still only limited information on the rates involved, particularly long term values. The potential for using the radionuclide Caesium-137 as an environmental tracer to indicate sources of soil erosion on cultivated soils in La Victoria catchment is introduced. Use of Caesium-137 measurements to estimate rates of erosion and deposition is founded on comparison of the Caesium-137 inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory representing the local Caesium fallout input and thus the inventory to be expected at the site experiencing neither erosion nor deposition. Two models for converting Caesium-137 measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied site have been used, the Proportional Model and Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 17.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - . Estimates of soil loss using a Mass Balance Model (Simplified Model 1 and Model 2) were found to be 30.2 and 30.6 t. Ha 1 - .year 1 - ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Caesium-137 technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss and a reliable tool for developing of soil conservation program

  20. Assessment of the amount of cesium-137 released into the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident and analysis of its dispersion in Japanese coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estournel, C.; Bosc, E.; Bocquet, M.; Ulses, C.; Marsaleix, P.; Winiarek, V.; Osvath, I.; Nguyen, C.; Duhaut, T.; Lyard, F.; Michaud, H.; Auclair, F.

    2012-11-01

    Numerical modeling was used to provide a new estimate of the amount of 137Cs released directly into the ocean from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) after the accident in March 2011 and to gain insights into the physical processes that led to its dispersion in the marine environment during the months following the accident. An inverse method was used to determine the time-dependent137Cs input responsible for the concentrations observed at the NPP's two liquid discharge outlets. The method was then validated through comparisons of the simulated concentrations with concentrations measured in seawater at different points in the neighborhood of the plant. An underestimation was noticed for stations located 30 km offshore. The resulting bias in the release inventory was estimated. Finally, the maximum 137Cs activity released directly to the ocean was estimated to lie between 5.1 and 5.5 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 1015 Bq) but uncertainties remain on the amount of radionuclides released during the first few days after the accident. This estimate was compared to previous ones and differences were analyzed further. The temporal and spatial variations of the 137Cs concentration present in the coastal waters were shown to be strongly related to the wind intensity and direction. During the first month after the accident, winds blowing toward the south confined the radionuclides directly released into the ocean to a narrow coastal band. Afterwards, frequent northward wind events increased the dispersion over the whole continental shelf, leading to strongly reduced concentrations.

  1. Cesium-137 in the soils of forest ecosystems of the Saarland (South-western Germany); Caesium-137 in Boeden saarlaendischer Waldoekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenholz, U. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung

    2000-07-01

    Scopes and main features: In order to explain the behaviour of the artificial radioisotope {sup 137}Cs towards landscape resources in the Saar-Lor-Lux-Region, the cross-border region between southwestern Germany/Saarland, France/Lorraine and Luxembourg, regional distribution as well as downward translocation and depth functions of {sup 137}Cs in the main soil substrates of forest ecosystems in the Saarland were investigated. Results: The study shows that the highest {sup 137}Cs activities are found in the north of the Saarland, whereas the south and south-easten regions show distinctly lower concentrations of {sup 137}Cs. Migration rates range between 0.25 cm/a and 1.0 cm/a. On an average, the highest migration rates were found in the clayey-silty substrates of the lime stone areas in the Muschelkalk regions (Middle Triassic) (0.66 cm/a), followed by the loamy substrates of Lower Permian clastic sediments (Unterrotliegendes) (0.53 cm/a) and the sandy substrates of the Buntsandstein areas (Lower Triassic sandstone) (0.41 cm/a). 90 to 95% of the {sup 137}Cs activities in the clay-poor soils of the Unterrotliegendes and the Buntsandstein were traced in the upper 10 cm of the humus topsoil. The substrates of the lime stone areas (Muschelkalk), in contrast to this, reveal a {sup 137}Cs activity of only 70-76% at the same depth. Conclusions: Due to the fact that the primary and secondary pores of the soil pore system, in their function as translocation pathways, decrease with increasing soil depth, a significant reduction in the migration rates of {sup 137}Cs can be expected with increasing soil depth. On the other hand, the maximal migration depth of 40 cm found in shallow soils on jointed parent material, as well as on sites with high groundwater tables, implies a possible contamination of near-surface groundwater. Future outlook: Based on the results of this study, a permanent monitoring of {sup 137}Cs was added to the long-term Soil Monitoring Program run by the Federal Administrative Office of Environment of the Saarland (Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz des Saarlandes). (orig.) [German] Ziel und Schwerpunkte: Um das Verhalten des kuenstlichen Radionuklids {sup 137}Cs im Landschaftshaushalt der Saar-Lor-Lux Region zu klaeren, wurden die raeumliche Verteilung sowie das dezendente Migrationsverhalten und die Tiefenfunktionen des Radioisotops in den wichtigsten Bodensubstraten saarlaendischer Waldoekosysteme untersucht. Ergebnisse: Demnach finden sich die hoechsten {sup 137}Cs-Aktivitaeten im Norden des Landes, waehrend die Gebiete im Sueden und Suedosten deutlich geringere Konzentrationen aufweisen. Es konnten deszendente Migrationsraten zwischen 0,25 cm/a und 1,0 cm/a festgestellt werden. Durchschnittlich treten die hoechsten Migrationsraten in den tonig-schluffigen Substraten des Muschelkalks auf (0,66 cm/a), gefolgt von den lehmig ausgepraegten Substraten des Unterrotliegenden (0,53 cm/a) und den sandigen Substraten des Buntsandsteins (0,41 cm/a). In den tonarmen Bodensubstraten des Unterrotliegenden und des Buntsandsteins lassen sich 90-95% der Aktivitaeten in den oberen 10 cm der humusreichen Oberboeden nachweisen, wohingegen in den tonreichen Substraten des Muschelkalks bis zur gleichen Tiefe nur etwa 70-76% zu finden sind. Schlussfolgerungen: Mit einem Abnehmen der als Leitbahnen fungierenden Primaer- und Sekundaerporen in zunehmender Tiefe ist kuenftig mit einer deutlichen Reduzierung der Verlagerungsgeschwindigkeit von {sup 137}Cs in den Substraten des Muschelkalks zu rechnen. Insbesondere bei geringmaechtigen Boeden auf kluftreichem Ausgangsgestein impliziert die maximale Eindringtiefe des Isotops von 40 cm in den Unterboden jedoch eine moegliche Kontamination des oberflaechennahen Grundwassers, ebenso wie an Standorten mit hohem Grundwasserstand. Ausblick: Aufgrund der hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse wurden ein {sup 137}Cs-Monitoring in das Boden-Dauerbeobachtungsprogramm des Landesamts fuer Umweltschutz des Saarlandes aufgenommen. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of the unusual behavior of cesium-137 and other radionuclides in the Florida environment. Progress report, September 1, 1972--September 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of fallout 137Co in southeastern Florida milk indicate milk drinkers in the area have ingested 17 mrem in excess of the national average in the period 1963 to 1973. Analysis of feed in dairy rations in the area show a transfer of seven percent of activity from feed to milk. Range cattle had five times the cesium activity as meat from dairy animals. The increased amount of hay in the ration, plus higher activity levels in the unimproved pasture, account for the increase. Eighty percent of the original fallout is still active in the southeastern Florida biosystem

  3. Analysis, method and techniques for the studying of Cesium-137 transfer from soil to plants (maize and beans) (continuation of the technical report GSR-91-20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the complete results of transfer of corn and bean whose objective is to determine the transfer of Cs-137 via: soil → root → plant, which is determined by the transfer factors or concentration factors (FC), which indicates the incorporation from Cs-137 to soil and plant starting from two models of compartments which were already described in the technical report GSR-91-20-1 that precedes to this are presented. These results correspond to that carried out during the agricultural cycle of 1991, as well as the first results corresponding to 1992 in the radioactive wastes storage center (CADER) in Mexico. (Author)

  4. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ''Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program'' (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels

  5. Mechanistic interpretation of the varying selectivity of Cesium-137 and potassium uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under field conditions near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prorok, V V; Dacenko, O I; Bulavin, L A; Poperenko, L V; White, P J

    2016-02-01

    The selectivity of cation uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) growing in the field near Chernobyl varies during the growth season. It is hypothesised that this is a consequence of variation in (137)Cs (Csss) and potassium (Kss) concentrations in the soil solution or the amount of dissolved potassium available to the plants. In the experiments reported here, it was observed that (1) Csss and Kss were positively correlated, (2) the selectivity for uptake of (137)Cs versus potassium (r) increased exponentially with decreasing Csss and Kss, and (3) the (137)Cs concentration, but not the potassium concentration, in plant material, increased abruptly upon the simultaneous reduction of Kss and Csss below about 10 μg ml(-1) and 6.7 Bq l(-1), respectively. It is thought that potassium enters root cells from the soil solution through constitutively-expressed, inward rectifying K(+) channels (KIRC) and K(+)/H(+)-symporters, whose abundance increases when plants become potassium-deficient. Cesium is thought to enter root cells through non-specific cation channels (NSCC) and, in plants lacking sufficient potassium, through K(+)/H(+)-symporters. It is argued that the increase in r, together with the abrupt increase (137)Cs concentration in plant tissues, when Kss and Csss decrease simultaneously cannot be attributed to competition between Cs(+) and K(+) for transport though KIRC, NSCC or K(+)/H(+)-symporters and that the most plausible explanation of these phenomena is an increase in the abundance of K(+)/H(+)-symporters in plants exhibiting incipient potassium deficiency. PMID:26650829

  6. Using remote-sensing technologies in combination with Cesium-137 measurements to estimate soil-erosion quantity in semi-arid steppe areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanJiang Sha; HaiZhou Ma; LingQin Li; Jinzhou Du; FeiQuan Wu; QiShun Fan

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by wind is one of the most important processes in the changing the earth's surface in semi-arid areas, Thus it is of great importance to study soil-erosion action. Using integrated technologies of remote sensing and geochemistry radioactivity isotope to extract regional soil-erosion information and to calculate quantity of soil erosion is accomplished successfully in this paper by means of beneficial experiments in the Talatan region of the Gonghe Basin, which is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. The results show that the soil erosion by wind is not intensive in this region; the erosion types belong to the classes of very-soft erosion and soft-erosion type, which account for 47.12 percent and 35.58 percent, respectively, of the total study area.In total, two kinds of soil erosion account for 82.70 percent of the study area; only a small area belongs to the classes of severe erosion and very-severe erosion; this area is about 22.14 km2. Severe deposition activity has taken place in this region, and has appeared in a large area (322.67 km2), which accounts for 11.78 percent of the total study area. The results of this study show that soil erosion and deposition inventories are 870,000-1,150,000 tons and 550,000-780,000 tons, respectively, per year. The soil inventory shows about 320,000-370,000 tons from Talatan to Longyangxia reservoir per year. Using remote-sensing technology and 137Cs techniques is a valid means to analyze and to evaluate the quantity of soil erosion by wind in semi-arid environments.

  7. Using remote-sensing technologies in combination with Cesium-137 measurements to estimate soil-erosion quantity in semi-arid steppe areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by wind is one of the most important processes in the changing the earth’s surface in semi-arid areas,Thus it is of great importance to study soil-erosion action.Using integrated technologies of remote sensing and geochemistry radioactivity iso-tope to extract regional soil-erosion information and to calculate quantity of soil erosion is accomplished successfully in this paper by means of beneficial experiments in the Talatan region of the Gonghe Basin,which is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Pla-teau in China.The results show that the soil erosion by wind is not intensive in this region;the erosion types belong to the classes of very-soft erosion and soft-erosion type,which account for 47.12 percent and 35.58 percent,respectively,of the total study area.In total,two kinds of soil erosion account for 82.70 percent of the study area;only a small area belongs to the classes of severe erosion and very-severe erosion;this area is about 22.14 km2.Severe deposition activity has taken place in this region,and has appeared in a large area(322.67 km2),which accounts for 11.78 percent of the total study area.The results of this study show that soil erosion and deposition inventories are 870,000-1,150,000 tons and 550,000-780,000 tons,respectively,per year.The soil in-ventory shows about 320,000-370,000 tons from Talatan to Longyangxia reservoir per year.Using remote-sensing technology and 137Cs techniques is a valid means to analyze and to evaluate the quantity of soil erosion by wind in semi-arid environments.

  8. Distribution of cesium-137 in tree crop products collected from residence islands impacted by the U.S. nuclear test program in the northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marshall Islands Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has completed a series of radiological surveys at Bikini, Rongelap, Utroek, and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands designed to take a representative sample of food supplies with emphasis on determining 137Cs activity concentrations in common food plants. Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are the most common and abundant food plant, and provided a common sample type to characterize the level and variability of activity concentrations of 137Cs in plant foods collected from different islands and atolls. Other dominant food types included Pandanus (Pandanus spp.) and breadfruit (Actocarpus spp.). In general, the activity concentration of 137Cs in food plants was found to decrease significantly between the main residence islands on Bikini, Rongelap, Utrōk, and Enewetak Atolls. The mean activity concentration of 137Cs measured in drinking coconut meat and juice was 0.72 (95 % CI 0.68-0.77) and 0.34 (95 % CI 0.30-0.38) Bq g-1, respectively, on Bikini Island; 0.019 (95 % CI 0.017-0.021) and 0.027 (95 % CI 0.023-0.031) Bq g-1, respectively, on Rongelap Island; 0.010 (95 % CI 0.007-0.013) and 0.007 (95 % CI 0.004-0.009) Bq g-1, respectively, on Utroek Island; and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.0013-0.0024) and 0.002 (95 % CI 0.001-0.0025) Bq g-1, respectively, on Enewetak Island. High levels of variability are reported across all islands. These results will be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of predictive dose assessments, help characterize levels of uncertainty and variability in activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides in plant foods, and allow atoll communities to make informed decisions about resettlement and possible options for cleanup and rehabilitation of islands and atolls. (author)

  9. Estimated radiological doses to the maximumly exposed individual and downstream populations from releases of tritium, strontium-90, ruthenium-106, and cesium-137 from White Oak Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of tritium, 90Sr, 106Ru, and 137Cs in the Clinch River for 1978 were estimated by using the known 1978 releases of these nuclides from the White Oak Dam and diluting them by the integrated annual flow rate of the Clinch River. Estimates of 50-year dose commitment to a maximumly exposed individual were calculated for both aquatic and terestrial pathways of exposure. The maximumly exposed individual was assumed to reside at the mouth of White Oak Creek where it enters the Clinch River and obtain all foodstuffs and drinking water at that location. The estimated total-body dose from all pathways to the maximumly exposed individual as a result of 1978 releases was less than 1% of the dose expected from natural background. Using appropriate concentrations of to subject radionuclides diluted downstream, the doses to populations residing at Harriman, Kingston, Rockwood, Spring City, Soddy-Daisy, and Chattanooga were calculated for aquatic exposure pathways. The total-body dose estimated for aquatic pathways for the six cities was about 0.0002 times the expected dose from natural background. For the pathways considered in this report, the nuclide which contributed the largest fraction of dose was 90Sr. The largest dose delivered by 90Sr was to the bone of the subject individual or community

  10. Report of the radiological protection procedures adapted in the Goiania General Hospital for assistance to the victims of the radiological accident with Cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A caesium-137 capsule, illegal removed from a desactivated health center of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, was disrupted causing a serious radiological accident. The dimensions of the accident were worsened due to some facts such as: the caesium-137 was in the chloride from, which is a very soluble compound the accident was notify to the competent authorities only several days after the capsule was removal and during this period of time some people handled the souce directly, without knowing its potential danger. This paper descibes the measures adopted in the Goiania General Hospital to restrict the exposure of workers and members of the public and to minimize the consequences of unavoidable exposures in such a way to assure that the annual dose limits were not exceeded. An efficiency evaluation of the methods adopted for the decontamination of the victims was made and its described in the report. (author)

  11. Chernobyl accident: Estimate of the uptake through the roots by vegetables of the cesium-137 and strontium-90 deposited after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relatively low radioactivity detected by measurements, the dilution effect as a result of tilling and other methods of cultivation and the exchange capacity of the soil constituents clay and humus, which reduces the availability of the radionuclides, are the reasons why the uptake of Cs-137 and Sr-90 by vegetables through the roots is expected to remain very low. Plants grown on soils with good nutrient status (calcium, potassium, magnesium) and high pH values are expected to accumulate only little Cs-137 or Sr-90. As to soils with less good nutrient status, additions of calcium and potassium will achieve a reducing effect with regard to Cs-137 or Sr-90 uptake. Cs-137 transfer in soil is slow, similar to that of potassium, whereas Sr-90 transfer, just as with calcium, proceeds faster. Transfer down to the ground water reservoirs cannot be excluded but will be hardly detectable due to very low amounts of the fission products, to the dilution and absorption in the soil. (orig.)

  12. Representation of a model of radionuclide transfer in food chains following deposition of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 on areas for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'SINK' model (contaminants in food chains - FORTRAN 77) was used in an attempt to predict the amounts of radioactivity building up in animal and vegetable foods after one single deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and I-131. The model is described in detail. The input quantities include such factors as time-integrated concentration of activity in the air just above the ground, physicochemical form of the radionuclides, activity deposited with precipitation and amount of rain to fall in any particular case. The model was so designed as to take account of 18 different plants, 11 animal products and 14 kinds of processed nutrients. The radionuclide contents of vegetable foods were calculated with reference to the season of the year, at which deposition took place. The estimations of the activity concentrations in animal foods were in each case based on different fudder rations. (orig./HP)

  13. The Anomalous Decay eta -> pi pi gamma gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Knoechlein, G.; Scherer, S; Drechsel, D.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the rare radiative eta decay modes eta -> pi+ pi- gamma gamma and eta -> pi0 pi0 gamma gamma within the framework of chiral lagrangians at o(p^4) and present photon spectra for both processes.

  14. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  16. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  17. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  18. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  19. Rehabilitation of gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Charles A.

    1998-07-01

    Gamma characterizes the reproduction of tone scale in an imaging system. Gamma summarizes, in a single numerical parameter, the nonlinear relationship between code value--in an 8-bit system, from 0 through 255--and physical intensity. Nearly all image coding systems are nonlinear, and so involve values of gamma different from unity. Owing to poor understanding of tone scale reproduction, and to misconceptions about nonlinear coding, gamma has acquired a terrible reputation in computer graphics and image processing. In addition, the world-wide web suffers from poor reproduction of grayscale and color images, due to poor handling of nonlinear image coding. This paper aims to make gamma respectable again.

  20. Gamma-ray astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes recents results in gamma-ray astronomy, most of which were derived with data from ground-based gamma-ray detectors. Many of the contributions presented at this conference involve multiwavelength studies which combine ground-based gamma-ray measurements with optical data or space-based X-ray and gamma-ray measurements. Besides measurements of the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, observations of blazars, gamma-ray bursts, and supernova remnants this paper also covers theo...

  1. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  2. Effects of neonatal stress on gamma oscillations in hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Dricks

    2016-01-01

    Chronic early life stress increases adult risk for depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, illnesses characterized by aberrant functions of cognition and memory. We asked whether chronic early life stress disrupts maturation of gamma oscillations, on which these functions depend. Lifelong impairment of the stress response results from separation of rat pups from the dam for three hours per day during a critical period of hippocampal development (PNDs 2–14). Parvalbumin-expressing inte...

  3. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  4. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  5. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  6. Evaluation of the oxidative stress modulation in Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous antioxidants and with chronic exposure to casiopeina Cas II-gly and gamma radiation; Evaluacion de la modulacion del estres oxidante en cepas de Drosophila melanogaster deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos y con exposicion cronica a casiopeina CII-gly y radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, E. R.

    2013-07-01

    The casiopeinas are a family of coordination compounds with copper metallic center that have shown to have antineoplastic activity. The experimental evidences suggest that its action mechanism is through the generation of free radicals. The casiopeina (Cas II-gly) is believed to causes oxidative damage in the mitochondria, leading to the cellular death. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the tetrapyrroles: cupro-sodica chlorophyllin (CSC), protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) and the bilirubin (Bili) against the oxidant action of the Cas II-gly. The present study will also contribute in the characterization of the biological activity of the Cas II-gly. For this purpose is quantifies the effect of these compounds in the enzymes activity, superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) in wild Drosophila melanogaster strains Canton-S and in the deficient in Sod and Cat. Two protocols were used, in the first male of 1-24 h of age were pre-treated with 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 m M of Cas II-gly and later on they were treated with radiation (15 Gy), and the second 69 m M of CSC, Pp-Ix or Bili, during 8 days and later they were treated with 0.1 m M of Cas II-gly during 24 h. The enzymatic activity was measured with the detection packages of enzymes Sod and Cat of Sigma. It was found that none of the three pigments increment the Sod activity but, if they diminished that of Cat (p≤0.007). The three concentrations of Cas II-gly did not increase the Sod activity significantly, only the concentration of 0.1 m M diminishes in 5.6 U the Cat activity (p <0.03) the same as the treatment with 15 Gy of gamma rays (8 U, p <0.004). The Cas II-gly combination 0.1 m M with the pigments does not modify the Sod and Cat activity. These results suggest that the proven pigments act as antioxidants, avoiding the induction of exogenous antioxidants caused by the gamma rays or the Cas II-gly. (Author)

  7. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions of...... differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears that the...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on some physiological processes during maiz . seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was carried out with the SK4 and Knezha 2L-403 hybrids. Dry seeds were irradiated by γ-rays in doses of 500 R, 750 R and 1000 R radioactive cesium 137. The effect of the individual γ-ray doses on sprout and root growth, respiration rate and peroxidase activity was followed up. Results showed that seed irradiation by a 500R dose had a stimulating effect on sprout and root growth, while the 750 R and 1000 R did not differ significantly from the ccntrol. Seed irradiation by 500 R reduced the respiration rate of the roots and sprouts, while both treatments with higher doses gave results similar to the control. The changes in the respiration enzyme peroxidase were in correlation with the changes in respiration rate. (author)

  9. How the $\\gamma \\gamma$ Resonance Stole Christmas

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Kilic, Can; Thomas, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical implications of heavy di-gauge boson resonances that couple to, or are comprised of, new charged and strongly interacting matter are investigated. Observation and measurement of ratios of the resonant di-gauge boson channels $WW$, $ZZ$, $\\gamma \\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, and $gg$ in the form of di-jets, provide a rather direct -- and for some ratios a rather robust -- probe of the gauge representations of the new matter. For a spin-zero resonance with the quantum numbers of the vacuum, the ratios of resonant $WW$ and $ZZ$ to $\\gamma \\gamma$ channels, as well as the longitudinal versus transverse polarization fractions in the $WW$ and $ZZ$ channels, provide extraordinarily sensitive probes for possible mixing with the Higgs boson, while di-Higgs and di-top resonant channels, $hh$ and $tt$, provide somewhat less sensitivity. We present a survey of possible underlying models for di-gauge boson resonances by considering various limits for the mass of the new charged and strongly interac...

  10. Gamma-thermoluminescence dating (GAMMA-TL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental simplification of the TL dating method is one of the CRIAA Laboratory research fields in physics applied to archaeology. For radiochemical homogeneous systems GAMMA-TL allows a significant simplification for the measurement of the natural dose-rate I while preserving an accuracy as good as the one of classical TL dating within certain limiting circumstances. For instance, in the case of large heated structures determination of I reduces to Isub(γ) on site measurement and to k determination. The annual dose-rate is then given by I = GAMMA(k)Isub (γ) with GAMMA(k) = 12.17 k + 2.72. However, it is necessary to test the hypothesis that radioactivity in the structure is homogeneous. For this purpose high resolution γ spectrometry is used as a routine laboratory technique applied to several similar samples of structure. The comparison between the natural γ-ray criteria for the GAMMA-TL method, since for constant conditions, γ-ray intensities must be identical from one sample to another. We are now investigating structures of known age in order to find within what limits the GAMMA-TL can be used. (author)

  11. Transition Distribution Amplitudes for gamma* gamma collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P; Szymanowski, L

    2008-01-01

    We study the exclusive production of pi-pi and rho-pi in hard gamma* gamma scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. The sizable cross sections for rho-pi and pi-pi production may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories (Belle and BaBar).

  12. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  13. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  14. Moessbauer gamma echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying stepwise phase modulation of recoilless gamma radiation in a coincidence experiment, constructive interference is produced in transmission geometry between the source and the absorber fields. The resulting regenerated decay signal is called a gamma echo. Here it is demonstrated that during the decay of the 14.4 keV state of 57Fe multiple echo signals can be generated. (orig.)

  15. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  16. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  17. Resolved photon and multi-component model for $\\gamma^*$p and $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ total cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Szczurek, A.; Pietrycki, T.

    2005-01-01

    We generalize our previous model for $\\gamma^* p$ scattering to $\\gamma \\gamma$ scattering. Performing a new simultaneous fit to $\\gamma^* p$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ total cross section we find an optimal set of parameters to describe both processes. We propose new measures of factorization breaking for $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ collisions and present results for our new model.

  18. Colliding. gamma. e- and. gamma gamma. -beams on the basis of electron-positron linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1983-08-01

    Main properties of the ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. collisions are discussed in some detail with application to the generation of colliding ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams basing on the designed linear accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams, VLEEP and SLC, as it was proposed in a previous work. Intensive ..gamma.. beams with the energy 50 GeV would be produced from scattering of the laser light focused to the electron beams of the accelerators. Laser radiation is focused to the electron beam in the conversion region at a distance of about 10 cm from the place of collision. After scattering on electrons high-energy photons move practically along the electron primary trajectories and are focused in the collision region. The electrons are deflected from the collision region by means of approximately 1 T magnetic field. Then the produced ..gamma..-beam collides with an electron beam or a similar ..gamma..-beam. In the case when the maximum luminosity (L) is attained, the luminosity distribution in the invariant mass of the ..gamma..e or ..gamma gamma.. systems is wide. A monochromatization of the collisions up to the level of 5-10% is possible. That will entail a decrease in the luminosity, the procedure is most effective if one uses the electrons and the laser photons with opposite helicities. Examples of physically interesting problems to be investigated with the proposed ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams are suggested.

  19. Two inert scalar doublet model and $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma,\\gamma Z$ at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fortes, E C F S; Montaño, J; Pleitez, V

    2014-01-01

    We consider the decays $h\\to\\gamma\\gamma,\\gamma Z$ in the context of a model with two inert Higgs doublets, once there are contributions to these processes through charged scalars in loops. We found that when considering the more precise available experimental data for $h\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ and the correlation between both channels, the enhancement for $h\\to\\gamma Z$ can not be larger than twice the standard model prediction.

  20. The effects of gamma-irradiation of Pilsner beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commerical Belgian Pilsner beer was irradiation with 0, 40, 80 and 120 krad of Cesium137 γ-rays. Analysis of the resultant beers showed that the analytical data for polyphenolics to a great extent had remained unaffected, that the treatment had no impact upon the liability to haze formation, the pH, the foam stability and the levels of dimethyl sulphide, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and diacetyl. There was an increase in the concentration of acetaldehyde, and a small decrease in the concentration of iso-α-acids and n-propanol, the changes being roughly proportional to the dosage applied. The sum of the fast and the moderately fast reducing agents increase with increasing irradiation dosages and in the same way the concentration of slow reducing agents diminishes. The treatment at the same time leads to a drastic loss of colour. The flavour of irradiated beer is totally unacceptable, even at the lowest dosages, the odour reminding one of hydrogen sulphide. (author)

  1. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  2. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  3. Changing patterns of radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitors from chronically irradiated dogs prone either to aplastic anemia or to myeloproliferative disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematopoietic patterns have been assessed in chronic 60Co gamma irradiated dogs during preclinical phases of evolving aplastic anemia (AA) or myeloproliferative disease (MPD), principally myeloid leukemia. The results support the concept that acquired radioresistance of vital granulocyte/monocyte lineage-committed hematopoietic progenitors is temporally, perhaps causally, linked to the processes mediating hematopoietic recovery and accommodation under chronic irradiation, and in turn to preclinical events of evolving MPD. In addition, the marked differential responses of progenitors to gamma and neutron irradiation in vitro might suggest differences in the nature of cellular lesions elicited by chronic gamma irradiation, in vivo. (author)

  4. Gamma-ray Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The relevance of gamma-ray astronomy to the search for the origin of the galactic and, to a lesser extent, the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays has long been recognised. The current renaissance in the TeV gamma-ray field has resulted in a wealth of new data on galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators, and almost all the new results in this field were presented at the recent International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC). Here I summarise the 175 papers submitted on the topic of gamma-ray astronomy to the 30th ICRC in Merida, Mexico in July 2007.

  5. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  6. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul;

    were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both...

  7. Gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

  8. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved Anger-type gamma ray camera utilizes a proximity-type image intensifier tube. It has a greater capability for distinguishing between incident and scattered radiation, and greater spatial resolution capabilities

  9. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and

  10. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  11. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  12. Gamma ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F38042 Grenoble (France); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-09

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  13. The Polarization Dependence of Gamma-Gamma Absorption - Implications for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the dependence of the opacity for high-energy gamma-rays to gamma-gamma absorption by low-energy photons, on the polarization of the gamma-ray and target photons. This process has so far only been considered using the polarization-averaged gamma-gamma absorption cross section. It is demonstrated that in the case of polarized gamma-ray emission, subject to source-intrinsic gamma-gamma absorption by polarized target photons, this may lead to a slight over-estimation of the gamma-gamma opacity by up to ~ 10 % in the case of a perfectly ordered magnetic field. Thus, for realistic astrophysical scenarios with partially ordered magnetic fields, the use of the polarization-averaged gamma-gamma cross section is justified for practical purposes, such as estimates of minimum Doppler factors inferred for gamma-ray bursts and blazars, based on gamma-gamma transparency arguments, and this paper quantifies the small error incurred by the unpolarized-radiation approximation. Furthermore, i...

  14. Evaluation of Environmental Radioactivity in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the data evaluation of measurements of gamma radiation in environmental samples in soils of Guatemala using high-purity Ge detectors, also measurements of background radiation using thermoluminiscent dosimeters based on LiF 700 (from Harshaw) were carried out in the points of higher population density. From data evaluation was found that precipitation of Cesium-137 from nuclear testing is present in soils of Guatemala, the results of background measured with TLD are normal

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium (137Cs), americium (241Am), plutonium (238Pu and 239,240Pu), tritium (3H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for 238Pu and 3H

  16. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-01-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The...

  17. Characterizations of {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids by their {\\Gamma}-ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Madad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have discusses {\\Gamma}-left, {\\Gamma}-right, {\\Gamma}-bi-, {\\Gamma}-quasi-, {\\Gamma}-interior and {\\Gamma}-ideals in {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids and regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids. Moreover we have proved that the set of {\\Gamma}-ideals in a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid form a semilattice structure. Also we have characterized a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid in terms of left ideals.

  18. Characterizations of gamma-AG^{**}-groupoids by the properties their gamma-ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Madad; Ahmad, Naveed; Rehman, Inayatur

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have discusses {\\Gamma}-left, {\\Gamma}-right, {\\Gamma}-bi-, {\\Gamma}-quasi-, {\\Gamma}-interior and {\\Gamma}-ideals in {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids and regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids. Moreover we have proved that the set of {\\Gamma}-ideals in a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid form a semilattice structure. Also we have characterized a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid in terms of left ideals.

  19. Measurement of anomalous couplings ZZ gamma , Z gamma gamma and ZZZ

    CERN Document Server

    Matteuzzi, C

    2001-01-01

    The anomalous couplings Z gamma gamma , ZZ gamma and ZZZ have been studied at LEP 2 with the reactions e/sup +/e/sup -/ to qq gamma , e /sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma and e/sup +/e/sup to / ZZ at square root s from 189 to 202 GeV. Limits are derived on three gauge neutral bosons couplings combining the results of the 3 experiments L3, OPAL and DELPHI.

  20. Observation of the Decay $K^{+} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\gamma\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Kitching, P; Rozon, M; Soluk, R A; Adler, Stephen Louis; Atiya, M S; Chiang, I H; Frank, J S; Haggerty, J S; Kycia, T F; Li Kai Kong; Littenberg, L S; Sambamurti, A K; Stevens, A; Strand, R C; Witzig, C; Louis, W C; Akerib, D S; Ardebili, M; Convery, M; Ito, M M; Marlow, D R; McPherson, R A; Meyers, P D; Selen, M A; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, A J S; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Felawka, L; Konaka, A; Kuno, Y; MacDonald, J A; Numao, T; Padley, P; Poutissou, J M; Poutissou, R; Roy, J D; Turcot, A S

    1997-01-01

    The first observation of the decay K^+ --> pi^+ gamma gamma is reported. A total of 31 events was observed with an estimated background of 5.2 +- 3.3 events in the pi+ momentum range from 100 MeV/c to 180 MeV/c. The corresponding partial branching ratio, B(K+ -> pi+ gamma gamma, 100 MeV/c pi^+ gamma gamma decay was observed in the pi^+ momentum region greater than 215 MeV/c. The observed pi^+ momentum spectrum is compared with the predictions of chiral perturbation theory.

  1. Observation of the Decay K^+ --> pi^+ gamma gamma

    OpenAIRE

    E791 Collaboration; Kitching, P.; Nakano, T.; Rozon, M.; Soluk, R.; Adler, S.; Atiya, M. S.; Chiang, I-H.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J. S.; Kycia, T. F.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Sambamurti, A.; Stevens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The first observation of the decay K^+ --> pi^+ gamma gamma is reported. A total of 31 events was observed with an estimated background of 5.1 +- 3.3 events in the pi+ momentum range from 100 MeV/c to 180 MeV/c. The corresponding partial branching ratio, B(K+ -> pi+ gamma gamma, 100 MeV/c pi^+ gamma gamma decay was observed in the pi^+ momentum region greater than 215 MeV/c. The observed pi^+ momentum spectrum is...

  2. Investigating the embryo/larval toxic and genotoxic effects of {gamma} irradiation on zebrafish eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O., E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Massarin, S. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Environnementale, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Coppin, F. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Hinton, T.G. [Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 159, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilbin, R. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Eggs/larval of freshwater fish (Danio rerio) were exposed to low dose rates of external gamma radiation (from 1 to 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) over a 20-day period, with the objective of testing the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline suggested by the IAEA. The present study examines different endpoints, mortality and hatching time and success of embryos as well as the genotoxicity of {gamma}-irradiations (after 48 h). The 20-day embryo-larval bioassay showed an enhanced larval resistance to starvation after chronic exposure to {gamma} irradiation (from low 1 mGy d{sup -1} to high dose rate 1000 mGy d{sup -1}) and an acceleration in hatching time. Gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage Ito zebrafish egg (40-50% DNA in tail in Comet assay) from the lowest dose rate (1 mGy d{sup -1}). Possible mechanisms of {gamma} radiotoxicity and implications for radioprotection are discussed. - Highlights: > Relevant information on the {gamma} radiation impact on early life stage biota is scarce. > The eggs of zebrafish Danio rerio were selected as biological model. > We test the appropriateness of the 10 mGy d{sup -1} guideline (IAEA). > We observed effects measured at individual levels (starvation, hatching time). > Chronic gamma irradiation led to increased genotoxic damage to zebrafish egg. > {gamma} radiotoxicity mechanisms and implications for radioprotection are discussed.

  3. Ornithogalum virens as a plant assay for beta and gamma radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the monocotyledonous angiosperm, Ornithogalum virens (Quintanilha and Cabral, 1947), could be used in such a biological assay system. After exposing O. virens plants to acute (60Co) and chronic (137Cs) gamma radiation and internal beta radiation (32P), lethality (LD50, LD100), growth inhibition, and chromosome aberrations were investigated. The LD50 and LD100 for acute gamma radiation were estimated to be between 0.91 to 1.8 krad and less than 3.6 krad, respectively. Though growth inhibition and abnormal growth were observed in the acute and chronic gamma radiation studies, the changes in the growth of the plants were so variable that these parameters were found to be unreliable measures of radiation effects. Chromosome aberrations were a more reliable measure of radiation damage because linear relationships between total aberrations and dose were found for both gamma and beta radiation

  4. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called ... some types of bacteria and fungi. This disorder leads to long- ...

  5. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Share This: People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness We've made significant progress in our national ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  6. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  7. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  8. "Chronic Lyme Disease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area "Chronic Lyme Disease" What is "chronic Lyme disease?" Lyme disease is an infection caused by ... J Med 357:1422-30, 2008). How is Lyme disease treated? For early Lyme disease, a short ...

  9. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow.

  11. Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, Neil; 10.1126/science.1216793

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, last typically 10s of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  12. SVOM gamma ray monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor(SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection,localization and broad-band study of gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena.The gamma ray monitor(GRM) onboard is designed to observe GRBs up to 5 MeV.With this instrument,one of the key GRB parameters,Epeak,can be easily measured in the hard X-ray band.It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  13. Prostaglandins and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Narumiya, Shuh

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is the basis of various chronic illnesses including cancer and vascular diseases. However, much has yet to be learned how inflammation becomes chronic. Prostaglandins (PGs) are well established as mediators of acute inflammation, and recent studies in experimental animals have provided evidence that they also function in transition to and maintenance of chronic inflammation. One role PGs play in such processes is amplification of cytokine signaling. As such, PGs can facil...

  14. Role of gamma-glutamyltransferase in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Donglin; Tao, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are threatening human health with rising morbidity and mortality rates. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, and the prognosis of cardiovascular disease may be predicted by increasing GGT levels. GGT levels are related to cardiovascular emergencies of chronic heart failure, and an elevated GGT level has been shown to be an independent predictive maker for cardia...

  15. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treat...

  16. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  17. Combinatorics of $\\gamma$-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Hillary S W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study canonical $\\gamma$-structures, a class of RNA pseudoknot structures that plays a key role in the context of polynomial time folding of RNA pseudoknot structures. A $\\gamma$-structure is composed by specific building blocks, that have topological genus less than or equal to $\\gamma$, where composition means concatenation and nesting of such blocks. Our main result is the derivation of the generating function of $\\gamma$-structures via symbolic enumeration. $\\gamma$-structures are constructed via $\\gamma$-matchings. We compute an algebraic equation for the generating function of these matchings and prove that it is the unique solution. For $\\gamma=1$ and $\\gamma=2$ we compute the Puiseux-expansion of this power series at its unique, dominant singularity. This allows us to derive simple asymptotic formulas for the number of 1-structures and 2-structures.

  18. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  19. Short and medium-term medical follow-up program for victims of the Goiania accident, Brazil: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical surveillance of the individuals who supposedly received high radiation doses due to the breaking of Cesium-137 source from gamma radiation therapy apparatus, is presented. The study includes a serie of evaluations and procedures such as periodic clinical examinations, and diagnostic procedures. Among the special procedures unusual in routine medical practice, the radiochemical analysis of urine and feces, and the whole-body counting are mentioned, to evaluate the total and residual body burden of Cesium-137 in the organism. Following the acute phase of radiation effects on the organism, such examinations intend to detect, early, the functional or organic changes which may appear during the first years after exposure. (M.C.K.)

  20. Gamma cardio 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New trends in nuclear cardiology are briefly presented supported by a large bibliography. The following topics are reviewed: new tracers of myocardial perfusion and metabolism; quantitative analysis of cardiac function; nuclear stethoscope; gamma emission tomography; diagnostic value of cardiac dynamic tests (at rest and during exercise), pharmacological tests; new clinical applications of cardiovascular nuclear medicine