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Sample records for chronic cellular imaging

  1. Chronic cellular imaging of mouse visual cortex during operant behavior and passive viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Andermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nearby neurons in mammalian neocortex demonstrate a great diversity of cell types and connectivity patterns. The importance of this diversity for computation is not understood. While extracellular recording studies in visual cortex have provided a particularly rich description of behavioral modulation of neural activity, new methods are needed to dissect the contribution of specific circuit elements in guiding visual perception. Here, we describe a method for three-dimensional cellular imaging of neural activity in the awake mouse visual cortex during active discrimination and passive viewing of visual stimuli. Head-fixed mice demonstrated robust discrimination for many hundred trials per day after initial task acquisition. To record from multiple neurons during operant behavior with single-trial resolution and minimal artifacts, we built a sensitive microscope for two-photon calcium imaging, capable of rapid tracking of neurons in three dimensions. We demonstrate stable recordings of cellular calcium activity during discrimination behavior across hours, days, and weeks, using both synthetic and genetically-encoded calcium indicators. When combined with molecular and genetic technologies in mice (e.g., cell-type specific transgenic labeling, this approach allows the identification of neuronal classes in vivo. Physiological measurements from distinct classes of neighboring neurons will enrich our understanding of the coordinated roles of diverse elements of cortical microcircuits in guiding sensory perception and perceptual learning. Further, our method provides a high-throughput, chronic in vivo assay of behavioral influences on cellular activity that is applicable to a wide range of mouse models of neurologic disease.

  2. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  3. Imaging of chronic osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis is made on the basis of clinical, radiologic and histologic findings. The role of imaging in patients with known chronic osteomyelitis is to detect and to delineate areas of active infection. To correctly interpret the imaging findings, it is essential to take both the individual clinical findings and previous imaging studies into account. Reliable signs of active infection are bone marrow abscess, sequestra and sinus tract formation. Only the combined evaluation of bony changes together with alterations of the adjacent soft tissues provides good diagnostic accuracy. Projection radiography gives an overview of the condition of the bone, which provides the basis for follow-up and the selection of further imaging modalities. Computed tomography can be used to evaluate even discrete or complex bony alterations and to guide percutaneous biopsy or drainage. Magnetic resonance imaging achieves the best diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and provides superior contrast as well as anatomical resolution in both bone marrow and soft tissues. In this paper the features and clinical relevance of imaging in primary chronic osteomyelitis, posttraumatic osteomyelitis, tuberculous spondylitis and osteomyelitis of the diabetic foot are reviewed, with particular respect to MRI. (orig.)

  4. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  5. Infrared image enhancement using Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2016-05-01

    Image enhancement is a crucial technique for infrared images. The clear image details are important for improving the quality of infrared images in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new enhancement method based on two priors via Cellular Automata. First, we directly learn the gradient distribution prior from the images via Cellular Automata. Second, considering the importance of image details, we propose a new gradient distribution error to encode the structure information via Cellular Automata. Finally, an iterative method is applied to remap the original image based on two priors, further improving the quality of enhanced image. Our method is simple in implementation, easy to understand, extensible to accommodate other vision tasks, and produces more accurate results. Experiments show that the proposed method performs better than other methods using qualitative and quantitative measures.

  6. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  7. Polymersomes containing quantum dots for cellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camblin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine Camblin,1 Pascal Detampel,1 Helene Kettiger,1 Dalin Wu,2 Vimalkumar Balasubramanian,1,* Jörg Huwyler1,*1Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs are highly fluorescent and stable probes for cellular and molecular imaging. However, poor intracellular delivery, stability, and toxicity of QDs in biological compartments hamper their use in cellular imaging. To overcome these limitations, we developed a simple and effective method to load QDs into polymersomes (Ps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane-poly(2-methyloxazoline (PDMS-PMOXA diblock copolymers without compromising the characteristics of the QDs. These Ps showed no cellular toxicity and QDs were successfully incorporated into the aqueous compartment of the Ps as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Ps containing QDs showed colloidal stability over a period of 6 weeks if stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at physiological pH (7.4. Efficient intracellular delivery of Ps containing QDs was achieved in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2 and was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Ps containing QDs showed a time- and concentration-dependent uptake in HepG2 cells and exhibited better intracellular stability than liposomes. Our results suggest that Ps containing QDs can be used as nanoprobes for cellular imaging.Keywords: quantum dots, polymersomes, cellular imaging, cellular uptake

  8. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  9. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibille Kimberly T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain conditions are characterized by significant individual variability complicating the identification of pathophysiological markers. Leukocyte telomere length (TL, a measure of cellular aging, is associated with age-related disease onset, psychosocial stress, and health-related functional decline. Psychosocial stress has been associated with the onset of chronic pain and chronic pain is experienced as a physical and psychosocial stressor. However, the utility of TL as a biological marker reflecting the burden of chronic pain and psychosocial stress has not yet been explored. Findings The relationship between chronic pain, stress, and TL was analyzed in 36 ethnically diverse, older adults, half of whom reported no chronic pain and the other half had chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA pain. Subjects completed a physical exam, radiographs, health history, and psychosocial questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Four groups were identified characterized by pain status and the Perceived Stress Scale scores: 1 no pain/low stress, 2 no pain/high stress, chronic pain/low stress, and 4 chronic pain/high stress. TL differed between the pain/stress groups (p = 0.01, controlling for relevant covariates. Specifically, the chronic pain/high stress group had significantly shorter TL compared to the no pain/low stress group. Age was negatively correlated with TL, particularly in the chronic pain/high stress group (p = 0.03. Conclusions Although preliminary in nature and based on a modest sample size, these findings indicate that cellular aging may be more pronounced in older adults experiencing high levels of perceived stress and chronic pain.

  10. Imaging cellular and molecular biological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorte, S.L. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France). Plateforme d' Imagerie Dynamique PFID-Imagopole; Frischknecht, F. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Parasitology

    2007-07-01

    'Imaging cellular and molecular biological function' provides a unique selection of essays by leading experts, aiming at scientist and student alike who are interested in all aspects of modern imaging, from its application and up-scaling to its development. Indeed the philosophy of this volume is to provide student, researcher, PI, professional or provost the means to enter this applications field with confidence, and to construct the means to answer their own specific questions. (orig.)

  11. Imaging Cellular Architecture with X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Larabell, Carolyn A.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray imaging of biological samples is progressing rapidly. In this paper we review the progress to date in high resolution imaging of cellular architecture. In particular we survey the progress in soft X-ray tomography and argue that the field is coming of age and that important biological insights are starting to emerge. We then review the new ideas based on coherent diffraction. These methods are at a much earlier stage of development but, as they eliminate the need for X-ray optics, have ...

  12. Chronic cranial window with access port for repeated cellular manipulations, drug application, and electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Joel Roome

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cranial windows have been instrumental in advancing optical studies in vivo, permitting long-term, high-resolution imaging in various brain regions. However, once a window is attached it is difficult to regain access to the brain under the window for cellular manipulations. Here we describe a simple device that combines long term in vivo optical imaging with direct brain access via glass or quartz pipettes and metal, glass, or quartz electrodes for cellular manipulations like dye or drug injections and electrophysiological stimulations or recordings while keeping the craniotomy sterile. Our device comprises a regular cranial window glass coverslip with a drilled access hole later sealed with biocompatible silicone. This chronic cranial window with access port is cheap, easy to manufacture, can be mounted just as the regular chronic cranial window, and is self-sealing after retraction of the pipette or electrode. We demonstrate that multiple injections can be performed through the silicone port by repetitively bolus loading calcium sensitive dye into mouse barrel cortex and recording spontaneous cellular activity over a period of weeks. As an example to the extent of its utility for electrophysiological recording, we describe how simple removal of the silicone seal can permit patch pipette access for whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. During these chronic experiments we do not observe any infections under the window or impairment of animal health.

  13. Cellular recurrent deep network for image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2015-09-01

    Image registration using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) remains a challenging learning task. Registration can be posed as a two-step problem: parameter estimation and actual alignment/transformation using the estimated parameters. To date ANN based image registration techniques only perform the parameter estimation, while affine equations are used to perform the actual transformation. In this paper, we propose a novel deep ANN based image rigid registration that combines parameter estimation and transformation as a simultaneous learning task. Our previous work shows that a complex universal approximator known as Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) can successfully approximate affine transformations with known transformation parameters. This study introduces a deep ANN that combines a feed forward network with a CSRN to perform full rigid registration. Layer wise training is used to pre-train feed forward network for parameter estimation and followed by a CSRN for image transformation respectively. The deep network is then fine-tuned to perform the final registration task. Our result shows that the proposed deep ANN architecture achieves comparable registration accuracy to that of image affine transformation using CSRN with known parameters. We also demonstrate the efficacy of our novel deep architecture by a performance comparison with a deep clustered MLP.

  14. Imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile D. Balaban

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by progressive and irreversible damage of the pancreatic parenchyma and ductal system, which leads to chronic pain, loss of endocrine and exocrine functions. Clinically, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency becomes apparent only after 90% of the parenchima has been lost. Despite the simple definition, diagnosing chronic pancreatitis remains a challenge, especially for early stage disease. Because pancreatic function tests can be normal until late stages and have significant limitations, there is an incresing interest in the role of imaging techniques for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. In this article we review the utility and accuracy of different imaging methods in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, focusing on the role of advanced imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound.

  15. Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Lovelace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART, there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function.

  16. Imaging in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and staging are based on estimated or calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinalysis and kidney structure at renal imaging techniques. Ultrasound (US) has a key role in evaluating both morphological changes (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US), thus contributing to CKD diagnosis and to the follow-up of its progression. In CKD, conventional US allows measuring longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness and evaluating renal echogenicity and urinary tract status. Maximum renal length is usually considered a morphological marker of CKD, as it decreases contemporarily to GFR, and should be systematically recorded in US reports. More recently, it has been found to be a significant correlation of both renal longitudinal diameter and cortical thickness with renal function. Conventional US should be integrated by color Doppler, which shows parenchymal perfusion and patency of veins and arteries, and by spectral Doppler, which is crucial for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis and provides important information about intrarenal microcirculation. Different values of renal resistive indexes (RIs) have been associated with different primary diseases, as they reflect vascular compliance. Since RIs significantly correlate with renal function, they have been proposed to be independent risk factors for CKD progression, besides proteinuria, low GFR and arterial hypertension. Despite several new applications, US and color Doppler contribute to a definite diagnosis in <50% of cases of CKD, because of the lack of specific US patterns, especially in cases of advanced CKD. However, US is useful to evaluate CKD progression and to screen patients at risk for CKD. The indications and the recommended frequency of color Doppler US could differ in each case and the follow-up should be tailored. PMID:27170301

  17. Radiolabelled cytokines for imaging chronic inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and particularly follow-up of chronic inflammatory disorders could be often difficult in clinical practice. Indeed, traditional radiological techniques reveal only structural tissue alterations and are not able to monitor functional changes occurring in tissues affected by chronic inflammation. The continuous advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic disorders, combine with the progress of radiochemistry, led to the development of new specific radiolabelled agents for the imaging of chronic diseases. In this scenario, cytokines, due to their pivotal role in such diseases, represent good candidate as radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  18. Single-Molecule Imaging of Cellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keijzer, Sandra; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Spaink, Herman P.; Schmidt, Thomas

    Single-molecule microscopy is an emerging technique to understand the function of a protein in the context of its natural environment. In our laboratory this technique has been used to study the dynamics of signal transduction in vivo. A multitude of signal transduction cascades are initiated by interactions between proteins in the plasma membrane. These cascades start by binding a ligand to its receptor, thereby activating downstream signaling pathways which finally result in complex cellular responses. To fully understand these processes it is important to study the initial steps of the signaling cascades. Standard biological assays mostly call for overexpression of the proteins and high concentrations of ligand. This sets severe limits to the interpretation of, for instance, the time-course of the observations, given the large temporal spread caused by the diffusion-limited binding processes. Methods and limitations of single-molecule microscopy for the study of cell signaling are discussed on the example of the chemotactic signaling of the slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Single-molecule studies, as reviewed in this chapter, appear to be one of the essential methodologies for the full spatiotemporal clarification of cellular signaling, one of the ultimate goals in cell biology.

  19. Mapping of cellular iron using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eung Seok; Heo, Chaejeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Min

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic cell loss in the substantianigra (SN) and elevated iron levels demonstrated by autopsy and with 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Direct visualization of iron with live imaging techniques has not yet been successful. The aim of this study is to visualize and quantify the distribution of cellular iron using an intrinsic iron hyperspectral fluorescence signal. The 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cellular model of PD was established in SHSY5Y cells. The cells were exposed to iron by treatment with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, 100 μM) for up to 6 hours. The hyperspectral fluorescence imaging signal of iron was examined usinga high- resolution dark-field optical microscope system with signal absorption for the visible/ near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. The 6-hour group showed heavy cellular iron deposition compared with the small amount of iron accumulation in the 1-hour group. The cellular iron was dispersed in a small, particulate form, whereas extracellular iron was detected in an aggregated form. In addition, iron particles were found to be concentrated on the cell membrane/edge of shrunken cells. The cellular iron accumulation readily occurred in MPP+-induced cells, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating elevated iron levels in the SN in PD. This direct iron imaging methodology could be applied to analyze the physiological role of iron in PD, and its application might be expanded to various neurological disorders involving other metals, such as copper, manganese or zinc.

  20. Imaging studies in chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging brings to difficult problems in chronic low back pain incomplete data showing that it will need a lot of time to find therapeutic solutions. Some comparisons are made between tomodensitometry, nuclear magnetic imaging, the disco-scanner, these technologies allow to find small lesions but the problem is complete when it is not possible to find anything with persistent pains. 125 refs

  1. Chemically Specific Cellular Imaging of Biofilm Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberg, J L; Schaldach, C; Horn, J; Gjersing, E; Maxwell, R

    2006-02-09

    complicated organism, we needed to first turn our attention to a well understood organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a well-studied organism and will be used to compare our results with others. Then, we will turn our attention to TD. It is expected that the research performed will provide key data to validate biochemical studies of TD and result in high profile publications in leading journals. For this project, our ultimate goal was to combine both Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experimental analysis with computer simulations to provide unique 3D molecular structural, dynamics, and functional information on the order of microns for this DOE mission relevant microorganism, T. denitrificans. For FY05, our goals were to: (1) Determine proper media for optimal growth of PA; growth rate measurements in that media and characterization of metabolite signatures during growth via {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, (2) Determine and build mineral, metal, and implant material surfaces to support growth of PA, (3) Implementing new MRI sequences to image biofilms more efficiently and increase resolution with new hardware design, (4) Develop further diffusion and flow MRI measurements of biofilms and biofilm formation with different MRI pulse sequences and different hardware design, and (5) Develop a zero dimension model of the rate of growth and the metabolite profiles of PA. Our major accomplishments are discussed in the following text. However, the bulk of this work is described in the attached manuscript entitled, ''NMR Metabolomics of Planktonic and Biofilm Modes of Growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa''. This paper will be submitted to the Journal of Bacteriology in coming weeks. In addition, this one-year effort has lead to our incorporation into the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign during FY05 for some proof-of-principle MRI measurements on polymers. We are currently using similar methods to evaluate these polymers. In addition

  2. Chemically Specific Cellular Imaging of Biofilm Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberg, J L; Schaldach, C; Horn, J; Gjersing, E; Maxwell, R

    2006-02-09

    complicated organism, we needed to first turn our attention to a well understood organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a well-studied organism and will be used to compare our results with others. Then, we will turn our attention to TD. It is expected that the research performed will provide key data to validate biochemical studies of TD and result in high profile publications in leading journals. For this project, our ultimate goal was to combine both Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experimental analysis with computer simulations to provide unique 3D molecular structural, dynamics, and functional information on the order of microns for this DOE mission relevant microorganism, T. denitrificans. For FY05, our goals were to: (1) Determine proper media for optimal growth of PA; growth rate measurements in that media and characterization of metabolite signatures during growth via {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, (2) Determine and build mineral, metal, and implant material surfaces to support growth of PA, (3) Implementing new MRI sequences to image biofilms more efficiently and increase resolution with new hardware design, (4) Develop further diffusion and flow MRI measurements of biofilms and biofilm formation with different MRI pulse sequences and different hardware design, and (5) Develop a zero dimension model of the rate of growth and the metabolite profiles of PA. Our major accomplishments are discussed in the following text. However, the bulk of this work is described in the attached manuscript entitled, ''NMR Metabolomics of Planktonic and Biofilm Modes of Growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa''. This paper will be submitted to the Journal of Bacteriology in coming weeks. In addition, this one-year effort has lead to our incorporation into the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign during FY05 for some proof-of-principle MRI measurements on polymers. We are currently using similar methods to evaluate these polymers. In addition

  3. Cellular image segmentation using n-agent cooperative game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Ian B.; Wan, Justin W. L.

    2016-03-01

    Image segmentation is an important problem in computer vision and has significant applications in the segmentation of cellular images. Many different imaging techniques exist and produce a variety of image properties which pose difficulties to image segmentation routines. Bright-field images are particularly challenging because of the non-uniform shape of the cells, the low contrast between cells and background, and imaging artifacts such as halos and broken edges. Classical segmentation techniques often produce poor results on these challenging images. Previous attempts at bright-field imaging are often limited in scope to the images that they segment. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm for automatically segmenting cellular images. The algorithm incorporates two game theoretic models which allow each pixel to act as an independent agent with the goal of selecting their best labelling strategy. In the non-cooperative model, the pixels choose strategies greedily based only on local information. In the cooperative model, the pixels can form coalitions, which select labelling strategies that benefit the entire group. Combining these two models produces a method which allows the pixels to balance both local and global information when selecting their label. With the addition of k-means and active contour techniques for initialization and post-processing purposes, we achieve a robust segmentation routine. The algorithm is applied to several cell image datasets including bright-field images, fluorescent images and simulated images. Experiments show that the algorithm produces good segmentation results across the variety of datasets which differ in cell density, cell shape, contrast, and noise levels.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles as markers for cellular MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2005-03-01

    Cellular MR imaging is a rapidly growing field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, that induce a hypointense contrast on the MR images, have now widely been used to mark cells in vitro and in vivo. Following intravenous injection, the particles are rapidly taken up by phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system, and imaging of this "macrophage activity" has been translated into the clinic for tumor staging of the liver and lymph nodes. A new, still experimental application of magnetic particles as cellular markers is its use to monitor cell migration and cell trafficking following labeling and transfer to living organisms. Further exploitation of this technique will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of in vivo cell biology as well as translation into the clinic to monitor (stem) cell-based therapies.

  5. Imaging protein interactions in vivo with sub-cellular resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Raicu, Valerica; Fung, Russell; Melnichuk, Mike; Jansma, David B; Pisterzi, Luca; Fox, Michael; Wells, James W; Saldin, Dilano K

    2008-01-01

    Resonant Energy Transfer (RET) from an optically excited donor molecule (D) to a non-excited acceptor molecule (A) residing nearby is widely used to detect molecular interactions in living cells. Stoichiometric information, such as the number of proteins forming a complex, has been obtained so far for a handful of proteins, but only after exposing the sample sequentially to at least two different excitation wavelengths. During this lengthy process of measurement, the molecular makeup of a cellular region may change, and this has so far limited the applicability of RET to determination of cellular averages. Here we demonstrate a method for imaging protein complex distribution in living cells with sub-cellular spatial resolution, which relies on a spectrally-resolved two-photon microscope, a simple but competent theory, and a keen selection of fluorescent tags. This technology may eventually lead to tracking dynamics of macromolecular complex formation and dissociation with spatial resolution inside living cell...

  6. In vivo cellular imaging using fluorescent proteins - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and genetic engineering of fluorescent proteins has revolutionized cell biology. What was previously invisible to the cell often can be made visible with the use of fluorescent proteins. With this words, Robert M. Hoffman introduces In vivo Cellular Imaging Using Fluorescent proteins, the eighteen chapters book dedicated to the description of how fluorescence proteins have changed the way to analyze cellular processes in vivo. Modern researches aim to study new and less invasive methods able to follow the behavior of different cell types in different biological contexts: for example, how cancer cells migrate or how they respond to different therapies. Also, in vivo systems can help researchers to better understand animal embryonic development so as how fluorescence proteins may be used to monitor different processes in living organisms at the molecular and cellular level.

  7. Medical image segmentation based on cellular neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The application of cellular neural network (CNN) has made great progress in image processing. When the selected objects extraction (SOE) CNN is applied to gray scale images, its effects depend on the choice of initial points. In this paper, we take medical images as an example to analyze this limitation. Then an improved algorithm is proposed in which we can segment any gray level objects regardless of the limitation stated above. We also use the gradient information and contour detection CNN to determine the contour and ensure the veracity of segmentation effectively. Finally, we apply the improved algorithm to tumor segmentation of the human brain MR image. The experimental results show that the algorithm is practical and effective.

  8. Intrinsic fluorescence of selenium nanoparticles for cellular imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Tran, Phong A.; Norello, Romina; Simpson, David A.; O'Connor, Andrea J.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles hold great potential in contributing to high-resolution bioimaging as well as for biomedical applications. Although, selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated owing to their potential roles in therapeutics, the imaging capability of these NPs has never been explored. This manuscript identifies the intrinsic fluorescence of Se NPs, which is highly beneficial for nanoscale imaging of biological structures. The emission of individual NPs and its evolution with time is explored. The photoluminescence spectra has revealed visible to near infrared emission for Se NPs. The work finally reflects on the role of this intrinsic fluorescence for in vitro imaging and tracking in fibroblast cells, without the need of any additional tags. This technique would overcome the limitations of the conventionally used methods of imaging with tagged fluorescent proteins and dyes, preventing possible adverse cellular effects or phototoxicity caused by the added fluorescent moieties.Nanoparticles hold great potential in contributing to high-resolution bioimaging as well as for biomedical applications. Although, selenium (Se) nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated owing to their potential roles in therapeutics, the imaging capability of these NPs has never been explored. This manuscript identifies the intrinsic fluorescence of Se NPs, which is highly beneficial for nanoscale imaging of biological structures. The emission of individual NPs and its evolution with time is explored. The photoluminescence spectra has revealed visible to near infrared emission for Se NPs. The work finally reflects on the role of this intrinsic fluorescence for in vitro imaging and tracking in fibroblast cells, without the need of any additional tags. This technique would overcome the limitations of the conventionally used methods of imaging with tagged fluorescent proteins and dyes, preventing possible adverse cellular effects or phototoxicity caused by the added fluorescent

  9. Imaging of acute and chronic osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the diagnosis of acute and chronic osteomyelitis imaging methods have become essential. This paper reviews the potential of the different imaging modalities. When there is clinical suspicion of acute osteomyelitis plain films are still the mainstay of diagnosis. In newborns and young children this primary diagnostic modality will be supplemented by sonography. If there is a need for further imaging, MRI and the different scintigraphic methods may be used interchangeably. However, for the spine and other complex anatomical regions MRI is preferred. In contrast, three-phase bone scanning is mostly accepted as the primary additional tool to radiography and sonography in the newborn and in small children. If an abscess is suspected, MRI is the primary imaging modality. In cases of chronic osteomyelitis radiography still forms the basis for obtaining information about the bone. Further imaging is regularly needed, not only because of its diagnostic value but also because radiographs do not demonstrate the extent of lesions correctly. The evaluation of disease extent in bone is a domain of MRI, while scintigraphic methods, like 111In leucocyte scintigraphy and MRI, are of equivalent diagnostic value. CT may have its role in disclosing a sequestrum when radiographs and MRI are equivocal. (orig.)

  10. Text Extraction and Enhancement of Binary Images Using Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Sahoo; Tapas Kumar; B.L. Rains; C.M. Bhatia

    2009-01-01

    Text characters embedded in images represent a rich source of information for content-based indexing and retrieval applications. However, these text characters are difficult to be detected and recognized due to their various sizes, grayscale values, and complex backgrounds. Existing methods cannot handle well those texts with different contrast or embedded in a complex image background. In this paper, a set of sequential algorithms for text extraction and enhancement of image using cellular automata are proposed. The image enhancement includes gray level, contrast manipulation, edge detection, and filtering. First, it applies edge detection and uses a threshold to filter out for low-contrast text and simplify complex background of high-contrast text from binary image. The proposed algorithm is simple and easy to use and requires only a sample texture binary image as an input. It generates textures with perceived quality, better than those proposed by earlier published techniques. The performance of our method is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of text based binary images. The quality of thresholding is assessed using the precision and recall analysis of the resultant text in the binary image.

  11. Nonlinear optical methods for cellular imaging and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, A; Crain, J

    2014-07-01

    Of all the ways in which complex materials (including many biological systems) can be explored, imaging is perhaps the most powerful because delivering high information content directly. This is particular relevant in aspects of cellular localization where the physical proximity of molecules is crucial in biochemical processes. A great deal of effort in imaging has been spent on enabling chemically selective imaging so that only specific features are revealed. This is almost always achieved by adding fluorescent chemical labels to specific molecules. Under appropriate illumination conditions only the molecules (via their labels) will be visible. The technique is simple and elegant but does suffer from fundamental limitations: (1) the fluorescent labels may fade when illuminated (a phenomenon called photobleaching) thereby constantly decreasing signal contrast over the course of image acquisition. To combat photobleaching one must reduce observation times or apply unfavourably low excitation levels all of which reduce the information content of images; (2) the fluorescent species may be deactivated by various environmental factors (the general term is fluorescence quenching); (3) the presence of fluorescent labels may introduce unexpected complications or may interfere with processes of interest (4) Some molecules of interest cannot be labelled. In these circumstances we require a fundamentally different strategy. One of the most promising alternative is based on a technique called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). CARS is a fundamentally more complex process than is fluorescence and the experimental procedures and optical systems required to deliver high quality CARS images are intricate. However, the rewards are correspondingly very high: CARS probes the chemically distinct vibrations of the constituent molecules in a complex system and is therefore also chemically selective as are fluorescence-based methods. Moreover,the potentially severe problems of

  12. Stewart-Treves syndrome: MR imaging of a postmastectomy upper-limb chronic lymphedema with angiosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindera, S.T.; Anderson, S.E. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Streit, M.; Kaelin, U. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Dermatology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Stauffer, E. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Pathology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Steinbach, L. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The rare occurrence of angiosarcoma in postmastectomy upper-limb lymphedema with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is discussed. Unfamiliarity with this aggressive vascular tumor and its harmless appearance often leads to delayed diagnosis. Angiosarcoma complicating chronic lymphedema may be low in signal intensity on T2-weighting and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging reflecting the densely cellular, fibrous stroma, and sparsely vascularized tumor histology. Additional administration of intravenous contrast medium revealed significant enhancement of the tumorous lesions. Awareness of angiosarcoma and its MR imaging appearance in patients with chronic lymphedema may be a key to early diagnosis or allow at least inclusion in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy demands of the brain are high: they account for at least 20% of the body\\'s energy consumption. Evolutionary studies indicate that the emergence of higher cognitive functions in humans is associated with an increased glucose utilization and expression of energy metabolism genes. Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET, which are widely used in human neuroscience studies, detect signals that monitor energy delivery and use in register with neuronal activity. Recent technological advances in metabolic studies with cellular resolution have afforded decisive insights into the understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of the coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism and pointat a key role of neuron-astrocyte metabolic interactions. This article reviews some of the most salient features emerging from recent studies and aims at providing an integration of brain energy metabolism across resolution scales. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  14. PEG functionalized luminescent lipid particles for cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Suman; Barick, K. C.; Shetake, Neena G.; Verma, Gunjan; Aswal, V. K.; Panicker, Lata; Pandey, B. N.; Hassan, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report here the synthesis, characterization and cellular uptake of luminescent micelle-like particles with phospholipid core and non-ionic PEG based surfactant polysorbate 80 shell. The adsorption of polysorbate 80 at the interface of lipid containing microemulsion droplets and its solidification upon removal of solvent leads to anchoring of PEG chain to the lipid particles. Hydrophobic partitioning of luminescent molecules, sodium 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid to the phospholipid core offers additional functionality to these particles. Thus, the cooperative assembly of lipid, non-ionic amphiphile and organic luminescent probe leads to the formation of multifunctional biocompatible particles which are useful for simultaneous imaging and therapy.

  15. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwit Rahmawati; Heru Muryawan; Farah Prabowo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were in...

  16. Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X. W.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. J.; Kim, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII) and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA) to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA) recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-...

  17. Current concepts in chronic inflammatory diseases: Interactions between microbes, cellular metabolism, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Holger; Bahn, Sabine; Baune, Bernhard T; Binder, Elisabeth B; Bisgaard, Hans; Chatila, Talal A; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Culmsee, Carsten; Dannlowski, Udo; Gay, Steffen; Gern, James; Haahtela, Tari; Kircher, Tilo; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neurath, Markus F; Preissner, Klaus T; Reinhardt, Christoph; Rook, Graham; Russell, Shannon; Schmeck, Bernd; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Steinhoff, Ulrich; van Os, Jim; Weiss, Scott; Zemlin, Michael; Renz, Harald

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that chronic inflammatory diseases, including allergies and autoimmune and neuropsychiatric diseases, share common pathways of cellular and molecular dysregulation. It was the aim of the International von-Behring-Röntgen Symposium (October 16-18, 2014, in Marburg, Germany) to discuss recent developments in this field. These include a concept of biodiversity; the contribution of urbanization, lifestyle factors, and nutrition (eg, vitamin D); and new mechanisms of metabolic and immune dysregulation, such as extracellular and intracellular RNAs and cellular and mitochondrial stress. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute further to altered gene expression and therefore to the development of chronic inflammation. These novel findings provide the foundation for further development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27373325

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalabi, A. [Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden). Center for Surgical Sciences Divisions of Radiology and Orthopedics

    2004-09-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate and monitor the morphological response following treatment interventions in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy by using different MRI techniques. For this purpose, we investigated different types of sequences, including gadolinium contrast medium-enhanced T1-WI images (CME T1-WI), and developed a precise method to measure tendon volume and mean intratendinous signal of the Achilles tendon. Study I aimed at evaluating 15 patients with chronic, painful Achilles tendinosis, before and 2 years after surgical treatment. There was marked regression of the intratendinous signal postoperatively. The most sensitive sequence for depicting an intratendinous lesion in this study was CME T1-WI images. They showed a regression of the intratendinous signal abnormality from 13/15 patients preoperatively to 4/15 postoperatively. The clinical outcome was excellent in eight, good in five, fair in one and poor in one patient. In study II, the early contrast agent enhancement in the dynamically enhanced MRI signal (DEMRI) was correlated with the histopathologic findings in 15 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Early contrast enhancement (within the first 72 s) was seen in DEMRI in the symptomatic Achilles tendons, with a significant difference compared to the asymptomatic contralateral tendons. Increased severity of tendon changes, including fiber structure abnormality, increased vascularity, rounding of nuclei, and increased amount of glycosaminoglycans, correlated to CME. In study III, we developed a computerized 3-D seed-growing MRI technique to measure tendon volume and mean intratendinous signal. This technique showed an excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability. The technique was also used to follow up prospectively the tendon adaptation and healing described in studies IV-VI. In study IV, using serial MRI during a period of 1 year, we evaluated the biological effect of tendon repair following iatrogenic

  19. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of repair in acute and chronic wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, P.; Nunan, R

    2015-01-01

    Summary A considerable understanding of the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning healthy acute wound healing has been gleaned from studying various animal models, and we are now unravelling the mechanisms that lead to chronic wounds and pathological healing including fibrosis. A small cut will normally heal in days through tight orchestration of cell migration and appropriate levels of inflammation, innervation and angiogenesis. Major surgeries may take several weeks to ...

  20. The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Shuiping Zhang; Huijune Luo

    2012-01-01

    The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimen...

  1. Chronic hepcidin induction causes hyposideremia and alters the pattern of cellular iron accumulation in hemochromatotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viatte, Lydie; Nicolas, Gaël; Lou, Dan-Qing; Bennoun, Myriam; Lesbordes-Brion, Jeanne-Claire; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Schönig, Kai; Bujard, Hermann; Kahn, Axel; Andrews, Nancy C; Vaulont, Sophie

    2006-04-01

    We report the generation of a tetracycline-regulated (Tet ON) transgenic mouse model for acute and chronic expression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin in the liver. We demonstrate that short-term and long-term tetracycline-dependent activation of hepcidin in adult mice leads to hypoferremia and iron-limited erythropoiesis, respectively. This clearly establishes the key role of hepcidin in regulating the extracellular iron concentration. We previously demonstrated that, when expressed early in fetal development, constitutive transgenic hepcidin expression prevented iron accumulation in an Hfe-/- mouse model of hemochromatosis. We now explore the effect of chronic hepcidin expression in adult Hfe-/- mice that have already developed liver iron overload. We demonstrate that induction of chronic hepcidin expression in 2-month-old Hfe-/- mice alters their pattern of cellular iron accumulation, leading to increased iron in tissue macrophages and duodenal cells but less iron in hepatocytes. These hepcidin-induced changes in the pattern of cellular iron accumulation are associated with decreased expression of the iron exporter ferroportin in macrophages but no detectable alteration of ferroportin expression in the hepatocytes. We speculate that this change in iron homeostasis could offer a therapeutic advantage by protecting against damage to parenchymal cells. PMID:16339398

  2. Cellular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In Vivo Imaging of Melanoma Cells in Lymph Nodes of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Foster

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is responsible for most deaths due to malignant melanoma. The clinical significance of micrometastases in the lymph is a hotly debated topic, but an improved understanding of the lymphatic spread of cancer remains important for improving cancer survival. Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a newly emerging field of imaging research that is expected to have a large impact on cancer research. In this study, we demonstrate the cellular MRI technology required to reliably image the lymphatic system in mice and to detect iron-labeled metastatic melanoma cells within the mouse lymph nodes. Melanoma cells were implanted directly into the inguinal lymph nodes in mice, and micro-MRI was performed using a customized 1.5-T clinical MRI system. We show cell detection of as few as 100 iron-labeled cells within the lymph node, with injections of larger cell numbers producing increasingly obvious regions of signal void. In addition, we show that cellular MRI allows monitoring of the fate of these cells over time as they develop into intranodal tumors. This technology will allow noninvasive investigations of cellular events in cancer metastasis within an entire animal and will facilitate progress in understanding the mechanisms of metastasis within the lymphatic system.

  3. Integral Imaging Based 3-D Image Encryption Algorithm Combined with Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel optical encryption method is proposed in this paper to achieve 3-D image encryption. This proposed encryption algorithm combines the use of computational integral imaging (CII and linear-complemented maximum- length cellular automata (LC-MLCA to encrypt a 3D image. In the encryption process, the 2-D elemental image array (EIA recorded by light rays of the 3-D image are mapped inversely through the lenslet array according the ray tracing theory. Next, the 2-D EIA is encrypted by LC-MLCA algorithm. When decrypting the encrypted image, the 2-D EIA is recovered by the LC-MLCA. Using the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR technique and a 3-D object is subsequently reconstructed on the output plane from the 2-D recovered EIA. Because the 2-D EIA is composed of a number of elemental images having their own perspectives of a 3-D image, even if the encrypted image is seriously harmed, the 3-D image can be successfully reconstructed only with partial data. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, we perform computational experiments and present the experimental results for various attacks. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed encryption method is valid and exhibits strong robustness and security.

  4. Imaging in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile D. Balaban; Andrei M. Lungu; Dragoș Cuzino; Săndica Bucurică; Bogdan Macadon; Mihăiță Pătrășescu; Raluca S. Costache; Petruț Nuță; Constantin Ştefani; Florentina Ioniță-Radu; Mariana Jinga

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by progressive and irreversible damage of the pancreatic parenchyma and ductal system, which leads to chronic pain, loss of endocrine and exocrine functions. Clinically, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency becomes apparent only after 90% of the parenchima has been lost. Despite the simple definition, diagnosing chronic pancreatitis remains a challenge, especially for early stage disease. Because pancreatic function tests can be normal until l...

  5. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension - assessment by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Kunz, R.P.; Oberholzer, Katja; Neeb, Daniel; Gast, Klaus K.; Dueber, Christoph [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Ley, Sebastian [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus-Peter [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Chest Clinic at University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberle, Balthasar [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Anesthesiology, Mainz (Germany); Inselspital, Department of Anesthesiology, Bern (Switzerland); Mayer, Eckhard [Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Department of Heart, Thorax and Vascular Surgery, Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe disease that has been ignored for a long time. However, with the development of improved therapeutic modalities, cardiologists and thoracic surgeons have shown increasing interest in the diagnostic work-up of this entity. The diagnosis and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension require a multidisciplinary approach involving the specialties of pulmonary medicine, cardiology, radiology, anesthesiology and thoracic surgery. With this approach, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) can be performed with an acceptable mortality rate. This review article describes the developments in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques for the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Techniques include contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA), MR perfusion imaging, phase-contrast imaging of the great vessels, cine imaging of the heart and combined perfusion-ventilation MR imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases. It is anticipated that MR imaging will play a central role in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CTEPH. (orig.)

  6. Mechanism of Chronic Pain in Rodent Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Ching

    Chronic pain is a significant health problem that greatly impacts the quality of life of individuals and imparts high costs to society. Despite intense research effort in understanding of the mechanism of pain, chronic pain remains a clinical problem that has few effective therapies. The advent of human brain imaging research in recent years has changed the way that chronic pain is viewed. To further extend the use of human brain imaging techniques for better therapies, the adoption of imaging technique onto the animal pain models is essential, in which underlying brain mechanisms can be systematically studied using various combination of imaging and invasive techniques. The general goal of this thesis is to addresses how brain develops and maintains chronic pain in an animal model using fMRI. We demonstrate that nucleus accumbens, the central component of mesolimbic circuitry, is essential in development of chronic pain. To advance our imaging technique, we develop an innovative methodology to carry out fMRI in awake, conscious rat. Using this cutting-edge technique, we show that allodynia is assoicated with shift brain response toward neural circuits associated nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex that regulate affective and cognitive component of pain. Taken together, this thesis provides a deeper understanding of how brain mediates pain. It builds on the existing body of knowledge through maximizing the depth of insight into brain imaging of chronic pain.

  7. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  8. Cellular composition and ultrastructure of periapical granulation tissue in primary and secondary chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko P.I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no complete data on the occurrence of bacteria in the outbreak of chronic inflammation a consequence of their high virulence, or the result of a defect of local mechanisms of immune protection. To answer these questions, as well as to evaluate the nature, severity changes periapical tissues of the tooth and the activity of the inflammatory process in the apex of the tooth root is possible only during the morphological study of biopsy material. Objective. The aim of this work was to study the cellular composition and ultrastructural features of the granulation tissue formed during the current the primary and secondary apical periodontitis. Methods. There were included in the histological examination of the teeth 78, who underwent resection of the apex, followed by a fence of histological material. For ultrastructural studies of granuloma periodontal tissue samples were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution, material embedded in Epon-812 («SPI-Pon ™ 812 Epoxy Embedding Kit», USA. The study was conducted using a transmission electron microscopy. Results. In the development of destructive periodontal inflammation are actively involved both specific and non-specific mechanisms of immunity. Conclusion. In primary periodontitis granulation tissue contains a moderate amount of white blood cells of various types, as well as single macrophages and plasma cells with reduced functional activity. In secondary periodontitis granuloma contains numerous mononuclear macrophages, plasma cells and giant multinucleated cells with increased activity, which corresponds to the morphological picture of the formation of immune granulomas. Citation: Gritsenko PI, Petruk NS, Samoylenko AV, Tverdokhleb IV. [Cellular composition and ultrastructure of periapical granulation tissue in primary and secondary chronic periodontitis]. Morphologia. 2014;8(2:14-9. Russian.

  9. Renal imaging in children with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Rahmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic kidney failure is a cause of death in children. Diagnosing chronic kidney disease is often made by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and ultrasonography or other imaging tests. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is needed for education and management of the disease. Objective To describe renal imaging findings and mortality in children with chronic kidney disease. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on children with kidney diseases who were inpatients at Dr. Kariadi Hospital from January 2008 to June 2011. Data were taken from medical records. Chronic kidney disease was confirmed by clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and radiologic imaging. Renal ultrasound findings were determined by the radiologist responsible at that time. Results were presented as frequency distributions. Results Of 37 chronic kidney disease cases, 27 were males and 10 were females. Subjects’ most common complaints were dyspnea (7 out of 37 and edema (30 out of 37. Renal ultrasound imaging of subjects with chronic kidney disease yielded the following findings: reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (30 out of 37, bilateral echogenic kidneys (21 out of 37, reduced renal cortex thickness (4 out of 37 and small-sized kidneys (4 out of 37. Eight of the 37 children died. These 8 subjects had the following radiologic imaging findings: both kidneys appeared small in size (4 out of 8, reduced ‘renal cortex’ thickness (4 out of 8, echogenic kidneys (6 out of 8, and reduced cortico-medullary differentiation (8 out of 8. Conclusion Renal ultrasound imaging of pediatric subjects with chronic kidney disease revealed findings of reduced cortico-medullary differentiation, bilateral echogenic kidneys, reduced renal cortex thickness, and small kidneys bilaterally. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:193-9.].

  10. A new concept for medical imaging centered on cellular phone technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Granot

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organization reports, some three quarters of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In addition, in developing countries over 50% of medical equipment that is available is not being used because it is too sophisticated or in disrepair or because the health personnel are not trained to use it. The goal of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept in medical imaging that is centered on cellular phone technology and which may provide a solution to medical imaging in underserved areas. The new system replaces the conventional stand-alone medical imaging device with a new medical imaging system made of two independent components connected through cellular phone technology. The independent units are: a a data acquisition device (DAD at a remote patient site that is simple, with limited controls and no image display capability and b an advanced image reconstruction and hardware control multiserver unit at a central site. The cellular phone technology transmits unprocessed raw data from the patient site DAD and receives and displays the processed image from the central site. (This is different from conventional telemedicine where the image reconstruction and control is at the patient site and telecommunication is used to transmit processed images from the patient site. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that the cellular phone technology can function in the proposed mode. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated using a new frequency division multiplexing electrical impedance tomography system, which we have developed for dynamic medical imaging, as the medical imaging modality. The system is used to image through a cellular phone a simulation of breast cancer tumors in a medical imaging diagnostic mode and to image minimally invasive tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation in a medical imaging interventional mode.

  11. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (58). Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, G J; Sitoh, Y Y

    2001-02-01

    A 36-year-old Korean man presented with a history of epilepsy. MR imaging of the brain revealed multiple conglomerated round nodules that were hypointense on both T1-and-T2 weighted images. These were located at the left temporal and occipital lobes and had surrounding encephalomalacia. CT scan confirmed the presence of large calcified nodules in the corresponding regions. These imaging findings were typical of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. The clinical, CT and MR features of cerebral paragonimiasis are reviewed.

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging chronic lymphocytic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; De Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Signore, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In the last few decades, a number of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging inflammation have been proposed that differ in their specificity and mechanism of uptake in inflamed foci as compared to the traditional inflammation imaging agents. Radiolabelled cytokines represent a reliable tool for the precli

  13. The Research of Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiping Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Research presents an image encryption algorithm which bases on chaotic cellular automata. This algorithm makes use of features that extreme sensitivity of chaotic system to initial conditions, the cellular automaton with a high degree of parallel processing. The encryption algorithm uses two-dimensional chaotic system to Encrypt image, Then establish a cellular automaton model on the initial encrypted image. Encryption key of this algorithm is made up of the initial value by the two-dimensional chaotic systems, parameters, two-dimensional cellular automata local evolution rules f and iterations n. Experimental results shows that the algorithm has features that high efficiency, better security, sensitivity to the key and so on.

  14. Imaging of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balthazar, Emil J.; Megibow, Alec J. [NYU-Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto (eds.) [Policlinico ' ' GB Rossi' ' Verona Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    2009-07-01

    With the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations, this volume explains the strengths and limitations of the different techniques employed in the imaging of pancreatitis. Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and interventional imaging are each considered separately in the settings of acute and chronic pancreatitis. A further section is devoted to imaging of the complications of these conditions. Throughout, care has been taken to ensure that the reader will achieve a sound understanding of how the imaging findings derive from the pathophysiology of the disease processes. The significance of the imaging findings for clinical and therapeutic decision making is clearly explained, and protocols are provided that will assist in obtaining the best possible images. (orig.)

  15. Bioluminescence: a versatile technique for imaging cellular and molecular features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Miranda A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a ubiquitous imaging modality for visualizing biological processes in vivo. This technique employs visible light and interfaces readily with most cell and tissue types, making it a versatile technology for preclinical studies. Here we review basic bioluminescence imaging principles, along with applications of the technology that are relevant to the medicinal chemistry community. These include noninvasive cell tracking experiments, analyses of protein function, and methods to visualize small molecule metabolites. In each section, we also discuss how bioluminescent tools have revealed insights into experimental therapies and aided drug discovery. Last, we highlight the development of new bioluminescent tools that will enable more sensitive and multi-component imaging experiments and, thus, expand our broader understanding of living systems.

  16. MR imaging features of chronically torn anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Kuramochi, Masashi; Ikeda, Kotaroh; Fukubayashi, Tohru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 40 knee joints with arthroscopically proved chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears were retrospectively evaluated. MRI demonstrated various features of chronic ACL tears: 19 knees revealed with no identifiable ligamentous structure, and 21 had residual ligamentous structures. These pseudoligaments, 14 discontinuous bands and seven continuous bands with elongation, were residual torn ligamentous fibers and/or synovial tissues. All the discontinuous bands were disrupted from the femoral attachment and were likely to traverse the lower intercondylar space. Six disrupted ligaments were attached to the lateral aspect of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Coronal T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo images showed better delineation of the disrupted femoral attachment and adhesion to the PCL. A chronic ACL tear with minimal elongation or with PCL attachment at a higher position may occasionally be difficult to distinguish from an intact ligament. (author).

  17. MR imaging features of chronically torn anterior cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 40 knee joints with arthroscopically proved chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears were retrospectively evaluated. MRI demonstrated various features of chronic ACL tears: 19 knees revealed with no identifiable ligamentous structure, and 21 had residual ligamentous structures. These pseudoligaments, 14 discontinuous bands and seven continuous bands with elongation, were residual torn ligamentous fibers and/or synovial tissues. All the discontinuous bands were disrupted from the femoral attachment and were likely to traverse the lower intercondylar space. Six disrupted ligaments were attached to the lateral aspect of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images showed better delineation of the disrupted femoral attachment and adhesion to the PCL. A chronic ACL tear with minimal elongation or with PCL attachment at a higher position may occasionally be difficult to distinguish from an intact ligament. (author)

  18. Nanoparticle Enhanced MRI Scanning to Detect Cellular Inflammation in Experimental Chronic Renal Allograft Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether ultrasmall paramagnetic particles of iron oxide- (USPIO- enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can detect experimental chronic allograft damage in a murine renal allograft model. Materials and Methods. Two cohorts of mice underwent renal transplantation with either a syngeneic isograft or allograft kidney. MRI scanning was performed prior to and 48 hours after USPIO infusion using T2∗-weighted protocols. R2∗ values were calculated to indicate the degree of USPIO uptake. Native kidneys and skeletal muscle were imaged as reference tissues and renal explants analysed by histology and electron microscopy. Results. R2∗ values in the allograft group were higher compared to the isograft group when indexed to native kidney (median 1.24 (interquartile range: 1.12 to 1.36 versus 0.96 (0.92 to 1.04, P<0.01. R2∗ values were also higher in the allograft transplant when indexed to skeletal muscle (6.24 (5.63 to 13.51 compared to native kidney (2.91 (1.11 to 6.46 P<0.05. Increased R2∗ signal in kidney allograft was associated with macrophage and iron staining on histology. USPIO were identified within tissue resident macrophages on electron microscopy. Conclusion. USPIO-enhanced MRI identifies macrophage.

  19. Diminished Cellular Immune Response to Carbonic Anhydrase II in Patients with Sjogren's Syndrome and Idiopathic Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onishi S

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II has been reported in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cellular immune response to carbonic anhydrase II in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. PATIENTS: Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (n=23, Sjögren’s syndrome (n=12, alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (n=3 and normal controls (n=13. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proliferation assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Notable increased proliferation of the mononuclear cells upon stimulation with carbonic anhydrase II was observed in 2 patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (9% and 2 patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (17% but not in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis nor in normal controls. Among the four study groups, there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of the positive proliferative responses (P=0.444. CONCLUSION: Carbonic anhydrase II may not be a major target antigen for the immunological process in the pathogenesis of Sjögren’s syndrome and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Serum antibody to carbonic anhydrase II may be detected in these patients as a consequence of the immune reaction against other antigens which mimic carbonic anhydrase II.

  20. A novel image encryption algorithm using chaos and reversible cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Luan, Dapeng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed based on reversible cellular automata (RCA) combining chaos. In this algorithm, an intertwining logistic map with complex behavior and periodic boundary reversible cellular automata are used. We split each pixel of image into units of 4 bits, then adopt pseudorandom key stream generated by the intertwining logistic map to permute these units in confusion stage. And in diffusion stage, two-dimensional reversible cellular automata which are discrete dynamical systems are applied to iterate many rounds to achieve diffusion on bit-level, in which we only consider the higher 4 bits in a pixel because the higher 4 bits carry almost the information of an image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the proposed algorithm achieves a high security level and processes good performance against common attacks like differential attack and statistical attack. This algorithm belongs to the class of symmetric systems.

  1. An authenticated image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps and memory cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandeh, Atieh; Eslami, Ziba

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new image encryption scheme based on chaotic maps, cellular automata and permutation-diffusion architecture. In the permutation phase, a piecewise linear chaotic map is utilized to confuse the plain-image and in the diffusion phase, we employ the Logistic map as well as a reversible memory cellular automata to obtain an efficient and secure cryptosystem. The proposed method admits advantages such as highly secure diffusion mechanism, computational efficiency and ease of implementation. A novel property of the proposed scheme is its authentication ability which can detect whether the image is tampered during the transmission or not. This is particularly important in applications where image data or part of it contains highly sensitive information. Results of various analyses manifest high security of this new method and its capability for practical image encryption.

  2. The Use of Amnion-Derived Cellular Cytokine Solution to Improve Healing in Acute and Chronic Wound Models

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Michael G.; Payne, Wyatt G.; Xing, Liyu; Naidu, D. K; Salas, R. E; Marshall, Vivienne S.; Trumpower, C. J; Smith, Charlotte A; Steed, David L.; Robson, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Growth factors demonstrate mixed results improving wound healing. Amnion-derived multipotent cells release physiologic levels of growth factors and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This solution was tested in models of acute and chronic wound healing. Methods: Acute model: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy incisions. The midline fascia was primed with phosphate-buffered saline, unconditioned media, or amnion-derived cellular cytokine suspension prior to incision. Bre...

  3. Luminescent Nanomaterials for Molecular-Specific Cellular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, Andrei Vasilyevich; Song, Zhen; Nadort, Annemarie; Sreenivasan, Varun Kumaraswamy Annayya; Deyev, Sergey Mikhailovich

    Imaging of molecular trafficking in cells and biological tissue aided by molecular-specific fluorescent labeling is very attractive, since it affords capturing the key processes in comprehensive biological context. Several shortcomings of the existing organic dye labeling technology, however, call for development of alternative molecular reporters, with improved photostability, reduced cytotoxicity, and an increased number of controllable surface moieties. Such alternative molecular reporters are represented by inorganic luminescent nanoparticles (NP) whose optical, physical, and chemical properties are discussed on the examples of luminescent nanodiamonds (LND) and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP). The emission origins of these nanomaterials differ markedly. LND emission results from individual nitrogen-vacancy color-centers in a biocompatible nanodiamond host whose properties can be controlled via size and surface groups. Photophysics of UCNP is governed by the collective, nonlinear excitation transfer processes, resulting in conversion of longer-wavelength excitation to the shorter-wavelength emission. The emission/excitation spectral properties of UCNP falling within the biological tissue transparency window open new opportunities of almost complete suppression of the cell/tissue autofluorescence background. The developed surface of these nanoparticles represents a flexible platform populated with biocompatible surface moieties onto which cargo and targeting biomolecules can be firmly docked through a process called bioconjugation. These bioconjugated modules, e.g., nanodiamond-antibody, (quantum dot)-somatostatin, or (upconversion nanoparticle)-(mini-antibody) can gain admission into the cells by initiating the cell-specific, cell-recognized communication protocol. In this chapter, we aim to demonstrate the whole bottom-up bio-nano-optics approach for optical biological imaging capturing luminescent nanoparticle design, surface activation, and bioconjugation

  4. In vivo longitudinal cellular imaging of small intestine by side-view endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jinhyo; Choe, Kibaek; Wang, Taejun; Hwang, Yoonha; Song, Eunjoo; Kim, Ki Hean; Kim, Pilhan

    2015-10-01

    Visualization of cellular dynamics in the gastrointestinal tract of living mouse model to investigate the pathophysiology has been a long-pursuing goal. Especially, for chronic disease such as Crohn's disease, a longitudinal observation of the luminal surface of the small intestine in the single mouse is highly desirable to investigate the complex pathogenesis in sequential time points. In this work, by utilizing a micro-GRIN lens based side-view endomicroscope integrated into a video-rate confocal microscopy system, we successfully performed minimally-invasive in vivo cellular-level visualization of various fluorescent cells and microvasculature in the small intestinal villi. Also, with a transgenic mouse universally expressing photoconvertible protein, Kaede, we demonstrated repetitive cellular-level confocal endoscopic visualization of same area in the small intestinal lumen of a single mouse, which revealed the continuous homeostatic renewal of the small intestinal epithelium. PMID:26504646

  5. Cell motility dynamics: a novel segmentation algorithm to quantify multi-cellular bright field microscopy images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Zaritsky

    Full Text Available Confocal microscopy analysis of fluorescence and morphology is becoming the standard tool in cell biology and molecular imaging. Accurate quantification algorithms are required to enhance the understanding of different biological phenomena. We present a novel approach based on image-segmentation of multi-cellular regions in bright field images demonstrating enhanced quantitative analyses and better understanding of cell motility. We present MultiCellSeg, a segmentation algorithm to separate between multi-cellular and background regions for bright field images, which is based on classification of local patches within an image: a cascade of Support Vector Machines (SVMs is applied using basic image features. Post processing includes additional classification and graph-cut segmentation to reclassify erroneous regions and refine the segmentation. This approach leads to a parameter-free and robust algorithm. Comparison to an alternative algorithm on wound healing assay images demonstrates its superiority. The proposed approach was used to evaluate common cell migration models such as wound healing and scatter assay. It was applied to quantify the acceleration effect of Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF on healing rate in a time lapse confocal microscopy wound healing assay and demonstrated that the healing rate is linear in both treated and untreated cells, and that HGF/SF accelerates the healing rate by approximately two-fold. A novel fully automated, accurate, zero-parameters method to classify and score scatter-assay images was developed and demonstrated that multi-cellular texture is an excellent descriptor to measure HGF/SF-induced cell scattering. We show that exploitation of textural information from differential interference contrast (DIC images on the multi-cellular level can prove beneficial for the analyses of wound healing and scatter assays. The proposed approach is generic and can be used alone or alongside traditional

  6. Preferential tumor cellular uptake and retention of indocyanine green for in vivo tumor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent agent approved for clinical applications by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. This study examined the mechanism of tumor imaging using intravenously administered ICG. The in vivo kinetics of intravenously administered ICG were determined in tumor xenografts using microscopic approaches that enabled both spatio-temporal and high-magnification analyses. The mechanism of ICG-based tumor imaging was examined at the cellular level in six phenotypically different human colon cancer cell lines exhibiting different grades of epithelioid organization. ICG fluorescence imaging detected xenograft tumors, even those < 1 mm in size, based on their preferential cellular uptake and retention of the dye following its rapid tissue-non-specific delivery, in contrast to its rapid clearance by normal tissue. Live-cell imaging revealed that cellular ICG uptake is temperature-dependent and occurs after ICG binding to the cellular membrane, a pattern suggesting endocytic uptake as the mechanism. Cellular ICG uptake correlated inversely with the formation of tight junctions. Intracellular ICG was entrapped in the membrane traffic system, resulting in its slow turnover and prolonged retention by tumor cells. Our results suggest that tumor-specific imaging by ICG involves non-specific delivery of the dye to tissues followed by preferential tumor cellular uptake and retention. The tumor cell-preference of ICG is driven by passive tumor cell-targeting, the inherent ability of ICG to bind to cell membranes, and the high endocytic activity of tumor cells in association with the disruption of their tight junctions. PMID:27006261

  7. Soft X-ray Tomography and Cryogenic Light Microscopy: The Cool Combination in Cellular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Gerry; Le Gros, Mark A.; Knoechel, Christian G.; Uchida, Maho; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Soft x-ray tomography (SXT) is ideally suited to imaging sub-cellular architecture and organization, particularly in eukaryotic cells. SXT is similar in concept to the well-established medical diagnostic technique computed axial tomography (CAT), except SXT is capable of imaging with a spatial resolution of 50 nm, or better. In soft x-ray tomography (SXT) cells are imaged using photons from a region of the spectrum known as the ‘water window’. This results in quantitative, high-contrast image...

  8. Asynchronous Cellular Operations on Gray Images Extracting Topographic Shape Features and Their Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Polkovnikov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    A variety of operations of cellular automata on gray images is presented. All operations are of a wave-front nature finishing in a stable state. They are used to extract shape descripting gray objects robust to a variety of pattern distortions. Topographic terms are used: "lakes", "dales", "dales of dales". It is shown how mutual object relations like "above" can be presented in terms of gray image analysis and how it can be used for character classification and for gray pattern decomposition...

  9. Preoperative imaging of chronic sinusitis by multislice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ingo; Koitschev, Assen; Dammann, Florian

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether multislice CT enables quality improvement and dose reduction in the imaging of the paranasal sinuses, especially when using secondary reconstructions. We compared the imaging quality of direct CT scans and secondary reconstructions of single-slice CT (SSCT) as a criterion standard with multislice CT (MSCT) of the paranasal sinuses in 80 patients suspected of having chronic sinusitis. Coronary secondary reconstructions were calculated from all transversal CT data sets. Coronary reconstructions of transversal MSCT showed a significantly better image quality compared with coronary reconstructions of SSCT. Because of the absence of dental metal artifacts, coronary reconstructions of MSCT were superior even to direct coronary images of SSCT. MSCT offered a superior examination quality compared to SSCT. A halving of radiation dosage can be reached by eliminating one examination plane. PMID:15546176

  10. Clinical imaging of vascular disease in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Covic, Adrian; London, Gerard; Vervloet, Marc; Goldsmith, David; Gorriz, Jose Luis; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Arterial wall calcification, once considered an incidental finding, is now known to be a consistent and strong predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. It is also commonly encountered in radiologic examinations as an incidental finding. Forthcoming bench, translational, and clinical data seek to establish this and pre-calcification changes as surrogate imaging biomarkers for noninvasive prognostication and treatment follow-up. Emerging paradigms seek to establish vascular calcification as a surrogate marker of disease. Imaging of pre-calcification and decalcification events may prove more important than imaging of the calcification itself. Data-driven approaches to screening will be necessary to limit radiation exposure and prevent over-utilization of expensive imaging techniques. PMID:26898824

  11. Visible to Near-Infrared Fluorescence Enhanced Cellular Imaging on Plasmonic Gold Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Byumseok; Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Bing; Lin, Yi; Antaris, Alexander L; Wan, Hao; Gong, Ming; Yang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liang, Yongye; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-01-27

    Rapid and sensitive detections of a variety of surface and intracellular proteins, nucleic acids, and other cellular biomarkers are important to elucidating biological signaling pathways and to devising disease diagnostics and therapeutics. Here, sensitive imaging and detection of cellular proteins on fluorescence-enhancing, nanostructured plasmonic gold (pGold) chips is presented. Imaging of fluorescently labeled cellular biomarkers on pGold is enhanced by 2-30-fold in the visible to near infrared (NIR) range of ≈500-900 nm. The high fluorescence enhancement of >700 nm significantly improves the dynamic range and signal/background ratios of NIR imaging, allowing high-performance multicolor imaging in the visible-NIR range using high quantum yield (QY) visible dyes and lower QY NIR fluorophores. Further, multiple cellular proteins of single cells of various cell types can be detected through microarraying of cells, useful for potentially hundreds and thousands different types of cells assayed on a single chip down to small cell numbers. This work suggests a simple, high throughput, high sensitivity, and multiplexed single-cell analysis method on fluorescence enhancing plasmonic substrates in the entire visible to NIR window. PMID:26663862

  12. Dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as single and two-photon luminescence cellular imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Zuo, Jiarui; Wang, Lili; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2014-02-28

    A new series of dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, which possess larger π-conjugated systems, good water solubility and pH resistance, and high photostability, were developed to act as single and two-photon luminescence cellular imaging probes. PMID:24418839

  13. Juvenile chronic arthritis and imaging: comparison of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cervini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare imaging findings obtained with different techniques in a patient with juvenile chronic arthritis. Methods: The patient was a 12 years-old child with a 7-months history of arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the right foot. The involved area was explored with the following imaging techniques: X-ray, technetium bone scintigraphy, magnetic resonance, gray-scale and power-Doppler ultrasonography. Results: No abnormalities were detected with conventional X-ray. Scintigraphy showed an abnormal uptake of the radionuclide in the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the right foot. Magnetic resonance without contrast revealed clearly evident features of an active process of synovitis. Ultrasonography was able to detect the presence of joint effusion, synovial proliferation, bone erosion of the first metatarsal head. Power-Doppler examination revealed evident signs of soft tissue hyperemia. Conclusions: Comparative assessment of different imaging techniques in this patient with recent-onset juvenile chronic arthritis indicates that high resolution ultrasonography provides the most detailed evaluation of the joint involvement with respect to the other imaging techniques.

  14. Cellular neural network-based hybrid approach toward automatic image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Pattathal VijayaKumar; Katiyar, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Image registration is a key component of various image processing operations that involve the analysis of different image data sets. Automatic image registration domains have witnessed the application of many intelligent methodologies over the past decade; however, inability to properly model object shape as well as contextual information has limited the attainable accuracy. A framework for accurate feature shape modeling and adaptive resampling using advanced techniques such as vector machines, cellular neural network (CNN), scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), coreset, and cellular automata is proposed. CNN has been found to be effective in improving feature matching as well as resampling stages of registration and complexity of the approach has been considerably reduced using coreset optimization. The salient features of this work are cellular neural network approach-based SIFT feature point optimization, adaptive resampling, and intelligent object modelling. Developed methodology has been compared with contemporary methods using different statistical measures. Investigations over various satellite images revealed that considerable success was achieved with the approach. This system has dynamically used spectral and spatial information for representing contextual knowledge using CNN-prolog approach. This methodology is also illustrated to be effective in providing intelligent interpretation and adaptive resampling.

  15. A signal separation technique for sub-cellular imaging using dynamic optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Habib; Shi, Cong

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at imaging the dynamics of metabolic activity of cells. Using dynamic optical coherence tomography, we introduce a new multi-particle dynamical model to simulate the movements of the collagen and the cell metabolic activity and develop an efficient signal separation technique for sub-cellular imaging. We perform a singular-value decomposition of the dynamic optical images to isolate the intensity of the metabolic activity. We prove that the largest eigenvalue of the associated Casorati matrix corresponds to the collagen. We present several numerical simulations to illustrate and validate our approach.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  17. during Chronic Pain: In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Kwang Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in two-photon microscopy and fluorescence labeling techniques have enabled us to directly see the structural and functional changes in neurons and glia, and even at synapses, in the brain of living animals. Long-term in vivo two-photon imaging studies have shown that some postsynaptic dendritic spines in the adult cortex are rapidly eliminated or newly generated, in response to altered sensory input or synaptic activity, resulting in experience/activity-dependent rewiring of neuronal circuits. In vivo Ca2+ imaging studies have revealed the distinct, input-specific response patterns of excitatory neurons in the brain. These updated in vivo approaches are just beginning to be used for the study of pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic diseases. In this paper, we introduce recent in vivo two-photon imaging studies demonstrating how plastic changes in synaptic structure and function of the mouse somatosensory cortex, following peripheral injury, contribute to chronic pain conditions, like neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

  18. Changes of anabolic processes at the cellular and molecular level in chronic wounds under topical negative pressure can be revealed by transcriptome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leffler, Mareike; Derrick, Kathleen L.; McNulty, Amy; Malsiner, Caye; Dragu, Adrian; Horch, Raymund E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Chronic wounds – as defined by the World Union of Wound Healing Societies (WUWHS) – are a considerable worldwide health care expense and impair quality of life. In order for chronic wounds to heal, these wounds must be transformed to a more acute state to begin the healing process. Topical negative pressure (TNP) with reticulated open cell foam (ROCF) is known to promote healing in certain types of chronic wounds. However, little is known about changes at the cellular or molecular le...

  19. Imaging of chronic osteomyelitis; Chronische Infektionen des Skelettsystems. Bildgebende Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, C.; Matzko, M.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-06-01

    The diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis is made on the basis of clinical, radiologic and histologic findings. The role of imaging in patients with known chronic osteomyelitis is to detect and to delineate areas of active infection. To correctly interpret the imaging findings, it is essential to take both the individual clinical findings and previous imaging studies into account. Reliable signs of active infection are bone marrow abscess, sequestra and sinus tract formation. Only the combined evaluation of bony changes together with alterations of the adjacent soft tissues provides good diagnostic accuracy. Projection radiography gives an overview of the condition of the bone, which provides the basis for follow-up and the selection of further imaging modalities. Computed tomography can be used to evaluate even discrete or complex bony alterations and to guide percutaneous biopsy or drainage. Magnetic resonance imaging achieves the best diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and provides superior contrast as well as anatomical resolution in both bone marrow and soft tissues. In this paper the features and clinical relevance of imaging in primary chronic osteomyelitis, posttraumatic osteomyelitis, tuberculous spondylitis and osteomyelitis of the diabetic foot are reviewed, with particular respect to MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnose der chronischen Osteomyelitis wird durch Klinik, Bildgebung und Histologie gestellt. Bei bekannter chronischer Osteomyelitis soll die Bildgebung einen floriden Prozess und die betroffenen Kompartimente herausarbeiten. Die Klinik des Patienten, seine individuelle Krankheitskonstellation und die Verlaufsbeobachtung sind essentiell fuer die Befundinterpretation. Erst die kombinierte Beurteilung der Veraenderungen am Knochen selbst sowie die der umgebenden Weichteile fuehrt zu einer validen Aussage. Sichere Zeichen einer floriden Osteomyelitis sind lediglich (Knochenmarks)abzess, Sequester und Fistelgang. Die Projektionsradiographie gibt

  20. A single-cell bioluminescence imaging system for monitoring cellular gene expression in a plant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Tomoaki; Kubota, Saya; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process and expression dynamics are of great interest in life science. We succeeded in monitoring cellular gene expression in a duckweed plant, Lemna gibba, using bioluminescent reporters. Using particle bombardment, epidermal and mesophyll cells were transfected with the luciferase gene (luc+) under the control of a constitutive [Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S)] and a rhythmic [Arabidopsis thaliana CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (AtCCA1)] promoter. Bioluminescence images were captured using an EM-CCD (electron multiply charged couple device) camera. Luminescent spots of the transfected cells in the plant body were quantitatively measured at the single-cell level. Luminescence intensities varied over a 1,000-fold range among CaMV35S::luc+-transfected cells in the same plant body and showed a log-normal-like frequency distribution. We monitored cellular gene expression under light-dark conditions by capturing bioluminescence images every hour. Luminescence traces of ≥50 individual cells in a frond were successfully obtained in each monitoring procedure. Rhythmic and constitutive luminescence behaviors were observed in cells transfected with AtCCA1::luc+ and CaMV35S::luc+, respectively. Diurnal rhythms were observed in every AtCCA1::luc+-introduced cell with traceable luminescence, and slight differences were detected in their rhythmic waveforms. Thus the single-cell bioluminescence monitoring system was useful for the characterization of cellular gene expression in a plant body.

  1. A single-cell bioluminescence imaging system for monitoring cellular gene expression in a plant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Tomoaki; Kubota, Saya; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2013-12-01

    Gene expression is a fundamental cellular process and expression dynamics are of great interest in life science. We succeeded in monitoring cellular gene expression in a duckweed plant, Lemna gibba, using bioluminescent reporters. Using particle bombardment, epidermal and mesophyll cells were transfected with the luciferase gene (luc+) under the control of a constitutive [Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S)] and a rhythmic [Arabidopsis thaliana CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (AtCCA1)] promoter. Bioluminescence images were captured using an EM-CCD (electron multiply charged couple device) camera. Luminescent spots of the transfected cells in the plant body were quantitatively measured at the single-cell level. Luminescence intensities varied over a 1,000-fold range among CaMV35S::luc+-transfected cells in the same plant body and showed a log-normal-like frequency distribution. We monitored cellular gene expression under light-dark conditions by capturing bioluminescence images every hour. Luminescence traces of ≥50 individual cells in a frond were successfully obtained in each monitoring procedure. Rhythmic and constitutive luminescence behaviors were observed in cells transfected with AtCCA1::luc+ and CaMV35S::luc+, respectively. Diurnal rhythms were observed in every AtCCA1::luc+-introduced cell with traceable luminescence, and slight differences were detected in their rhythmic waveforms. Thus the single-cell bioluminescence monitoring system was useful for the characterization of cellular gene expression in a plant body. PMID:24058151

  2. Facile Synthesis of Biocompatible Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Cellular Imaging and Targeted Detection of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fu; Wang, Chun; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lidong

    2015-11-18

    In this work, we report the facile synthesis of functional core-shell structured nanoparticles with fluorescence enhancement, which show specific targeting of cancer cells. Biopolymer poly-l-lysine was used to coat the silver core with various shell thicknesses. Then, the nanoparticles were functionalized with folic acid as a targeting agent for folic acid receptor. The metal-enhanced fluorescence effect was observed when the fluorophore (5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester) was conjugated to the modified nanoparticle surface. Cellular imaging assay of the nanoparticles in folic acid receptor-positive cancer cells showed their excellent biocompatibility and selectivity. The as-prepared functional nanoparticles demonstrate the efficiency of the metal-enhanced fluorescence effect and provide an alternative approach for the cellular imaging and targeting of cancer cells.

  3. Quantitative analysis of the cellular inflammatory response against biofilm bacteria in chronic wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazli, Mustafa; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    counting on the tissue sections from wounds containing either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. The P. aeruginosa-containing wounds had significantly higher numbers of neutrophils accumulated compared with the S. aureus-containing wounds. These results are discussed in relation...... to the wound. One such stimulus might be the presence of bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds. In the present study, biopsy specimens from chronic venous leg ulcers were investigated for the detection of bacteria using peptide nucleic acid-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) and confocal laser...... to the hypothesis that the presence of P. aeruginosa biofilms in chronic wounds may be one of the main factors leading to a persistent inflammatory response and impaired wound healing....

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of normal skin and nonmelanoma skin cancer with cellular resolution using Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kye-Sung; Zhao, Huimin; Ibrahim, Sherrif F; Meemon, Natthani; Khoudeir, Laura; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We investigate morphological differences in three-dimensional (3-D) images with cellular resolution between nonmelanoma skin cancer and normal skin using Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy. As a result, we show for the first time cellular optical coherence images of 3-D features differentiating cancerous skin from normal skin. In addition, in vivo volumetric images of normal skin from different anatomic locations are shown and compared.

  5. Image-processing algorithms realized by discrete-time cellular neural networks and their circuit implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, eight image tasks: connected component detection (CCD) with down, right, +45o and -45o directions, edge detection, shadow projection with left and right directions and point removal are analyzed. These tasks are solved using the binary input and binary output discrete-time cellular neural networks (DTCNNs) associated with suitable templates. Furthermore, the behavior of the DTCNNs can be realized using Boolean functions, and the corresponding equivalent logic circuits are derived. An 8 x 8 DTCNNs-based image-processing chip is implemented by the FPGA technology. A simulation of the chip developed for the CCD task is also presented

  6. Functional recognition imaging using artificial neural networks: applications to rapid cellular identification via broadband electromechanical response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, M P; Guo, S; Kalinin, S V; Jesse, S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Reukov, V V; Thompson, G L; Vertegel, A A, E-mail: sergei2@ornl.go [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2009-10-07

    Functional recognition imaging in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) using artificial neural network identification is demonstrated. This approach utilizes statistical analysis of complex SPM responses at a single spatial location to identify the target behavior, which is reminiscent of associative thinking in the human brain, obviating the need for analytical models. We demonstrate, as an example of recognition imaging, rapid identification of cellular organisms using the difference in electromechanical activity over a broad frequency range. Single-pixel identification of model Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria is achieved, demonstrating the viability of the method.

  7. 3D image copyright protection based on cellular automata transform and direct smart pixel mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) watermarking system with the direct smart pixel mapping algorithm to improve the resolution of the reconstructed 3D watermark plane images. The depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained through the computational pixel mapping method. In the watermark embedding process, the depth-converted EIA is first scrambled by using the Arnold transform, which is then embedded in the middle frequency of the cellular automata (CA) transform. Compared with conventional computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) methods, this proposed scheme gives us a higher resolution of the reconstructed 3D plane images by using the quality-enhanced depth-converted EIA. The proposed method, which can obtain many transform planes for embedding watermark data, uses CA transforms with various gateway values. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we present the results of our preliminary experiments.

  8. Imaging self-assembly dependent spatial distribution of small molecules in a cellular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Kuang, Yi; Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Chandran, Preethi; Horkay, Ferenc; Xu, Bing

    2013-12-10

    Self-assembly of small molecules, as a more common phenomenon than one previously thought, can be either beneficial or detrimental to cells. Despite its profound biological implications, how the self-assembly of small molecules behave in a cellular environment is largely unknown and barely explored. This work studies four fluorescent molecules that consist of the same peptidic backbone (e.g., Phe-Phe-Lys) and enzyme trigger (e.g., a phosphotyrosine residue), but bear different fluorophores on the side chain of the lysine residue of the peptidic motif. These molecules, however, exhibit a different ability of self-assembly before and after enzymatic transformation (e.g., dephosphorylation). Fluorescent imaging reveals that self-assembly directly affects the distribution of these small molecules in a cellular environment. Moreover, cell viability tests suggest that the states and the locations of the molecular assemblies in the cellular environment control the phenotypes of the cells. For example, the molecular nanofibers of one of the small molecules apparently stabilize actin filaments and alleviate the insult of an F-actin toxin (e.g., latrunculin A). Combining fluorescent imaging and enzyme-instructed self-assembly of small peptidic molecules, this work demonstrates self-assembly as a key factor for dictating the spatial distribution of small molecules in a cellular environment. In addition, it illustrates a useful approach, based on enzyme-instructed self-assembly of small molecules, to modulate spatiotemporal profiles of small molecules in a cellular environment, which allows the use of the emergent properties of small molecules to control the fate of cells. PMID:24266765

  9. Imaging Self-assembly Dependent Spatial Distribution of Small Molecules in Cellular Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Kuang, Yi; Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Chandran, Preethi; Horkay, Ferenc; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of small molecules, as a more common phenomenon than one previously thought, can be either beneficial or detrimental to cells. Despite its profound biological implications, how the self-assembly of small molecules behave in cellular environment is largely unknown and barely explored. This work studies four fluorescent molecules that consist of the same peptidic backbone (e.g., Phe-Phe-Lys) and enzyme trigger (e.g., a phosphotyrosine residue), but bear different fluorophores on the side chain of the lysine residue of the peptidic motif. These molecules, however, exhibit different ability of self-assembly before and after enzymatic transformation (e.g., dephosphorylation). Fluorescent imaging reveals that self-assembly directly affects the distribution of these small molecules in cellular environment. Moreover, cell viability tests suggest that the states and the location of the molecular assemblies in the cellular environment control the phenotypes of the cells. For example, the molecular nanofibers of one of the small molecules apparently stabilize actin filaments and alleviate the insult of an F-actin toxin (e.g., latrunculin A). Combining fluorescent imaging and enzyme-instructed self-assembly of small peptidic molecules, this work not only demonstrates that self-assembly as a key factor for dictating the spatial distribution of small molecules in cellular environment. In addition, it illustrates a useful approach, based on enzyme-instructed self-assembly of small molecules, to modulate spatiotemporal profiles of small molecules in cellular environment, which allows the use of the emergent properties of small molecules to control the fate of cells. PMID:24266765

  10. Correlating two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of breast cancer cellular redox state with seahorse flux analysis of normalized cellular oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Wright, Heather J.; Chan, Nicole; Tran, Richard; Razorenova, Olga V.; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of the cellular cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide is widely used to measure cellular metabolism, both in normal and pathological cells and tissues. When dual-wavelength excitation is used, ratiometric TPEF imaging of the intrinsic cofactor fluorescence provides a metabolic index of cells-the "optical redox ratio" (ORR). With increased interest in understanding and controlling cellular metabolism in cancer, there is a need to evaluate the performance of ORR in malignant cells. We compare TPEF metabolic imaging with seahorse flux analysis of cellular oxygen consumption in two different breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We monitor metabolic index in living cells under both normal culture conditions and, for MCF-7, in response to cell respiration inhibitors and uncouplers. We observe a significant correlation between the TPEF-derived ORR and the flux analyzer measurements (R=0.7901, p<0.001). Our results confirm that the ORR is a valid dynamic index of cell metabolism under a range of oxygen consumption conditions relevant for cancer imaging.

  11. Compound Cellular Imaging of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy by Using Gold Nanoparticles and Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Woei Liaw

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining the scattered light of gold nanoparticles (GNPs and the fluorescence of dye molecules, a compound cellular imaging of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM is obtained. The human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-435S, BCRC 60429 is used for experiment. These cells are incubated with a glucose medium containing GNPs for 26 hours, and then are stained by Prodium Iodide (PI for their nuclei. By using a single laser to illuminate these cells and adjusting the ranges of two bandpass filters for the detection, the scattered light from the GNPs and the fluorescence of PI can be induced simultaneously, but be detected separately without crosstalk. Furthermore, a compound cellular image can be obtained by merging the two images of the expressions of GNP and PI together. From the TEM images of these cells, it is observed that GNPs are aggregated in the vesicles of the cytoplasm due to the cell’s endocytosis. The aggregation of GNPs makes the surface plasmon resonance band of GNPs broadened, so that strong scattered light from GNPs can be generated by the illumination of different-wavelength lasers (458, 488, 514, 561, and 633 nm.

  12. Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Antonios

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment develops that facilitates glioma promotion and contributes to the neo-vascularization characteristic of gliomas. An immunosuppressive microenvironment shields the tumor mass from clearance by the patient's own immune system. Here, we provide suggestions to deal with a chronically-inflamed tumor microenvironment and provide recommendations to help optimize adjuvant immune- and gene therapies currently offered to glioma patients.

  13. Chronic hypoxia inhibits MMP-2 activation and cellular invasion in human cardiac myofibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Riches, Kirsten; Morley, Michael E.; Turner, Neil A; O'Regan, David J; Ball, Stephen G; Peers, Chris; Porter, Karen E

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac myofibroblasts are pivotal to adaptive remodelling after myocardial infarction (MI). These normally quiescent cells invade and proliferate as a wound healing response, facilitated by activation of matrix metalloproteinases, particularly MMP-2. Following MI these reparative events occur under chronically hypoxic conditions yet the mechanisms by which hypoxia might modulate MMP-2 activation and cardiac myofibroblast invasion have not been investigated. Human cardiac myofibroblasts cultu...

  14. Cellular composition and ultrastructure of periapical granulation tissue in primary and secondary chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gritsenko P.I.; Petruk N.S.; Samoylenko A.V.; Tverdokhleb I. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background. There are no complete data on the occurrence of bacteria in the outbreak of chronic inflammation a consequence of their high virulence, or the result of a defect of local mechanisms of immune protection. To answer these questions, as well as to evaluate the nature, severity changes periapical tissues of the tooth and the activity of the inflammatory process in the apex of the tooth root is possible only during the morphological study of biopsy material. Objective. The aim of this ...

  15. MEMS-based thermally-actuated image stabilizer for cellular phone camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work develops an image stabilizer (IS) that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology and is designed to counteract the vibrations when human using cellular phone cameras. The proposed IS has dimensions of 8.8 × 8.8 × 0.3 mm3 and is strong enough to suspend an image sensor. The processes that is utilized to fabricate the IS includes inductive coupled plasma (ICP) processes, reactive ion etching (RIE) processes and the flip-chip bonding method. The IS is designed to enable the electrical signals from the suspended image sensor to be successfully emitted out using signal output beams, and the maximum actuating distance of the stage exceeds 24.835 µm when the driving current is 155 mA. Depending on integration of MEMS device and designed controller, the proposed IS can decrease the hand tremor by 72.5%. (paper)

  16. Fluorescence Modified Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for High-Efficient Cellular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Labeling of cells with nanoparticles for living detection is of interest to various biomedical applications. In this study, novel fluorescent/magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used in high-efficient cellular imaging. The nanoparticles coated with the modified chitosan possessed a magnetic oxide core and a covalently attached fluorescent dye. We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency in labeling cancer cells (SMMC-7721 with the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited a high affinity to cells, which was demonstrated by flow cytometry and magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that cell-labeling efficiency of the nanoparticles was dependent on the incubation time and nanoparticles’ concentration. The minimum detected number of labeled cells was around 104by using a clinical 1.5-T MRI imager. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy instruments were used to monitor the localization patterns of the magnetic nanoparticles in cells. These new magneto-fluorescent nanoagents have demonstrated the potential for future medical use.

  17. MEMS-based thermally-actuated image stabilizer for cellular phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ying; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2012-11-01

    This work develops an image stabilizer (IS) that is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology and is designed to counteract the vibrations when human using cellular phone cameras. The proposed IS has dimensions of 8.8 × 8.8 × 0.3 mm3 and is strong enough to suspend an image sensor. The processes that is utilized to fabricate the IS includes inductive coupled plasma (ICP) processes, reactive ion etching (RIE) processes and the flip-chip bonding method. The IS is designed to enable the electrical signals from the suspended image sensor to be successfully emitted out using signal output beams, and the maximum actuating distance of the stage exceeds 24.835 µm when the driving current is 155 mA. Depending on integration of MEMS device and designed controller, the proposed IS can decrease the hand tremor by 72.5%.

  18. Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced cellular response during chronic hypoxia in differentiated rat PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic hypoxia on N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated cellular responses in differentiated PC12 cells. PC12 cells were differentiated by treatment with nerve growth factor. Patch-clamp analysis in differentiated PC12 cells showed that extracellularly applied N-methyl-D-aspartate induced an inward current that was abolished by the presence of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801. Results from Ca(2+) imaging experiments showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate induced an elevation in intracellular free Ca(2+) which was also abolished by MK-801. We also examined the effect of hypoxia on the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced current in nerve growth factor-treated cells. We found that the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced inward current and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced elevation in intracellular free Ca(2+) were markedly attenuated by chronic hypoxia. We next examined the possibility that the reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate responsiveness was due to down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor levels. Northern blot and immunoblot analyses showed that both messenger RNA and protein levels for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 were markedly decreased during hypoxia. However, the messenger RNA for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2C was increased, whereas the protein level for subunit 2C did not change. Our results indicate that differentiated PC12 cells express functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and that chronic exposure to hypoxia attenuates the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced Ca(2+) accumulation in these cells via down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1. This mechanism may play an important role in protecting PC12 cells against hypoxic stress. PMID:11113364

  19. Combined phase and X-Ray fluorescence imaging at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents some recent developments in the field of hard X-ray imaging applied to biomedical research. As the discipline is evolving quickly, new questions appear and the list of needs becomes bigger. Some of them are dealt with in this manuscript. It has been shown that the ID22NI beamline of the ESRF can serve as a proper experimental setup to investigate diverse aspects of cellular research. Together with its high spatial resolution, high flux and high energy range the experimental setup provides bigger field of view, is less sensitive to radiation damages (while taking phase contrast images) and suits well chemical analysis with emphasis on endogenous metals (Zn, Fe, Mn) but also with a possibility for exogenous one's like these found in nanoparticles (Au, Pt, Ag) study. Two synchrotron-based imaging techniques, fluorescence and phase contrast imaging were used in this research project. They were correlated with each other on a number of biological cases, from bacteria E.coli to various cells (HEK 293, PC12, MRC5VA, red blood cells). The explorations made in the chapter 5 allowed preparation of more established and detailed analysis, described in the next chapter where both techniques, X-ray fluorescence and phase contrast imaging, were exploited in order to access absolute metal projected mass fraction in a whole cell. The final image presents for the first time true quantitative information at the sub-cellular level, not biased by the cell thickness. Thus for the first time a fluorescence map serves as a complete quantitative image of a cell without any risk of misinterpretation. Once both maps are divided by each other pixel by pixel (fluorescence map divided by the phase map) they present a complete and final result of the metal (Zn in this work) projected mass fraction in ppm of dry weight. For the purpose of this calculation the analysis was extended to calibration (non-biological) samples. Polystyrene spheres of a known diameter and known

  20. Repeated Closed Head Injury in Mice Results in Sustained Motor and Memory Deficits and Chronic Cellular Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton Hall, Amanda N.; Joseph, Binoy; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur every year in the United States, with many people subject to multiple head injuries that can lead to chronic behavioral dysfunction. We previously reported that mild TBI induced using closed head injuries (CHI) repeated at 24h intervals produced more acute neuron death and glial reactivity than a single CHI, and increasing the length of time between injuries to 48h reduced the cumulative acute effects of repeated CHI. To determine whether repeated CHI is associated with behavioral dysfunction or persistent cellular damage, mice receiving either five CHI at 24h intervals, five CHI at 48h intervals, or five sham injuries at 24h intervals were evaluated across a 10 week period after injury. Animals with repeated CHI exhibited motor coordination and memory deficits, but not gait abnormalities when compared to sham animals. At 10wks post-injury, no notable neuron loss or glial reactivity was observed in the cortex, hippocampus, or corpus callosum. Argyrophilic axons were found in the pyramidal tract of some injured animals, but neither silver stain accumulation nor inflammatory responses in the injury groups were statistically different from the sham group in this region. However, argyrophilic axons, microgliosis and astrogliosis were significantly increased within the optic tract of injured animals. Repeated mild CHI also resulted in microgliosis and a loss of neurofilament protein 200 in the optic nerve. Lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h did not effectively reduce these behavioral or cellular responses. These results suggest that repeated mild CHI results in persistent behavioral dysfunction and chronic pathological changes within the visual system, neither of which was significantly attenuated by lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h. PMID:27427961

  1. Repeated Closed Head Injury in Mice Results in Sustained Motor and Memory Deficits and Chronic Cellular Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N Bolton Hall

    Full Text Available Millions of mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs occur every year in the United States, with many people subject to multiple head injuries that can lead to chronic behavioral dysfunction. We previously reported that mild TBI induced using closed head injuries (CHI repeated at 24h intervals produced more acute neuron death and glial reactivity than a single CHI, and increasing the length of time between injuries to 48h reduced the cumulative acute effects of repeated CHI. To determine whether repeated CHI is associated with behavioral dysfunction or persistent cellular damage, mice receiving either five CHI at 24h intervals, five CHI at 48h intervals, or five sham injuries at 24h intervals were evaluated across a 10 week period after injury. Animals with repeated CHI exhibited motor coordination and memory deficits, but not gait abnormalities when compared to sham animals. At 10wks post-injury, no notable neuron loss or glial reactivity was observed in the cortex, hippocampus, or corpus callosum. Argyrophilic axons were found in the pyramidal tract of some injured animals, but neither silver stain accumulation nor inflammatory responses in the injury groups were statistically different from the sham group in this region. However, argyrophilic axons, microgliosis and astrogliosis were significantly increased within the optic tract of injured animals. Repeated mild CHI also resulted in microgliosis and a loss of neurofilament protein 200 in the optic nerve. Lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h did not effectively reduce these behavioral or cellular responses. These results suggest that repeated mild CHI results in persistent behavioral dysfunction and chronic pathological changes within the visual system, neither of which was significantly attenuated by lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h.

  2. SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging chronic inflammatory diseases in the last decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years, many radiopharmaceuticals have been described for the diagnosis of inflammatory chronic diseases. Several peptides, receptor ligands and monoclonal antibodies have been radiolabelled, allowing in-vivo visualization of inflammatory processes at a cellular and molecular level. The labelling of cytokines such as interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-12 and MCP-1 has facilitated the identification of inflamed synovia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, active Crohn’s disease, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and other targets. The possibility of using monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, CD2, CD3, CD4 and anti-selectin has not only allowed the localization of inflamed sites but had also a significant impact in helping the selection of patients who can benefit from biological therapies. Regarding radiolabelled peptides, it is important to highlight the increasing use of somatostatin analogues targeting somatostatin receptors in inflammatory diseases, particularly for rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the present review we describe the state of the art of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals to image chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. New color image encryption algorithm based on compound chaos mapping and hyperchaotic cellular neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqing; Bai, Fengming; Di, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    We propose an image encryption/decryption algorithm based on chaotic control parameter and hyperchaotic system with the composite permutation-diffusion structure. Compound chaos mapping is used to generate control parameters in the permutation stage. The high correlation between pixels is shuffled. In the diffusion stage, compound chaos mapping of different initial condition and control parameter generates the diffusion parameters, which are applied to hyperchaotic cellular neural networks. The diffusion key stream is obtained by this process and implements the pixels' diffusion. Compared with the existing methods, both simulation and statistical analysis of our proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has a good performance against attacks and meets the corresponding security level.

  4. Enhanced cellular responses and distinct gene profiles in human fetoplacental artery endothelial cells under chronic low oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Dai, Cai-Feng; Wang, Ping; Kendziorski, Christina; Chen, Dong-Bao; Zheng, Jing

    2013-12-01

    Fetoplacental endothelial cells are exposed to oxygen levels ranging from 2% to 8% in vivo. However, little is known regarding endothelial function within this range of oxygen because most laboratories use ambient air (21% O2) as a standard culture condition (SCN). We asked whether human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) that were steadily exposed to the physiological chronic normoxia (PCN, 3% O2) for ∼20-25 days differed in their proliferative and migratory responses to FGF2 and VEGFA as well as in their global gene expression compared with those in the SCN. We observed that PCN enhanced FGF2- and VEGFA-stimulated cell proliferation and migration. In oxygen reversal experiments (i.e., when PCN cells were exposed to SCN for 24 h and vice versa), we found that preexposure to 21% O2 decreased the migratory ability, but not the proliferative ability, of the PCN-HUAECs in response to FGF2 and VEGFA. These PCN-enhanced cellular responses were associated with increased protein levels of HIF1A and NOS3, but not FGFR1, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2. Microarray analysis demonstrated that PCN up-regulated 74 genes and down-regulated 86, 14 of which were directly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors as evaluated using in silico analysis. Gene function analysis further indicated that the PCN-regulated genes were highly related to cell proliferation and migration, consistent with the results from our functional assays. Given that PCN significantly alters cellular responses to FGF2 and VEGFA as well as transcription in HUAECs, it is likely that we may need to reexamine the current cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling fetoplacental endothelial functions, which were largely derived from endothelial models established under ambient O2.

  5. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Gao, Nengyue; Xu, Qing-Hua; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). PMID:27589762

  6. Silica nanocapsules of fluorescent conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic nanocrystals for dual-mode cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Happy; Wang, Miao; Yang, Chang-Tong; Pant, Shilpa; Bhakoo, Kishore Kumar; Wong, Siew Yee; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a facile and benign synthetic strategy to integrate the fluorescent behavior of conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals into silica nanocapsules, forming a new type of bifunctional magnetic fluorescent silica nanocapsule (BMFSN). The resultant BMFSNs are uniform, colloidally stable in aqueous medium, and exhibit the desired dual functionality of fluorescence and superparamagnetism in a single entity. Four conjugated polymers with different emissions were used to demonstrate the versatility of employing this class of fluorescent materials for the preparation of BMFSNs. The applicability of BMFSNs in cellular imaging was studied by incubating them with human liver cancer cells, the result of which demonstrated that the cells could be visualized by dual-mode fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the superparamagnetic behavior of the BMFSNs was exploited for in vitro magnetic-guided delivery of the nanocapsules into the cancer cells, thereby highlighting their potential for targeting biomedical applications.

  7. High-yield clicking and dissociation of doxorubicin nanoclusters exhibiting differential cellular uptakes and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sung; Yoon, Sujin; Son, Young Ju; Park, Yeonju; Jung, Young Mee; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2015-11-10

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and quantum dots (Qdots) were clicked into doxorubicin nanoclusters that showed enzyme-dependent dissociation behaviors for differential cellular uptakes and imaging. The AuNPs were co-functionalized with doxorubicin (DOX) and azide-terminated polymer (DOX/azide@AuNP), while an enzyme-cleavable peptide and alkyne-terminated polymer were sequentially conjugated on Qdot surface (Alkyne-MMP@Qdot). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence imaging detected the azide and alkyne groups on DOX/azide@AuNP and Alkyne-MMP@Qdot, respectively, and the click-reactivity was also confirmed. In the presence of the catalyst, two nanoparticles were clicked to doxorubicin nanoclusters, which increased the volume of the particles ca. 343-fold within 30min. Upon matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) digestion, the nanoclusters were clearly dissociated into smaller particles, and the fluorescence of the quenched Qdot was also recovered, which suggests that the nanoclusters respond to MMP-2 concentrations and can thus be employed for cancer imaging. Confocal microscopy and an elemental analysis of the cancer cells revealed that the cellular uptakes of doxorubicin nanoclusters significantly increased at higher MMP-2 concentrations, and doxorubicin could also be cleaved for anti-cancer effects. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assay accordingly showed that the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin nanoclusters against cancer cells increased in MMP-2-rich environments such as tumor site. Thus, these nanoclusters containing DOX/azide@AuNP and Alkyne-MMP@Qdot are expected to be multifunctional carriers for targeted anti-cancer treatments and imaging. PMID:26315815

  8. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey P; Shipley, Frederick B; Linder, Ashley N; Plummer, George S; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar U; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Leifer, Andrew M

    2016-02-23

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. We present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture, and locomotion. This instrument provides whole-brain imaging with cellular resolution in an unrestrained and behaving animal. We use spinning-disk confocal microscopy to capture 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s at 6 head-volumes/s. A suite of three cameras monitor neuronal fluorescence and the animal's position and orientation. Custom software tracks the 3D position of the animal's head in real time and two feedback loops adjust a motorized stage and objective to keep the animal's head within the field of view as the animal roams freely. We observe calcium transients from up to 77 neurons for over 4 min and correlate this activity with the animal's behavior. We characterize noise in the system due to animal motion and show that, across worms, multiple neurons show significant correlations with modes of behavior corresponding to forward, backward, and turning locomotion. PMID:26712014

  9. Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee: role of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee are common lesions in sports-related trauma, especially among adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging may prove useful in detecting and characterizing such lesions, and has several advantages with regard to other imaging modalities. We review, illustrate, and discuss the MR imaging features of some of the more frequent avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee, including avulsion fractures of the cruciate ligaments, avulsion fractures of lateral and medial stabilizers, avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the extensor mechanism, and avulsive cortical irregularities of the distal femur. The role of MR imaging in evaluating such lesions is emphasized. (orig.)

  10. Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee: role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Calmet, J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    Avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee are common lesions in sports-related trauma, especially among adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging may prove useful in detecting and characterizing such lesions, and has several advantages with regard to other imaging modalities. We review, illustrate, and discuss the MR imaging features of some of the more frequent avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the knee, including avulsion fractures of the cruciate ligaments, avulsion fractures of lateral and medial stabilizers, avulsion fractures and chronic avulsion injuries of the extensor mechanism, and avulsive cortical irregularities of the distal femur. The role of MR imaging in evaluating such lesions is emphasized. (orig.)

  11. Asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) for ultrafast high-contrast cellular imaging in flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Terence T W; Ho, Kenneth K Y; Tang, Matthew Y H; Robles, Joseph D F; Wei, Xiaoming; Chan, Antony C S; Tang, Anson H L; Lam, Edmund Y; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Godfrey C F; Shum, Ho Cheung; Tsia, Kevin K

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating imaging speed in optical microscopy is often realized at the expense of image contrast, image resolution, and detection sensitivity- a common predicament for advancing high-speed and high-throughput cellular imaging. We here demonstrate a new imaging approach, called asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM), which can deliver ultrafast label-free high-contrast flow imaging with well delineated cellular morphological resolution and in-line optical image amplification to overcome the compromised imaging sensitivity at high speed. We show that ATOM can separately reveal the enhanced phase-gradient and absorption contrast in microfluidic live-cell imaging at a flow speed as high as ~10 m/s, corresponding to an imaging throughput of ~100,000 cells/sec. ATOM could thus be the enabling platform to meet the pressing need for intercalating optical microscopy in cellular assay, e.g. imaging flow cytometry- permitting high-throughput access to the morphological information of the individu...

  12. Adaptive Movement Compensation for In Vivo Imaging of Fast Cellular Dynamics within a Moving Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Hugues; De Koninck, Paul; De Koninck, Yves; Côté, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In vivo non-linear optical microscopy has been essential to advance our knowledge of how intact biological systems work. It has been particularly enabling to decipher fast spatiotemporal cellular dynamics in neural networks. The power of the technique stems from its optical sectioning capability that in turn also limits its application to essentially immobile tissue. Only tissue not affected by movement or in which movement can be physically constrained can be imaged fast enough to conduct functional studies at high temporal resolution. Here, we show dynamic two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the spinal cord of a living rat at millisecond time scale, free of motion artifacts using an optical stabilization system. We describe a fast, non-contact adaptive movement compensation approach, applicable to rough and weakly reflective surfaces, allowing real-time functional imaging from intrinsically moving tissue in live animals. The strategy involves enslaving the position of the microscope objective to that of the tissue surface in real-time through optical monitoring and a closed feedback loop. The performance of the system allows for efficient image locking even in conditions of random or irregular movements. PMID:21629702

  13. Image encryption and compression based on kronecker compressed sensing and elementary cellular automata scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tinghuan; Zhang, Meng; Wu, Jianhui; Yuen, Chau; Tong, You

    2016-10-01

    Because of simple encryption and compression procedure in single step, compressed sensing (CS) is utilized to encrypt and compress an image. Difference of sparsity levels among blocks of the sparsely transformed image degrades compression performance. In this paper, motivated by this difference of sparsity levels, we propose an encryption and compression approach combining Kronecker CS (KCS) with elementary cellular automata (ECA). In the first stage of encryption, ECA is adopted to scramble the sparsely transformed image in order to uniformize sparsity levels. A simple approximate evaluation method is introduced to test the sparsity uniformity. Due to low computational complexity and storage, in the second stage of encryption, KCS is adopted to encrypt and compress the scrambled and sparsely transformed image, where the measurement matrix with a small size is constructed from the piece-wise linear chaotic map. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that our proposed scrambling method based on ECA has great performance in terms of scrambling and uniformity of sparsity levels. And the proposed encryption and compression method can achieve better secrecy, compression performance and flexibility.

  14. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized carbon nano-onions for high resolution cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmess, Juergen; de Luca, Elisa; Signorelli, Angelo; Baldrighi, Michele; Becce, Michele; Brescia, Rosaria; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Echegoyen, Luis; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Giordani, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical studies due to their low toxicity, efficient cellular uptake and low fluorescence quenching of attached probes.Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical

  15. Microfluidic chips for in vivo imaging of cellular responses to neural injury in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghannad-Rezaie

    Full Text Available With powerful genetics and a translucent cuticle, the Drosophila larva is an ideal model system for live imaging studies of neuronal cell biology and function. Here, we present an easy-to-use approach for high resolution live imaging in Drosophila using microfluidic chips. Two different designs allow for non-invasive and chemical-free immobilization of 3(rd instar larvae over short (up to 1 hour and long (up to 10 hours time periods. We utilized these 'larva chips' to characterize several sub-cellular responses to axotomy which occur over a range of time scales in intact, unanaesthetized animals. These include waves of calcium which are induced within seconds of axotomy, and the intracellular transport of vesicles whose rate and flux within axons changes dramatically within 3 hours of axotomy. Axonal transport halts throughout the entire distal stump, but increases in the proximal stump. These responses precede the degeneration of the distal stump and regenerative sprouting of the proximal stump, which is initiated after a 7 hour period of dormancy and is associated with a dramatic increase in F-actin dynamics. In addition to allowing for the study of axonal regeneration in vivo, the larva chips can be utilized for a wide variety of in vivo imaging applications in Drosophila.

  16. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Shipley, Frederick; Linder, Ashley; Plummer, George; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar; Shaevitz, Joshua; Leifer, Andrew

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. Acquiring this data, however, is challenging because it is difficult to track and image individual neurons as an animal deforms its posture and moves many body lengths. Here, we present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture, and locomotion. 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s are recorded at 6 head-volumes/s using spinning disk confocal microscopy. At the same time, we record low magnification images of the animal to measure the animals behavior and track its head as it moves. We develop a time independent neuronal matching algorithm that uses non-rigid point set registration and machine learning to correctly match neurons across time. Using this method, we are able to observe calcium transients from up to 90 neurons for over 4 min and correlate the neural activity with the animal's behavior.

  17. MR imaging of shaken baby syndrome manifested as chronic subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a form of child abuse that can cause significant head injuries, of which subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common manifestation. We report the MRI findings of chronic SDH in three cases of SBS, involving two-, three- and eight-month-old babies. The SDH signal was mostly low on T1-weighted images and high on T2-weighted images, suggesting chronic SDH. In chronic SDH, a focal high signal on T1-weighted images was also noted, suggesting rebleeding. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed diffuse dural enhancement

  18. Remodelling of cellular excitation (reaction) and intercellular coupling (diffusion) by chronic atrial fibrillation represented by a reaction-diffusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henggui; Garratt, Clifford J.; Kharche, Sanjay; Holden, Arun V.

    2009-06-01

    Human atrial tissue is an excitable system, in which myocytes are excitable elements, and cell-to-cell electrotonic interactions are via diffusive interactions of cell membrane potentials. We developed a family of excitable system models for human atrium at cellular, tissue and anatomical levels for both normal and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) conditions. The effects of AF-induced remodelling of cell membrane ionic channels (reaction kinetics) and intercellular gap junctional coupling (diffusion) on atrial excitability, conduction of excitation waves and dynamics of re-entrant excitation waves are quantified. Both ionic channel and gap junctional coupling remodelling have rate dependent effects on atrial propagation. Membrane channel conductance remodelling allows the propagation of activity at higher rates than those sustained in normal tissue or in tissue with gap junctional remodelling alone. Membrane channel conductance remodelling is essential for the propagation of activity at rates higher than 300/min as seen in AF. Spatially heterogeneous gap junction coupling remodelling increased the risk of conduction block, an essential factor for the genesis of re-entry. In 2D and 3D anatomical models, the dynamical behaviours of re-entrant excitation waves are also altered by membrane channel modelling. This study provides insights to understand the pro-arrhythmic effects of AF-induced reaction and diffusion remodelling in atrial tissue.

  19. Paramagnetic fluorinated nanoemulsions for sensitive cellular fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislukhin, Alexander A.; Xu, Hongyan; Adams, Stephen R.; Narsinh, Kazim H.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ahrens, Eric T.

    2016-06-01

    Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI) probes enable quantitative in vivo detection of cell therapies and inflammatory cells. Here, we describe the formulation of perfluorocarbon-based nanoemulsions with improved sensitivity for cellular MRI. Reduction of the 19F spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) enables rapid imaging and an improved signal-to-noise ratio, thereby improving cell detection sensitivity. We synthesized metal-binding β-diketones conjugated to linear perfluoropolyether (PFPE), formulated these fluorinated ligands as aqueous nanoemulsions, and then metallated them with various transition and lanthanide ions in the fluorous phase. Iron(III) tris-β-diketonate (`FETRIS’) nanoemulsions with PFPE have low cytotoxicity (<20%) and superior MRI properties. Moreover, the 19F T1 can readily be reduced by an order of magnitude and tuned by stoichiometric modulation of the iron concentration. The resulting 19F MRI detection sensitivity is enhanced by three- to fivefold over previously used tracers at 11.7 T, and is predicted to increase by at least eightfold at the clinical field strength of 3 T.

  20. Silica-shell cross-linked micelles encapsulating fluorescent conjugated polymers for targeted cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Happy; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Zhongxing; Zhang, Xinhai; Yong, Anna Marie; Wong, Siew Yee; Chang, Alex Yuang-chi; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Li, Xu; Choolani, Mahesh; Wang, John

    2012-01-01

    A bioinspired silification approach was successfully used to encapsulate fluorescent conjugated polymers inside silica-shell cross-linked polymeric micelles (CP-SSCL) in the highly benign synthesis environment of room temperature and near-neutral aqueous environment. Four different conjugated polymers were employed to demonstrate the versatility of the bioinspired silification, resulting in the formation of CP-SSCL with different emission wavelengths across the visible spectrum. The CP-SSCL are characterized by a large absorption coefficient and high quantum yield, indicating that they exhibit the required high fluorescence brightness for cellular imaging application. In addition, the CP-SSCL also exhibit a high colloidal stability and low cytotoxicity. The in vitro studies of using MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells show that the CP-SSCL are successfully uptaken by the cancer cells and located at the cytoplasm of the cells. Furthermore, by conjugating folic acid on their surfaces, the uptake of CP-SSCL by MDA-MB-231 cells was enhanced significantly, suggesting their great potential for targeted imaging and early detection of cancer cells.

  1. Cellular uptake and intracellular fate of engineered nanoparticles: a review on the application of imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Knight, Alex

    2011-09-01

    The use of imaging tools to probe nanoparticle-cell interactions will be crucial to elucidating the mechanisms of nanoparticle-induced toxicity. Of particular interest are mechanisms associated with cell penetration, translocation and subsequent accumulation inside the cell, or in cellular compartments. The objective of the present paper is to review imaging techniques that have been previously used in order to assess such interactions, and new techniques with the potential to be useful in this area. In order to identify the most suitable techniques, they were evaluated and matched against a list of evaluation criteria. We conclude that limitations exist with all of the techniques and the ultimate choice will thus depend on the needs of end users, and their particular application. The state-of-the-art techniques appear to have the least limitations, despite the fact that they are not so well established and still far from being routine. For example, super-resolution microscopy techniques appear to have many advantages for understanding the details of the interactions between nanoparticles and cells. Future research should concentrate on further developing or improving such novel techniques, to include the development of standardized methods and appropriate reference materials. PMID:20846020

  2. High-throughput dual-colour precision imaging for brain-wide connectome with cytoarchitectonic landmarks at the cellular level

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Hui; Xu, Dongli; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiangning; Guo, Congdi; Peng, Jie; Li, Yuxin; Schwarz, Lindsay A.; Li, Anan; Hu, Bihe; Xiong, Benyi; Sun, Qingtao; Zhang, Yalun; Liu, Jiepeng; Zhong, Qiuyuan

    2016-01-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of neural structures are prerequisites for studying mammalian brain function. The orientation of neurons and neural circuits is usually determined by mapping brain images to coarse axial-sampling planar reference atlases. However, individual differences at the cellular level likely lead to position errors and an inability to orient neural projections at single-cell resolution. Here, we present a high-throughput precision imaging method that c...

  3. Acute and chronic tears of anterior cruciate ligament : role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Jee, Won Hee; Im, Soo A; Chun, Ho Jong; Jung, Hyun Seouk; Kim, Soo Young; Kwon, Tae An; Song, Sun Wha; Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic Univ. Medical College. Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in differentiating acute from chronic ligament tears of anterior cruciate ligament. Materials and Methods : MR images of 22 patients with arthroscopically proven complete tear of the anterior cruciate ligament were retrospectively reviewed. The interval between injury and MR examination was one day to seven years. When ligament tear was detected on MR image with three months of injury, the case was considered acute;if detected after three months had elapsed, it was judged to be chronic. The extent of contrast enhancement was graded as 1, 2 or 3; grade 1, enhancement was confined to the expected ligament region; grade 2, enhancement extended to the joint capsule; grade 3, enhancement extended beyond the joint capsule. The grades of contrast enhancement correlated with the acute and chronic stages of ligament tears. Associated bone bruise and/or adjacent soft tissue edema were also evaluated. Results : Among 15 patients with acute ligament tear, nine (60%) showed grade 3 enhancement; among seven in whom tearing was chronic, four (57%) showed grade 1 enhancement. Bone bruising was present in 100% of acute tears (15/15) and 29 % of chronic tears (2/7). Soft tissue edema was associated in 87% of acute tears (13/15) and 29% of chronic tears(2/7). Conclusion : Fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging could help differentiate acute from chronic tears of anterior cruciate ligament, as well as bone bruising and tissue edema.

  4. Acute and chronic tears of anterior cruciate ligament : role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in differentiating acute from chronic ligament tears of anterior cruciate ligament. Materials and Methods : MR images of 22 patients with arthroscopically proven complete tear of the anterior cruciate ligament were retrospectively reviewed. The interval between injury and MR examination was one day to seven years. When ligament tear was detected on MR image with three months of injury, the case was considered acute;if detected after three months had elapsed, it was judged to be chronic. The extent of contrast enhancement was graded as 1, 2 or 3; grade 1, enhancement was confined to the expected ligament region; grade 2, enhancement extended to the joint capsule; grade 3, enhancement extended beyond the joint capsule. The grades of contrast enhancement correlated with the acute and chronic stages of ligament tears. Associated bone bruise and/or adjacent soft tissue edema were also evaluated. Results : Among 15 patients with acute ligament tear, nine (60%) showed grade 3 enhancement; among seven in whom tearing was chronic, four (57%) showed grade 1 enhancement. Bone bruising was present in 100% of acute tears (15/15) and 29 % of chronic tears (2/7). Soft tissue edema was associated in 87% of acute tears (13/15) and 29% of chronic tears(2/7). Conclusion : Fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging could help differentiate acute from chronic tears of anterior cruciate ligament, as well as bone bruising and tissue edema

  5. Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-KanRyu; Seong-MinLee; Do-WhanSeong; Jun-KyuSuh; SungeunKim; WonsickChoe; YeonsookMoon; Soo-HwanPai

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the value of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging in the differential diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Methods: The study included 4 normal subjects as the negative controls, 2 patients with acute prostatitis or cystourethritis as the positive controls and 59 patients diagnosed as chronic bacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome by traditional laboratory tests. In every subject, the single photon emission computer-ized tomography images were obtained 3 h after intravenous injection of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. The results of the imaging were compared with those of laboratory tests. Results: On the images, negative uptake was observed in all normal subjects, while strong hot uptake, in the whole prostate of acute prostatitis patients and in the whole urethra of acute cystourethritis patients. In 13 (68 %) of 19 patients categorized as chronic bacterial prostatitis by standard laboratory tests, hot uptake with less intensity than that of acute prostatitis was observed in the prostate area around the prostatic urethra. Negative uptake in the prostate was observed in 6 of 19 patients (32 %) categorized as chronic bacterial prostatitis. Interestingly, hot uptake in the prostate was exhibited in 28 (70 %) of the 40 patients categorized as chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Conclusion: Tc-99m ciprofloxacin imaging is helpful in the differential diagnosis of prostatitis syndrome. (Asian J Androl 2003 Sep; 5:179-183 )

  6. Biological Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cellular and Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Glüer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (SPIO are used in different ways as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: Particles with high nonspecific uptake are required for unspecific labeling of phagocytic cells whereas those that target specific molecules need to have very low unspecific cellular uptake. We compared iron-oxide particles with different core materials (magnetite, maghemite, different coatings (none, dextran, carboxydextran, polystyrene and different hydrodynamic diameters (20–850 nm for internalization kinetics, release of internalized particles, toxicity, localization of particles and ability to generate contrast in MRI. Particle uptake was investigated with U118 glioma cells und human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, which exhibit different phagocytic properties. In both cell types, the contrast agents Resovist, B102, non-coated Fe3O4 particles and microspheres were better internalized than dextran-coated Nanomag particles. SPIO uptake into the cells increased with particle/iron concentrations. Maximum intracellular accumulation of iron particles was observed between 24 h to 36 h of exposure. Most particles were retained in the cells for at least two weeks, were deeply internalized, and only few remained adsorbed at the cell surface. Internalized particles clustered in the cytosol of the cells. Furthermore, all particles showed a low toxicity. By MRI, monolayers consisting of 5000 Resovist-labeled cells could easily be visualized. Thus, for unspecific cell labeling, Resovist and microspheres show the highest potential, whereas Nanomag particles are promising contrast agents for target-specific labeling.

  7. Tuning the cellular uptake properties of luminescent heterobimetallic iridium(III)-ruthenium(II) DNA imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Ashley; Gill, Martin R; Turton, David; Adams, Harry; Roseveare, Thomas M; Smythe, Carl; Su, Xiaodi; Thomas, Jim A

    2014-10-20

    The synthesis of two new luminescent dinuclear Ir(III)-Ru(II) complexes containing tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine (tpphz) as the bridging ligand is reported. Unlike many other complexes incorporating cyclometalated Ir(III) moieties, these complexes display good water solubility, allowing the first cell-based study on Ir(III)-Ru(II) bioprobes to be carried out. Photophysical studies indicate that emission from each complex is from a Ru(II) excited state and both complexes display significant in vitro DNA-binding affinities. Cellular studies show that each complex is rapidly internalised by HeLa cells, in which they function as luminescent nuclear DNA-imaging agents for confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the uptake and nuclear targeting properties of the complex incorporating cyclometalating 2-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridine ligands around its Ir(III) centre is enhanced in comparison to the non-fluorinated analogue, indicating that fluorination may provide a route to promote cell uptake of transition-metal bioprobes. PMID:25208528

  8. Effects of acamprosate on attentional set-shifting and cellular function in the prefrontal cortex of chronic alcohol-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inhibits impulsive and compulsive behaviors that characterize drug abuse and dependence. Acamprosate is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Whether acamprosate can modulate executive functions that are impaired by chronic ethanol exposure is unknown. Here we explored the effects of acamprosate on an attentional set-shifting task, and tested whether these behavioral effects are correlated with modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of mPFC neurons. Methods: We induced alcohol dependence in mice via chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in vapor chambers and measured changes in alcohol consumption in a limited access 2-bottle choice paradigm. Impairments of executive function were assessed in an attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate was applied subchronically for 2 days during withdrawal before the final behavioral test. Alcohol-induced changes in cellular function of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons, and the potential modulation of these changes by acamprosate, were measured using patch clamp recordings in brain slices. Results: Chronic ethanol exposure impaired cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate improved overall performance and reduced perseveration. Recordings of mPFC neurons showed that chronic ethanol exposure increased use-dependent presynaptic transmitter release and enhanced postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Moreover, CIE-treatment lowered input resistance, and decreased the threshold and the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of action potentials, suggesting chronic ethanol exposure also impacted membrane excitability of mPFC neurons. However, acamprosate treatment did not reverse these ethanol-induced changes cellular function. Conclusion: Acamprosate improved attentional control of ethanol exposed animals

  9. Multiparametric MR imaging in diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a heterogeneous condition with high prevalence rate. Chronic prostatitis has overlap in clinical presentation with other prostate disorders and is one of the causes of high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA level. Chronic prostatitis, unlike acute prostatitis, is difficult to diagnose reliably and accurately on the clinical grounds alone. Not only this, it is also challenging to differentiate chronic prostatitis from prostate cancer with imaging modalities like TRUS and conventional MR Imaging, as the findings can mimic those of prostate cancer. Even biopsy doesn't play promising role in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis as it has limited sensitivity and specificity. As a result of this, chronic prostatitis may be misdiagnosed as a malignant condition and end up in aggressive surgical management resulting in increased morbidity. This warrants the need of reliable diagnostic tool which has ability not only to diagnose it reliably but also to differentiate it from the prostate cancer. Recently, it is suggested that multiparametric MR Imaging of the prostate could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the prostate cancer. This review is based on the critically published literature and aims to provide an overview of multiparamateric MRI techniques in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis and its differentiation from prostate cancer.

  10. Multi-color fluorescence imaging of sub-cellular dynamics of cancer cells in live mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M.

    2006-02-01

    We have genetically engineered dual-color fluorescent cells with one color in the nucleus and the other in the cytoplasm that enables real-time nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics to be visualized in living cells in the cytoplasm in vivo as well as in vitro. To obtain the dual-color cells, red fluorescent protein (RFP) was expressed of the cancer cells, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B was expressed in the nucleus. Mitotic cells were visualized by whole-body imaging after injection in the mouse ear. Common carotid artery or heart injection of dual-color cells and a reversible skin flap enabled the external visualization of the dual-color cells in microvessels in the mouse where extreme elongation of the cell body as well as the nucleus occurred. The migration velocities of the dual-color cancer cells in the capillaries were measured by capturing individual images of the dual-color fluorescent cells over time. Human HCT-116-GFP-RFP colon cancer and mouse mammary tumor (MMT)-GFP-RFP cells were injected in the portal vein of nude mice. Extensive clasmocytosis (destruction of the cytoplasm) of the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells occurred within 6 hours. The data suggest rapid death of HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells in the portal vein. In contrast, MMT-GFP-RFP cells injected into the portal vein mostly survived and formed colonies in the liver. However, when the host mice were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells also survived and formed colonies in the liver after portal vein injection. These results suggest that a cyclophosphamide-sensitive host cellular system attacked the HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells but could not effectively kill the MMT-GFP-RFP cells. With the ability to continuously image cancer cells at the subcellular level in the live animal, our understanding of the complex steps of metastasis will significantly increase. In addition, new drugs can be developed to target these newly visible steps of metastasis.

  11. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  12. Biochemical characterization and cellular imaging of a novel, membrane permeable fluorescent cAMP analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccolo Manuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel fluorescent cAMP analog (8-[Pharos-575]- adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate was characterized with respect to its spectral properties, its ability to bind to and activate three main isoenzymes of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-Iα, PKA-IIα, PKA-IIβ in vitro, its stability towards phosphodiesterase and its ability to permeate into cultured eukaryotic cells using resonance energy transfer based indicators, and conventional fluorescence imaging. Results The Pharos fluorophore is characterized by a Stokes shift of 42 nm with an absorption maximum at 575 nm and the emission peaking at 617 nm. The quantum yield is 30%. Incubation of the compound to RIIα and RIIβ subunits increases the amplitude of excitation and absorption maxima significantly; no major change was observed with RIα. In vitro binding of the compound to RIα subunit and activation of the PKA-Iα holoenzyme was essentially equivalent to cAMP; RII subunits bound the fluorescent analog up to ten times less efficiently, resulting in about two times reduced apparent activation constants of the holoenzymes compared to cAMP. The cellular uptake of the fluorescent analog was investigated by cAMP indicators. It was estimated that about 7 μM of the fluorescent cAMP analog is available to the indicator after one hour of incubation and that about 600 μM of the compound had to be added to intact cells to half-maximally dissociate a PKA type IIα sensor. Conclusion The novel analog combines good membrane permeability- comparable to 8-Br-cAMP – with superior spectral properties of a modern, red-shifted fluorophore. GFP-tagged regulatory subunits of PKA and the analog co-localized. Furthermore, it is a potent, PDE-resistant activator of PKA-I and -II, suitable for in vitro applications and spatial distribution evaluations in living cells.

  13. Endoscopic Ultrasound Reliably Identifies Chronic Pancreatitis when Other Imaging Modalities Have Been Non-Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morris-Stiff

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context There are classical radiological features for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis when utilising endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP or computed tomography (CT, however, not all patients exhibit these features despite convincing clinical histories, which may result in diagnostic delay. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis when other imaging modalities had not yielded a diagnosis. Methods All patients undergoing pancreatic EUS between January 1996 and December 2004 were identified from the radiology computerised database. Sixteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (10 males, 6 females; mean age 53±4 years underwent EUS after normal conventional imaging. Patients were then followed clinically until December 2007. Results Thirteen patients exhibited features of chronic pancreatitis not identified by other modalities, which included duct dilatation (n=8, calcification (n=7; parenchymal change (n=6, irregular undilated ducts (n=2, pancreatic ductal calculi (n=1, and fine calcification (n=1. Of the remaining 3 patients, a diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis was made in one, in another there was a pancreatic duct stricture of uncertain origin that was stented, and in only one case was no diagnosis established. All 13 patients with an EUS diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis subsequently underwent a repeat CT scan for surveillance of their disease and in all cases, the CT scans subsequently demonstrated evidence of chronic pancreatitis indicating radiological progression. No new pancreaticobiliary diagnoses were established during this period. Conclusions EUS is a useful diagnostic tool confirming the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis in 13 of 16 cases where histories were suspicious of chronic pancreatitis, and providing an alternative diagnosis in another two cases

  14. Non-Contrast Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Characterizing Chronic Myocardial Infarctions

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of morbidity and death globally. Non-invasive characterization of chronic MIs is of significant clinical importance due to its association with adverse cardiac outcomes such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) MRI has evolved into a robust non-invasive imaging technique for characterizing chronic MIs and identifying new pathophysiological substrates of adverse cardiac outcomes within...

  15. Transcranial magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound: noninvasive central lateral thalamotomy for chronic neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, D.; Werner, B.; Morel, A.; Michels, L; Zadicario, E; Schiff, G.; Martin, E.

    2012-01-01

    Object Recent technological developments open the field of therapeutic application of focused ultrasound to the brain through the intact cranium. The goal of this study was to apply the new transcranial magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) technology to perform noninvasive central lateral thalamotomies (CLTs) as a treatment for chronic neuropathic pain. Methods In 12 patients suffering from chronic therapy-resistant neuropathic pain, tcMRgFUS CLT was propos...

  16. Cardiac imaging in patients with chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens D; Møller, Søren

    2016-01-01

    dysfunction at rest by application of new myocardial strain techniques. Experience with other modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography is limited. Future studies exploring these imaging modalities are necessary to characterize and monitor the cardiac changes...

  17. In-vivo imaging of inner retinal cellular morphology with adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography: challenges and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Jones, Steven M.; Kim, Dae Yu; Poyneer, Lisa; Capps, Arlie G.; Hamann, Bernd; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

    2012-03-01

    Recent progress in retinal image acquisition techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), combined with improved performance of adaptive optics (AO) instrumentation, has resulted in improvement in the quality of in vivo images of cellular structures in the outer layers of the human retina. Despite the significant progress in imaging cone and rod photoreceptor mosaics, visualization of cellular structures in the inner retina has been achieved only with extrinsic contrast agents that have not been approved for use with humans. In this paper we describe the main limiting factors in visualizing inner retinal cells and the methods we implemented to reduce their effects on images acquired with AO-OCT. These include improving the system point spread function (AO performance), monitoring of motion artifacts (retinal motion tracking), and speckle pattern reduction (temporal and spatial averaging). Results of imaging inner retinal morphology and the improvement offered by the new UC Davis AOOCT system with spatio-temporal image averaging are presented.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, Haruki; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Yano, Hideo; Touyama, Tetsuo; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Suyama, Naoto; Yoshino, Yasumasa (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.).

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.)

  20. Chronic pain and distorted body image: Implications for multisensory feedback interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkowski, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often show a distorted body image. Various studies demonstrated that improvements in body image go along with symptom improvement in chronic pain. This renders distorted body images a promising target for feedback intervention programs. We propose that interventions that comprise of virtual reality (VR) multisensory feedback training provide a promising new avenue for the treatment of chronic pain. Thus far, VR-based interventions have been primarily applied to distract patients from pain. Recently, first attempts have been made to apply VR-based interventions as active sensory feedback training. VR-based feedback training allows the dynamic modification of virtual limbs that are perceived as one's own. This offers unique opportunities to target long-term associations between sensory input and pain in patients with chronic pain. We predict that multisensory VR feedback interventions could be effective in reducing fear-avoidance behavior and improving distorted body images. We review current developments and provide an outlook on future directions in the promising field of VR feedback interventions for the multisensory treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27524638

  1. Confocal imaging of whole vertebrate embryos reveals novel insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadel, Diana M.; Keller, Bradley B.; Sandell, Lisa L.

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy has been an invaluable tool for studying cellular or sub-cellular biological processes. The study of vertebrate embryology is based largely on examination of whole embryos and organs. The application of confocal microscopy to immunostained whole mount embryos, combined with three dimensional (3D) image reconstruction technologies, opens new avenues for synthesizing molecular, cellular and anatomical analysis of vertebrate development. Optical cropping of the region of interest enables visualization of structures that are morphologically complex or obscured, and solid surface rendering of fluorescent signal facilitates understanding of 3D structures. We have applied these technologies to whole mount immunostained mouse embryos to visualize developmental morphogenesis of the mammalian inner ear and heart. Using molecular markers of neuron development and transgenic reporters of neural crest cell lineage we have examined development of inner ear neurons that originate from the otic vesicle, along with the supporting glial cells that derive from the neural crest. The image analysis reveals a previously unrecognized coordinated spatial organization between migratory neural crest cells and neurons of the cochleovestibular nerve. The images also enable visualization of early cochlear spiral nerve morphogenesis relative to the developing cochlea, demonstrating a heretofore unknown association of neural crest cells with extending peripheral neurite projections. We performed similar analysis of embryonic hearts in mouse and chick, documenting the distribution of adhesion molecules during septation of the outflow tract and remodeling of aortic arches. Surface rendering of lumen space defines the morphology in a manner similar to resin injection casting and micro-CT.

  2. Chronic imaging of cortical sensory map dynamics using a genetically encoded calcium indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Minderer, M; Liu, W.; Sumanovski, L. T.; Kügler, S; Helmchen, F; Margolis, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract  In vivo optical imaging can reveal the dynamics of large-scale cortical activity, but methods for chronic recording are limited. Here we present a technique for long-term investigation of cortical map dynamics using wide-field ratiometric fluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Yellow Cameleon 3.60. We find that wide-field GECI signals report sensory-evoked activity in anaesthetized mouse somatosensory cortex with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal ...

  3. Dual-modality, fluorescent, PLGA encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles for molecular and cellular fluorescence imaging and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swy, Eric R.; Schwartz-Duval, Aaron S.; Shuboni, Dorela D.; Latourette, Matthew T.; Mallet, Christiane L.; Parys, Maciej; Cormode, David P.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2014-10-01

    Reports of molecular and cellular imaging using computed tomography (CT) are rapidly increasing. Many of these reports use gold nanoparticles. Bismuth has similar CT contrast properties to gold while being approximately 1000-fold less expensive. Herein we report the design, fabrication, characterization, and CT and fluorescence imaging properties of a novel, dual modality, fluorescent, polymer encapsulated bismuth nanoparticle construct for computed tomography and fluorescence imaging. We also report on cellular internalization and preliminary in vitro and in vivo toxicity effects of these constructs. 40 nm bismuth(0) nanocrystals were synthesized and encapsulated within 120 nm Poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles by oil-in-water emulsion methodologies. Coumarin-6 was co-encapsulated to impart fluorescence. High encapsulation efficiency was achieved ~70% bismuth w/w. Particles were shown to internalize within cells following incubation in culture. Bismuth nanocrystals and PLGA encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles exhibited >90% and >70% degradation, respectively, within 24 hours in acidic, lysosomal environment mimicking media and both remained nearly 100% stable in cytosolic/extracellular fluid mimicking media. μCT and clinical CT imaging was performed at multiple X-ray tube voltages to measure concentration dependent attenuation rates as well as to establish the ability to detect the nanoparticles in an ex vivo biological sample. Dual fluorescence and CT imaging is demonstrated as well. In vivo toxicity studies in rats revealed neither clinically apparent side effects nor major alterations in serum chemistry and hematology parameters. Calculations on minimal detection requirements for in vivo targeted imaging using these nanoparticles are presented. Indeed, our results indicate that these nanoparticles may serve as a platform for sensitive and specific targeted molecular CT and fluorescence imaging.Reports of molecular and cellular imaging using

  4. Achillodynia. Radiological imaging of acute and chronic overuse injuries of the Achilles tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades the incidence of acute and chronic disorders of the Achilles tendon associated with sport-induced overuse has steadily increased. Besides acute complete or partial ruptures, achillodynia (Achilles tendon pain syndrome), which is often associated with tendon degeneration, represents the most challenging entity regarding clinical diagnostics and therapy. Therefore, the use of imaging techniques to differentiate tendon disorders and even characterize structure alterations is of growing interest. This review article discusses the potential of different imaging techniques with respect to the diagnosis of acute and chronic tendon disorders. In this context, the most commonly used imaging techniques are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), B-mode ultrasound, and color-coded Doppler ultrasound (US). These modalities allow the detection of acute tendon ruptures and advanced chronic tendon disorders. However, the main disadvantages are still the low capabilities in the detection of early-stage degeneration and difficulties in the assessment of treatment responses during follow-up examinations. Furthermore, differentiation between chronic partial ruptures and degeneration remains challenging. The automatic contour detection and texture analysis may allow a more objective and quantitative interpretation, which might be helpful in the monitoring of tendon diseases during follow-up examinations. Other techniques to quantify tendon-specific MR properties, e.g. based on ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences, also seem to have great potential with respect to the precise detection of degenerative tendon disorders and their differentiation at a very early stage. (orig.)

  5. A novel optical microscope for imaging large embryos and tissue volumes with sub-cellular resolution throughout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Gail; Trägårdh, Johanna; Amor, Rumelo; Dempster, John; Reid, Es; Amos, William Bradshaw

    2016-01-01

    Current optical microscope objectives of low magnification have low numerical aperture and therefore have too little depth resolution and discrimination to perform well in confocal and nonlinear microscopy. This is a serious limitation in important areas, including the phenotypic screening of human genes in transgenic mice by study of embryos undergoing advanced organogenesis. We have built an optical lens system for 3D imaging of objects up to 6 mm wide and 3 mm thick with depth resolution of only a few microns instead of the tens of microns currently attained, allowing sub-cellular detail to be resolved throughout the volume. We present this lens, called the Mesolens, with performance data and images from biological specimens including confocal images of whole fixed and intact fluorescently-stained 12.5-day old mouse embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18659.001 PMID:27661778

  6. Fluorine-18-labeled phospholipid quantum dot micelles for in vivo multimodal imaging from whole body to cellular scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed new nano-probes applicable for both positron emission tomography (PET) and optical fluorescence in vivo imaging. Fluorine-18, which is commonly used for clinical imaging, has been coupled to phospholipid quantum dot (QD) micelles. This probe was injected in mice and we demonstrated that its dynamic quantitative whole body biodistribution and pharmacokinetics could be monitored using PET as well as the kinetics of their cellular uptake using in vivo fibered confocal fluorescence imaging. Phospholipid micelle encapsulation of QDs provides a highly versatile surface chemistry to conjugate multiple chemicals and biomolecules with controlled QD: molecule valency. Here, we show that, in contrast with several previous studies using other QD polymer coatings, these phospholipid QD micelles exhibit long circulation half-time in the blood stream (on the order of 2 h) and slow uptake by reticulo-endothelial system. (authors)

  7. Pathophysiological Implication of Computed Tomography Images of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tsunehiro; Tochigi, Naobumi; Gocho, Kyoko; Moriya, Atsuko; Ikushima, Soichiro; Kumasaka, Toshio; Takemura, Tamiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2016-03-23

    Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a refractory disorder that needs long-term antifungal treatment and occasionally results in fatal respiratory failure and hemoptysis. However, the pathological features of the disorder have not been thoroughly delineated. Thirty cases were therefore analyzed clinically and histologically to elucidate the pathophysiology of CPA. The subjects comprised 14 individuals who underwent surgical removal and 16 patients who died. No subject exhibited a severely immunocompromised state. The main symptoms included cough, hemosputum, and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed a cavity, fungus ball, and consolidation and/or ground glass opacity (GGO); 27 serial CT scans showed enlarged consolidation and/or GGO (70%), dilatation of the cavity (26%), and extension to the opposite lung (22%). Histopathological findings revealed a cavity with ulceration, bronchitis, and various degrees of organizing pneumonia (OP) that were correlated with the area of consolidation and GGO on the CT scan. The essential pathophysiology of CPA can be understood as an active state of ulceration of the cavity and/or erosive bronchitis caused by contact with the fungus ball, which may play a significant role in the development of OP. Consequently, OP is thought to reflect respiratory failure that relates to the prognosis of CPA. PMID:26166500

  8. Self-Learning Cellular Automata for Forecasting Precipitation from Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.; Corzo Perez, G.A.; Martinez, C.A.; Mynett, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new forecasting methodology that uses self-learning cellular automata (SLCA) for including variables that consider the spatial dynamics of the mass of precipitation in a radar forecast model. Because the meteorological conditions involve nonlinear dynamic behavior, an automatic

  9. Chronic imaging of cortical sensory map dynamics using a genetically encoded calcium indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderer, Matthias; Liu, Wenrui; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Kügler, Sebastian; Helmchen, Fritjof; Margolis, David J

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging can reveal the dynamics of large-scale cortical activity, but methods for chronic recording are limited. Here we present a technique for long-term investigation of cortical map dynamics using wide-field ratiometric fluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Yellow Cameleon 3.60. We find that wide-field GECI signals report sensory-evoked activity in anaesthetized mouse somatosensory cortex with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal precision, and furthermore, can be measured repeatedly in separate imaging sessions over multiple weeks. This method opens new possibilities for the longitudinal study of stability and plasticity of cortical sensory representations.

  10. Changes of brain microstructure in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis assessed by diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel;

    Objective In patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) there is increasing evidence of abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging, brain microstructure in areas involved in processing of visceral pain was characterised...... to patients' clinical pain scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that microstructural changes of the brain accompany pain in CP. The changes are likely to be a consequence of ongoing pain and structural reorganisation of the neuromatrix as also seen in other diseases characterised by chronic pain....

  11. Altered brain microstructure assessed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel;

    2011-01-01

    Objective In patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) there is increasing evidence of abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging, brain microstructure in areas involved in processing of visceral pain was characterised and...... correlated to patients' clinical pain scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that microstructural changes of the brain accompany pain in CP. The changes are likely to be a consequence of ongoing pain and structural reorganisation of the neuromatrix as also seen in other diseases characterised by chronic...

  12. Altered brain microstructure assessed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel;

    Objective In patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) there is increasing evidence of abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging, brain microstructure in areas involved in processing of visceral pain was characterised and...... correlated to patients' clinical pain scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that microstructural changes of the brain accompany pain in CP. The changes are likely to be a consequence of ongoing pain and structural reorganisation of the neuromatrix as also seen in other diseases characterised by chronic...

  13. Changes of brain microstructure in patients with painful chronic pancreatitis assessed by diffusion tensor imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel;

    Objective In patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) there is increasing evidence of abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Using magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging, brain microstructure in areas involved in processing of visceral pain was characterised and...... correlated to patients' clinical pain scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that microstructural changes of the brain accompany pain in CP. The changes are likely to be a consequence of ongoing pain and structural reorganisation of the neuromatrix as also seen in other diseases characterised by chronic...

  14. Cellular mesoblastic nephroma with liver metastasis in a neonate: Prenatal and postnatal diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seok Min; Kim, Myung Joon; Im, Young Jae; Park, Kook In; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) is the most common renal tumor in the first year of life. Here, we present unique findings of cellular variant CMN seen on prenatal and postnatal MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).The mass was well-visualized on prenatal MR DWI with diffusion restriction in the solid portions. After excision of the mass, follow-up whole body MRI with DWI helped identify local tumor recurrence with suspicious liver metastasis. This hepatic lesion also showed diffusion restriction.

  15. Cellular uptake and imaging studies of glycosylated silica nanoprobe (GSN in human colon adenocarcinoma (HT 29 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehravi B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bita Mehravi,1 Mohsen Ahmadi,1 Massoud Amanlou,2 Ahmad Mostaar,1 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,3 Negar Ghalandarlaki41Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Design and Development Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biological Science, School of Science, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranPurpose: In recent years, molecular imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has gained prominence in the detection of tumor cells. The scope of this study is on molecular imaging and on the cellular uptake study of a glycosylated silica nanoprobe (GSN.Methods: In this study, intracellular uptake (HT 29 cell line of GSN was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent microscopy. In vitro and in vivo relaxometry of this nanoparticle was determined using a 3 Tesla MRI; biodistribution of GSN and Magnevist® were measured in different tissues.Results: Results suggest that the cellular uptake of GSN was about 70%. The r1 relaxivity of this nanoparticle in the cells was measured to be 12.9 ± 1.6 mM-1 s-1 and on a per lanthanide gadolinium (Gd3+ basis. Results also indicate an average cellular uptake of 0.7 ± 0.009 pg Gd3+ per cell. It should be noted that 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay demonstrated that the cells were effectively labeled without cytotoxicity, and that using MRI for quantitative estimation of delivery and uptake of targeted contrast agents and early detection of human colon cancer cells using targeted contrast agents, is feasible.Conclusion: These results showed that GSN provided a

  16. Cellular therapy of tumor angiogenesis : morphological and functional imaging using MRI and videomicroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Introduction : Tumor angiogenesis leads to the development of new vessels enabling the growth of the tumor. Tumor vessels are characterized by abnormalities including mural cells (perivascular muscular cells) responsible for abnormal vessel function and maturation. In this thesis, we studied cellular therapy in a tumor model by injection of mural cells using MRI and fluorescence videomicroscopy. Materiels and methods: Nude mice were injected with squamous cell TC1 tumors and animals were divi...

  17. Imaging Self-assembly Dependent Spatial Distribution of Small Molecules in Cellular Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Kuang, Yi; Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Chandran, Preethi; Horkay, Ferenc; Xu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly of small molecules, as a more common phenomenon than one previously thought, can be either beneficial or detrimental to cells. Despite its profound biological implications, how the self-assembly of small molecules behave in cellular environment is largely unknown and barely explored. This work studies four fluorescent molecules that consist of the same peptidic backbone (e.g., Phe-Phe-Lys) and enzyme trigger (e.g., a phosphotyrosine residue), but bear different fluorophores on t...

  18. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo A Hilliard; Apicella, Alfonso J; Kerr, Rex; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Bazzicalupo, Paolo; Schafer, William R.

    2005-01-01

    ASH sensory neurons are required in Caenorhabditis elegans for a wide range of avoidance behaviors in response to chemical repellents, high osmotic solutions and nose touch. The ASH neurons are therefore hypothesized to be polymodal nociceptive neurons. To understand the nature of polymodal sensory response and adaptation at the cellular level, we expressed the calcium indicator protein cameleon in ASH and analyzed intracellular Ca2+ responses following stimulation with chemical repellents, o...

  19. A related study of the CT imaging of the chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical application of the CT imaging in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods: CT images were retrospectively analyzed in 164 cases of chronic low back pain. All the cases were diagnosed with CT imaging, or confirmed by operation, or proved in follow-up. Results: Intervertebral disc bulging in different level as a result from the degeneration of the disc was found in 148 cases (90.24%) out of 164. Disc protrusion was presented in 129 cases(78.66%). Bony narrowing of the spinal canal was revealed in 33 cases(20.12%). Degenerative lumbar spinal instability yielded in 14 cases (8.5%). Ossification or calcification of posterior longitudinal ligament was seen in 26 cases (15.85%). Thickening of ligamenta flava was shown in the 22 eases (13.41%). Conclusion: Chronic low back pain is mainly caused by the disorders of the intervertebral disc, which has typical CT findings: narrowed spinal canal or lateral recess. Ossification or calcification of posterior longitudinal ligament also plays a role in low back pain. An accurate interpretation of the CT images is essential for the clinical management. (authors)

  20. MR imaging evaluation of subacute and chronic bone abscesses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in subacute and chronic bone abscesses in children. Materials and methods. Seventy-four patients underwent MR imaging because of suspected musculoskeletal infections between January 1996 and January 1999 in Montreal Children's Hospital. The clinical, radiographic, scintigraphic and MR imaging features of patients with a bone abscess were studied. Results. Eleven patients had osteomyelitis with no bone abscess and six had osteomyelitis with a subacute or chronic bone abscess. Although the lucency was eventually seen on plain radiographs in all cases, MR imaging made a significant contribution, as it helped narrow the differential diagnosis and showed better delineated medullary involvement and extension into the epiphysis. Conclusion. MR imaging is valuable in the diagnostic evaluation of children with bone infection and abscess. It reveals the extent of subperiosteal and epiphyseal involvement not seen on plain radiographs. The extent of the medullary involvement around the abscess is best visualized with MR imaging, which can also distinguish between isolated soft tissue infection adjacent to bone and true bone infection. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging evaluation of subacute and chronic bone abscesses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, T. [Department of Radiology, McGill University, Montreal Children' s Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Department of Radiology, Hospital for Children, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Azouz, E.M. [Department of Radiology, McGill University, Montreal Children' s Hospital, Montreal (Canada)

    2000-11-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in subacute and chronic bone abscesses in children. Materials and methods. Seventy-four patients underwent MR imaging because of suspected musculoskeletal infections between January 1996 and January 1999 in Montreal Children's Hospital. The clinical, radiographic, scintigraphic and MR imaging features of patients with a bone abscess were studied. Results. Eleven patients had osteomyelitis with no bone abscess and six had osteomyelitis with a subacute or chronic bone abscess. Although the lucency was eventually seen on plain radiographs in all cases, MR imaging made a significant contribution, as it helped narrow the differential diagnosis and showed better delineated medullary involvement and extension into the epiphysis. Conclusion. MR imaging is valuable in the diagnostic evaluation of children with bone infection and abscess. It reveals the extent of subperiosteal and epiphyseal involvement not seen on plain radiographs. The extent of the medullary involvement around the abscess is best visualized with MR imaging, which can also distinguish between isolated soft tissue infection adjacent to bone and true bone infection. (orig.)

  2. Non-degradable contrast agent with selective phagocytosis for cellular and hepatic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei-Yan [Nanchang University, College of Chemistry (China); Gu, Zhe-Jia [Nanchang University, Institute for Advanced Study (China); Zhao, Dawen [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Tang, Qun, E-mail: tangqun@ncu.edu.cn [Nanchang University, Institute for Advanced Study (China)

    2015-09-15

    Degradation is the long-existing toxic issue of metal-containing inorganic medicine. In this paper, we fully investigated the degradation of dextran-coated KMnF{sub 3} nanocube in the in vitro and in vivo surroundings. Different from the general decomposing and ion releasing events, this special agent is resistant to acidic environment, as well as ion exchange. Non-degradability was proved by simulated and real cellular experiments. Moreover, it can be engulfed in the macrophage cells and kept stable in the lysosome. Due to its stability and highly selective phagocytosis, implanted liver cancer can be clearly visualized after administration.

  3. Non-degradable contrast agent with selective phagocytosis for cellular and hepatic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation is the long-existing toxic issue of metal-containing inorganic medicine. In this paper, we fully investigated the degradation of dextran-coated KMnF3 nanocube in the in vitro and in vivo surroundings. Different from the general decomposing and ion releasing events, this special agent is resistant to acidic environment, as well as ion exchange. Non-degradability was proved by simulated and real cellular experiments. Moreover, it can be engulfed in the macrophage cells and kept stable in the lysosome. Due to its stability and highly selective phagocytosis, implanted liver cancer can be clearly visualized after administration

  4. A fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade digital camera for in vivo cellular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsuk Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection is an essential component of cancer management. Unfortunately, visual examination can often be unreliable, and many settings lack the financial capital and infrastructure to operate PET, CT, and MRI systems. Moreover, the infrastructure and expense associated with surgical biopsy and microscopy are a challenge to establishing cancer screening/early detection programs in low-resource settings. Improvements in performance and declining costs have led to the availability of optoelectronic components, which can be used to develop low-cost diagnostic imaging devices for use at the point-of-care. Here, we demonstrate a fiber-optic fluorescence microscope using a consumer-grade camera for in vivo cellular imaging. METHODS: The fiber-optic fluorescence microscope includes an LED light, an objective lens, a fiber-optic bundle, and a consumer-grade digital camera. The system was used to image an oral cancer cell line labeled with 0.01% proflavine. A human tissue specimen was imaged following surgical resection, enabling dysplastic and cancerous regions to be evaluated. The oral mucosa of a healthy human subject was imaged in vivo, following topical application of 0.01% proflavine. FINDINGS: The fiber-optic microscope resolved individual nuclei in all specimens and tissues imaged. This capability allowed qualitative and quantitative differences between normal and precancerous or cancerous tissues to be identified. The optical efficiency of the system permitted imaging of the human oral mucosa in real time. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate this device as a useful tool to assist in the identification of early neoplastic changes in epithelial tissues. This portable, inexpensive unit may be particularly appropriate for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings.

  5. Chronic cocaine disrupts neurovascular networks and cerebral function: optical imaging studies in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiujia; You, Jiang; Volkow, Nora D.; Choi, Jeonghun; Yin, Wei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2016-02-01

    Cocaine abuse can lead to cerebral strokes and hemorrhages secondary to cocaine's cerebrovascular effects, which are poorly understood. We assessed cocaine's effects on cerebrovascular anatomy and function in the somatosensory cortex of the rat's brain. Optical coherence tomography was used for in vivo imaging of three-dimensional cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks and to quantify CBF velocities (CBFv), and multiwavelength laser-speckle-imaging was used to simultaneously measure changes in CBFv, oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbR]) concentrations prior to and after an acute cocaine challenge in chronically cocaine exposed rats. Immunofluorescence techniques on brain slices were used to quantify microvasculature density and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After chronic cocaine (2 and 4 weeks), CBFv in small vessels decreased, whereas vasculature density and VEGF levels increased. Acute cocaine further reduced CBFv and decreased Δ[HbO2] and this decline was larger and longer lasting in 4 weeks than 2 weeks cocaine-exposed rats, which indicates that risk for ischemia is heightened during intoxication and that it increases with chronic exposures. These results provide evidence of cocaine-induced angiogenesis in cortex. The CBF reduction after chronic cocaine exposure, despite the increases in vessel density, indicate that angiogenesis was insufficient to compensate for cocaine-induced disruption of cerebrovascular function.

  6. Etiopathophysiological assessment of cases with chronic daily headache: A functional magnetic resonance imaging included investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Hashemi; Mohammad Torabi Nami; Mohammad Ali Oghabian; Habib Ganjgahi; Zahra Vahabi; Hajir Sikaroodi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic daily headache (CDH) has gained little attention in functional neuro-imaging. When no structural abnormality is found in CDH, defining functional correlates between activated brain regions during headache bouts may provide unique insights towards understanding the pathophysiology of this type of headache.METHODS: We recruited four CDH cases for comprehensive assessments, including history taking, physical examinations and neuropsychological evaluations (The Addenbrooke’s C...

  7. Cellular level nanomanipulation using atomic force microscope aided with superresolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Harke, Benjamin; Canale, Claudio; Diaspro, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide topographical and mechanical information of the sample with very good axial resolution, but are limited in terms of chemical specificity and operation time-scale. An optical microscope coupled to an AFM can recognize and target an area of interest using specific identification markers like fluorescence tags. A high resolution fluorescence microscope can visualize fluorescence structures or molecules below the classical optical diffraction limit and reach nanometer scale resolution. A stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy superresolution (SR) microscope coupled to an AFM is an example in which the AFM tip gains nanoscale manipulation capabilities. The SR targeting and visualization ability help in fast and specific identification of subdiffraction-sized cellular structures and manoeuvring the AFM tip onto the target. We demonstrate how to build a STED AFM and use it for biological nanomanipulation aided with fast visualization. The STED AFM based bionanomanipulation is presented for the first time in this article. This study points to future nanosurgeries performable at single-cell level and a physical targeted manipulation of cellular features as it is currently used in research domains like nanomedicine and nanorobotics.

  8. Precision automation of cell type classification and sub-cellular fluorescence quantification from laser scanning confocal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Craig Hall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While novel whole-plant phenotyping technologies have been successfully implemented into functional genomics and breeding programs, the potential of automated phenotyping with cellular resolution is largely unexploited. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has the potential to close this gap by providing spatially highly resolved images containing anatomic as well as chemical information on a subcellular basis. However, in the absence of automated methods, the assessment of the spatial patterns and abundance of fluorescent markers with subcellular resolution is still largely qualitative and time-consuming. Recent advances in image acquisition and analysis, coupled with improvements in microprocessor performance, have brought such automated methods within reach, so that information from thousands of cells per image for hundreds of images may be derived in an experimentally convenient time-frame. Here, we present a MATLAB-based analytical pipeline to 1 segment radial plant organs into individual cells, 2 classify cells into cell type categories based upon random forest classification, 3 divide each cell into sub-regions, and 4 quantify fluorescence intensity to a subcellular degree of precision for a separate fluorescence channel. In this research advance, we demonstrate the precision of this analytical process for the relatively complex tissues of Arabidopsis hypocotyls at various stages of development. High speed and robustness make our approach suitable for phenotyping of large collections of stem-like material and other tissue types.

  9. Hyperpolarized 3He Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bronchoscopic Airway Bypass in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old exsmoker with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent airway bypass (AB as part of the Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema (EASE trial, and was the only EASE subject to undergo hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of lung function pre- and post-AB. 3He magnetic resonance imaging was acquired twice previously (32 and eight months pre-AB and twice post-AB (six and 12 months post-AB. Six months post-AB, his increase in forced vital capacity was <12% predicted, and he was classified as an AB nonresponder. However, post-AB, he also demonstrated improvements in quality of life scores, 6 min walk distance and improvements in 3He gas distribution in the regions of stent placement. Given the complex relationship between well-established pulmonary function and quality of life measurements, the present case provides evidence of the value-added information functional imaging may provide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease interventional studies.

  10. Imaging the fine-scale structure of the cellular actin cytoskeleton by Single Particle Tracking and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustata, Gina-Mirela

    It has been proposed that diffusion in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells it is compartmentalized due to the interaction with the underlying actin-based membrane skeleton that comes into close proximity to the lipid bilayer. The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, enables cell motion, and plays important roles in both intra-cellular transport and cellular division. We show here the evidence of plasma membrane compartmentalization using Single Particle Tracking (SPT) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging. SPT of Quantum dot labeled lipid in the plasma membrane of live normal rat kidney cells show compartments ranging from 325 nm to 391 nm depending on the sampling time. Using AFM imaging of live NRK cell in the presence of phalloidin, the membrane compartmentalization it is visible with the average size of the compartments of 325 +/- 10 nm (the main peak is centered at 260 nm). Further, the underlying membrane skeleton in fixed cells was directly imaged after partial removal of the plasma membrane to reveal size of the membrane skeleton meshwork of 339 +/- 10 nm. A new method of measuring the characteristics of the actin meshwork was proposed. Probing the local compliance of the plasma membrane through the deflection of a soft AFM cantilever we can expect that the stiffness of the membrane will be higher at locations directly above a cortical actin. This new method provided information about the structure of the skeletal meshwork of neuronal cell body predicting an average compartment size of about 132 nm. This was confirmed through SPT of QD-lipid incorporated into the neuronal cell membrane.

  11. Potential of ultraviolet widefield imaging and multiphoton microscopy for analysis of dehydroergosterol in cellular membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Bagatolli, Luis;

    2011-01-01

    Dehydroergosterol (DHE) is an intrinsically fluorescent sterol with absorption/emission in the ultraviolet (UV) region and biophysical properties similar to those of cholesterol. We compared the potential of UV-sensitive low-light-level wide-field (UV-WF) imaging with that of multiphoton (MP) exc...

  12. State-dependent cellular activity patterns of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus measured by reflectance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M; Poe, G R;

    1996-01-01

    Activity within the cat paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) during sleep and waking states was measured by quantifying intrinsic tissue reflectivity. A fiber optic probe consisting of a 1.0 mm coherent image conduit, surrounded by plastic fibers which conducted 660 nm source light, was attached to...

  13. Intact skull chronic windows for mesoscopic wide-field imaging in awake mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Craniotomy-based window implants are commonly used for microscopic imaging, in head-fixed rodents, however their field of view is typically small and incompatible with mesoscopic functional mapping of cortex. New Method We describe a reproducible and simple procedure for chronic through-bone wide-field imaging in awake head-fixed mice providing stable optical access for chronic imaging over large areas of the cortex for months. Results The preparation is produced by applying clear-drying dental cement to the intact mouse skull, followed by a glass coverslip to create a partially transparent imaging surface. Surgery time takes about 30 minutes. A single set-screw provides a stable means of attachment for mesoscale assessment without obscuring the cortical field of view. Comparison with Existing Methods We demonstrate the utility of this method by showing seed-pixel functional connectivity maps generated from spontaneous cortical activity of GCAMP6 signals in both awake and anesthetized mice. Conclusions We propose that the intact skull preparation described here may be used for most longitudinal studies that do not require micron scale resolution and where cortical neural or vascular signals are recorded with intrinsic sensors. PMID:27102043

  14. In vivo whole brain, cellular and molecular imaging in nonhuman primate models of neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lieven; Merson, Tobias D; Bourne, James A

    2016-07-01

    Rodents have been the principal model to study brain anatomy and function due to their well-mapped brain architecture, rapid reproduction and amenability to genetic modification. However, there are clear limitations, for example their simpler neocortex, necessitating the need to adopt a model that is closer to humans in order to understand human cognition and brain conditions. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are ideally suited as they are our closest relatives in the animal kingdom but in vivo imaging technologies to study brain structure and function in these species can be challenging. With the surge in NHP research in recent years, scientists have begun adapting imaging technologies, such as two-photon microscopy, for these species. Here we review the various NHP models that exist as well as their use in advanced microscopic and mesoscopic studies. We discuss the challenges in the field and investigate the opportunities that lie ahead. PMID:27151822

  15. Overview about the localization of nanoparticles in tissue and cellular context by different imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ostrowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest and recent developments in nanotechnology pose previously unparalleled challenges in understanding the effects of nanoparticles on living tissues. Despite significant progress in in vitro cell and tissue culture technologies, observations on particle distribution and tissue responses in whole organisms are still indispensable. In addition to a thorough understanding of complex tissue responses which is the domain of expert pathologists, the localization of particles at their sites of interaction with living structures is essential to complete the picture. In this review we will describe and compare different imaging techniques for localizing inorganic as well as organic nanoparticles in tissues, cells and subcellular compartments. The visualization techniques include well-established methods, such as standard light, fluorescence, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy as well as more recent developments, such as light and electron microscopic autoradiography, fluorescence lifetime imaging, spectral imaging and linear unmixing, superresolution structured illumination, Raman microspectroscopy and X-ray microscopy. Importantly, all methodologies described allow for the simultaneous visualization of nanoparticles and evaluation of cell and tissue changes that are of prime interest for toxicopathologic studies. However, the different approaches vary in terms of applicability for specific particles, sensitivity, optical resolution, technical requirements and thus availability, and effects of labeling on particle properties. Specific bottle necks of each technology are discussed in detail. Interpretation of particle localization data from any of these techniques should therefore respect their specific merits and limitations as no single approach combines all desired properties.

  16. Cellular mechanisms for the treatment of chronic heart failure: the nitric oxide- and adenosine-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tetsuo; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2002-05-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that several drugs proven to improve survival in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) enhance endogenous nitric oxide (NO)- and/or adenosine-dependent pathways. Indeed, we and others have demonstrated that: i) antagonists of either renin-angiotensin-aldosterone or beta-adrenergic systems enhance NO-dependent pathways; ii) although carvedilol and amlodipine belong to different drug classes, both of them can increase cardiac adenosine levels; iii) increased adenosine levels by dipyridamole are associated with the improvement of CHF. Interestingly, both NO and adenosine have multifactorial beneficial actions in cardiovascular systems. First of all, both of them induce vasodilation and decrease myocardial hypercontractility, which may contribute to a reduction in the severity of myocardial ischaemia. Both adenosine and NO are also involved in cardioprotection attributable to acute and late phases of ischaemic preconditioning, respectively. Secondly, they can modulate the neurohormonal systems that contribute to the progression of CHF. Thus, we propose that enhancement of endogenous NO and/or adenosine as potential therapeutic targets in a new strategy for the treatment for CHF. PMID:15989539

  17. An Evaluation of Cellular Neural Networks for the Automatic Identification of Cephalometric Landmarks on Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been made to completely automate cephalometric analysis by automatic landmark search. However, accuracy obtained was worse than manual identification in every study. The analogue-to-digital conversion of X-ray has been claimed to be the main problem. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of the Cellular Neural Networks approach for automatic location of cephalometric landmarks on softcopy of direct digital cephalometric X-rays. Forty-one, direct-digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained by a Siemens Orthophos DS Ceph and were used in this study and 10 landmarks (N, A Point, Ba, Po, Pt, B Point, Pg, PM, UIE, LIE were the object of automatic landmark identification. The mean errors and standard deviations from the best estimate of cephalometric points were calculated for each landmark. Differences in the mean errors of automatic and manual landmarking were compared with a 1-way analysis of variance. The analyses indicated that the differences were very small, and they were found at most within 0.59 mm. Furthermore, only few of these differences were statistically significant, but differences were so small to be in most instances clinically meaningless. Therefore the use of X-ray files with respect to scanned X-ray improved landmark accuracy of automatic detection. Investigations on softcopy of digital cephalometric X-rays, to search more landmarks in order to enable a complete automatic cephalometric analysis, are strongly encouraged.

  18. Chronic nickel bioaccumulation and sub-cellular fractionation in two freshwater teleosts, the round goby and the rainbow trout, exposed simultaneously to waterborne and dietborne nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin M; Banerjee, Upasana; D'Silva, Joshua J; Wood, Chris M

    2014-09-01

    Rainbow trout and round goby were exposed for 30 days to waterborne and dietary Ni in combination at two waterborne concentration ranges (6.2-12 μmol/L, 68-86 μmol/L), the lower of which is typical of contaminated environments. The prey (black worms; Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed for 48 h in the effluent of the fish exposure tanks before being fed to the fish (ration=2% body weight/day). Ni in gills, gut, and prey was fractionated into biologically inactive metal [BIM=metal-rich granules (MRG) and metallothionein-like proteins (MT)] and biologically active metal [BAM=organelles (ORG) and heat-denaturable proteins (HDP)]. Gobies were more sensitive than trout to chronic Ni exposure. Possibly, this greater sensitivity may have been due to the goby's pre-exposure to pollutants at their collection site, as evidenced by ∼2-fold greater initial Ni concentrations in both gills and gut relative to trout. However, this was followed by ∼2-16× larger bioaccumulation in both the gills and the gut during the experimental exposure. On a subcellular level, ∼3-40× more Ni was associated with the BAM fraction of goby in comparison to trout. Comparison of the fractional distribution of Ni in the prey versus the gut tissue of the predators suggested that round goby were more efficient than rainbow trout in detoxifying Ni taken up from the diet. Assessing sub-cellular distribution of Ni in the gills and gut of two fish of different habitat and lifestyles revealed two different strategies of Ni bioaccumulation and sub-cellular distribution. On the one hand, trout exhibited an ability to regulate gill Ni bioaccumulation and maintain the majority of the Ni in the MT fraction of the BIM. In contrast goby exhibited large Ni spillovers to both the HDP and ORG fractions of the BAM in the gill. However, the same trend was not observed in the gut, where the potential acclimation of goby to pollutants from their collection site may have aided their ability to regulate Ni

  19. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-07-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies.

  20. Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Santosh K.; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Chang, Huei-Huei; Tiwari, Saumya; Gryka, Mark; Bhargava, Rohit; Pan, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Typically, multiplexing high nanoparticle uptake, imaging, and therapy requires careful integration of three different functions of a multiscale molecular-particle assembly. Here, we present a simpler approach to multiplexing by utilizing one component of the system for multiple functions. Specifically, we successfully synthesized and characterized colloidal carotene carbon nanoparticle (C3-NP), in which a single functional molecule served a threefold purpose. First, the presence of carotene moieties promoted the passage of the particle through the cell membrane and into the cells. Second, the ligand acted as a potent detrimental moiety for cancer cells and, finally, the ligands produced optical contrast for robust microscopic detection in complex cellular environments. In comparative tests, C3-NP were found to provide effective intracellular delivery that enables both robust detection at cellular and tissue level and presents significant therapeutic potential without altering the mechanism of intracellular action of β-carotene. Surface coating of C3 with phospholipid was used to generate C3-Lipocoat nanoparticles with further improved function and biocompatibility, paving the path to eventual in vivo studies. PMID:27405011

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  2. Altered human brain anatomy in chronic smokers: a review of magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaojun; Qian, Wei; Shen, Zhujing; Zhang, Minming

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, such as China, and is the largest single cause of preventable death worldwide. New emerging reports are highlighting how chronic cigarette smoking plays a role in neural dysfunctions, such as cognitive decline. Basic animal experimental studies have shown that rats undergo persistent pathological brain changes after being given chronic levels of nicotine. What is perhaps less appreciated is the fact that chronic cigarette smoking induces subtle anatomical changes in the human brain. Consequently, this chapter aims to summarize and integrate the existing magnetic resonance imaging studies on both gray- and white-matter marcostructural and microstructural changes. The reviewed studies demonstrate that chronic cigarette smoking results in discrete and localized alterations in brain region tissue (both the gray and white matter of different brain regions), which may, in part, be responsible for different neural dysfunctions. In addition, we further discuss the possible pathological and neurobiological mechanisms of these nicotinic effects on the brain tissue. We will also address the limitations of the current studies on this issue and identify opportunities for future research. PMID:25577510

  3. Synthesis of heterocycles: Indolo (2,1-a) isoquinolines, renewables, and aptamer ligands for cellular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Jonathan [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore both total syntheses and methodologies of several aromatic heterocyclic molecules. Extensions of the Kraus indole synthesis toward 2-substituted and 2,3-disubstituted indoles, as well as biologically attractive indolo[2,1-a]isoquinolines are described. Recent renewable efforts directed to commodity maleic acid and the first reported furan-based ionic liquids are described. Our total synthesis of mRNA aptamer ligand PDC-Gly, and its dye coupled forms, plus aminoglycoside dye coupled ligands used in molecular imaging, are described.

  4. Cellular internalization of LiNbO3 nanocrystals for second harmonic imaging and the effects on stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Qiu, Jichuan; Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Ma, Baojin; Mou, Xiaoning; Tanes, Michael; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration-dependent viability. Most importantly, rMSCs labeled with 50 μg per mL of LN nanocrystals retained their ability to differentiate into both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. The results prove that LN nanocrystals can be used as a cytocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) light driven cell label for long-term imaging, without hindering stem cell differentiation. This work will promote the use of LN nanocrystals to broader applications like deep-tissue tracking, remote drug delivery and stem cell therapy.Second harmonic generation (SHG) nanocrystals have recently been reported to label cancer cells and other functional cell lines due to their unique double-frequency property. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) nanocrystals as SHG labels for imaging stem cells. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with LN nanocrystals in order to study the cellular internalization of the nanocrystals and the influence on stem cell differentiation. The results showed that LN nanocrystals were endocytosed by the rMSCs and the distribution of the internalized nanoparticles demonstrated a high consistency with the orientation of the actin filaments. Besides, LN-labeled rMSCs showed a concentration

  5. Imaging in chronic achilles tendinopathy: a comparison of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in 27 histologically verified cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, M. [Department of Orthopaedics, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Gentz, C.F. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Nilsson, P. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Rausing, A. [Department of Pathology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Sjoeberg, S. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Westlin, N. [Department of Orthopaedics, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. To compare information gained by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic achilles tendinopathy with regard to the nature and severity of the lesion. Design. Imaging of both achilles tendons with ultrasonography and MRI was performed prior to unilateral surgery. Operative findings and histological biopsies together served as a reference. Patients. Twenty-seven patients (22 men, 5 women; mean age 44 years; 21 athletes) suffering from chronic achilles tendinopathy participated in the study. Eighteen patients had unilateral and 9 had bilateral symptoms. Results and conclusions. Surgical findings included 4 partial ruptures, 21 degenerative lesions and 2 macroscopically normal cases. Microscopy revealed tendinosis (degeneration) in all tendon biopsies, including cases with a partial rupture, but only slight changes in the paratendinous tissues (paratenon). Ultrasonography was positive in 21 of 26 and MRI in 26 of 27 cases. Severe intratendinous abnormalities and a sagittal tendon diameter >10 mm suggested a partial rupture. In tendons with a false negative result histopathological changes were mild and a tendency towards a better clinical outcome was noted in the sonographic cases. Assessment of the paratenon was unreliable with both methods. Ultrasonography and MRI give similar information and may have their greatest potential as prognostic instruments. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Alkynyl-naphthalimide Fluorophores: Gold Coordination Chemistry and Cellular Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon-Jones, Emily E; Lloyd, David; Hayes, Anthony J; Wainwright, Shane D; Mottram, Huw J; Coles, Simon J; Horton, Peter N; Pope, Simon J A

    2015-07-01

    A range of fluorescent alkynyl-naphthalimide fluorophores has been synthesized and their photophysical properties examined. The fluorescent ligands are based upon a 4-substituted 1,8-naphthalimide core and incorporate structural variations (at the 4-position) to tune the amphiphilic character: chloro (L1), 4-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol] (L2), 4-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylamino] (L3), piperidine (L4), morpholine (L5), 4-methylpiperidine (L6), and 4-piperidone ethylene ketal (L7) variants. The amino-substituted species (L2-L7) are fluorescent in the visible region at around 517-535 nm through a naphthalimide-localized intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), with appreciable Stokes' shifts of ca. 6500 cm(-1) and lifetimes up to 10.4 ns. Corresponding two-coordinate Au(I) complexes [Au(L)(PPh3)] were isolated, with X-ray structural studies revealing the expected coordination mode via the alkyne donor. The Au(I) complexes retain the visible fluorescence associated with the coordinated alkynyl-naphthalimide ligand. The ligands and complexes were investigated for their cytotoxicity across a range of cell lines (LOVO, MCF-7, A549, PC3, HEK) and their potential as cell imaging agents for HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells and Spironucleus vortens using confocal fluorescence microscopy. The images reveal that these fluorophores are highly compatible with fluorescence microscopy and show some clear intracellular localization patterns that are dependent upon the specific nature of the naphthalimide substituent.

  7. Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: cellular classification and clinical and imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam; Elsayes, Khaled M; Baskin, Henry; Mourad, Amr; Foster, Bryan R; Jarboe, Elke A; Menias, Christine O

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors (OMGCTs) are heterogeneous tumors that are derived from the primitive germ cells of the embryonic gonad. OMGCTs are rare, accounting for about 2.6% of all ovarian malignancies, and typically manifest in adolescence, usually with abdominal pain, a palpable mass, and elevated serum tumor marker levels, which may serve as an adjunct in the initial diagnosis, monitoring during therapy, and posttreatment surveillance. Dysgerminoma, the most common malignant germ cell tumor, usually manifests as a solid mass. Immature teratomas manifest as a solid mass with scattered foci of fat and calcifications. Yolk sac tumors usually manifest as a mixed solid and cystic mass. Capsular rupture or the bright dot sign, a result of increased vascularity and the formation of small vascular aneurysms, may be present. Embryonal carcinomas and polyembryomas rarely manifest in a pure form and are more commonly part of a mixed germ cell tumor. Some OMGCTs have characteristic features that allow a diagnosis to be confidently made, whereas others have nonspecific features, which make them difficult to diagnose. However, imaging features, the patient's age at presentation, and tumor markers may help establish a reasonable differential diagnosis. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors spread in the same manner as epithelial ovarian neoplasms but are more likely to involve regional lymph nodes. Preoperative imaging may depict local extension, peritoneal disease, and distant metastases. Suspicious areas may be sampled during surgery. Because OMGCTs are almost always unilateral and are chemosensitive, fertility-sparing surgery is the standard of care. PMID:24819795

  8. Adolescent Overweight, Obesity and Chronic Disease-Related Health Practices: Mediation by Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilda Farhat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP, including lack of physical activity (PA, infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC, screen-based media use (SBM, and smoking. Methods: The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028 in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years. Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87 asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Results: Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. Conclusion: As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP.

  9. A tool for classifying individuals with chronic back pain: using multivariate pattern analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Callan

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1 chronic pain and 2 normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N = 13 and 92.3% of the normal control group (N = 13 by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying

  10. In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Dubose, Theodore; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-09-01

    Enabled by adaptive optics, retinal photoreceptor cell imaging is changing our understanding of retinal structure and function, as well as the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases. To date, use of this technology has been limited to cooperative adult subjects due to the size, weight and inconvenience of the equipment, thus excluding study of retinal maturation during human development. Here, we report the design and operation of a handheld probe that can perform both scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography of the parafoveal photoreceptor structure in infants and children without the need for adaptive optics. The probe, featuring a compact optical design weighing only 94 g, was able to quantify packing densities of parafoveal cone photoreceptors and visualize cross-sectional photoreceptor substructure in children with ages ranging from 14 months to 12 years. The probe will benefit paediatric research by improving the understanding of retinal development, maldevelopment and early onset of disease during human growth.

  11. Near-infrared dye loaded polymeric nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy and cellular response after laser-induced heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjun Lei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the past decade, researchers have focused on developing new biomaterials for cancer therapy that combine imaging and therapeutic agents. In our study, we use a new biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, termed poly(glycerol malate co-dodecanedioate (PGMD, for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs and loading of near-infrared (NIR dyes. IR820 was chosen for the purpose of imaging and hyperthermia (HT. HT is currently used in clinical trials for cancer therapy in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One of the potential problems of HT is that it can up-regulate hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 expression and enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion.Results: We explored cellular response after rapid, short-term and low thermal dose laser-IR820-PGMD NPs (laser/NPs induced-heating, and compared it to slow, long-term and high thermal dose heating by a cell incubator. The expression levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, HIF-1 and VEGF following the two different modes of heating. The cytotoxicity of NPs after laser/NP HT resulted in higher cell killing compared to incubator HT. The ROS level was highly elevated under incubator HT, but remained at the baseline level under the laser/NP HT. Our results show that elevated ROS expression inside the cells could result in the promotion of HIF-1 expression after incubator induced-HT. The VEGF secretion was also significantly enhanced compared to laser/NP HT, possibly due to the promotion of HIF-1. In vitro cell imaging and in vivo healthy mice imaging showed that IR820-PGMD NPs can be used for optical imaging.Conclusion: IR820-PGMD NPs were developed and used for both imaging and therapy purposes. Rapid and short-term laser/NP HT, with a low thermal dose, does not up-regulate HIF-1 and VEGF expression, whereas slow and long term incubator HT, with a high thermal dose, enhances the expression of both transcription factors.

  12. Clinical value of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation imaging in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-one cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied with 99mTc-MAA pulmonary perfusion and 99mTc-DTPA ventilation imaging. The results showed both studies have good match and their positive rate was 96.0%(49/51). It was much higher than X-ray chest film (56.8%) and better than pulmonary localization function study (84.3%). Also it was proved that they can increase early detecting rate of COPD and provide a strong evidence for early diagnosis, evaluating the course and therapeutic effect of disease

  13. Assessment of the right ventricle by magnetic resonance imaging in chronic obstructive lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, L W; Ridgway, J P; Biernacki, W; McRitchie, H; Muir, A L; Best, J J; MacNee, W

    1990-01-01

    Right ventricular wall and chamber volume were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 16 patients with stable chronic obstructive lung disease who subsequently underwent measurement of pulmonary haemodynamics by right heart catheterisation. The patients had a forced expiratory volume in one second of 0.7 (SD 0.3) litres, a forced vital capacity of 2.4 (1.0) l, an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) of 6.5 (1.3) kPa, an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) of 6.5 (1.0) kPa, and a mean pulmona...

  14. A galvanic replacement route to prepare strongly fluorescent and highly stable gold nanodots for cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanxi; Wang, Yu; Xu, Lin; Shi, Xiaodong; Li, Xiangwei; Xu, Xiaowei; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai; Lin, Quan

    2013-02-11

    Fluorescent gold nanodots (GNDs) are an important kind of nanoprobes. Herein, the application of galvanic replacement for the preparation of fluorescent GNDs is reported. Using presynthesized and size-controlled Ag nanodots (Ag NDs) as templates, the as-prepared GNDs have strong fluorescence (quantum yields ~10%) with high stability and surface bioactivity. The resultant GNDs show excellent photoluminescence properties with high photo-, time-, metal-, and pH-stability, which are attributed to the protective surface layer of glutathione (GSH) and the presence of Au(I)-S complexes on the surface of the gold core. GSH, a naturally occurring and readily available tripeptide with carboxyl and amino functional groups, allows good dispersion of the as-prepared GNDs in aqueous solution and favorable biocompatibility. These advantages, combined with their small size, mean that the as-prepared GNDs have potential application in biological labeling, especially as a DNA probe for the specific detection of nucleic acids. In this study, the CAL-27 cells are used as a model to evaluate the fluorescence imaging of GNDs.

  15. Volumes of chronic traumatic frontal brain lesions measured by MR imaging and CBF tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, P.; Wirsen, A.; Bajc, M.; Schalen, W.; Sjoeholm, H.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Cronqvist, S.; Ingvar, D.H. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Neuroradiology University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology University Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1991-07-01

    The volumes (ml) of chronic traumatic frontal brain lesions were compared measured 'morphologically' with MR imaging (T1 and T2 weighted images) and 'functionally' with a tomographic rCBF technique (SPECT with {sup 133}Xe i.v.). The T1 volumes varied between 11 and 220 ml. The correlation between T1 and T2 volumes was 0.95, the T2 volumes being 33% larger than T1 volumes (p<0.001). The functional SPECT volumes were considerably larger (range 16-324 ml) than the MR volumes. The mean volume difference was 81% between T1 and SPECT images (p<0.001), and 35% between T2 and SPECT images (p<0.001). Correlations between the MR and SPECT volumes were also higher for T2 than T1 volumes. The volume difference is most likely explained by a functional decrease in regions around the lesion in which no morphologic change visible on MR images had taken place. MR and SPECT volume measurements were positively related to persistent lack of energy and personality changes, but only moderately related to duration of impaired consciousness and neuropsychologie outcome. (orig.).

  16. MRI in chronic toluene abuse: low signal in the cerebral cortex on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI may be helpful in showing brain toxicity associated with chronic toluene inhalation. We report clinical and MRI findings over 3 years in a man with gradual neurologic decline secondary to toluene abuse. Cerebral atrophy most prominently involved the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. On T2-weighted images, loss of gray-white matter contrast, diffuse supratentorial white matter high-signal lesions, and low signal in the basal ganglia and midbrain were seen. In addition, MRI showed abnormal labor cortical low signal on T2-weighted images, most prominent in the primary motor and visual cortex. This cortical T2 shortening, not previously described in this condition, may reflect iron deposition. (orig.)

  17. Chronic pulmonary embolism - radiological imaging and differential diagnosis; Chronische Lungenembolie - Radiologische Bildmorphologie und Differenzialdiagnose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenrath, E.; Herzog, P.; Attenberger, U.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    In chronic pulmonary embolism branches of the pulmonary arterial tree remain partially or totally occluded. This may lead to pulmonary hypertension with the development of right ventricular hypertrophy as well as structural changes of pulmonary arteries. Imaging of chronic pulmonary embolism should prove vessel occlusions (pulmonary angiography, MSCT, MRI) and reduction of regional lung perfusion (lung scanning, MSCT, MRI). According to current guidelines ventilation-perfusion lung scanning and pulmonary angiography are still recommended as the methods of choice. MSCT and MRI provide technical alternatives which are helpful in differential diagnosis versus other types of pulmonary hypertension. In spite of medical and surgical measures (in rare cases pulmonary thromboendarterectomy) the prognosis of chronic pulmonary embolism remains unfavourable. (orig.) [German] Bei der chronischen Lungenembolie sind Abschnitte der arteriellen Lungenstrombahn dauerhaft verschlossen. Dies kann zu einer Erhoehung des pulmonal-arteriellen Drucks mit den Folgen einer Rechtsherzbelastung und strukturellen Veraenderungen der Pulmonalarterien fuehren. Bildmorphologisch nachzuweisen sind Gefaessverschluesse (Pulmonalisangiographie, MSCT, MRT) und die Minderperfusion des Lungenparenchyms (Szintigraphie, MSCT, MRT). Nach den bisherigen Empfehlungen gelten fuer die Diagnostik der chronischen Lungenembolie die Lungenszintigraphie (Ventilation/Perfusion) und die Pulmonalisangiographie als Methoden der ersten Wahl. Die MSCT und MRT (Angiographie/Perfusion) stellen technische Alternativen dar. Differenzialdiagnostisch sind andere Formen der pulmonalen Hypertonie abzugrenzen. Trotz medikamentoeser und chirurgischer Therapiemassnahmen (z. B. pulmonale Thrombendarterektomie) bleibt die Prognose der chronischen Lungenembolie unguenstig. (orig.)

  18. Neural interface of mirror therapy in chronic stroke patients: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Bhasin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recovery in stroke is mediated by neural plasticity. Neuro-restorative therapies improve recovery after stroke by promoting repair and function. Mirror neuron system (MNS has been studied widely in humans in stroke and phantom sensations. Materials and Methods: Study subjects included 20 patients with chronic stroke and 10 healthy controls. Patients had clinical disease-severity scores, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and diffuse tensor imaging (DTI at baseline, 8 and at 24 weeks. Block design with alternate baseline and activation cycles was used with a total of 90 whole brain echo planar imaging (EPI measurements (timed repetition (TR = 4520 ms, timed echo (TE = 44 ms, slices = 31, slice thickness = 4 mm, EPI factor 127, matrix = 128 × 128, FOV = 230 mm. Whole brain T1-weighted images were acquired using 3D sequence (MPRage with 120 contiguous slices of 1.0 mm thickness. The mirror therapy was aimed via laptop system integrated with web camera, mirroring the movement of the unaffected hand. This therapy was administered for 5 days in a week for 60-90 min for 8 weeks. Results: All the patients showed statistical significant improvement in Fugl Meyer and modified Barthel Index (P < 0.05 whereas the change in Medical Research Council (MRC power grade was not significant post-therapy (8 weeks. There was an increase in the laterality index (LI of ipsilesional BA 4 and BA 6 at 8 weeks exhibiting recruitment and focusing principles of neural plasticity. Conclusions: Mirror therapy simulated the "action-observation" hypothesis exhibiting recovery in patients with chronic stroke. Therapy induced cortical reorganization was also observed from our study.

  19. Imaging of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of childhood first presenting with isolated primary spinal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial presentation with primary spinal involvement in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of childhood (CRMO) is rare. Our objective was to review the imaging appearances of three patients who had CRMO who initially presented with isolated primary spinal involvement.Design and patients The imaging, clinical, laboratory and histology findings of the three patients were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging included seven spinal MR imaging scans, one computed tomography scan, nine bone scans, two tomograms and 16 radiographs. These were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and a consensus view is reported. All three patients presented with atraumatic spinal pain and had extensive bone spinal pathology. The patients were aged 11, 13 and 12 years. There were two females and one male.Results and conclusions The initial patient had thoracic T6 and T8 vertebra plana. Bone scan showed additional vertebral body involvement. Follow-up was available over a 3 year period. The second patient had partial collapse of T9 and, 2 years later, of C6. Subsequently extensive multifocal disease ensued and follow-up was available over 8 years. The third patient initially had L3 inferior partial collapse and 1 year later T8 involvement with multifocal disease. Follow-up was available over 3 years. The imaging findings of the three patients include partial and complete vertebra plana with a subchondral line adjacent to endplates associated with bone marrow MR signal alterations. Awareness of the imaging appearances may help the radiologist to include this entity in the differential diagnosis in children who present with spinal pathology and no history of trauma. Histopathological examination excludes tumor and infection but with typical imaging findings may not always be necessary. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of childhood first presenting with isolated primary spinal involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.E. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, 3010, Bern (Switzerland); Heini, P.; Kalbermatten, D. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Sauvain, M.J. [Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Stauffer, E. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Geiger, L. [Section Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Johnston, J.O. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roggo, A. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Steinbach, L.S. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Initial presentation with primary spinal involvement in chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of childhood (CRMO) is rare. Our objective was to review the imaging appearances of three patients who had CRMO who initially presented with isolated primary spinal involvement.Design and patients The imaging, clinical, laboratory and histology findings of the three patients were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging included seven spinal MR imaging scans, one computed tomography scan, nine bone scans, two tomograms and 16 radiographs. These were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and a consensus view is reported. All three patients presented with atraumatic spinal pain and had extensive bone spinal pathology. The patients were aged 11, 13 and 12 years. There were two females and one male.Results and conclusions The initial patient had thoracic T6 and T8 vertebra plana. Bone scan showed additional vertebral body involvement. Follow-up was available over a 3 year period. The second patient had partial collapse of T9 and, 2 years later, of C6. Subsequently extensive multifocal disease ensued and follow-up was available over 8 years. The third patient initially had L3 inferior partial collapse and 1 year later T8 involvement with multifocal disease. Follow-up was available over 3 years. The imaging findings of the three patients include partial and complete vertebra plana with a subchondral line adjacent to endplates associated with bone marrow MR signal alterations. Awareness of the imaging appearances may help the radiologist to include this entity in the differential diagnosis in children who present with spinal pathology and no history of trauma. Histopathological examination excludes tumor and infection but with typical imaging findings may not always be necessary. (orig.)

  1. Differentiation of Pancreatic Cancer and Chronic Pancreatitis Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) Images: A Diagnostic Test

    OpenAIRE

    Maoling Zhu; Can Xu; Jianguo Yu; Yijun Wu; Chunguang Li; Minmin Zhang; Zhendong Jin; Zhaoshen Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differentiating pancreatic cancer (PC) from normal tissue by computer-aided diagnosis of EUS images were quite useful. The current study was designed to investigate the feasibility of using computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to extract EUS image parameters for the differential diagnosis of PC and chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study recruited 262 patients with PC and 126 patients with CP. Typical EUS images were selected from the sample set...

  2. Correlation between ultrasound imaging and serum markers of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical value of ultrasonic imaging in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods:A total of 20 cases of liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis B, according to the degree of hepatic fibrosis were divided into mild hepatic fibrosis group, moderate fibrosis group, severe fibrosis group, the other selected healthy volunteers as control group, using color Doppler ultrasound, the use of imaging technology and automatic tracking. Strengthen the quantitative analysis, using the second generation microbubble contrast agent SonoVue contrast analysis, contrast agent reach the portal time (PVAT), hepatic artery time (HAAT), hepatic vein (HVVT), the calculation time of hepatic arteriovenous transit time (VAT) and hepatic portal vein transit time (VVT), using chemiluminescence detection of serum liver fiber hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and collagen type IV (CIV) index. Results:there was no significant difference in HAAT, PVAT, VAT, VVT and HVAT in all groups, and there was no significant difference, mild, moderate and severe liver fibrosis group, and HA, LN and C levels were significantly higher than those in control group. Conclusion:serum liver fibrosis indexes can guide the degree of liver fibrosis. The ultrasound contrast can reflect the changes of liver blood flow dynamics, and it has a certain guiding significance to the assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis, the monitoring of the disease and the clinical treatment.

  3. SPECT/CT imaging of the lumbar spine in chronic low back pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstensen Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mechanical low back pain is a common indication for Nuclear Medicine imaging. Whole-body bone scan is a very sensitive but poorly specific study for the detection of metabolic bone abnormalities. The accurate localisation of metabolically active bone disease is often difficult in 2D imaging but single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT allows accurate diagnosis and anatomic localisation of osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions in 3D imaging. We present a clinical case of a patient referred for evaluation of chronic lower back pain with no history of trauma, spinal surgery, or cancer. Planar whole-body scan showed heterogeneous tracer uptake in the lumbar spine with intense localisation to the right lateral aspect of L3. Integrated SPECT/CT of the lumbar spine detected active bone metabolism in the right L3/L4 facet joint in the presence of minimal signs of degenerative osteoarthrosis on CT images, while a segment demonstrating more gross degenerative changes was more quiescent with only mild tracer uptake. The usefulness of integrated SPECT/CT for anatomical and functional assessment of back pain opens promising opportunities both for multi-disciplinary clinical assessment and treatment for manual therapists and for research into the effectiveness of manual therapies.

  4. Evolution of a chronic dissecting aneurysm on magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Yau, Ivanna; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dirks, Peter; Armstrong, Derek; Krings, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and imaging manifestations of the so-called partially thrombosed aneurysm (PTA) are different from those of the classic intracranial saccular aneurysm. Given some of their peculiar imaging features, it had been hypothesized that some PTAs occur due to repeated intramural hemorrhages. The authors present a case of PTA that evolved from an acute dissecting aneurysm as shown by serial imaging. A previously healthy 5-year-old boy had a sudden onset of left hemiparesis. Initial MRI sequences showed a perforating vessel infarction in the right basal ganglia area secondary to an acute distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) dissection as demonstrated on conventional angiography. Conservative management with close observation of this dissection was chosen, and serial MRI studies revealed layering of blood of various ages within the wall of an aneurysmal outpouching of the MCA, thereby leading to the imaging appearance of a PTA. The findings in this case indicate that some PTAs may be caused by repeated or chronic dissections, with blood entering the wall through an endothelial defect. Understanding the pathological mechanism underlying the formation of these aneurysms will help inform appropriate treatment strategies.

  5. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease: initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xueqin; Fang, Wenqiang; Ling, Huawei; Chai, Weimin; Chen, Kemin [Ruijin Hospital Shanghai, Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-two healthy volunteers and 43 patients underwent coronal echo-planar DW MR imaging of the kidneys with a single breath-hold time of 16 s. The patients were grouped according to five stages as indicated by the K/DOQI CKD (kidney disease outcome quality initiative). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the kidneys was calculated with high b values (b = 500 s/mm{sup 2}). The ADC values were compared between patients and healthy volunteers, and among different stages. For statistical analysis, Student's t tests, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation tests, and Spearman's correlation tests were used. No difference between the cortex and medulla could be observed on DW images of all volunteers. Patients with CKD had significantly lower renal ADC (t = -4.383, P = 0.000) than volunteers. The ADC values of kidneys were significantly lower than normal at most stages of CKD, except CKD1. There was a negative correlation between the ADCs and serum creatinine (sCr) level (P = 0.000) amongst the patients. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is feasible in the assessment of renal function, especially in the detection of early stage renal failure of CKD. (orig.)

  6. Contrast-enhanced CT imaging in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stillfried, Saskia; Apitzsch, Jonas C; Ehling, Josef; Penzkofer, Tobias; Mahnken, Andreas H; Knüchel, Ruth; Floege, Jürgen; Boor, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Renal microvascular rarefaction characterizes chronic kidney disease (CKD). In murine models of CKD, micro-CT imaging reflected capillary rarefaction using quantification of renal relative blood volume (rBV). In addition, micro-CT imaging revealed morphological alterations of the intrarenal vasculature including reduced vascular branching and lumen diameter. Here, we retrospectively quantified rBV in contrast-enhanced CT angiography in patients and found that, compared to non-CKD patients, those with CKD and renal fibrosis had significantly reduced rBV in the renal cortex. rBV values closely mirrored capillary rarefaction in the corresponding nephrectomy specimens. In patients with follow-up CT angiography, reduction of renal function was paralleled by a decline in rBV. Using virtual autopsy, i.e., postmortem CT angiography, morphometry of intrarenal arteries in 3D-rendered CT images revealed significantly reduced arterial diameter and branching in CKD compared to non-CKD cases. In conclusion, in CKD patients, contrast-enhanced CT imaging with quantification of rBV correlates with functional renal vasculature, whereas virtual autopsy allows morphometric analyses of macrovascular changes. Importantly, the observed vascular alterations in CKD patients mirror those in animals with progressive CKD, suggesting a high relevance of animal models for studying vascular alterations in CKD and renal fibrosis. PMID:27582011

  7. Application value of CT perfusion imaging with acetazolamide challenge test in the diagnosis of chronic cerebral insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高轩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the CT perfusion imaging with acetazolamide(ACZ)challenge test in the diagnosis of chronic cerebral insufficiency.Methods 100 patients undergoing health examination in our hospital from Aug2009 to Feb 2011 were chosen,52 patients diagnosed as chronic cerebral insufficiency were defined as the case group,and the remaining 48 cases of healthy elderly people were defined as the control group.The brain CT

  8. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  9. Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for 3He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, 1H MRI and hyperpolarized 3He MRI at 3.0 T. 3He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from 3He static ventilation images and 1H thoracic images and the 3He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant 3He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for 3He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  10. Chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni: magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, A.S.; D' Ippolito, G.; Caldana, R.P.; Cecin, A.O.; Ahmed, M.; Szejnfeld, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Federal Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the hepatosplenic manifestations and the portal venous system in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 28 patients with chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the abdomen. Images were interpreted independently by two radiologists to determine the reproducibility of image interpretation and who evaluated the presence of morphological alterations in the liver and spleen, such as hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic fissure widening, periportal fibrosis, and the presence of siderotic nodules. Interobserver and intra-observer agreement were measured with the kappa and intraclass correlation tests. Evaluation of venous collateral pathways and portal and splenic veins was done in consensus by both examiners. Results: Observers identified enlargement of the left lobe (78.5-92.8%) and caudate-to-right-lobe ratio (78.5-92.8%), irregularity of hepatic contours (89.2-96.4%), fissure widening (89.2-100%), and splenic siderotic nodules (84.2%). Splenomegaly, heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, peripheral hepatic vessels, and periportal fibrosis were observed in 100% of patients. MRI findings presented almost perfect interobserver (kappa 0.65-1) and intra-observer (kappa = 0.73-1 for observer 1, and kappa = 0.65-1 for observer 2) agreement for the variables analyzed. MRA showed the presence of collateral pathways in the majority of patients (71.4%) along with widening of portal and splenic veins. Conclusion: Using MRI, hepatosplenic alterations in schistosomiasis are characterized by heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, presence of peripheral perihepatic vessels, periportal fibrosis, splenomegaly, siderotic nodules, and the presence of venous collateral pathways.

  11. Assessment of sub-clinical acute cellular rejection after heart transplantation: comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieghoff, Christian; Hildebrand, Lysann; Grothoff, Matthias; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Luecke, Christian; Andres, Claudia; Nitzsche, Stefan; Riese, Franziska; Gutberlet, Matthias [University Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Barten, Markus J.; Strueber, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm [University Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Comparing the diagnostic value of multi-sequential cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for sub-clinical cardiac allograft rejection. One hundred and forty-six examinations in 73 patients (mean age 53 ± 12 years, 58 men) were performed using a 1.5 Tesla system and compared to EMB. Examinations included a STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequence for calculation of edema ratio (ER), a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence for assessment of global relative enhancement (gRE), and inversion-recovery sequences to visualize late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Histological grade ≥1B was considered relevant rejection. One hundred and twenty-seven (127/146 = 87 %) EMBs demonstrated no or mild signs of rejection (grades ≤1A) and 19/146 (13 %) a relevant rejection (grade ≥1B). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values were as follows: ER: 63 %, 78 %, 30 %, and 93 %; gRE: 63 %, 70 %, 24 %, and 93 %; LGE: 68 %, 36 %, 13 %, and 87 %; with the combination of ER and gRE with at least one out of two positive: 84 %, 57 %, 23 %, and 96 %. ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.724 for ER and 0.659 for gRE. CMR parameters for myocarditis are useful to detect sub-clinical acute cellular rejection after heart transplantation. Comparable results to myocarditis can be achieved with a combination of parameters. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of residual cellularity and proliferation on preoperatively treated breast cancer: a comparison between image analysis and light microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletto, V; Verderio, P; Giardini, R; Cipriani, S; Di Palma, S; Rilke, F

    1998-01-01

    Histopathology has been suggested as a reliable method for tumour reduction evaluation of preoperatively treated breast cancer. Immunocytochemistry can be used to enhance the visibility of residual tumour cellularity and in the evaluation of its proliferative activity. We compared Image Analysis (IA) with Light Microscopy Analysis (LMA) on sections of breast carcinomas treated with preoperative chemo- or chemo/radiotherapy in the evaluation of the Neoplastic Cell Density (NCD) (69 cases) and the Proliferation Index (PI) (35 cases). NCD was expressed as the immunoreactive area to cytokeratin over the total original neoplastic area and PI was expressed as the number of immunostained tumoural nuclei with MIB 1 MoAb over the total of tumoural nuclei. The intraobserver agreement and that between IA and LMA for both indices were estimated by the common (kappa(w)) and the jackknife weighted kappa statistic (kappa(w)). The extent of agreement of each considered category was also assessed by means of the category-specific kappa statistics (kappa(cs)). The intraobserver agreement within LMA for NCD and PI and that between IA and LMA for PI were both satisfactory. Upon evaluation of the NCD, the agreement between IA and LMA showed unsatisfactory results, especially when the ratio between the residual tumour cells and the background was critical.

  13. Evaluation of Residual Cellularity and Proliferation on Preoperatively Treated Breast Cancer: A Comparison between Image Analysis and Light Microscopy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Corletto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology has been suggested as a reliable method for tumour reduction evaluation of preoperatively treated breast cancer. Immunocytochemistry can be used to enhance the visibility of residual tumour cellularity and in the evaluation of its proliferative activity. We compared Image Analysis (IA with Light Microscopy Analysis (LMA on sections of breast carcinomas treated with preoperative chemo‐ or chemo/radiotherapy in the evaluation of the Neoplastic Cell Density (NCD (69 cases and the Proliferation Index (PI (35 cases. NCD was expressed as the immunoreactive area to cytokeratin over the total original neoplastic area and PI was expressed as the number of immunostained tumoural nuclei with MIB1 MoAb over the total of tumoural nuclei. The intraobserver agreement and that between IA and LMA for both indices were estimated by the common (Kw and the jackknife weighted kappa statistic (K˜w. The extent of agreement of each considered category was also assessed by means of the category‐specific kappa statistics (Kcs. The intraobserver agreement within LMA for NCD and PI and that between IA and LMA for PI were both satisfactory. Upon evaluation of the NCD, the agreement between IA and LMA showed unsatisfactory results, especially when the ratio between the residual tumour cells and the background was critical.

  14. Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity. Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features,the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification. For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease. As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease

  15. Chronic spondylodiscits. Clinical and imaging features; La spondilodiscite cronica. Aspetti clinici e semeiologia delle immagini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghello, A.; Boccignone, A.; De Biasio, V. [Ospedale Geriatrico, Padua (Italy). Div. di Recupero e Riabilitazione Funzionale

    1999-06-01

    The diagnosis of chronic inflammatory process involving the vertebral body and disk is often very difficult because the patient's history, subjective symptoms and physical findings are often un conclusive. Thus imaging techniques play a decisive role. Radiography, tomography, CT and MR have different capabilities and and limitations and provide different finding in spondylodiscits. The authors observed 18 cases of spondylodiscitsin the last three years. They studies in detail three case relative to physical findings and diagnostic techniques. They also compared the changed of chronic spondylodiscits with those in intraspongius herniation, intervertebral osteochondritis and severe degenerative arthritis. Bone erosion on the anterior cortical surface of the vertebral body were seen in 50% of cases and many represent at a specific sign of chronic spondylodiscitsif the findings is confirmed in further studies. [Italian] La diagnosi della spondilodiscite cronica molto spesso non e' semplice. La diagnostica per immagini deve apportare pertanto un contributo decisivo e quindi deve essere conosciuta e riconosciuta anche la specifica semeiotica delle lesioni vertebrali infiammatorie croniche. Il radiogramma della colonna e' quasi sempre l'esame iniziale per il riconoscimento o per il sospetto della lesione, della quale deve essere poi confermata la natura e analizzata attraverso le successive immagini TC e RM. Dall'anno 1996 sono stati riconosiuti ed accertati 18 casi di spondilodiscite cronica. Di questi sono stati analizzati in detaglio 3 casi discussi nella loro clinica e nelle metodiche impiegate e sono state valutate le differenze con l'osteocondrite interverterbrale, con l'ernia intraspongiosa e con l'artrosi particolramente aggressiva. L'erosione o le erosioni ossee adiacenti sulla limitante del piatto somatico, che ahanno riguardato il 50% dei casi, possono rappresentare un segno specifico di spondilodiscite cronica.

  16. Chronic cocaine administration causes extensive white matter damage in brain: diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Ponnada A; Herrera, Juan J; Bockhorst, Kurt H; Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Xia, Ying; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-03-30

    The effect of chronic cocaine exposure on multiple white matter structures in rodent brain was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), locomotor behavior, and end point histology. The animals received either cocaine at a dose of 100mg/kg (N=19), or saline (N=17) for 28 days through an implanted osmotic minipump. The animals underwent serial DTI scans, locomotor assessment, and end point histology for determining the expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-heavy protein (NF-H), proteolipid protein (PLP), Nogo-A, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Differences in the DTI measures were observed in the splenium (scc) and genu (gcc) of the corpus callosum (cc), fimbria (fi), and the internal capsule (ic). A significant increase in the activity in the fine motor movements and a significant decrease in the number of rearing events were observed in the cocaine-treated animals. Reduced MBP and Nogo-A and increased GAP-43 expressions were most consistently observed in these structures. A decrease in the NF-H expression was observed in fi and ic. The reduced expression of Nogo-A and the increased expression of GAP-43 may suggest destabilization of axonal connectivity and increased neurite growth with aberrant connections. Increased GAP-43 suggests drug-induced plasticity or a possible repair mechanism response. The findings indicated that multiple white matter tracts are affected following chronic cocaine exposure. PMID:24507117

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Dogan, M.; Bulut, T.; Sarac, K. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Karlidag, R. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Malatya (Turkey); Ozisik, H.I. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Malatya (Turkey); Baysal, O. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Malatya (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  19. Bio-nanoplatforms based on carbon dots conjugating with F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite for cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui; Feng, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination, excellent photostability and colloidal stability. Due to their low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility as determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates were successfully applied as bio-nanoplatforms to MCF-7 breast cancer cells for cellular imaging in vitro. More importantly, the functional CDs conjugated to NFAp provide an extended and general approach to construct different water-soluble NFAp bio-nanoplatforms for other easily functionalised luminescent materials. Therefore, these green nanoplatforms may be a prospective candidate for applications in bioimaging or targeted biological therapy and drug delivery.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great promise in a wide range of bioapplications due to their tunable optical properties and noncytotoxicity. For the first time, a rational strategy was designed to construct new bio-nanoplatforms based on carboxylic acid terminated CDs (CDs-COOH) conjugating with amino terminated F-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (NFAp) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The monodisperse NFAp nanorods were functionalized with o-phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to provide them with amino groups and render them hydrophilic with respect to the ligand exchange process. The CDs-COOH@PEA-NFAp conjugates exhibits bright blue fluorescence under UV illumination

  20. Multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Twenty COPD patients and 20 volunteers underwent 8-row detector spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion imaging using cine scan mode with 5 mm slice thickness, 0.5 s rotation time and a total scan time of 45 s with 5 s intervals. 60 ml contrast agent (300 nag I/ml) were administered at a rate of 4 ml/s from the forearm superficial vein. The imaging data were transferred to a workstation. A time-density curve and pseudo-color map were generated automatically with GE CT perfusion 3 software, the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface (PS) were measured. Results: Time-density curve was flatter and the peak of the curve was obviously lower in COPD patients than the volunteers. The BF, BV, PS in COPD patients was (24.77±11.49) ml·min-1·100 g-1, (2.48±1.02) ml/100 g and (2.75±1.13) ml· min-1·100 g-1 respectively. In volunteers was (290.14±107.59) ml·min-1·100 g-1, (16.51 ± 5.98) ml/100 g, (8.80±3.03) ml·min-1·100 g-1 respectively. The MTT in COPD patients and volunteers was (10.58±4.85) s and (4.50±1.71)s respectively. The BF, BV and PS in COPD patients was lower than the volunteers, the MTY was higher (P<0.01). Conclusion: MSCT perfusion imaging is helpful for the diagnosis of COPD. (authors)

  1. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A; Giza, Christopher C; Fitzsimmons, Robert P; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-04-21

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging of peripheral nerve in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuda, Takako; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tanitame, Keizo; Takasu, Miyuki; Date, Shuji; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Ochi, Kazuhide; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Masayasu [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima (Japan); Kohriyama, Tatsuo [Department of Neurology, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Ito, Katsuhide [Department of Radiology, Onomichi General Hospital, Onomichi, Hiroshima-ken (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the evaluation of peripheral nerves in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, we obtained DTI scans of the tibial nerves of 10 CIDP patients and 10 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. We prepared fractional anisotropy (FA) maps, measured the FA values of tibial nerves, and compared these values in the two study groups. In nine patients, we also performed tibial nerve conduction studies and analyzed the correlation between the FA values and parameters of the nerve conduction study. The tibial nerve FA values in CIDP patients (median 0.401, range 0.312-0.510) were significantly lower than those in healthy volunteers (median 0.530, range 0.469-0.647) (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.01). They were significantly correlated with the amplitude of action potential (Spearman correlation coefficient, p = 0.04, r = 0.86) but not with nerve conduction velocity (p = 0.79, r = 0.11). Our preliminary data suggest that the noninvasive DTI assessment of peripheral nerves may provide useful information in patients with CIDP. (orig.)

  3. Bone scintigraphy in chronic knee pain: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegard, T.; Rudling, O.; Dahlstrom, J.; Dirksen, H.; Petersson, I.; Jonsson, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare increased bone uptake of 99Tcm-MDP and magnetic resonance (MR) detected subchondral lesions, osteophytes, and cartilage defects in the knee in middle aged people with longstanding knee pain.
METHODS—Fifty eight people (aged 41-58 years, mean 50) with chronic knee pain, with or without radiographic knee osteoarthritis, were examined with bone scintigraphy. The pattern and the grade of increased bone uptake was assessed. On the same day, a MR examination on a 1.0 T imager was performed. The presence and the grade of subchondral lesions, osteophytes, and cartilage defects were registered.
RESULTS—The κ values describing the correlation between increased bone uptake and MR detected subchondral lesions varied between 0.79 and 0.49, and between increased bone uptake and MR detected osteophytes or cartilage defects the values were <0.54. The κ values describing the correlation between the grade of bone uptake and the grade of the different MR findings was <0.57.
CONCLUSIONS—Good agreement was found between increased bone uptake and MR detected subchondral lesion. The agreement between increased bone uptake and osteophytes or cartilage defects was in general poor as well as the agreement between the grade of bone uptake and the grade of the MR findings.

 Keywords: knee; osteoarthritis; magnetic resonance imaging; bone scintigraphy PMID:10343536

  4. Imaging of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated chronic progressive myeloneuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and cervical spine and CT of the head in 46 patients (14 men, 32 women) with chronic progressive myeloneuropathy. The findings were correlated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) serology, race, country of origin, and age. We found a female predominance of 2:1. Most patients were aged between 30 and 50 years, and most were Caribbean immigrants and black. There were 9 men and 17 women with blood antibody titers to HTLV-I and 7 mem and 15 women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers. All patients with virus or antibodies in blood or CSF were Caribbean immigrants or black. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed scattered areas of high signal intensity in the cerebral white matter, usually in the periventricular and subcortical areas, but not in the posterior cranial fossa. Cranial CT revealed periventricular low density areas, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy MRI of the cervical spine showed atrophy of the cord. Myelography was normal in all 15 patients examined. No imaging differences were observed between the HTLV-I-positive and -negative patients. These findings, although consistent with demyelination, are not specific. (orig.)

  5. Pathological mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of chronic scarred myocardium in contrast agent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9 and II (n = 9 then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg, respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF staining were performed for infarct characterization. RESULTS: Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd

  6. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Joanna T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P P = 0.01. CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P Conclusion This systematic review has identified 23 studies investigating the diagnostic imaging appearance of the plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP. Analysis of these studies found that people with CPHP are likely to have a thickened plantar fascia with associated fluid collection, and that

  7. Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis and Osteitis (SAPHO) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO): Role of imaging in diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders which can be associated with dermatologic findings, the fundamental component of which is a nonbacterial osteitis. CRMO (Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis) and SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis and Osteitis) describe paediatric and adult conditions, respectively, of inflammatory osteitis that can be associated with palmoplantar pustulosis and acne. Imaging findings are similar and a key component to the diagnosis in both conditions. This report describes two patients with strikingly similar radiologic presentations of clavicular osteitis in whom the diagnosis was made predominantly on the basis of imaging findings. The typical imaging features and radiographic hallmarks of both conditions will also be discussed.

  8. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of chronic medical nephropathies with impaired renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla-Palma, L.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Cova, M.; Meduri, S. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Panzetta, G.; Galli, G. [Hemodialysis Service, Ospedale Maggiore, Trieste (Italy)

    2000-02-01

    We examined the value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic renal disease with renal insufficiency. In 33 consecutive patients (21 vascular nephropathy, 12 glomerular nephropathy) MRI was performed using a 1.5-T unit and a body coil, with SE T1-weighted (TR/TE = 600/19 ms) and dynamic TFFE T1-weighted sequences (TR/TE = 12/5 ms, flip angle = 25 ) after manual bolus injection (via a cubital vein) of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA-BMA. Morphological evaluation was performed in unblinded fashion by three radiologists, evaluating renal size, cortical thickness, and corticomedullary differentiation. Functional analysis was performed by one reviewer. Time-signal intensity curves, peak intensity value (P), time to peak intensity (T), and the P/T ratio were obtained at the cortex, medulla, and pyelocaliceal system of each kidney. The relationship of these parameters to serum creatinine and with creatinine clearance was investigated. A good correlation between morphological features of the kidneys and serum creatinine values was found. Morphological findings could not distinguish between vascular and glomerular nephropathies. A statistically significant correlation (P <0.01) between cortical P, cortical P/T, medullary P, and serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was found. A significant correlation (P <0.01) was also found between cortical T, medullary P/T, T of the excretory system, and creatinine clearance. The cortical T value was significantly higher (P <0.01) in vascular nephropathy than in glomerular nephropathy. Thus in patients with chronic renal failure dynamic MRI shows both morphological and functional changes. Morphological changes are correlated with the degree of renal insufficiency and not with the type of nephropathy; the functional changes seem to differ in vascular from glomerular nephropathies. (orig.)

  9. Identification of chronic myocardial infarction with extracellular or intravascular contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian WANG; Hong-yu LIU; Hang L(U); Bo XIANG; Marco GRUWEL; Boguslaw TOMANEK; Roxanne DESLAURIERS; Gang-hong TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether extracellular or intravascular contrast agents could detect chronic scarred myocardium in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Eighteen pigs underwent a 4 week ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic myocardial infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. Eighteen hearts were divided into 2 groups. The hearts in groups Ⅰ (n=9) and Ⅱ (n=9) 收稿日期the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA, 0.05 mmol/kg) and ga-dolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 μmol/kg), respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a FLASH sequence. Delayed enhancement T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery prepared TurboFLASH sequence.Results: Wash-in of both agents resulted in a sharp and dramatic T2* signal loss of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. The magnitude and velocity of T2* signal recovery caused by wash-out of extracellular agents in normal myocardium was significantly less than that in scarred myocardium. Conversely, the T2* signal of scarred and normal myocardium recovered to plateau rapidly and simultaneously due to wash-out of intravascular agents. At the fol-lowing equilibrium, extracellular agent-enhanced T1 signal intensity was signifi-cantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas there was no significantly statistical difference in intravascular agent-enhanced T1 sig-nal intensity between scarred and normal myocardium. Conclusion: After admin-istration of extracellular agents, wash-out T2* first-pass and delayed enhanced T1 MRI could identify scarred myocardium as a hyperenhanced region. Conversely, scarred myocardium was indistinguishable from normal myocardium during first-pass and the steady state of intravascular agents.

  10. Fluorescent scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for cellular resolution in vivo mouse retinal imaging: benefits and drawbacks of implementing adaptive optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Goswami, Mayank; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a very important imaging tool in ophthalmology research. By combing with Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, AO-SLO can correct for ocular aberrations resulting in cellular level resolution, allowing longitudinal studies of single cells morphology in the living eyes. The numerical aperture (NA) sets the optical resolution that can be achieve in the "classical" imaging systems. Mouse eye has more than twice NA of the human eye, thus offering theoretically higher resolution. However, in most SLO based imaging systems the imaging beam size at mouse pupil sets the NA of that instrument, while most of the AO-SLO systems use almost the full NA of the mouse eye. In this report, we first simulated the theoretical resolution that can be achieved in vivo for different imaging beam sizes (different NA), assumingtwo cases: no aberrations and aberrations based on published mouse ocular wavefront data. Then we imaged mouse retinas with our custom build SLO system using different beam sizes to compare these results with theory. Further experiments include comparison of the SLO and AO-SLO systems for imaging different type of fluorescently labeled cells (microglia, ganglion, photoreceptors, etc.). By comparing those results and taking into account systems complexity and ease of use, the benefits and drawbacks of two imaging systems will be discussed.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging may simulate progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia after fludarabine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalita J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old male with chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL after 6 months of fludarabine therapy was admitted with status epilepticus and developed left hemiplegia. His magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple T2 hyperintense lesions in the right frontal and left parieto-occipital lesion, simulating progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML. Cerebrospinal fluid Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for JC virus was negative. We suggest the possible role of fludarabine in producing PML-like lesions in patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL.

  12. Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans samples and sub-cellular localization of new generation photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, using non-linear microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippidis, G [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Kouloumentas, C [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Kapsokalyvas, D [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Voglis, G [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation of Research and Technology, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Tavernarakis, N [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation of Research and Technology, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Papazoglou, T G [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, PO Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion (Greece)

    2005-08-07

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) are relatively new promising tools for the imaging and mapping of biological structures and processes at the microscopic level. The combination of the two image-contrast modes in a single instrument can provide unique and complementary information concerning the structure and the function of tissues and individual cells. The extended application of this novel, innovative technique by the biological community is limited due to the high price of commercial multiphoton microscopes. In this study, a compact, inexpensive and reliable setup utilizing femtosecond pulses for excitation was developed for the TPEF and SHG imaging of biological samples. Specific cell types of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were imaged. Detection of the endogenous structural proteins of the worm, which are responsible for observation of SHG signals, was achieved. Additionally, the binding of different photosensitizers in the HL-60 cell line was investigated, using non-linear microscopy. The sub-cellular localization of photosensitizers of a new generation, very promising for photodynamic therapy (PDT) (Hypericum perforatum L. extracts) was achieved. The sub-cellular localization of these novel photosensitizers was linked with their photodynamic action during PDT, and the possible mechanisms for cell killing have been elucidated.

  13. Chronic kidney disease: pathological and functional assessment with diffusion tensor imaging at 3T MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiling; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Shifeng; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Xu, Ying; Wang, Rong [Shandong University, Department of Nephrology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhen, Junhui [Shandong University, Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-10-11

    Our objective was to evaluate pathological and functional changes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T. There were fifty-one patients with CKD who required biopsy and 19 healthy volunteers who were examined using DTI at 3 T. The mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were obtained from the renal parenchyma (cortex and medulla). Correlations between imaging results and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage (glomerular lesion and tubulointerstitial injury), were evaluated. The renal cortical FA was significantly lower than the medullary in both normal and affected kidneys (p < 0.001). The parenchymal FA was significantly lower in patients than healthy controls, regardless of whether eGFR was reduced. There were positive correlations between eGFR and FA (cortex, r = 0.689, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = 0.696, p = 0.000), and between eGFR and ADC (cortex, r = 0.310, p = 0.017; and medulla, r = 0.356, p = 0.010). Negative correlations were found between FA and the glomerular lesion (cortex, r = -0.499, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.530, p = 0.000), and between FA and tubulointerstitial injury (cortex, r = -0.631, p = 0.000; and medulla, r = -0.724, p = 0.000). DTI is valuable for noninvasive assessment of renal function and pathology in patients with CKD. A decrease in FA could identify the glomerular lesions, tubulointerstitial injuries, and eGFR. (orig.)

  14. Monitoring stroke progression: in vivo imaging of cortical perfusion, blood-brain barrier permeability and cellular damage in the rat photothrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Karl; Prager, Ofer; Vazana, Udi; Kamintsky, Lyn; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Figge, Lena; Chassidim, Yoash; Schellenberger, Eyk; Kovács, Richard; Heinemann, Uwe; Friedman, Alon

    2014-11-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia is among the main causes of death and disability worldwide. The ischemic core often progresses, invading the peri-ischemic brain; however, assessing the propensity of the peri-ischemic brain to undergo secondary damage, understanding the underlying mechanisms, and adjusting treatment accordingly remain clinically unmet challenges. A significant hallmark of the peri-ischemic brain is dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), yet the role of disturbed vascular permeability in stroke progression is unclear. Here we describe a longitudinal in vivo fluorescence imaging approach for the evaluation of cortical perfusion, BBB dysfunction, free radical formation and cellular injury using the photothrombosis vascular occlusion model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction propagated within the peri-ischemic brain in the first hours after photothrombosis and was associated with free radical formation and cellular injury. Inhibiting free radical signaling significantly reduced progressive cellular damage after photothrombosis, with no significant effect on blood flow and BBB permeability. Our approach allows a dynamic follow-up of cellular events and their response to therapeutics in the acutely injured cerebral cortex.

  15. High-resolution cellular MRI: gadolinium and iron oxide nanoparticles for in-depth dual-cell imaging of engineered tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corato, Riccardo; Gazeau, Florence; Le Visage, Catherine; Fayol, Delphine; Levitz, Pierre; Lux, François; Letourneur, Didier; Luciani, Nathalie; Tillement, Olivier; Wilhelm, Claire

    2013-09-24

    Recent advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering opened new windows for regenerative medicine, but still necessitate innovative noninvasive imaging technologies. We demonstrate that high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows combining cellular-scale resolution with the ability to detect two cell types simultaneously at any tissue depth. Two contrast agents, based on iron oxide and gadolinium oxide rigid nanoplatforms, were used to "tattoo" endothelial cells and stem cells, respectively, with no impact on cell functions, including their capacity for differentiation. The labeled cells' contrast properties were optimized for simultaneous MRI detection: endothelial cells and stem cells seeded together in a polysaccharide-based scaffold material for tissue engineering appeared respectively in black and white and could be tracked, at the cellular level, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, endothelial cells labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles could be remotely manipulated by applying a magnetic field, allowing the creation of vessel substitutes with in-depth detection of individual cellular components. PMID:23924160

  16. Self-Assembly of Electron Donor-Acceptor-Based Carbazole Derivatives: Novel Fluorescent Organic Nanoprobes for Both One- and Two-Photon Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Chen, Wencheng; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Li, King Fai; Chen, Rui; Adachi, Chihaya; Chen, Zhan; Rogach, Andrey L; Zhu, Guangyu; Yu, Peter K N; Zhang, Wenjun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-05-11

    In this study, we report fluorescent organic nanoprobes with intense blue, green, and orange-red emissions prepared by self-assembling three carbazole derivatives into nanorods/nanoparticles. The three compounds consist of two or four electron-donating carbazole groups linked to a central dicyanobenzene electron acceptor. Steric hindrance from the carbazole groups leads to noncoplanar 3D molecular structures favorable to fluorescence in the solid state, while the donor-acceptor structures endow the molecules with good two-photon excited emission properties. The fluorescent organic nanoprobes exhibit good water dispersibility, low cytotoxicity, superior resistance against photodegradation and photobleaching. Both one- and two-photon fluorescent imaging were shown in the A549 cell line. Two-photon fluorescence imaging with the fluorescent probes was demonstrated to be more effective in visualizing and distinguishing cellular details compared to conventional one-photon fluorescence imaging. PMID:27097920

  17. Effect of the sequential therapy of lamivudine and α-interferon on cellular immune function as well as serum PD-1 and Tin-3 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jin; Ting Qiu; Yi-Fei Lyu; Chun-Ying Yan; Xue Wang; Tian-Jiao Duan; Rong Zhang; Gui-Sheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of the sequential therapy of lamivudine and α-interferon on cellular immune function as well as serum PD-1 and Tin-3 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: A total of 92 cases of patients with chronic hepatitis B who were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to May 2015 were selected as the research subjects and divided into observation group and control group (n=46) according to the random number table. Control group received lamivudine treatment alone, observation group received the sequential therapy of lamivudine and α-interferon, and then differences in ultrasound-related indexes, cellular immune function as well as PD-1 and Tin-3 levels were compared between two groups. Results:After observation group received the sequential therapy of lamivudine andα-interferon, ultrasonic major diameter of left hepatic lobe and PVM values were greater than those of control group, and internal diameter of portal vein was lower than that of control group; CD4+T and CD4+T/ CD8+T values of observation group were higher than those of control group, and CD8+T value was lower than that of control group;circulating blood CD8+T cell PD-1 and Tim-3 expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group. Conclusion:Sequential therapy of lamivudine andα-interferon can optimize the cellular immune function of patients with chronic hepatitis B and inhibit the negative regulation process of immune function, and it helps to inhibit hepatitis B virus activity and disease control.

  18. Etiopathophysiological Assessment of Cases with Chronic Daily Headache: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Included Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hashemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic daily headache (CDH has gained little attention in functional neuro-imaging. When no structural abnormality is found in CDH, defining functional correlates between activated brain regions during headache bouts may provide unique insights towards understanding the pathophysiology of this type of headache.METHODS: We recruited four CDH cases for comprehensive assessments, including history taking, physical examinations and neuropsychological evaluations (The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Evaluation, Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Visual analogue scale (VAS was used to self-rate the intensity of headache. Patients then underwent electroencephalography (EEG, transcranial Doppler (TCD and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI evaluations during maximal (VAS = 8-10/10 and off-headache (VAS = 0-3/10 conditions. Data were used to compare in both conditions. We also used BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent -group level activation map fMRI to possibly locate headache-related activated brain regions.RESULTS: General and neurological examinations as well as conventional MRIs were unremarkable. Neuropsychological assessments showed moderate anxiety and depression in one patient and minimal in others. Unlike three patients, maximal and off-headache TCD evaluation in one revealed increased middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, at the maximal pain area. Although with no seizure history, the same patient’s EEG showed paroxysmal epileptic discharges during maximal headache intensity, respectively. Group level activation map fMRI showed activated classical pain matrix regions upon headache bouts (periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nucleus, and markedly bilateral occipital lobes activation.CONCLUSION: The EEG changes were of note. Furthermore, the increased BOLD signals in areas outside the classical pain matrix (i.e. occipital lobes during maximal

  19. Magnetic Resonance Elastography and Other Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Chronic Liver Disease: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Heng; Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive imaging of chronic liver disease have led to improvements in diagnosis, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A comprehensive evaluation of the liver may be performed with the quantification of the degree of hepatic steatosis, liver iron concentration, and liver fibrosis. In addition, MRI of the liver may be used to identify complications of cirrhosis, including portal hypertension, ascites, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review article, we discuss the state of the art techniques in liver MRI, namely, magnetic resonance elastography, hepatobiliary phase MRI, and liver fat and iron quantification MRI. The use of these advanced techniques in the management of chronic liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, will be elaborated. PMID:27563019

  20. Diagnostic usefulness of the oedema-infarct ratio to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial damage using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Suzuki, Susumu; Kinoshita, Kousuke; Yokouchi, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Hirokazu; Sawada, Ken [Gifu Social Insurance Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Gifu (Japan); Isobe, Satoshi; Ohshima, Satoru; Murohara, Toyoaki [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Nagoya (Japan); Hirai, Makoto [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    To differentiate acute from chronic damage to the myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) using DE and T2w MR. Short-axis T2w and DE MR images were acquired twice after the onset of MI in 36 patients who successfully underwent emergency coronary revascularisation. The areas of infarct and oedema were measured. The oedema-infarct ratio (O/I) of the left ventricular area was calculated by dividing the oedema by the infarct area. The oedema size on T2w MR was significantly larger than the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase. Both the oedema size on T2w MR and the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase were significantly larger than those in the chronic phase. The O/I was significantly greater in the acute phase compared with that in the chronic phase (P < 0.05). An analysis of relative cumulative frequency distributions revealed an O/I of 1.4 as a cut-off value for differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage with the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.1%, 82.7% and 83.9%, respectively. The oedema-infarct ratio may be a useful index in differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage in patients with MI. (orig.)

  1. Involvement of the central nervous system in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, I E; Waddy, H M; Kermode, A G; Murray, N M; Thomas, P K

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 30 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) minor clinical evidence of CNS involvement was found in five. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 28 and revealed abnormalities consistent with demyelination in nine patients aged less than 50 years and abnormalities in five aged 50 years or over. Measurements of central motor conduction time (CMCT) were obtained in 18 and showed unilateral or bilateral abnormalities in s...

  2. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Non-Invasive Assessment of Renal Histopathology in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Hu; Xiao-Yan Wang; Hong-Guang He; Hai-Ming Wei; Li-Ke Kang; Gui-Can Qin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the stiffness values obtained by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification in assessing renal histological fibrosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: 163 patients with CKD and 32 healthy volunteers were enrolled between June 2013 and April 2014. ARFI quantification, given as shear wave velocity (SWV), was performed to measure renal parenchyma stiffness. Diagnostic performance of ARFI imaging and conventional ultrasound (US) were compared with his...

  3. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study of White Matter Damage in Chronic Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Pei-Chin; Wang, Hung-Chen; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Yu-Jih; Lin, Ching-Po; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) are two of the most common types of chronic meningitis. This study aimed to assess whether chronic neuro-psychological sequelae are associated with micro-structure white matter (WM) damage in HIV-negative chronic meningitis. Nineteen HIV-negative TBM patients, 13 HIV-negative CM patients, and 32 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were evaluated and compared. The clinical relevance of WM integrity was studied using voxel-based ...

  4. Design and methods of the NiCK study: neurocognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging analysis of children and young adults with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Erum A.; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Ruebner, Rebecca L.; Detre, John A.; Liu, Hua-shan; Davatzikos, Christos; Erus, Guray; Doshi, Jimit J.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herrington, John D.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Moodalbail, Divya G; Gur, Ruben C.; Port, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is strongly linked to neurocognitive deficits in adults and children, but the pathophysiologic processes leading to these deficits remain poorly understood. The NiCK study (Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease) seeks to address critical gaps in our understanding of the biological basis for neurologic abnormalities in chronic kidney disease. In this report, we describe the ob...

  5. MR imaging of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers: evaluation of 38 patients with chronic joint disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report the MR imaging findings of painful injured metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the fingers. MR imaging of 39 injured MCP joints in 38 patients was performed after a mean delay of 8.8 months. The MR images were obtained with the fingers in extended and flexed positions using T2-weighted and T1-weighted sequences before and after intravenous injection of a gadolinium compound. Ten patients were treated surgically. Mean clinical follow-up was 1.8 years. Tears of the collateral ligaments were the most common lesion (30/39), most being radial in location. Contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images with the MCP joint in a flexed position showed these lesions optimally. Ten tears were partial and 20 were complete. In 13 patients, MR images showed 17 associated lesions including injuries of the extensor hood (10/17), interosseous tendon (3/17), palmar plate (3/17), and an osteochondral lesion (1/17). Sagittal MR images were essential to highlight palmar plate tears. Partial or complete tears of the collateral ligaments are prevalent MR imaging findings in patients with chronic disability resulting from injuries to the MCP joints. Although conservative treatment generally is sufficient for isolated injuries of the collateral ligaments, surgical repair is often required in cases of more extensive injuries. MR imaging may clearly delineate associated lesions of and about the MCP joints. (orig.)

  6. 基于细胞自动机的安全图像加密算法%Secure Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊永红; 廖晓峰; 周庆

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems that the cipher image encrypted by encryption algorithm based on the merit of the state attractors of Elementary Cellular Automata(ECA) can still discern part outline of the original image, and the plaintext sensitivity is poor, this paper proposes a secure image encryption algorithm. It employs the method which encrypts every bit plane with period two 2D Cellular Automata(CA), and then uses state attractors to encrypt the image, to achieve the effect that I bit change in the plaintext can be spreaded to the whole cipher image. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm is more sensitive, has larger key space, and easy to implement.%利用初等细胞自动机状态环性质进行加密后的密文图像仍可看出原图像的部分轮廓,且明文敏感性差.由此提出一种安全的图像加密算法,采用周期为2的二维细胞自动机对图像进行位平面加密,再通过状态环加密的方法使明文改变1 bit即可影响整个密文图像.仿真结果表明,改进算法敏感性更高,密钥空间更大,且加密速度较快.

  7. Diffusion-weighted imaging in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease: A preliminary clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Jinning; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Yan, Fuhua, E-mail: zemylife@163.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Seventy-one CKD patients and twelve healthy volunteers were examined using DWI with prospective acquisition correction. Renal biopsy specimens from the CKD patients were scored based on the severity of renal pathology and to confirm pathology type. CKD patients were divided into three groups according to pathology scores: mild, moderate, or severe. The association between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and pathology scores was investigated using Pearson's correlation and single factor analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore associations between renal ADC values and pathology score, glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and age. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was conducted to compare ADC values and pathology type. Results: Renal ADC values correlated negatively with pathology scores (r = −0.633, P < 0.001). The ADC values among the four groups (mild, moderate, severe impairment, and controls) were significantly different (F = 19.512, P < 0.001). However, when patients were stratified by pathology type, no significant differences were found in ADC values among these groups (χ{sup 2} = 9.929, P = 0.270). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the pathology score and ADC values were related (t = −4.586, P = 0.000). Conclusions: DWI has clinical potential in assessing the severity of renal pathology in CKD and shows promise as a non-invasive and effective technique to guide therapy and follow-up.

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease: A preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical potential of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing renal pathology of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: Seventy-one CKD patients and twelve healthy volunteers were examined using DWI with prospective acquisition correction. Renal biopsy specimens from the CKD patients were scored based on the severity of renal pathology and to confirm pathology type. CKD patients were divided into three groups according to pathology scores: mild, moderate, or severe. The association between renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and pathology scores was investigated using Pearson's correlation and single factor analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore associations between renal ADC values and pathology score, glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine, and age. The Kruskal–Wallis H test was conducted to compare ADC values and pathology type. Results: Renal ADC values correlated negatively with pathology scores (r = −0.633, P < 0.001). The ADC values among the four groups (mild, moderate, severe impairment, and controls) were significantly different (F = 19.512, P < 0.001). However, when patients were stratified by pathology type, no significant differences were found in ADC values among these groups (χ2 = 9.929, P = 0.270). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the pathology score and ADC values were related (t = −4.586, P = 0.000). Conclusions: DWI has clinical potential in assessing the severity of renal pathology in CKD and shows promise as a non-invasive and effective technique to guide therapy and follow-up

  9. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order...

  10. Evaluation of monoenergetic late iodine enhancement dual-energy computed tomography for imaging of chronic myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichmann, Julian L.; Kerl, J.M.; Frellesen, Claudia; Bodelle, Boris; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bauer, Ralf W. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Arbaciauskaite, Ruta [Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Department of Cardiology, Kaunas (Lithuania); Monsefi, Nadejda [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy of selective monoenergetic reconstructions of late iodine enhancement (LIE) dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for imaging of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI). Twenty patients with a history of coronary bypass surgery underwent cardiac LIE-DECT and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). LIE-DECT images were reconstructed as selective monoenergetic spectral images with photon energies of 40, 60, 80, and 100 keV and the standard linear blending setting (M{sub 0}.6). Images were assessed for late enhancement, transmural extent, signal characteristics and subjective image quality. Seventy-nine myocardial segments (23 %) showed LGE. LIE-DECT detected 76 lesions. Images obtained at 80 keV and M{sub 0}.6 showed a high signal-to-noise ratio (15.9; 15.1), contrast-to-noise ratio (4.2; 4.0) and sensitivity (94.9 %; 92.4 %) while specificity was identical (99.6 %). Differences between these series were not statistically significant. Transmural extent of LIE was overestimated in both series (80 keV: 40 %; M{sub 0}.6: 35 %) in comparison to MRI. However, observers preferred 80 keV in 13/20 cases (65 %, κ = 0.634) over M{sub 0}.6 (4/20 cases) regarding subjective image quality. Post-processing of LIE-DECT data with selective monoenergetic reconstructions at 80 keV significantly improves subjective image quality while objective image quality shows no significant difference compared to standard linear blending. (orig.)

  11. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  12. Application of an Image Cytometry Protocol for Cellular and Mitochondrial Phenotyping on Fibroblasts from Patients with Inherited Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula; Lund, Martin; Corydon, T J;

    2015-01-01

    on a parallel one. We analysed HDFs from healthy individuals after treatment with various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for different intervals, to mimic the physiological effects of oxidative stress. Our results show that cell number, viability, TRS and MMP decreased, while MSL increased both...... one. HDFs from both patients displayed increased MSL without H2O2 treatment. Treatment with H2O2 revealed significant differences in MMP and MSL between HDFs from the mild and the severe patient. Our results establish the capacity of our protocol for fast analysis of cellular and mitochondrial...

  13. Multicolor probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy: a new world for in vivo and real-time cellular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vercauteren, Tom; Doussoux, François; Cazaux, Matthieu; Schmid, Guillaume; Linard, Nicolas; Durin, Marie-Amélie; GHARBI, Hedi; Lacombe, François

    2013-01-01

    International audience Since its inception in the field of in vivo imaging, endomicroscopy through optical fiber bundles, or probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE), has extensively proven the benefit of in situ and real-time examination of living tissues at the microscopic scale. By continuously increasing image quality, reducing invasiveness and improving system ergonomics, Mauna Kea Technologies has turned pCLE not only into an irreplaceable research instrument for small animal...

  14. Assessment of chronic wounds by three-dimensional optical imaging based on integrating geometrical, chromatic, and thermal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, S; Paoli, A; Razionale, A V

    2011-02-01

    Chronic wounds represent a particular debilitating health care problem, mainly affecting elderly people. A full and correct diagnosis of tissue damage should be carried out considering both dimensional, chromatic, and thermal parameters. A great variety of methods have been proposed with the aim of producing objective assessment of skin lesions, but none of the existing technologies seem to be robust enough to work for all ulcer typologies. This paper describes an innovative and non-invasive system that allows the automatic measurement of non-healing chronic wounds. The methodology involves the integration of a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner, based on a structured light approach, with a thermal imager. The system enables the acquisition of geometrical data, which are directly related to chromatic and temperature patterns through a mapping procedure. Damaged skin areas are detected by combining visible and thermal imaging. This approach allows for the automatic measurement of extension and depth of ulcers, even in the absence of significant and well-defined chromatic patterns. The proposed technology has been tested in the measurement of ulcers on human legs. Clinical tests have demonstrated the effectiveness of this methodology in supporting medical experts for the assessment of chronic wounds. PMID:21428152

  15. Subperiosteal hematoma of the iliac bone: imaging features of acute and chronic stages with emphasis on pathophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is to describe the radiological appearance and clinical presentation of subperiosteal iliac hematoma and present a review of the literature. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological and clinical files of 19 patients (age range: 12-75; mean: 47) who presented with acute or chronic subperiosteal iliac hematomas. Imaging findings and relevant clinical information were recorded. A thorough literature search was performed to find additional cases of this rare condition. Three young patients presented with acute subperiosteal iliac hematoma following a fall. Clinical presentation was characterized by pain and gait disturbance presumed to result from crural nerve compression. Unilateral or bilateral lenticular hematomas deep in the iliacus muscle were demonstrated by CT for all patients while MRI was also available for two of them. In 16 asymptomatic patients, chronic ossified subperiosteal iliac hematomas were incidentally detected by CT. Progressive ossification of acute hematoma was demonstrated at follow-up in two patients. Subperiosteal iliac hematoma is rare but has typical imaging findings that may present acutely in adolescents or chronically in asymptomatic adults. (orig.)

  16. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from mass-forming chronic pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xiangke; Sushant Kumar Das; Anup Bhetuwal; Xiao Yingquan; Sun Feng; Zeng Lichuan; Wang Wenxuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have shown that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide additional information for focal pancreatic lesions by demonstrating more restricted diffusion in solid malignant tumors than in chronic pancreatitis,which can be indicated by a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).However,these studies have a modest sample size and convey inconclusive results.The aim of this study was to determine,in a meta-analysis,the diagnostic performance of quantitative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.Methods We determined the sensitivities and specificities across studies.A summary receiver operator characteristic (sROC) curve was constructed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC).Results The pooled sensitivity of DWI was 0.86 (95% CI:0.80-0.91) and the pooled specificity was 0.82 (95% CI:0.72-0.89).The AUC of the sROC was 0.91 (95% CI:0.88-0.93).Conclusions DWI may be a potentially technically feasible tool for differentiating pancreatic carcinoma from massforming chronic pancreatitis.However,large-scale randomized control trials are necessary to assess its clinical value.

  17. Endoscopic Ultrasound Reliably Identifies Chronic Pancreatitis when Other Imaging Modalities Have Been Non-Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth Morris-Stiff; Phillip Webster; Ben Fros; Wyn G Lewis; Malcolm CA Puntis; S Ashley Roberts

    2009-01-01

    Context There are classical radiological features for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis when utilising endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or computed tomography (CT), however, not all patients exhibit these features despite convincing clinical histories, which may result in diagnostic delay. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis whe...

  18. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  19. Uniaxial Compression of Cellular Materials at a 10-1 s-1 Strain Rate Simultaneously with Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomographic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The topic is presented as a series of slides. Motivation for the work included the following: X-ray tomography is a fantastic technique for characterizing a material’s starting structure as well as for non-destructive, in situ experiments to investigate material response; 3D X-ray tomography is needed to fully characterize the morphology of cellular materials; and synchrotron micro-CT can capture 3D images without pausing experiment. Among the conclusions reached are these: High-rate radiographic and tomographic imaging (0.25 s 3D frame rate) using synchrotron CT can capture full 3D images of hyper-elastic materials at a 10-2 strain rate; dynamic true in situ uniaxial loading can be accurately captured; the three stages of compression can be imaged: bending, buckling, and breaking; implementation of linear modeling is completed; meshes have been imported into LANL modeling codes--testing and validation is underway and direct comparison and validation between in situ data and modeled mechanical response is possible.

  20. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  1. Sex differences in trauma symptoms, body image and intensity of pain in a Polish sample of patients suffering from chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Schier, Katarzyna; Biernat-Kałuża, Edyta; Gasik, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of the current study was to investigate sex differences in the relationship between the level of trauma symptoms appearing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intensity of pain in a sample of 300 Polish patients suffering from chronic pain, specifically rheumatoid arthritis and lower back pain. We also focused on participants' body image with body esteem as a mediator. To assess the intensity of pain among participants, we used the Numerical Rating Scale. The level of trauma symptoms was assessed with the PTSD Factorial Version Inventory. To measure body image among participants, we used the Body Esteem Scale. The results of our study suggest that trauma symptoms and body image dimensions were significant predictors of pain intensity among men suffering from chronic pain. Moreover, trauma symptoms and age were significant predictors of pain intensity among women suffering from chronic pain. Finally, we demonstrated that sex differentiates the reaction to chronic pain. PMID:26609737

  2. Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Extended Two-dimensional Cellular Automata%基于扩展型二维CA的图像加密算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小刚; 李轩; 彭承琳; 侯长军; 霍丹群

    2009-01-01

    根据数字图像的存储特点,提出一种基于扩展型二维元胞自动机的图像加密算法,将二维元胞自动机与图像加密技术结合,利用元胞自动机生成数值范围在0~255区间的二维伪随机数矩阵,截取与图像大小相等的伪随机数矩阵作为密码对图像像素进行加密,解密为加密的逆过程.实验结果表明,该算法能快速产生密码,加密形式简单,具有较好的抗攻击能力,适合对数据量大的数字图像进行加密.%According to the storage characteristics of digital image, an image encryption algorithm based on extended two-dimensional Cellular Automata(CA) is proposed in this paper. It combines the two-dimensional CA with the technology of image encryption, which uses CA to generate a two-dimensional matrix pseudo-random number ranged from 0 to 255 automatically and takes a part of this matrix as the code to enerypt image pixels, and the size of this matrix is the same as the image. The decryption is the converse process of encryption. Experimental results demonstrate this algorithm can generate cryptogram rapidly and has a simple encrypt form as well as a better performance against attacks. It is suitable for encrypting digital images with huge data.

  3. 内源性蛋白质分子成像的研究进展%Molecular Imaging Using Endogenous Cellular Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进元; 洪晓华

    2013-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a novel molecular MRI technique that generates image contrast based on endogenous cellular proteins in tissue.Theoretically,the APTMRI signal depends primarily on the mobile amide proton concentration and amide proton exchange rates (which are related to tissue pH).The APT technique has been used for non-inva-sive pH imaging in stroke (where pH drops) and protein content imaging in tumor (where many proteins are overexpressed).It has been demonstrated recently in animal models that the APTMRI signal is also a unique imaging biomarker to distinguish between radiation necrosis and active tumor.In this paper,we will briefly introduce the basic principles of APT imaging and review its applications in stroke and brain tumor studies in animal models and patients.%酰氨质子转移(amide proton transfer,APT)成像是一种新的分子MRI技术,它可用来测量组织中内源性蛋白质.理论上,APT-MRI信号强度主要取决于游离蛋白质的酰氨质子浓度以及交换速度,而酰氨质子交换速度与组织pH有关.因此,APT-MRI技术已经被用于无创性中风pH成像(通常pH降低)和肿瘤蛋白质含量成像(通常蛋白质量提高).近期对大鼠的实验表明,APT-MRI技术可用来区分放射性坏死和胶质瘤.该综述文章简要地介绍了APT成像的基本原理以及它在动物模型与临床中风和肿瘤成像中的应用.

  4. One-pot synthesis of FePt/CNTs nanocomposites for efficient cellular imaging and cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weihong; Zheng, Xiuwen, E-mail: xwzheng1976@163.com [Linyi University, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Tumor Makers (China); Li, Shulian [Linyi Tumor Hospital (China); Zhang, Wei; Wen, Xin [Linyi University, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Tumor Makers (China); Yue, Ludan [Shandong Normal University (China); Wang, Jinlong [Shandong University of Technology (China)

    2015-11-15

    Here, we developed a facile route to synthesize carbon nanotube-based FePt nanocomposites (FePt/CNTs) as a potential theranostic platform in the cancer treatment. FePt/CNTs were firstly synthesized via one-pot polyol route, and then functionalized with 6-arm-polyethylene glycol-amine polymer. The average size of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) is 3–4 nm, which is dispersed on the CNT surface (ca.50–150 nm). The as-prepared FePt NPs display high cytotoxicity by highly reactive oxygen species in cancer cells. Folic acid and fluorescein isothiocyanate are assembled onto the surface of FePt/CNTs for effective targeting of folate receptor-positive cancer cells and simultaneously for the visualization of cellular uptake. Therefore, the FePt/CNTs NPs capability of simultaneously performing diagnosis, therapy, and targeting is, therefore, promising for future potential widespread application in biomedicine.

  5. Color Doppler imaging of the ophthalmic artery in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Almeida-Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ophthalmic artery hemodynamics in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Doppler parameters of ophthalmic artery of 18 patients with chronic heart failure in different stages of the disease were compared with 21 healthy volunteers (control group. These parameters were also correlated with echocardiographic assessments and clinical cardiologic status. Results: Mean diastolic velocity was 5.14 ± 2.4 cm/s in the chronic heart failure group and 7.44 ± 3.5 cm/s in the control group (p=0.007. Mean resistance index of the ophthalmic artery was 0.76 ± 0.08 in the chronic heart failure group and 0.70 ± 0.08 in the control group (p=0.04. Mean systolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery was 22.03 ± 7.7 cm/s in the chronic heart failure group and 25.32 ± 9.2 cm/s in the control group (p=0.24. There was a negative correlation between the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and systemic blood pressure of patients with chronic heart failure (r= -0.47, p=0.007. Diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery correlated positively with systemic blood pressure (r=0.44, p=0.02. Conclusion: Lower diastolic velocity and higher resistance index were observed in the ophthalmic artery of chronic heart failure patients when compared to the control group, which probably reflects the presence of orbital vasoconstriction in response to low cardiac output. Therefore, the influence of these findings on the structure and function of the optic nerve head deserves investigation.

  6. SU-D-201-03: Imaging Cellular Pharmacokinetics of 18F-FDG in Inflammatory/Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, R; Tuerkcan, S; Mahmoudi, M; Toshinobu, T; Kosuge, H; Yang, P; Chin, F; McConnell, M; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)—the leading cause of death in the USA. Thus, understating the metabolism of inflammatory cells can be a valuable tool for investigating CAD. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to successfully investigate the pharmacokinetics of [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in a single macrophages and compared with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a novel imaging technique, radioluminescence microscopy, initially developed for cancer imaging. Methods: Live cells were cultured sparsely on Matrigel in a glass-bottom dish and starved for 1 hour before incubation with 250 microCi of 18F-FDG for 45 minutes. Excess radiotracer was removed using DMEM medium without glucose. Before imaging, DMEM (1 mL) was added to the cell culture and a 100 microm-thin CdWO4 scintillator plate was placed on top of the cells. Light produced following beta decay was imaged with a highly sensitive inverted microscope (LV200, Olympus) fitted with a 40x/1.3 high-NA oil objective, and an EM-CCD camera. The images were collected over 18,000 frames with 4×4 binning (1200 MHz EM Gain, 300ms exposure). Custom-written software was developed in MATLAB for image processing (Figure 1). For statistical analysis 10 different region-of-interests (ROIs) were selected for each cell type. Results: Figures 2A–2B show bright-field/fusion images for all three different cell types. The relationship between cell-to-cell comparisons was found to be linear for macrophages unlike iPSCs and MSCs, which were best fitted with moving or rolling average (Figure 2C). The average observed decay of 18F-FDG in a single cell of MSCs per second (0.067) was 20% and 36% higher compared to iPSCs (0.054) and macrophages (0.043), respectively (Figure 2D). Conclusion: MSCs was found to be 2–3x more sensitive to glucose molecule despite constant parameters for each

  7. In vivo subsurface morphological and functional cellular and subcellular imaging of the gastrointestinal tract with confocal mini-microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Goetz; Beena Memadathil; Stefan Biesterfeld; Constantin Schneider; Sebastian Gregor; Peter R Galle; Markus F Neurath; Ralf Kiesslich

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a newly developed hand-held confocal probe for in vivo microscopic imaging of the complete gastrointestinal tract in rodents.METHODS: A novel rigid confocal probe (diameter 7 mm) was designed with optical features similar to the flexible endomicroscopy system for use in humans using a 488 nm single line laser for fluorophore excitation.Light emission was detected at 505 to 750 nm. The field of view was 475 μm × 475 μm. Optical slice thickness was 7 μm with a lateral resolution of 0.7 μm. Subsurface serial images at different depths (surface to 250 μm)were generated in real time at 1024 × 1024 pixels (0.8 frames/s) by placing the probe onto the tissue in gentle,stable contact. Tissue specimens were sampled for histopathological correlation.RESULTS: The esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and meso, liver, pancreas and gall bladder were visualised in vivo at high resolution in n = 48 mice.Real time microscopic imaging with the confocal minimicroscopy probe was easy to achieve. The different staining protocols (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-labelled dextran and L. esculentum lectin) each highlighted specific aspects of the tissue, and in vivo imaging correlated excellently with conventional histology. In vivo blood flow monitoring added a functional quality to morphologic imaging.CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy is feasible in vivo allowing the visualisation of the complete GI tract at high resolution even of subsurface tissue structures.The new confocal probe design evaluated in this study is compatible with laparoscopy and significantly expands the field of possible applications to intra-abdominal organs. It allows immediate testing of new in vivo staining and application options and therefore permits rapid transfer from animal studies to clinical use in patients.

  8. Angiosarcoma associated with chronic lymphedema (Stewart-Treves syndrome) of the leg: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazono, T.; Kudo, S.; Matsuo, Y.; Matsubayashi, R. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School Hospital, Saga (Japan); Ehara, S. [Department of Radiology, Iwate Medical University Hospital, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Narisawa, H. [Department of Dermatology, Saga Medical School Hospital, Saga (Japan); Yonemitsu, N. [Department of Pathology, Saga Medical School Hospital, Saga (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of two patients with Stewart-Treves syndrome are presented. MR imaging showed edematous changes in the subcutaneous fat and skin masses that proved to be angiosarcomas. MR signal intensity of the tumor was low compared with fat on T1-weighted images and intermediate and heterogeneous on T2-weighted images. In one patient, administration of intravenous Gd-DTPA showed marked enhancement in the early phase, which persisted until the delayed phase. These finding on dynamic MR imaging may reflect the abundant vascular spaces seen in these tumors. (orig.)

  9. Cellular Immunotherapy Following Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma

  10. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L; Robertson, W D; Reimer, R; Heinze, C; Schneider, C; Eggert, D; Truschow, P; Hansen, N-O; Kroetz, P; Zou, J; Miller, R J D

    2015-07-17

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics. PMID:26111866

  11. Indicators of inflammation and cellular damage in chronic asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic alcoholics: correlation with alteration of bilirubin and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borini Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical and hematimetric indicators of inflammation and cell damage were correlated with bilirubin and hepatic and pancreatic enzymes in 30 chronic male alcoholics admitted into psychiatric hospital for detoxification and treatment of alcoholism. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were altered, respectively, in 90%, 63%, 87%, 23% and 23% of the cases. None of the indicators of inflammation (lactic dehydrogenase, altered in 16% of the cases; alpha-1 globulin, 24%; alpha-2 globulin, 88%; leucocyte counts, 28% was correlated with alterations of bilirubin or liver enzymes. Lactic dehydrogenase was poorly sensitive for detection of hepatocytic or muscular damage. Alterations of alpha-globulins seemed to have been due more to alcohol metabolism-induced increase of lipoproteins than to inflammation. Among indicators of cell damage, serum iron, increased in 40% of the cases, seemed to be related to liver damage while creatine phosphokinase, increased in 84% of the cases, related to muscle damage. Hyperamylasemia was found in 20% of the cases and significantly correlated with levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. It was indicated that injuries of liver, pancreas, salivary glands, and muscle occurred in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic chronic alcoholics.

  12. A pilot study using Tissue Velocity Ultrasound Imaging (TVI to assess muscle activity pattern in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodin Lars-Åke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different research techniques indicate alterations in muscle tissue and in neuromuscular control of aching muscles in patients with chronic localized pain. Ultrasound can be used for analysis of muscle tissue dynamics in clinical practice. Aim This study introduces a new muscle tissue sensitive ultrasound technique in order to provide a new methodology for providing a description of local muscle changes. This method is applied to investigate trapezius muscle tissue response – especially with respect to specific regional deformation and deformation rates – during concentric shoulder elevation in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia and healthy controls before and after pain provocation. Methods Patients with trapezius myalgia and healthy controls were analyzed using an ultrasound system equipped with tissue velocity imaging (TVI. The patients performed a standardized 3-cm concentric shoulder elevation before and after pain provocation/exercise at a standardized elevation tempo (30 bpm. A standardized region of interest (ROI, an ellipsis with a size that captures the upper and lower fascia of the trapezius muscle (4 cm width at rest, was placed in the first frame of the loop registration of the elevation. The ROI was re-anchored frame by frame following the same anatomical landmark in the basal fascia during all frames of the concentric phase. In cardiac measurement, tissue velocities are measured in the axial projection towards and against the probe where red colour represents shortening and red lengthening. In the case of measuring the trapezius muscle, tissue deformation measurements are made orthogonally, thus, indirectly. Based on the assumption of muscle volume incompressibility, blue represents tissue contraction and red relaxation. Within the ROI, two variables were calculated as a function of time: deformation and deformation rate. Hereafter, max, mean, and quadratic mean values (RMS of each variable were

  13. Lung ventilation/perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in comparison with CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the lung V/Q imaging in the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: Seventy-six patients (46 males, 30 females, age 27-84 y) with clinically suspected CTEPH who had undergone lung V/Q imaging, CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), pulmonary angiography (PA) and right heart cardiac catheterization were studied. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lung V/Q imaging in detecting CTEPH were calculated and compared with those of CTPA. The χ2 test was used for statistical analysis with SPSS 11.5. The distribution of involvement of segments in 47 patients with CTEPH was analyzed. Results: Forty-seven patients had a final diagnosis of CTEPH and 29 had non-CTEPH etiology. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lung V/Q imaging were 97.9% (46/47), 86.2% (25/29), 93.4% (71/76), 92.0% (46/50) and 96.2% (25/26), while those of CTPA were 78.7% (37/47), 93.1% (27/29), 84.2% (64/76), 94.9% (37/39) and 73.0% (27/37), respectively. The sensitivity (χ2=5.818, P=0.012) and negative predictive value (χ2=5.693, P=0.017) for lung V/Q imaging were significantly higher than those of CTPA. V/Q imaging could identify patients with CTEPH from those with idiopathic PAH and familial PAH based on the almost normal ventilation imaging. The lung perfusion SPECT imaging detected 585 (62.2%) of involved segments among 940 segments in 47 patients with CTEPH, with an average of 12.4 involved segments in each patient. The number of involved segments in the right lung was significantly higher than that in the left lung (36.2% (340/940) vs 26.1% (245/940); χ2=40.85, P<0.01). Conclusions: Lung V/Q imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of CTEPH and in identification of CTEPH from other types of PAH. A normal V/Q imaging can effectively exclude CTEPH. In addition, V/Q imaging can provide more diagnostic information in

  14. Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots for Fe{sup 3+} sensing and cellular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Lu, Wenjing [Institute of Environmental Science, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Paau, Man Chin; Hu, Qin [Partner State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wu, Xin; Shuang, Shaomin [Institute of Environmental Science, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Dong, Chuan, E-mail: dc@sxu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Choi, Martin M.F., E-mail: mmfchoi@gmail.com [Partner State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, and Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • Fast synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) by microwave method. • Optimization of synthesis of N-CDs. • Fluorescence sensing of Fe{sup 3+} by N-CDs. • Cell imaging and detecting Fe{sup 3+} in biosystem by N-CDs. - Abstract: A fast and facile approach to synthesize highly nitrogen (N)-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of chitosan, acetic acid and 1,2-ethylenediamine as the carbon source, condensation agent and N-dopant, respectively, is reported. The obtained N-CDs are fully characterized by elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Doping N heteroatoms benefits the generation of N-CDs with stronger fluorescence emission. As the emission of N-CDs is efficiently quenched by Fe{sup 3+}, the as-prepared N-CDs are employed as a highly sensitive and selective probe for Fe{sup 3+} detection. The detection limit can reach as low as 10 ppb, and the linear range is 0.010–1.8 ppm Fe{sup 3+}. The as-synthesized N-CDs have been successfully applied for cell imaging and detecting Fe{sup 3+} in biosystem.

  15. Illuminating cellular structure and function in the early secretory pathway by multispectral 3D imaging in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdorf, Jens; Stephens, David J.; Squire, Anthony; Simpson, Jeremy; Shima, David T.; Paccaud, Jean-Pierre; Bastiaens, Philippe I.; Pepperkok, Rainer

    2000-04-01

    Membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is regulated by two vesicular coat complexes, COPII and COPI. COPII has been implicated in selective packaging of anterograde cargo into coated transport vesicles budding from the ER. COPI-coated vesicles are proposed to mediate recycling of proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER. We have used multi spectral 3D imaging to visualize COPI and COPII behavior simultaneously with various GFP-tagged secretory markers in living cells. This shows that COPII and COPI act sequentially whereby COPI association with anterograde transport complexes is involved in microtubule-based transport and the en route segregation of ER recycling molecules from secretory cargo within TCS in transit to the Golgi complex. We have also investigated the possibility to discriminate spectrally GFP fusion proteins by fluorescence lifetime imaging. This shows that at least two, and possibly up to three GFP fusion proteins can be discriminated and localized in living cells using a single excitation wavelength and a single broad band emission filter.

  16. The pathophysiology of the chronic cardiorenal syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breidthardt, Tobias [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Internal Medicine and Clinic for Transplant-Immunology and Nephrology, Basel (Switzerland); Royal Derby Hospital, Department of Renal Medicine, Derby (United Kingdom); Cox, Eleanor F.; Omar, Nur Farhayu; Francis, Susan T. [University of Nottingham, Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Squire, Iain [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester and NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Odudu, Aghogho; Eldehni, Mohamed Tarek [Royal Derby Hospital, Department of Renal Medicine, Derby (United Kingdom); McIntyre, Christopher W. [Royal Derby Hospital, Department of Renal Medicine, Derby (United Kingdom); University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    To study the association of renal function with renal perfusion and renal parenchymal structure (T{sub 1} relaxation) in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). After IRB approval, 40 participants were enrolled according to HF and renal function status [10 healthy volunteers < 40 years; 10 healthy age-matched volunteers; 10 HF patients eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 10 HF patients eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}] and assessed by MRI. To be eligible for enrolment all HF patients with renal dysfunction (RD) needed to be diagnosed as having chronic cardiorenal syndrome based on current guidelines. Patients with primary kidney disease were excluded. Renal cortical perfusion correlated with eGFR values (r = 0.52;p < 0.01) and was similar between HF patients with and without RD (p = 0.27). T{sub 1} relaxation correlated negatively with eGFR values (r = -0.41;p > 0.01) and was higher in HF patients compared to volunteers (1121 ± 102 ms vs. 1054 ± 65 ms;p = 0.03). T{sub 1} relaxation was selectively prolonged in HF patients with RD (1169 ms ± 100 vs. HF without RD 1067 ms ± 79;p = 0.047). In linear regression analyses coronary artery disease (p = 0.01), hypertension (p = 0.04), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01) were associated with T{sub 1} relaxation. RD in HF is not primarily mediated by decreased renal perfusion. Instead, chronic reno-parenchymal damage, as indicated by prolonged T{sub 1} relaxation, appears to underly chronic cardiorenal syndrome. (orig.)

  17. The pathophysiology of the chronic cardiorenal syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the association of renal function with renal perfusion and renal parenchymal structure (T1 relaxation) in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). After IRB approval, 40 participants were enrolled according to HF and renal function status [10 healthy volunteers < 40 years; 10 healthy age-matched volunteers; 10 HF patients eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2; 10 HF patients eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2] and assessed by MRI. To be eligible for enrolment all HF patients with renal dysfunction (RD) needed to be diagnosed as having chronic cardiorenal syndrome based on current guidelines. Patients with primary kidney disease were excluded. Renal cortical perfusion correlated with eGFR values (r = 0.52;p < 0.01) and was similar between HF patients with and without RD (p = 0.27). T1 relaxation correlated negatively with eGFR values (r = -0.41;p > 0.01) and was higher in HF patients compared to volunteers (1121 ± 102 ms vs. 1054 ± 65 ms;p = 0.03). T1 relaxation was selectively prolonged in HF patients with RD (1169 ms ± 100 vs. HF without RD 1067 ms ± 79;p = 0.047). In linear regression analyses coronary artery disease (p = 0.01), hypertension (p = 0.04), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01) were associated with T1 relaxation. RD in HF is not primarily mediated by decreased renal perfusion. Instead, chronic reno-parenchymal damage, as indicated by prolonged T1 relaxation, appears to underly chronic cardiorenal syndrome. (orig.)

  18. Imaging Chronic Pain and Inflammation : Positron Emission Tomography Studies of Whiplash Associated Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is on chronic neck pain after a rear impact car injury, so called whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Three empirical studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with different radioligands have been performed. The first study evaluated resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in WAD patients and in healthy, pain-free controls, by use of oxygen-15 labeled water. Patients had heightened resting rCBF bilaterally in the posterior parahippocampal and the posterior cingul...

  19. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Lindsay, E-mail: lmathew@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Kirby, Miranda, E-mail: mkirby@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.McCormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gep@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ({sup 3}He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for {sup 3}He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, {sup 1}H MRI and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI at 3.0 T. {sup 3}He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from {sup 3}He static ventilation images and {sup 1}H thoracic images and the {sup 3}He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant {sup 3}He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for {sup 3}He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  20. Development of hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of chronic myelogenous leukocytes from microscopic image of peripheral blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Madhumala; Chakraborty, Chandan; Konar, Amit; Ray, Ajoy K

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of leukocytes in case of chronic myelogenous leukemia using light microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. The concept of modified discrimination measure is applied to develop the measure of divergence based on Shannon exponential entropy and Yager's measure of entropy. These two measures of divergence are compared with the existing literatures and validated by ground truth images. Finally, it is found that hedge operator based divergence measure using Yager's entropy achieves better segmentation accuracy i.e., 98.29% for normal and 98.15% for chronic myelogenous leukocytes. Furthermore, Jaccard index has been performed to compare the segmented image with ground truth ones where it is found that that the proposed scheme leads to higher Jaccard index (0.39 for normal, 0.24 for chronic myelogenous leukemia).

  1. Cellular Telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨周

    1996-01-01

    Cellular phones, used in automobiles, airliners, and passenger trains, are basically low-power radiotelephones. Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells. Because each cell’s signals are too weak to interfere with those of other cells operating on the same fre-

  2. Chronic treatment with a precursor of cellular phosphatidylcholine ameliorates morphological and behavioral effects of aging in the mouse [correction of rat] hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, D; Megias, M; Fernandez-Viadero, C; Verduga, R

    2004-06-01

    Normal aging is commonly associated with a decline in memory, mainly for that related with newly acquired information. The hippocampal formation (HF) is a brain region that has been implicated in this dysfunction. Within the HF there are several cellular types, such as pyramidal cells, granule neurons of the dentate gyrus, and astrocytes. CDP-choline is a well-known intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid essential for neuronal membrane preservation and function; thus, this compound would attenuate the process of neuronal aging. To test this, three groups of male mice were used in this study. An adult 12-month-old group (ACG), a 24-month-old (OCG), and an old experimental group (OEG) were administered orally a solution of CDP-choline (150 mg/kg per day) from 12 up to 24 months. Experimental observations suggest that CDP-choline has a positive effect on memory (reference errors were attenuated), and hippocampal morphology resembled that of younger animals. PMID:15246991

  3. Energy transfer in aminonaphthalimide-boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyads upon one- and two-photon excitation: applications for cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Daniel; Remón, Patricia; Vida, Yolanda; Najera, Francisco; Sen, Pratik; Pischel, Uwe; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel

    2014-03-01

    Aminonaphthalimide-BODIPY energy transfer cassettes were found to show very fast (kEET ≈ 10(10)-10(11) s(-1) and efficient BODIPY fluorescence sensitization. This was observed upon one- and two-photon excitation, which extends the application range of the investigated bichromophoric dyads in terms of accessible excitation wavelengths. In comparison with the direct excitation of the BODIPY chromophore, the two-photon absorption cross-section δ of the dyads is significantly incremented by the presence of the aminonaphthalimide donor [δ ≈ 10 GM for the BODIPY versus 19-26 GM in the dyad at λ(exc)=840 nm; 1 GM (Goeppert-Mayer unit)=10(-50) cm(4) smolecule(-1) photon-(1)]. The electronic decoupling of the donor and acceptor, which is a precondition for the energy transfercassette concept, was demonstrated by time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The applicability of the new probes in the one- and twophoton excitation mode was demonstrated in a proof-of-principle approach in the fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the merging of multiphoton excitation with the energy transfer cassette concept for a BODIPY-containing dyad.

  4. Intra- and Extra-Cellular Events Related to Altered Glycosylation of MUC1 Promote Chronic Inflammation, Tumor Progression, Invasion, and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cascio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered glycosylation of mucin 1 (MUC1 on tumor cells compared to normal epithelial cells was previously identified as an important antigenic modification recognized by the immune system in the process of tumor immunosurveillance. This tumor form of MUC1 is considered a viable target for cancer immunotherapy. The importance of altered MUC1 glycosylation extends also to its role as a promoter of chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to malignant transformation and cancer progression. We review here what is known about the role of specific cancer-associated glycans on MUC1 in protein-protein interactions and intracellular signaling in cancer cells and in their adhesion to each other and the tumor stroma. The tumor form of MUC1 also creates a different landscape of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment by controlling the recruitment of inflammatory cells, establishing specific interactions with dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages, and facilitating tumor escape from the immune system. Through multiple types of short glycans simultaneously present in tumors, MUC1 acquires multiple oncogenic properties that control tumor development, progression, and metastasis at different steps of the process of carcinogenesis.

  5. Cellular immune function change and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%细胞免疫功能变化与慢性阻塞性肺疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜素丽; 李亚; 李建生

    2012-01-01

    目前研究显示机体的免疫功能降低或紊乱在慢性阻塞性肺疾病的发生、发展过程中起着重要作用,执行非特异性免疫的细胞主要包括巨噬细胞、中性粒细胞、自然杀伤细胞、树突状细胞等,特异性免疫主要有T细胞和B细胞介导.参与免疫功能的细胞与慢性阻塞性肺疾病发生发展密切相关.%The current study shows that the body's immune function or disorders play an important role in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).In which the non-specific immune cells include alveolar macrophage,polymorphonuclear,natural killer cells,dendritic cell,while the specific immunity are mediated by T lymphocytes and B lymphocyte cells. The cells involved in immune function are closely related with the development of COPD.

  6. Lupus pernio. Radiogallium imaging in a patient with chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulavik, S B; Whitaker, D L; Spencer, R P

    1994-08-01

    A 37-year-old man with a history of chronic skin sarcoidosis had the classic triad of lupus pernio. Each of the lesions (nose, ears, and hands) revealed avid radiogallium accumulation. In addition, both the panda sign and the lambda sign of hilar-mediastinal lymph node uptake of radiogallium were present, despite normal results of chest radiography. Several other lymph node chains were also involved. The case can serve as a baseline to determine if other instances of lupus pernio have such a wide systemic distribution of radiogallium uptake.

  7. Free-water and BOLD imaging changes in Parkinson's disease patients chronically treated with a MAO-B inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Roxana G; Ofori, Edward; Shukla, Priyank; Pasternak, Ofer; Chung, Jae Woo; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Okun, Michael S; Vaillancourt, David E

    2016-08-01

    Rasagiline is a monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor that possesses no amphetamine-like properties, and provides symptomatic relief in early and late stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Data in animal models of PD suggest that chronic administration of rasagiline is associated with structural changes in the substantia nigra, and raise the question whether the structure and function of the basal ganglia could be different in PD patients treated chronically with rasagiline as compared with PD patients not treated with rasagiline. Here, we performed a retrospective cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study at 3 T that investigated nigrostriatal function and structure in PD patients who had taken rasagiline before testing (∼8 months), PD who had not taken rasagiline before testing, and age-matched controls. The two PD groups were selected a priori to not differ significantly in age, sex, disease duration, severity of symptoms, cognitive status, and total levodopa equivalent daily dose of medication. We evaluated percent signal change in the posterior putamen during force production using functional MRI, free-water in the posterior substantia nigra using diffusion MRI, and performance on a bimanual coordination task using a pegboard test. All patients were tested after overnight withdrawal from antiparkinsonian medication. The rasagiline group had greater percent signal change in the posterior putamen, less free-water in the posterior substantia nigra, and better performance on the coordination task than the group not taking rasagiline. These findings point to a possible chronic effect of rasagiline on the structure and function of the basal ganglia in PD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2894-2903, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089850

  8. Cerebral perfusion MR imaging using FAIR-HASTE in chronic carotid occlusive disease: comparison with dynamic susceptibility contrast-perfusion MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida,Kentaro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy of flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery using half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (FAIR-HASTE in detecting cerebral hypoperfusion in chronic carotid occlusive disease, we subjected 12 patients with various degrees of cervical internal carotid artery stenoses and/or occlusion (Stenosis group and 24 volunteers (Normal group to FAIR-HASTE. In addition, 10 out of 12 patients in the Stenosis group underwent dynamic susceptibility contrast-perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-pMRI before and after revascularization in the dominantly affected side. The absolute asymmetry indexes (AIs of both cerebral hemispheres in the Normal and Stenosis groups were compared in FAIR-HASTE. In addition, the AIs were compared with those in the Stenosis group before and after revascularization in both FAIR-HASTE and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, calculated with DSC-pMRI. A statistically significant difference was recognized between the AIs in the Normal and Stenosis groups (AI = 2.25 +- 1.92, 8.09 +- 4.60, respectively ; p < 0.0001. Furthermore, in the Stenosis group the AIs on both FAIR-HASTE (8.88 +- 4.93, 2.22 +- 1.79, respectively ; p = 0.0003 and rCBF (7.13 +- 3.57, 1.25 +- 1.33, respectively ; p = 0.0003 significantly decreased after revascularization. In the Stenosis group, before revascularization, signal intensity on both FAIR-HASTE and rCBF had a tendency to be lower in the dominantly affected side. FAIR-HASTE imaging was useful in the detection and evaluation of cerebral hypoperfusion in chronic occlusive carotid disease.

  9. Evaluation of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony in chronic heart failure patients by two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng-Xia; Guo, Rui-Qiang; Chen, Jin-Ling

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI), and also to compare the usefulness of three patterns of myocardial deformation in mechanical dyssynchrony assessment. Furthermore, the relationships between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), QRS duration (QRSd), and LVMD were explored. In total, 78 patients and 60 healthy individuals (group 3) were enrolled. The patients were classified into two subgroups: LVEF≤35% (group 1), 35%0.05). CHF patients have different extents of LVMD. Longitudinal deformation shows the best detectability of dyssynchrony motion. Left ventricular systolic function was closely related to mechanical dyssynchrony, whereas QRSd showed no significant correlation.

  10. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging in the Definition of the Stage of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Konstantinov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop a method for noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis (LF in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC based on ultrasound imaging (UI of the abdominal cavity. We examined 124 patients with CHC. The diagnosis was verified on the basis of clinical and epidemiological, serological and molecular biological data. Direct ultrasonic parameters of the structure and hemodynamics of liver and spleen were supplemented with estimated indicators: square of the expected cross-section of the lobes of the liver and spleen, as well as their ratio. On the basis of the discriminant analysis of the survey data of 82 patients, we developed an analytical model (with predictive value of 95.2% for interval estimation of the fibrosis degree in CHC patients. We have concluded that UI performed on modern equipment, including Doppler, is able to determine the degree of LF without resorting to histological verification.

  11. Pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia and its investigation by ultrasonic integrated backscatter and Doppler tissue imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; ZHAO Bao-zhen; WANG Zhong; GU Jun-yan; LU Shi-ping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To construct an animal model of chronic ischemic myocardium, and evaluate it by ultrasonic integrated backscatter (IBS) and Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Methods: An Ameroid constrictor was placed around the porcine left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). The calibrated average image intensity ( % AII), cyclic variation of IBS(CVIB), transmural gradient index (TGI) of CVIB in lateral- posterior wall (LPW), and DTI spectrum of LPW in left ventricular papillary muscle level short axis view (LVPM-SAM) and apical four chamber view (AP-4CV) at normal state, 2, 4,6 and 8 weeks postoperatively were measured. Results: Normal %AII, CVIB and TGI were 2.29 ± 0.32, 9.69 ± 2.22dB and 0.22 ± 0.08, respectively. The % AII increased gradually postoperatively. The CVIB decreased also gradually, and the decrease was higher in subepicardium than in subendocardium. Most of TGI decrease occurred from 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and became zero at 8 weeks (P < O. 01 ); Normal Vs (peak systolic velocity) of AP-4CV was higher than that of LVPM-SAM ( P < 0.01 ). VE (peak early diastolic velocity) of AP-4CV was lower than that of LVPM-SAM ( P < 0.05). Vs and VE were all decreased after operation ( P < 0.01 ). The decrease of Vs in AP-4CV was greater than that in LVPM-SAM.Conclusion: The pathological changes of the myocardium in human ischemic heart disease (IHD) are similar to that of Ameriod model. IBS and DTI can detect echo changes and ventricular wall motion in chronic ischemic myocardium, and provide more information for clinical investigation and treatment of IHD.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of sequelae of central pontine myelinolysis in chronic alcohol abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, 849-8501, Saga (Japan); Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Koga, Hiroshi [Center for Emotional and Behavional Disorders, Hizen National Hospital, 160 Mitsu, Higashisefuri, Kanzaki, 842-0192, Saga (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is one of the serious neurological complications of alcoholism. This study evaluated magnetic resonance images of sequelae of CPM. Approximately 600 alcoholic patients were examined by a 1.0-T magnetic resonance imaging device, and 11 patients were retrospectively found to have a central pontine lesion, a presumed sequela of CPM. The lesions had various shapes and most were cavitary. In 3 of the 11 patients bilateral symmetrical oval lesions were faintly visible in the middle cerebellar peduncles. These middle cerebellar peduncular lesions were diagnosed as having Wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tract secondary to CPM. (orig.)

  13. High-b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer and Mass-Forming Chronic Pancreatitis: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Mass-forming chronic pancreatitis may mimic a pancreatic cancer on dynamic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and preoperative differential diagnosis is often difficult. Recently, the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer has been reported in several studies. Purpose: To determine whether high-b-value DWI can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Twenty pancreatic cancers and four cases of mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were evaluated by high-b-value DWI (b=800 s/mm2). The signal intensity on DWI was visually evaluated, and the isotropic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. Results: All twenty pancreatic cancers showed high signal intensity (18 showed very high, two showed slightly high) on DWI. None of the mass-forming chronic pancreatitis cases showed very high intensity (three showed iso to low, one showed slightly high) on DWI. The ADCs in the pancreatic cancer and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis were 1.38±0.32x10-3 mm2/s and 1.0 0.18x10-3 mm2/s, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: On high-b-value DWI, most pancreatic cancers showed very high signal intensity, and may hence be distinguished from benign mass-forming chronic pancreatitis based on our preliminary results

  14. Differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET perfusion imaging between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Lee, B.-F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chang, Y.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Kang Children' s Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Huang, C.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan); Wang, S.-T. [Dept. of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-02-01

    Early differential diagnosis between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder is difficult but important because both the outcome and the treatment of these two childhood-onset diseases are distinct. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion imaging in distinguishing the two diseases, and characterized their different cerebral perfusion patterns. Twenty-seven children with Tourette's syndrome and 11 with chronic tic disorder (mean age 9.5 and 8.6 years, respectively) underwent brain SPET with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Visual interpretation and semi-quantitative analysis of SPET images were performed. On visual interpretation, 22 of 27 (82%) of the Tourette's syndrome group had lesions characterized by decreased perfusion. The left hemisphere was more frequently involved. None of the children with chronic tic disorder had a visible abnormality. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that, compared with children with chronic tic disorder, children with Tourette's syndrome had significantly lower perfusion in the left lateral temporal area and asymmetric perfusion in the dorsolateral frontal, lateral and medial temporal areas. In conclusion, using the visual approach, brain SPET perfusion imaging is sensitive and specific in differentiating Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder. The perfusion difference between the two groups, demonstrated by semi-quantitative analysis, may be related more to the co-morbidity in Tourette's syndrome than to tics per se. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Osseous Biopsy in Children With Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the safety and diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MRI)—guided core biopsy of osseous lesions in children with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) that were visible on MRI but were occult on radiography and computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of MRI-guided osseous biopsy performed in seven children (four girls and three boys; mean age 13 years (range 11 to 14) with CRMO was performed. Indication for using MRI guidance was visibility of lesions by MRI only. MRI-guided procedures were performed with 0.2-Tesla (Magnetom Concerto; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; n = 5) or 1.5-T (Magnetom Espree; Siemens; n = 2) open MRI systems. Core needle biopsy was obtained using an MRI-compatible 4-mm drill system. Conscious sedation or general anesthesia was used. Parameters evaluated were lesion visibility, technical success, procedure time, complications and microbiology, cytology, and histopathology findings. Results: Seven of seven (100%) targeted lesions were successfully visualized and sampled. All obtained specimens were sufficient for histopathological analysis. Length of time of the procedures was 77 min (range 64 to 107). No complications occurred. Histopathology showed no evidence of malignancy, which was confirmed at mean follow-up of 50 months (range 28 to 78). Chronic nonspecific inflammation characteristic for CRMO was present in four of seven (58%) patients, and edema with no inflammatory cells was found in three of seven (42%) patients. There was no evidence of infection in any patient. Conclusion: MRI-guided osseous biopsy is a safe and accurate technique for the diagnosis of pediatric CRMO lesions that are visible on MRI only.

  16. In vivo venous assessment of red blood cell aggregate sizes in diabetic patients with a quantitative cellular ultrasound imaging method: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tripette

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients present higher level of red blood cell (RBC aggregation contributing to the development of vascular complications. While it has been suggested that this hematology/rheology parameter could bring additional prognostic information for the management of those patients, RBC aggregation screening is not included as a clinical practice. Most medical centers are not equipped to measure properly this parameter, although sedimentation tests can bring some indication. Here, we aimed at evaluating the feasibility of using ultrasound to assess in-vivo hyper-aggregation in type 2 diabetic patients.Seventeen diabetic patients and 15 control subjects underwent ultrasound measurements of RBC aggregation in both cephalic and great saphenous veins. Non-invasive in-vivo ultrasound measurements were performed using a newly developed cellular imaging technique, the structure factor size and attenuation estimator (SFSAE. Comparisons with an ex-vivo gold standard rheometry technique were done, along with measurements of pro-aggregating plasma molecule concentrations.In-vivo RBC aggregation was significantly higher in diabetic patients compared with controls for cephalic vein measurements, while a trend (p = 0.055 was noticed in the great saphenous vein. SFSAE measurements were correlated with gold standard in-vitro measures, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein plasma concentrations.RBC aggregation can be measured in-vivo in diabetic patients using ultrasound. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the SFSAE method could help clinicians in the early management of vascular complications in this patient population.

  17. Imaging of intracellular metal partitioning in marine diatoms exposed to metal pollution: consequences to cellular toxicity and metal fate in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Rita M; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Alves, Luís C; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the metal content and compartmentalization changes in whole cells of diatom Coscinodiscus eccentricus exposed to metal overload, examining consequences to cellular toxicity, tolerance mechanisms, and metal fate in the environment. Cells exposed to Ni, Cu and Zn were analysed using nuclear microprobe techniques. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) were used simultaneously to obtain high-resolution imaging of morphological and quantitative elemental distribution data. Elemental partitioning within cell compartments, such as cell wall, cytoplasm and major organelles, was assessed. Diatoms clearly responded to excess metal levels, by changing cytoplasm morphology, concentrating added metals, and altering Fe transport mechanisms. Different metal accumulation patterns indicated high susceptibility to Cu, retained in the cytoplasm, and detoxification capability for Ni and Zn, mobilized to the vacuole. Iron and Zn were accumulated in the siliceous wall. Different metal distributions within the cell imply distinct environmental fates, Cu and Ni remain available with potential for biomagnification through the food web, whereas Fe and Zn are deposited at the bottom through frustule sedimentation.

  18. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2014-09-22

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  19. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed. PMID:27359147

  20. Comparison of acquisition time and dose for late gadolinium enhancement imaging at 3.0 T in patients with chronic myocardial infarction using Gd-BOPTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doltra, A.; Skorin, A.; Gebker, R.; Klein, C.; Fleck, E.; Kelle, S. [German Heart Institute Berlin, Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Hamdan, A. [Tel Aviv University, Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schnackenburg, B. [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Science, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, E. [King' s College London, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To compare contrast doses and acquisition times for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging at 3.0 T using gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. Thirty-four patients with chronic myocardial infarction were randomised to 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mmol/kg of Gd-BOPTA. T1-weighted inversion recovery gradient echo sequences were performed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min post-administration of contrast in a 3.0-T scanner. Scar-to-myocardium contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), scar-to-blood CNR, scar size and image quality were assessed. Imaging at 5 min was associated with a lower scar-to-blood CNR in comparison to 10, 15 and 20 min at 0.10 mmol/kg, and in comparison to 15 and 20 min at 0.20 mmol/kg. At 0.10-mmol/kg, imaging at 5 min yielded smaller infarct sizes in comparison to 15 and 20 min. Finally, at 0.20-mmol/kg, imaging at 5 min was associated with poorer image quality in comparison to later times. In LGE imaging at 3.0 T, low doses of Gd-BOPTA perform equally well as higher doses. Early acquisition (5 min) is associated with lower infarct sizes and image quality. Studies with sufficient diagnostic quality can be obtained after 10 min using 0.10 mmol/kg Gd-BOPTA. (orig.)

  1. Practicability and safety of dipyridamole cardiac imaging in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnheer, R.; Laube, I.; Bloch, K.E.; Russi, E.W. [Pulmonary Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Switzerland, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, P.A.; Stumpe, K.D.M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland); Stammberger, U.; Weder, W. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We tested the practicability of dipyridamole myocardial nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (dipyridamole {sup 13}NH{sub 3}PET) for the perioperative risk assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a cohort of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Twenty consecutive LVRS candidates, 13 men and 7 women (mean age 57 {+-}2 years), without symptoms of CAD were prospectively studied by dipyridamole {sup 13}NH {sub 3}PET. Side-effects and overall tolerance were assessed by a questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Repeated pulmonary function tests were performed before and 4, 12, 16 and 30 minutes after dipyridamole injection. All dipyridamole {sup 13}NH {sub 3}PET studies were negative for CAD. Seventeen patients underwent LVRS without cardiac complications; three patients did not undergo LVRS for other reasons. Nine patients suffered intolerable dyspnoea requiring i.v. aminophylline. Mean FEV {sub 1} decreased significantly after dipyridamole infusion: in nine patients the reduction in FEV {sub 1}exceeded 15% from baseline. We found that dipyridamole is not well tolerated and causes significant bronchoconstriction in patients with severe COPD. Although all dipyridamole-induced side effects can be promptly reversed by aminophylline, dipyridamole cannot be recommended as a pharmacological stress in this setting. (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 tabs., 35 refs.

  2. Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambianica, I.; Bossi, M.; Gasco, P.; Gonzalez, W.; Idee, J. M.; Miserocchi, G.; Rigolio, R.; Chanana, M.; Morjan, I.; Wang, D.; Sancini, G.

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of the models of brain endothelial cells and choroidal plexus epithelial cells in culture has allowed us to investigate into these mechanisms. Our strategy is aimed at exploring different routes to the entrapment of iron oxide NPs in these brain related cells. Here we demonstrated that not only cells endowed with a good phagocytic activity like activated macrophages but also endothelial brain capillary and choroidal plexus epithelial cells do internalize iron oxide NPs. Our study of the intracellular trafficking of NPs by TEM, and confocal microscopy revealed that NPs are mainly internalized by the endocytic pathway. Iron oxide NPs were dispersed in water and coated with 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) using standard procedures. Magnetic lipid NPs were prepared by NANOVECTOR: water in oil in water (W/O/W) microemulsion process has been applied to directly coat different iron based NPs by lipid layer or to encapsulate them into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs). By these coating/loading the colloidal stability was improved without strong alteration of the particle size distribution. Magnetic lipid NPs could be reconstituted after freeze drying without appreciable changes in stability. L-DOPA coated NPs are stable in PBS and in MEM (Modified Eagle Medium) medium. The magnetic properties of these NPs were not altered by the coating processes. We investigated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and interaction of these NPs with rat brain capillary endothelial (REB4) and choroidal plexus epithelial (Z310) cells. By means of widefield, confocal

  3. Effect of interferon therapy on radionuclide imaging in chronic liver diseases due to HCV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffar, Y.; Dorgham, L.; Lotfy, N. [Ain Shams Univ., Imbaba, Giza (Egypt)]|[Menofia Unif., Shebin El Kom (Egypt)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Interferon (alpha-IFN) exerts a modulating effect on the immune system. Kupffer cells of the liver play an important immunological role by their uptake of various agents and particles, including colloids. We sought to discover if alpha-IFN could enhance the colloid uptake function of the Kupffer cells. The effect of alpha-IFN therapy on radioisotope scans of the liver was studied in 20 patients with chronic liver disease due to hepatitic C virus (HCV) infection who received therapy at a dose of 3 million IU for 6 mo, in another patients who received the same therapy for 12 mo and in matched control groups (10 patients with HCV infection for each study group) who did not received alpha-IFN. A {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid scan of the liver was obtained for each group before and after therapy and, for control subjects, at the start and end of the study periods. The liver-to-spleen geometric mean ratio of colloid uptake was assessed. In the first study group, the mean rate of improvement in the liver-to-spleen ratio was 48% in 70% of the patients, compared to 8% in 20% of controls (p<0.05). In the second study group, mean liver-to-spleen ratio was 88% in 85% of patients, compared to 12% in 40% of controls (p<0.001). Alpha-IFN therapy appears to enhance the colloidal uptake function of Kupffer cells, which adds a new dimension to the immunomodulatory effect of interferon. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Intracerebral Hemorrhage; towards physiological imaging of hemorrhage risk in acute and chronic bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael eJakubovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in management and prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, there has been little improvement in mortality over the last 30 years. Hematoma expansion, primarily during the first few hours is highly predictive of neurological deterioration, poor functional outcome and mortality. For each 10% increase in ICH size, there is a 5% increase in mortality and an additional 16% chance of poorer functional outcome. As such, both the identification and prevention of hematoma expansion are attractive therapeutic targets in ICH. Previous studies suggest that contrast extravasation seen on CT Angiography (CTA, MRI, and digital subtraction angiography correlates with hematoma growth, indicating ongoing bleeding. Contrast extravasation on the arterial phase of a CTA has been coined the CTA Spot Sign. These easily identifiable foci of contrast enhancement have been identified as independent predictors of hematoma growth, mortality and clinical outcome in primary ICH. The Spot Sign score, developed to stratify risk of hematoma expansion, has shown high inter-observer agreement. Post-contrast leakage or delayed CTA Spot Sign, on post contrast CT following CTA or delayed CTA respectively are seen in an additional ~8% of patients and explain apparently false negative observations on early CTA imaging in patients subsequently undergoing hematoma expansion. CT perfusion provides an opportunity to acquire dynamic imaging and has been shown to quantify rates of contrast extravasation. Intravenous recombinant factor VIIa(rFVIIa within 4 hours of ICH onset has been shown to significantly reduce hematoma growth. However, clinical efficacy has yet to be proven. There is compelling evidence that cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA may precede the radiographic evidence of vascular disease and as such contribute to microbleeding. The interplay between microbleeding, CAA,CTA Spot Sign and genetic composition (ApoE genotype may be crucial in developing a

  5. Increased Cell Proliferation in Chronic Helicobacter pylori Positive Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma – Correlation between Immuno-Histochemistry and Tv Image Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Szaleczky

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: Epithelial cell proliferation activity has been reported both to be unaltered and increased in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori associated chronic gastritis. The proliferation rate decreased following H. pylori eradication, but results are controversial whether this change is dependent on the success of eradication. We compared the cell proliferation activity of H. pylori positive and negative gastric epithelial biopsies in chronic gastritis with and without intestinal metaplasia (IM and gastric cancer by the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and Tv image cytometry, and assessed the effect of H. pylori eradication on the cell proliferation rate in the gastric epithelium.

  6. In vivo evaluation of cellular activity in αCaMKII heterozygous knockout mice using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eHattori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII is a serine/threonine protein kinase predominantly expressed in the forebrain, especially in the postsynaptic density, and plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. αCaMKII heterozygous knockout (HKO mice exhibit abnormal emotional and aggressive behaviors and cognitive impairments and have been proposed as an animal model of psychiatric illness. Our previous studies have shown that the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs after exposure to electric foot shock or after performing a working memory task is decreased in the hippocampus, central amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex of mutant mice. These changes could be caused by disturbances in neuronal signal transduction; however, it is still unclear whether neuronal activity is reduced in these regions. In this study, we performed in vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI to assess the regional cellular activity in the brains of αCaMKII HKO mice. The signal intensity of MEMRI 24 h after systemic MnCl2 administration reflects functional increases of Mn2+ influx into neurons and glia via transport mechanisms, such as voltage-gated and/or ligand-gated Ca2+ channels. αCaMKII HKO mice demonstrated a low signal intensity of MEMRI in the dentate gyrus (DG, in which almost all neurons were at immature status at the molecular, morphological, and electrophysiological levels. In contrast, analysis of the signal intensity in these mutant mice revealed increased activity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, a region crucial for cognitive function. The signal intensity was also increased in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, which is involved in anxiety. These changes in the mutant mice may be responsible for the observed dysregulated behaviors, such as cognitive deficit and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, which are similar to symptoms seen in human psychiatric disorders.

  7. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for non-invasive assessment of renal histopathology in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the stiffness values obtained by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI quantification in assessing renal histological fibrosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD. METHODS: 163 patients with CKD and 32 healthy volunteers were enrolled between June 2013 and April 2014. ARFI quantification, given as shear wave velocity (SWV, was performed to measure renal parenchyma stiffness. Diagnostic performance of ARFI imaging and conventional ultrasound (US were compared with histologic scores at renal biopsy. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWV measurement was analyzed. RESULTS: In CKD patients, SWV measurements correlated significantly with pathological parameters (r = -0.422--0.511, P<0.001, serum creatinine (r = -0.503, P<0.001, and glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.587, P<0.001. The mean SWV in kidneys with severely impaired (histologic score: ≥19 points was significant lower than that mildly impaired (histologic score: ≤9 points, moderately impaired (histologic score: 10-18 points, and control groups (all P<0.001. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves analyses indicated that the area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of renal histological fibrosis using ARFI imaging was superior to these conventional US parameters. Using the optimal cut-off value of 2.65 m/s for the diagnosis of mildly impaired kidneys, 2.50 m/s for moderately impaired kidneys, and 2.33 m/s for severely impaired kidneys, the corresponding area under the ROC curves were 0.735, 0.744, and 0.895, respectively. Intra- and intre-observer agreement of SWV measurements were 0.709 (95% CI: 0.390-0.859, P<0.001 and 0.627 (95% CI: 0.233-0.818, P = 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ARFI may be an effective tool for evaluating renal histological fibrosis in CKD patients.

  8. Assessment of Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Mitral Regurgitation Using Torsional Parameters Described by Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ojaghi-Haghighi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular (LV twist is due to oppositely directed apical and basal rotation and has been proposed as a sensitive marker of LV function. We sought to assess the impact of chronic pure mitral regurgitation (MR on the torsional mechanics of the left human ventricle using tissue Doppler imaging.Methods: Nineteen severe MR patients with a normal LV ejection fraction and 16 non-MR controls underwent conventional echocardiography and apical and basal short-axis color Doppler myocardial imaging (CDMI. LV rotation at the apical and basal short-axis levels was calculated from the averaged tangential velocities of the septal and lateral regions, corrected for the LV radius over time. LV twist was defined as the difference in LV rotation between the two levels, and the LV twist and twisting/untwisting rate profiles were analyzed throughout the cardiac cycle.Results: LV twist and LV torsion were significantly lower in the MR group than in the non-MR group (10.38˚ ± 4.04˚ vs.13.95˚ ± 4.27˚; p value = 0.020; and 1.29 ± 0.54 ˚/cm vs. 1.76 ± 0.56 ˚/cm; p value = 0.021, respectively, both suggesting incipient LV dysfunction in the MR group. Similarly, the untwisting rate was lower in the MR group (-79.74 ± 35.97 ˚/s vs.-110.96 ± 34.65 ˚/s; p value = 0.020, but there was statistically no significant difference in the LV twist rate.Conclusion: The evaluation of LV torsional parameters in MR patients with a normal LV ejection fraction suggests the potential role of these sensitive variables in assessing the early signs of ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients

  9. [Pain and emotional dysregulation: Cellular memory due to pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Minoru; Watanabe, Moe; Hamada, Yusuke; Tamura, Hideki; Ikegami, Daigo; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Igarashi, Katsuhide

    2015-08-01

    Genetic factors are involved in determinants for the risk of psychiatric disorders, and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic pain stimuli and intense pain have effects at a cellular and/or gene expression level, and will eventually induce "cellular memory due to pain", which means that tissue damage, even if only transient, can elicit epigenetically abnormal transcription/translation and post-translational modification in related cells depending on the degree or kind of injury or associated conditions. Such cell memory/transformation due to pain can cause an abnormality in a fundamental intracellular response, such as a change in the three-dimensional structure of DNA, transcription, or translation. On the other hand, pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective components. Recent human brain imaging studies have examined differences in activity in the nucleus accumbens between controls and patients with chronic pain, and have revealed that the nucleus accumbens plays a role in predicting the value of a noxious stimulus and its offset, and in the consequent changes in the motivational state. In this review, we provide a very brief overview of a comprehensive understanding of chronic pain associated with emotional dysregulation due to transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modification and miRNA regulation. PMID:26434097

  10. Spectral confocal imaging of fluorescently tagged nicotinic receptors in knock-in mice with chronic nicotine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Anthony; Nashmi, Raad

    2012-02-10

    neurons via spectral confocal microscopy. The targeted fluorescent knock-in mutation is incorporated in the endogenous locus and under control of its native promoter, producing normal levels of expression and regulation of the receptor when compared to untagged receptors in wildtype mice. This knock-in approach can be extended to fluorescently tag other ion channels and offers a powerful approach of visualizing and quantifying receptors in the CNS. In this paper we describe a methodology to quantify changes in nAChR expression in specific CNS neurons after exposure to chronic nicotine. Our methods include mini-osmotic pump implantation, intracardiac perfusion fixation, imaging and analysis of fluorescently tagged nicotinic receptor subunits from α4YFP knock-in mice (Fig. 1). We have optimized the fixation technique to minimize autofluorescence from fixed brain tissue. We describe in detail our imaging methodology using a spectral confocal microscope in conjunction with a linear spectral unmixing algorithm to subtract autofluoresent signal in order to accurately obtain α4YFP fluorescence signal. Finally, we show results of chronic nicotine-induced upregulation of α4YFP receptors in the medial perforant path of the hippocampus.

  11. α-1-Antitrypsin detected by MALDI imaging in the study of glomerulonephritis: Its relevance in chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; De Sio, Gabriele; Ferrario, Franco; Scalia, Carla; Dell'Antonio, Giacomo; Pieruzzi, Federico; Pontillo, Claudia; Filip, Szymon; Markoska, Katerina; Granata, Antonio; Spasovski, Goce; Jankowski, Joachim; Capasso, Giovambattista; Pagni, Fabio; Magni, Fulvio

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic glomerulonephritis (GN), such as membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and IgA nephropathy (IgAN), represent the most frequent primary glomerular kidney diseases (GKDs) worldwide. Although the renal biopsy currently remains the gold standard for the routine diagnosis of idiopathic GN, the invasiveness and diagnostic difficulty related with this procedure highlight the strong need for new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to be translated into less invasive diagnostic tools. MALDI-MS imaging MALDI-MSI was applied to fresh-frozen bioptic renal tissue from patients with a histological diagnosis of FSGS (n = 6), IgAN, (n = 6) and membranous glomerulonephritis (n = 7), and from controls (n = 4) in order to detect specific molecular signatures of primary glomerulonephritis. MALDI-MSI was able to generate molecular signatures capable to distinguish between normal kidney and pathological GN, with specific signals (m/z 4025, 4048, and 4963) representing potential indicators of chronic kidney disease development. Moreover, specific disease-related signatures (m/z 4025 and 4048 for FSGS, m/z 4963 and 5072 for IgAN) were detected. Of these signals, m/z 4048 was identified as α-1-antitrypsin and was shown to be localized to the podocytes within sclerotic glomeruli by immunohistochemistry. α-1-Antitrypsin could be one of the markers of podocyte stress that is correlated with the development of FSGS due to both an excessive loss and a hypertrophy of podocytes. PMID:26749278

  12. [Chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome in comparison with other signs belonging to the image of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Jolanta; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder which concern even 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disorders with chronic anovulation. The most common clinical symptoms observed in PCOS are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients with PCOS often suffer from metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis and other abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. 35 to 60% of women with PCOS are obese and about 50% of them have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis emphasizes the role of inflammatory processes. There are a number of markers of the inflammation process. They are also observed in PCOS and may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women. More than 46% of women with PCOS can be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Because of the fact that patients with PCOS are at higher risk group of the earlier development of complications such as diabetes t 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension and cardiovascular system diseases, it is important to carry out metabolic disorders diagnosis in every patient with PCOS. It will help to estimate the risk of complications and allow for the implementation of prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases belonging to the image of PCOS.

  13. α-1-Antitrypsin detected by MALDI imaging in the study of glomerulonephritis: Its relevance in chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; De Sio, Gabriele; Ferrario, Franco; Scalia, Carla; Dell'Antonio, Giacomo; Pieruzzi, Federico; Pontillo, Claudia; Filip, Szymon; Markoska, Katerina; Granata, Antonio; Spasovski, Goce; Jankowski, Joachim; Capasso, Giovambattista; Pagni, Fabio; Magni, Fulvio

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic glomerulonephritis (GN), such as membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and IgA nephropathy (IgAN), represent the most frequent primary glomerular kidney diseases (GKDs) worldwide. Although the renal biopsy currently remains the gold standard for the routine diagnosis of idiopathic GN, the invasiveness and diagnostic difficulty related with this procedure highlight the strong need for new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to be translated into less invasive diagnostic tools. MALDI-MS imaging MALDI-MSI was applied to fresh-frozen bioptic renal tissue from patients with a histological diagnosis of FSGS (n = 6), IgAN, (n = 6) and membranous glomerulonephritis (n = 7), and from controls (n = 4) in order to detect specific molecular signatures of primary glomerulonephritis. MALDI-MSI was able to generate molecular signatures capable to distinguish between normal kidney and pathological GN, with specific signals (m/z 4025, 4048, and 4963) representing potential indicators of chronic kidney disease development. Moreover, specific disease-related signatures (m/z 4025 and 4048 for FSGS, m/z 4963 and 5072 for IgAN) were detected. Of these signals, m/z 4048 was identified as α-1-antitrypsin and was shown to be localized to the podocytes within sclerotic glomeruli by immunohistochemistry. α-1-Antitrypsin could be one of the markers of podocyte stress that is correlated with the development of FSGS due to both an excessive loss and a hypertrophy of podocytes.

  14. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  15. Investigation on the cellular damage of hippocampus neuron in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion%慢性脑低灌注大鼠海马神经元损伤的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 章军建; 杨英; 张磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the the cellular damage of hippocampus neuron in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Methods Rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was established by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO). Eight weeks after the operation,the brains were removed and examined with histological stains, electron microscope, flow cytometer and Western Blotting. Results Compared with the control group,the arrangement of hippocampus neurons in 2VO rats appeared to be more irregular, and the number of the neurons decreased partly ( CA2: ( 34.75 ± 3.40) vs (49.25 ± 9.67 ), P < 0. 05; DG: ( 73.50 ± 9.26)vs ( 90.75 ± 4.35 ), P < 0. 05 ). By electron microscopic study of hippocampus neurons in 2VO rats, the nuclei became smaller and the heterochromatin assembled in the border of the nuclei in some neurons, while cytoplasm swelled,especially in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The rate of apoptosis of hippocampus neurons in 2VO rats( (9. 117 ±2. 540)% ) ,detected by the flow cytometer,was higher than that of sham group( (4. 750 ±3.481 ) % ) (P < 0. 05 ). The expression of pro-caspase-3 in hippocampus of 2 VO rats was not altered significantly compared with the control group(P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion The cellular damage of hippocampus neuron in 2VO rats was mainly caused by apoptosis.%目的 探究慢性脑低灌注大鼠海马神经元损伤的机制.方法 双侧颈总动脉结扎(2VO)制备慢性脑低灌注大鼠模型,2VO术后8周取材,分别进行HE染色、电镜、流式细胞术以及Western Blotting检测.结果 HE结果显示2VO组的海马神经元排列稍紊乱,且数量与假手术对照相比有不同程度减少[CA2区:(34.75±3.40)个,(49.25±9.67)个,P<0.05;DG区:(73.50±9.26)个,(90.75±4.35)个,P<0.05];电镜观察发现2VO组大鼠海马区部分神经元胞核中略有固缩,出现异染色质边集,胞浆则出现水肿,以线粒体与内质网尤甚;流式细胞术结果表明2VO组

  16. [Diagnostic image (153). A boy with chronic hereditary pancreatitis and nocturnal abdominal pain. Multiple, large pseudo-cysts of the pancreas, caused by chronic hereditary pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, R.; Wildenberg, F.J. van den

    2003-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy with chronic hereditary pancreatitis developed nocturnal episodes of pain in the back and abdomen. CT revealed two large pseudocysts of the pancreas and one smaller pseudocyst near the hilus of the spleen. The two largest pseudocysts were surgically drained into the stomach and the

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  18. Evaluation of the asynchronization and function of the left ventricle in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension by velocity vector imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao-hong; WANG Yue-heng; NIU Ning-ning; XIE Ying-xin; WANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a set of pathophysiological syndromes characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance,resulting in increased right ventricular afterload.The left and right ventricles interact through hemodynamics.What impact will PH have on synchronization and function of the left ventricle (LV)? The aim of this study was to evaluate the synchronization of the left ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function in patients with varying degrees of PH using velocity vector imaging (Wl) technology.Methods Sixty patients with chronic PH served as the experimental group,and 20 healthy volunteers served as the control group.According to the different degrees of pulmonary artery systolic pressure,the experimental group was divided into three groups:mild,moderate,and severe PH groups.The time to peak systolic longitudinal velocity (Tvl),the peak systolic longitudinal velocity (Vsl),the peak diastolic longitudinal velocity (Vel),the peak systolic longitudinal strain (SI),and strain rate (SRI) in 18 segments were measured in each group.Results TvI in the control group and each group with PH was reduced from basal to apical segment,and in control group Tvl in various segments of the same wall and in different walls showed no significant difference (P >0.05).With increase in pulmonary artery pressure,Tvl values measured showed an increasing trend in groups with PH.In groups with PH,Vsl and Vel of each wall were reduced sequentially from basal to apical segments,showing gradient change; Vsl and Vel values measured showed a decreasing trend with increase in pulmonary artery pressure,in which the differences of Vel values measured in the control group and the mild PH group were statistically significant (P <0.01),and the differences between other groups were statistically significant (P <0.01).In groups with PH,SI and SRI in basal segment and the middle segment of each wall were decreased; the

  19. Low Risk for Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis in Nondialysis Patients Who Have Chronic Kidney Disease and Are Investigated with Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou, Constantina; Power, Albert; Shurrab, Aladdin E.; Husain, Sayed; Moser, Steven; Lay, James; Salama, Alan D.; Kalra, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: During the past decade, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been reported in patients who have severe renal impairment and have been exposed to a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a result of positive reporting bias, many suitable patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are being denied a highly important form of investigation that can be safely undertaken. We analyzed the safety of Gd-MRI in patients with CKD an...

  20. Hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy of the lower leg following chronic radiculopathy and neuropathy: imaging findings in two patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuckeleer, L. de; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Netherlands); Vanhoenacker, F. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Netherlands)]|[Department of Radiology, AZ St. Maarten, Campus Duffel, Duffel (Belgium); Schepper, A. Jr. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Netherlands)]|[Department of Radiology, AZ Middelheim, Antwerpen (Belgium); Seynaeve, P. [Department of Radiology, AZ Middelheim, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    1999-04-01

    Enlargement of the ipsilateral muscle compartment is an exceptional finding in patients with chronic radiculopathy, peripheral nerve injury, anterior horn cell diseases, or acquired peripheral neuropathy. We report radiographic, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI findings in a patient with chronic S1 radiculopathy and another with chronic neuropathy of the common fibular nerve (L4-S2), both presenting with painless enlargement of the calf muscles. (orig.) With 2 figs., 7 refs.

  1. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  2. Hepatic necro-inflammation and elevated liver enzymes: Evaluation with MRI perfusion imaging with gadoxetic acid in chronic hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate liver necro-inflammation and function by using gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), with histological analysis as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine subjects (21 healthy subjects; 58 chronic hepatitis patients) who received gadoxetic acid-enhanced DCE-MRI were divided into three subgroups: no (A0, n = 31), mild (A1, n = 27), and moderate–severe (A2–A3, n = 21) activities. Two DCE-MRI models were measured: (1) a dual-input single-compartment model to obtain absolute arterial, portal venous, and total blood flow, arterial fraction (ART), distribution volume, and mean transit time; (2) a curve analysis method to obtain peak, slope, and AUC (area under curve). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels also obtained. Statistical testing included Kruskal–Wallis tests for continuous data, Pearson's correlation tests, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Hepatic necro-inflammatory activity grades were significantly correlated with fibrotic stages, serum ALT level, ART and AUC. ART was helpful to predict the mild activity (≤A1 versus >A1; Az = 0.728), whereas AUC could differentiate no activity from any activity (A0 versus >A0; Az = 0.703). Peak, slope and AUC were all associated with AST and ALT (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced DCE-MRI parameters may be used to evaluate the severity of hepatic necro-inflammation and function

  3. Evaluation of the Differences of Myocardial Fibers between Acute and Chronic Myocardial Infarction: Application of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Rhesus Monkey Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqing; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Xia, Rui; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand microstructural changes after myocardial infarction (MI), we evaluated myocardial fibers of rhesus monkeys during acute or chronic MI, and identified the differences of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI. Materials and Methods Six fixed hearts of rhesus monkeys with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 1 hour or 84 days were scanned by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and helix angle (HA). Results Comparing with acute MI monkeys (FA: 0.59 ± 0.02; ADC: 5.0 ± 0.6 × 10-4 mm2/s; HA: 94.5 ± 4.4°), chronic MI monkeys showed remarkably decreased FA value (0.26 ± 0.03), increased ADC value (7.8 ± 0.8 × 10-4mm2/s), decreased HA transmural range (49.5 ± 4.6°) and serious defects on endocardium in infarcted regions. The HA in infarcted regions shifted to more components of negative left-handed helix in chronic MI monkeys (-38.3 ± 5.0°–11.2 ± 4.3°) than in acute MI monkeys (-41.4 ± 5.1°–53.1 ± 3.7°), but the HA in remote regions shifted to more components of positive right-handed helix in chronic MI monkeys (-43.8 ± 2.7°–66.5 ± 4.9°) than in acute MI monkeys (-59.5 ± 3.4°–64.9 ± 4.3°). Conclusion Diffusion tensor MRI method helps to quantify differences of mechanical microstructure and water diffusion of myocardial fibers between acute and chronic MI monkey's models. PMID:27587961

  4. Long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on chronic heart failure. Examination by 123I-MIBG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril on chronic heart failure, 10 patients (7 men and 3 women, mean age: 62±11 years) with chronic stable heart failure, classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class 2-3 for more than 3 months, and a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% were treated with 2.5-5.0 mg of enalapril once a day for 3-15 months (mean 7 months). The causes of heart failure were old myocardial infarction (n=7), hypertension (n=2), and atrial fibrillation (n=1). Radioiodinated metaiodobenzyl guanidine (123I-MIBG) imaging, radionuclide angiography, and treadmill exercise test were performed before and after the treatment. With enalapril treatment, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increased significantly from 38.3±6.9% to 47.5±14.7%; sub-maximal exercise time increased significantly from 205±112 to 272±120 seconds; the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of 123I-MIBG increased significantly (early image: 1.99±0.38 versus 2.20±0.50; delayed image: 1.86±0.44 versus 2.09±0.51); and the washout rate of 123I-MIBG decreased slightly from 29.1±9.1% to 25.4±7.0%. The improvement rate of LVEF was significantly correlated with the improvement rates of the H/M ratio and washout rate after treatment with enalapril. Thus, the long-term effects of enalapril can be observed in the cardiac sympathetic nervous system, and 123I-MIBG imaging appears to be useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of enalapril on the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in patients with chronic heart failure. (author)

  5. Long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on chronic heart failure. Examination by {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeki, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Bandou, Kanji; Tanaka, Hideji; Takeichi, Naoki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Yui, Yasuko; Fukuda, Nobuo; Sui, Osamu [Zentsuji National Hospital, Kagawa (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    To examine the long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril on chronic heart failure, 10 patients (7 men and 3 women, mean age: 62{+-}11 years) with chronic stable heart failure, classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class 2-3 for more than 3 months, and a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% were treated with 2.5-5.0 mg of enalapril once a day for 3-15 months (mean 7 months). The causes of heart failure were old myocardial infarction (n=7), hypertension (n=2), and atrial fibrillation (n=1). Radioiodinated metaiodobenzyl guanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) imaging, radionuclide angiography, and treadmill exercise test were performed before and after the treatment. With enalapril treatment, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increased significantly from 38.3{+-}6.9% to 47.5{+-}14.7%; sub-maximal exercise time increased significantly from 205{+-}112 to 272{+-}120 seconds; the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of {sup 123}I-MIBG increased significantly (early image: 1.99{+-}0.38 versus 2.20{+-}0.50; delayed image: 1.86{+-}0.44 versus 2.09{+-}0.51); and the washout rate of {sup 123}I-MIBG decreased slightly from 29.1{+-}9.1% to 25.4{+-}7.0%. The improvement rate of LVEF was significantly correlated with the improvement rates of the H/M ratio and washout rate after treatment with enalapril. Thus, the long-term effects of enalapril can be observed in the cardiac sympathetic nervous system, and {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging appears to be useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of enalapril on the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in patients with chronic heart failure. (author)

  6. Metastatic calcification demonstrated by Tc-99m HMDP chest SPECT imaging in patients with chronic renal failure and long-term dialytic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest SPECT using Tc-99m HMDP is the most suitable method assessing early metastatic calcification of the lung. In 68 chronic renal failure patients, the images were obtained by using 3 detecting element type camera. The positive rate with planar image was 14.7%. The positive rate of the case showing higher accumulation of Tl in lung field than in heart pool and was strongly suspected as calcification, was 48.5% in SPECT image, and the case showing similar accumulation between lung field and heart pool, was 44.1%. In the cases of diffuse accumulation in all lung (8 cases), i-PTH was less than 65 pg/ml (normal level), and in the case of anomaly cumulus (5 of 6 cases), i-PTH was also less than 65 pg/ml. (K.H.)

  7. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  8. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progressi...

  9. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an unusual clinical entity. More than 200 cases are described in the literature and it is presented here with special reference to its radiological aspects. It is an acquired disease of the skeleton which occurs predominantly during childhood and adolescence. About ten per cent of cases begin in early or, rarely, in later adult life. This variant is described here for the first time and is discussed as 'adult CRMO'. The underlying pathology is a bland, predominantly lympho-plasma cellular osteomyelitis which is self-limiting and leads to bone sclerosis (Garre). It probably involves an abnormal immune process which follows an infection but remains clinically latent and remains aseptic and sterile. In a quarter of cases there is an association with pustulosis palmo-plantaris and its relationship with psoriatic arthropathy is discussed. The clinical, histopathological and imaging features (radiological and particularly MRT) and the bone changes are described. (orig./AJ)

  10. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic feature of all forms of chronic kidney disease. Deposition of pathological matrix in the interstitial space and within the walls of glomerular capillaries as well as the cellular processes resulting in this deposition are increasingly recognized as important factors amplifying kidney injury and accelerating nephron demise. Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis herald the promise of new therapies to slow kidney disease progression. This review focuses on new findings that enhance understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the characteristics of myofibroblasts, their progenitors, and molecular pathways regulating both fibrogenesis and its resolution. PMID:24892703

  11. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  12. Cerebral responses to innocuous somatic pressure stimulation following aerobic exercise rehabilitation in chronic pain patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micalos PS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter S Micalos,1 Mayuresh S Korgaonkar,2 Eric J Drinkwater,3 Jack Cannon,3 Frank E Marino3 1School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, 2Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney Medical School, Sydney, 3School of Human Movement Studies, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia Objective: The purpose of this research was to assess the functional brain activity and perceptual rating of innocuous somatic pressure stimulation before and after exercise rehabilitation in patients with chronic pain. Materials and methods: Eleven chronic pain patients and eight healthy pain-free controls completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise intervention. Perceptual rating of standardized somatic pressure stimulation (2 kg on the right anterior mid-thigh and brain responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI were assessed at pre- and postexercise rehabilitation. Results: There was a significant difference in the perceptual rating of innocuous somatic pressure stimulation between the chronic pain and control groups (P=0.02 but no difference following exercise rehabilitation. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis with correction for multiple comparisons revealed trends for differences in fMRI responses between the chronic pain and control groups in the superior temporal gyrus (chronic pain > control, corrected P=0.30, thalamus, and caudate (control > chronic, corrected P=0.23. Repeated measures of the regions of interest (5 mm radius for blood oxygen level-dependent signal response revealed trend differences for superior temporal gyrus (P=0.06, thalamus (P=0.04, and caudate (P=0.21. Group-by-time interactions revealed trend differences in the caudate (P=0.10 and superior temporal gyrus (P=0.29. Conclusion: Augmented perceptual and brain responses to innocuous somatic pressure stimulation were shown in the chronic pain group compared to the control group; however, 12-weeks of exercise

  13. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  14. Clinical value of lung uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a myocardial sympathetic nerve imaging agent, in patients with chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the clinical value of I-123 MIBG pulmonary accumulation and washout in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Nineteen patients with CHF and 15 normal volunteers (NL) were included. The uptake ratio of heart to mediastinum (H/M), that of lung fields to mediastinum (L/M), and washout rate (WR) of the heart and lung fields were calculated in anterior planar images and compared with results of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. In the CHF group, the lung uptake in delayed images increased and lung WR was decreased, suggesting pulmonary endothelial lesions. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between right and left lung WR and pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure (PA(D)) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PA(S)) in the CHF group. Since the WR of MIBG reflected PA, it may be used as an index of severity of cardiac dysfunction. (author)

  15. Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Jones, Steven M; Pilli, Suman; Balderas-Mata, Sandra; Kim, Dae Yu; Olivier, Scot S; Werner, John S

    2011-06-01

    We describe an ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) retinal imaging system that combines adaptive optics Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to allow simultaneous data acquisition by the two modalities. The AO-SLO subsystem was integrated into the previously described AO-UHR OCT instrument with minimal changes to the latter. This was done in order to ensure optimal performance and image quality of the AO- UHR OCT. In this design both imaging modalities share most of the optical components including a common AO-subsystem and vertical scanner. One of the benefits of combining Fd-OCT with SLO includes automatic co-registration between two acquisition channels for direct comparison between retinal structures imaged by both modalities (e.g., photoreceptor mosaics or microvasculature maps). Because of differences in the detection scheme of the two systems, this dual imaging modality instrument can provide insight into retinal morphology and potentially function, that could not be accessed easily by a single system. In this paper we describe details of the components and parameters of the combined instrument, including incorporation of a novel membrane magnetic deformable mirror with increased stroke and actuator count used as a single wavefront corrector. We also discuss laser safety calculations for this multimodal system. Finally, retinal images acquired in vivo with this system are presented.

  16. Early diagnosis of interferon-induced myocardial disorder in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Evaluation by myocardial imaging with {sup 123}I-BMIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Yuki; Yukinaka, Michiko; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Ito, Susumu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C is sometimes associated with cardiac complications. In the present study, we performed myocardial imaging with {sup 123}I-labeled {beta}-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) in order to evaluate myocardial disorders caused by IFN. We studied 40 healthy subjects (H group) and 25 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had been treated with IFN (IFN group). A Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed and the autonomic nervous function was assessed by analyzing the spectral variability and 1/f fluctuation of heart rate. Myocardial planner imaging with {sup 123}I-BMIPP was performed to obtain the time activity curve for 20 min immediately after administration of {sup 123}I-BMIPP (dynamic study). Early and delayed myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were expressed as Bull's eyes and the myocardium was divided into four segments to calculate the washout rate for each segment on early and late SPECT images (early and late SPECT study). No significant differences in autonomic nervous function were observed between the two groups in heart rate variability. In a dynamic study, the reduction rate from the time activity curve was significantly higher in the IFN group compared with the H group (reduction rate, IFN group, 5.3{+-}3.7% vs H group, 1.2{+-}3.3%; P<0.05). In the early and delayed myocardial SPECT study, the washout rate for the IFN group was significantly increased in all myocardial areas compared to that in the H group. However, the metabolic disorder of fatty acids caused by IFN was reversed on the second {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy examination several months after IFN therapy. These results indicate that metabolic disorders of fatty acids caused by IFN therapy can be detected before abnormalities are observed by Holter-ECG or echocardiography. (author)

  17. Non-invasive, photonics-based diagnostic, imaging, monitoring, and light delivery techniques for the recognition, quantification and treatment of malignant and chronic inflammatory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N.; Davies-Shaw, D.; Shaw, J. D.

    2007-02-01

    We report firsthand on innovative developments in non-invasive, biophotonic techniques for a wide range of diagnostic, imaging and treatment options, including the recognition and quantification of cancerous, pre-cancerous cells and chronic inflammatory conditions. These techniques have benefited from the ability to target the affected site by both monochromatic light and broad multiple wavelength spectra. The employment of such wavelength or color-specific properties embraces the fluorescence stimulation of various photosensitizing drugs, and the instigation and detection of identified fluorescence signatures attendant upon laser induced fluorescence (LIF) phenomena as transmitted and propagated by precancerous, cancerous and normal tissue. In terms of tumor imaging and therapeutic and treatment options, we have exploited the abilities of various wavelengths to penetrate to different depths, through different types of tissues, and have explored quantifiable absorption and reflection characteristics upon which diagnostic assumptions can be reliably based and formulated. These biophotonic-based diagnostic, sensing and imaging techniques have also benefited from, and have been further enhanced by, the integrated ability to provide various power levels to be employed at various stages in the procedure. Applications are myriad, including non-invasive, non destructive diagnosis of in vivo cell characteristics and functions; light-based tissue analysis; real-time monitoring and mapping of brain function and of tumor growth; real time monitoring of the surgical completeness of tumor removal during laser-imaged/guided brain resection; diagnostic procedures based on fluorescence life-time monitoring, the monitoring of chronic inflammatory conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis), and continuous blood glucose monitoring in the control of diabetes.

  18. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  19. Preliminary study on forming microbubble-surrounded cells as carriers for cellular therapy and evaluation of ultrasound controllability by fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, Fumi; Murayama, Yuta; Hosaka, Naoto; Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Kohji; Enosawa, Shin; Chiba, Toshio; Oda, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    Although various cellular immune therapies have been proposed and developed, because the therapeutic cells disperse upon injection into blood flow, there is a limitation on the accumulation of the cells to the target area. We previously reported our attempts to actively control microbubbles in artificial blood vessels, and here we propose a new method of carrying therapeutic cells for cellular therapy using microbubbles and ultrasound. When microbubbles and their aggregations attach to the surface of therapeutic cells, the acoustic force needed to propel the cells is increased because of the size expansion and the boundary in acoustic impedance on the cell surface. We fabricated a cylindrical chamber including two ultrasound transducers to emit a suspension of microbubbles (TF-BLs, transferrin-bubble liposomes) on the cells (Colon-26) to enhance the adhesion of microbubbles on the cells. We found that the optimum conditions for producing BL-surrounded cells were a sound pressure of 100 kPa-pp, an exposure time of 30 s, and a TF-BL concentration of 0.33 mg lipid/mL, when the cell concentration was constant at 0.77 × 105/mL in phosphate-buffered saline. Using these BL-surrounded cells, we confirmed the controllability of the cells under ultrasound exposure, where the displacement increased in proportion to the sound pressure and was not confirmed with the original cells.

  20. Pancreatic carcinoma coexisting with chronic pancreatitis versus tumor-forming pancreatitis: Diagnostic utility of the time-signal intensity curve from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshitsugu Tajima; Tamotsu Kuroki; Ryuji Tsutsumi; Ichiro Isomoto; Masataka Uetani; Takashi Kanematsu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the ability of the time-signal intensity curve (TIC) of the pancreas obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of focal pancreatic masses, especially pancreatic carcinoma coexisting with chronic pancreatitis and tumor-forming pancreatitis.METHODS: Forty-eight consecutive patients who underwent surgery for a focal pancreatic mass, including pancreatic ductal carcinoma (n = 33), tumor-forming pancreatitis (n = 8), and islet cell tumor (n = 7), were reviewed. Five pancreatic carcinomas coexisted with longstanding chronic pancreatitis. The pancreatic TICs were obtained from the pancreatic mass and the pancreatic parenchyma both proximal and distal to the mass lesion in each patient, prior to surgery, and were classified into 4 types according to the time to a peak: 25 s and 1, 2, and 3 min after the bolus injection of contrast material, namely, type-Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,and IV, respectively, and were then compared to the corresponding histological pancreatic conditions.RESULTS: Pancreatic carcinomas demonstrated type-m (n = 13) or IV (n = 20) TIC. Tumor-forming pancreatitis showed type-Ⅱ(n = 5) or Ⅲ(n = 3) TIC. All islet cell tumors revealed type-1. The type-IV TIC was only recognized in pancreatic carcinoma, and the TIC of carcinoma always depicted the slowest rise to a peak among the 3 pancreatic TICs measured in each patient, even in patients with chronic pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Pancreatic TIC from dynamic MRI provides reliable information for distinguishing pancreatic carcinoma from other pancreatic masses, and may enable us to avoid unnecessary pancreatic surgery and delays in making a correct diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma, especially, in patients with longstanding chronic pancreatitis.

  1. Computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormalities as an imaging biomarker for the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Noda, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Fujita, Hiroshi [Department of Intelligent Image Information Division of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Hepatic contour was quantified and converted to hepatic fibrosis index (HFI). • HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio of 26.4. • HFI may be an important imaging biomarker for managing cirrhotic patients. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate whether a hepatic fibrosis index (HFI), quantified on the basis of hepatic contour abnormality, is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study and written informed consent was waved. During a 14-month period, consecutive 98 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no medical history of HCC treatment (56 men and 42 women; mean age, 70.7 years; range, 48–91 years) were included in this study. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte specific phase was used to detect and analyze hepatic contour abnormality. Hepatic contour abnormality was quantified and converted to HFI using in-house proto-type software. We compared HFI between patients with (n = 54) and without HCC (n = 44). Serum levels of albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, percent prothrombin time, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein, protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, and HFI were tested as possible risk factors for the development of HCC by determining the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis. Results: HFIs were significantly higher in patients with HCC (0.58 ± 0.86) than those without (0.36 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). Logistic analysis revealed that only HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC development with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 26.4 (9.0–77.8) using a cutoff value of 0.395. Conclusion: The hepatic fibrosis index, generated using a computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormality, may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  2. Computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormalities as an imaging biomarker for the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hepatic contour was quantified and converted to hepatic fibrosis index (HFI). • HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio of 26.4. • HFI may be an important imaging biomarker for managing cirrhotic patients. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate whether a hepatic fibrosis index (HFI), quantified on the basis of hepatic contour abnormality, is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study and written informed consent was waved. During a 14-month period, consecutive 98 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no medical history of HCC treatment (56 men and 42 women; mean age, 70.7 years; range, 48–91 years) were included in this study. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte specific phase was used to detect and analyze hepatic contour abnormality. Hepatic contour abnormality was quantified and converted to HFI using in-house proto-type software. We compared HFI between patients with (n = 54) and without HCC (n = 44). Serum levels of albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, percent prothrombin time, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein, protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, and HFI were tested as possible risk factors for the development of HCC by determining the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis. Results: HFIs were significantly higher in patients with HCC (0.58 ± 0.86) than those without (0.36 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). Logistic analysis revealed that only HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC development with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 26.4 (9.0–77.8) using a cutoff value of 0.395. Conclusion: The hepatic fibrosis index, generated using a computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormality, may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

  3. Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, RJ; Jones, SM; Pilli, S; Balderas-Mata, S; Kim, DY; Olivier, SS; Werner, JS

    2011-01-01

    We describe an ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) retinal imaging system that combines adaptive optics Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to allow simultaneous data acquisition by the two modalities. The AO-SLO subsystem was integrated into the previously described AO-UHR OCT instrument with minimal changes to the latter. This was done in order to ensure optimal performance and image quality of the AO- UHR OCT. In this d...

  4. Advances in tracking immunocytes using cellular magnetic resonance imaging in vivo%细胞磁共振成像技术在体示踪免疫细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 姚振威

    2014-01-01

    Tumor immunotherapy is a new treatment modality following surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In vivo tracking immunocyte helps to direct immunotherapy, as well as predict and assess the treatment effect. Cellular magnetic resonance imaging, applying specific contrast agents, is a non-invasive imaging modality capable of monitoring the real-time migration of cells in vivo repeatedly. These years, a lot of related studies have been conducted and certain research progress has been achieved. This article reviews the advances in the study of immunocytes tracking using cellular mag-netic resonance image in vivo.%肿瘤免疫治疗是继手术、放疗和化疗后出现的一种新的治疗方法。在体示踪免疫细胞有助于指导肿瘤的免疫治疗并预测和评估其治疗效果。细胞磁共振成像技术运用特殊的对比剂,能够无创、实时、可重复地监测体内细胞的活动。近年来,研究者对应用细胞磁共振成像技术在体示踪免疫细胞进行了大量的研究并取得了一定的进展,该文将就这一研究进展作一综述。

  5. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  6. DOBUTAMINE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING PREDICTS CONTRACTILE RESERVE OF CHRONICALLY DYSFUNCTIONAL MYOCARDIUM: COMPARISON WITH FLUORINE-18 FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. This study sought to investigate whether low-dose dobutamine-MRI can detect residual myocardial viability in patients with chronic myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction.Methods. Eleven patients with chronic myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction were employed for identification of viable myocardium by cine-MRI during dobutamine infusion. All patients underwent coronary angiography and left ventriculography,18FDG-PET, MRI at rest and stress.The systolic wall thickening measured at rest and during stress was compared with the results of 18FDG- PET, respectively.Results. A significant difference of either dobutamine-induced systolic wall thickening (SWthstress) or dobutamine-induced contractile reserve (ΔSWth= SWthstress- SWthrest) was present between viable and scar regions (1.0±0.3 versus -0.3 ±0.1, P<0.01; 1.0±0.3 versus -0.2±0.2, P<0.01).

  7. Spectral Confocal Imaging of Fluorescently tagged Nicotinic Receptors in Knock-in Mice with Chronic Nicotine Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Renda, Anthony; Nashmi, Raad

    2012-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels in the central nervous system (CNS) are implicated in numerous conditions with serious medical and social consequences. For instance, addiction to nicotine via tobacco smoking is a leading cause of premature death worldwide (World Health Organization) and is likely caused by an alteration of ion channel distribution in the brain1. Chronic nicotine exposure in both rodents and humans results in increased numbers of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain t...

  8. Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: a systematic review of adolescent and adult findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Batalla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. METHODS: Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. LIMITATIONS: However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. CONCLUSION: Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives.

  9. Chronic bacterial osteomyelitis: prospective comparison of {sup 18}F-FDG imaging with a dual-head coincidence camera and {sup 111}In-labelled autologous leucocyte scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, J.; Siefker, U.; Lehmann, K.; Meyer, I.; Schreiber, K.; Altenvoerde, G.; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Koester, G. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Liersch, T. [Dept. of Traumatic Surgery, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled white blood cells ({sup 111}In-WBCs) are currently considered the tracer of choice in the diagnostic work-up of suspected active chronic osteomyelitis (COM). Previous studies in a limited number of patients, performed with dedicated PET systems, have shown that [{sup 18}F]2'-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) imaging may offer at least similar diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this prospective study was to compare FDG imaging with a dual-head coincidence camera (DHCC) and {sup 111}In-WBC imaging in patients with suspected COM. Thirty consecutive non-diabetic patients with possible COM underwent combined skeletal scintigraphy (30/30 patients), {sup 111}In-WBC imaging (28/30 patients) and FDG-PET with a DHCC (30/30 patients). During diagnostic work-up, COM was proven in 11/36 regions of suspected skeletal infection and subsequently excluded in 25/36 regions. In addition, soft tissue infection was present in five patients and septic arthritis in three. {sup 111}In-WBC imaging in 28 patients was true positive in 2/11 regions with proven COM and true negative in 21/23 regions without further evidence of COM. False-positive results occurred in two regions and false-negative results in nine regions suspected for COM. Most of the false-negative results (7/9) occurred in the central skeleton. If the analysis was restricted to the 18 regions with available histology (n=17) or culture (n=1), {sup 111}In-WBC imaging was true positive in 2/18 regions, true negative in 8/18 regions, false negative in 7/18 regions and false positive in 1/18 regions. FDG-DHCC imaging was true positive in 11/11 regions with proven COM and true negative in 23/25 regions without further evidence of COM. False-positive results occurred in two regions. If the analysis was restricted to the 19 regions with available histology (n=18) or culture (n=1), FDG-DHCC imaging was true positive in 9/9 regions with proven COM and true negative in 10/10 regions without further evidence of COM. It

  10. Analysis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Functional Imaging of Chronic Alcoholic Encephalopathy%慢性酒精中毒性脑病磁共振及功能性成像分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马隽; 王朝辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and functional imaging in chronic alcoholic encephalopathy patients. Method 32 cases with chronic alcoholic encephalopathy underwent magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) scan,magnetic diffusion imaging ( DWI) scan,and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) , respectively. Results Different degrees of mental disorder were observed in all the patients,including brain atrophy,cerebral white matter demyelination,high signal in DWI,and apparent diffusion coefficient at low signal in ADC. 1 H-MRS showed that N-acetyl aspartic acid ( NAA ) and choline ( Cho ) significantly reduced at the location of lesions. Conclusion MRI and its functional imagine have important value in the diagnosis,judgment,treatment and prognosis assessment of alcoholic encephalopathy.%目的 探讨慢性酒精中毒性脑病磁共振及功能性成像改变.方法 总结32例慢性酒精中毒性脑病的患者,分别进行磁共振常规平扫、磁共振弥散成像、磁共振波谱成像分析.结果 32例患者均有不同程度的精神异常,表现为脑萎缩、脑白质脱髓鞘.磁共振弥散成像为高信号,表观扩散系数ADC图为低信号,磁共振波谱成像显示病变部位氮乙酰天门冬氨酸( NAA)以及胆碱( Cho)显著减低.结论 磁共振及其功能性成像对酒精性脑病的诊断、判断治疗及预后评价具有重要价值.

  11. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of pyrimidine nucleosides for imaging herpes simplex type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) expression in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Kevin W.; Duan Weili; Xu Lihua; Zhou Aihua; Moharram, Sameh; Knaus, Edward E.; McEwan, Alexander J.B.; Wiebe, Leonard I. E-mail: leonard.wiebe@ualberta.ca

    2004-07-01

    In vivo transfer of the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) gene, with subsequent administration of antiviral drugs such as ganciclovir, has emerged as a promising gene therapy protocol for treating proliferative disorders. The in vitro cytotoxicities (IC{sub 50}) for two series of 5-iodo- and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-substituted 2'-deoxy- and 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-pyrimidine nucleosides ranged from millimolar to low nanomolar concentrations in mammalian tumor cell lines (KBALB; R-970-5; 143B; EMT-6) and their counterparts engineered to express HSV-1 TK (KBALB-STK; 143B-LTK). Their HSV-1 TK selectivity indices ranged from one (nonselective) to one million (highly selective) based on cytotoxicity, with FIRU being the least toxic to all cell lines, and FIAU being most toxic. HSV-1 TK selectivity, based on uptake, ranged from 10 to 140, with IVDU being most selective for HSV-1 TK expressing cells, followed by IVFRU, FIRU, FIAU, IVFAU and finally IUDR. Phosphorylation of [{sup 125}I]FIAU led to incorporation of the radiolabel into nucleic acids, whereas IVFRU and FIRU radioactivity was trapped primarily in the nucleotide pool. These data indicate that cytotoxicity does not depend on initial metabolic trapping (e.g., phosphorylation), but on elaboration of the mononucleotides to more cytotoxic anabolites. Lipophilicities and nucleoside transport rates of the six nucleosides tested were within narrow ranges. This supports the premise that cellular biochemistry, and not cellular bioavailability, is responsible for the observed broad range of cytotoxicity and trapping. In vivo biodistribution studies with 5-[{sup 125}I]iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyribouridine (FIRU), 5-[{sup 125}I]iodo-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyarabinouridine (FIAU) and (E)-5-(2-[{sup 125}I]iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) demonstrate selective accumulation of all three radiotracers in HSV-1 TK-expressing KBABK-STK tumors, compared to their very low

  12. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Potential role of multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) and MR imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, G.; Brueggemann, K.; Bostel, T.; Dueber, C.; Kreitner, K.F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Mayer, E. [Kerckhoff Hospital, Bad Nauheim (Germany). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery

    2014-08-15

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension (resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or more determined at right heart catheterization) with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed disease with estimated incidences ranging from 0.5% to 3.8% of patients after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and in up to 10% of those with a history of recurrent PE. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension that can be surgically treated leading to normalization of pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in the vast majority of patients. The challenges for imaging in patients with suspected CTEPH are fourfold: the imaging modality should have a high diagnostic accuracy with regard to the presence of CTEPH and allow for differential diagnosis. It should enable detection of patients suitable for PEA with great certainty, and allow for quantification of PH by measuring pulmonary hemodynamics (mPAP and PVR), and finally, it can be used for therapy monitoring. This overview tries to elucidate the potential role of ECG-gated multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (MD-CTPA) and MR imaging, and summarizes the most important results that have been achieved so far. Generally speaking, ECG-gated MD-CTPA is superior to MR in the assessment of parenchymal and vascular pathologies of the lung, and allows for the assessment of cardiac structures. The implementation of iodine maps as a surrogate for lung perfusion enables functional assessment of lung perfusion by CT. MR imaging is the reference standard for the assessment of right heart function and lung perfusion, the latter delineating typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects in patients with CTEPH. New developments show that with MR techniques, an estimation of hemodynamic parameters like mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance will be possible. CT and MR imaging should be considered as complementary

  13. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Potential role of multidetector-row CT (MD-CT) and MR imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension (resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or more determined at right heart catheterization) with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects. It is a rare, but underdiagnosed disease with estimated incidences ranging from 0.5% to 3.8% of patients after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and in up to 10% of those with a history of recurrent PE. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension that can be surgically treated leading to normalization of pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in the vast majority of patients. The challenges for imaging in patients with suspected CTEPH are fourfold: the imaging modality should have a high diagnostic accuracy with regard to the presence of CTEPH and allow for differential diagnosis. It should enable detection of patients suitable for PEA with great certainty, and allow for quantification of PH by measuring pulmonary hemodynamics (mPAP and PVR), and finally, it can be used for therapy monitoring. This overview tries to elucidate the potential role of ECG-gated multidetector CT pulmonary angiography (MD-CTPA) and MR imaging, and summarizes the most important results that have been achieved so far. Generally speaking, ECG-gated MD-CTPA is superior to MR in the assessment of parenchymal and vascular pathologies of the lung, and allows for the assessment of cardiac structures. The implementation of iodine maps as a surrogate for lung perfusion enables functional assessment of lung perfusion by CT. MR imaging is the reference standard for the assessment of right heart function and lung perfusion, the latter delineating typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects in patients with CTEPH. New developments show that with MR techniques, an estimation of hemodynamic parameters like mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance will be possible. CT and MR imaging should be considered as complementary

  14. Assessment of liver fibrosis with 2-D shear wave elastography in comparison to transient elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ludmila; Kasper, Daniela; Fitting, Daniel; Knop, Viola; Vermehren, Annika; Sprinzl, Kathrin; Hansmann, Martin L; Herrmann, Eva; Bojunga, Joerg; Albert, Joerg; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2-D SWE) is an ultrasound-based elastography method integrated into a conventional ultrasound machine. It can evaluate larger regions of interest and, therefore, might be better at determining the overall fibrosis distribution. The aim of this prospective study was to compare 2-D SWE with the two best evaluated liver elastography methods, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force impulse (point SWE using acoustic radiation force impulse) imaging, in the same population group. The study included 132 patients with chronic hepatopathies, in which liver stiffness was evaluated using transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and 2-D SWE. The reference methods were liver biopsy for the assessment of liver fibrosis (n = 101) and magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (n = 31). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy, assessed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), was found between the three elastography methods (2-D SWE, transient elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging) for the diagnosis of significant and advanced fibrosis and liver cirrhosis in the "per protocol" (AUROCs for fibrosis stages ≥2: 0.90, 0.95 and 0.91; for fibrosis stage [F] ≥3: 0.93, 0.95 and 0.94; for F = 4: 0.92, 0.96 and 0.92) and "intention to diagnose" cohort (AUROCs for F ≥2: 0.87, 0.92 and 0.91; for F ≥3: 0.91, 0.93 and 0.94; for F = 4: 0.88, 0.90 and 0.89). Therefore, 2-D SWE, ARFI imaging and transient elastography seem to be comparably good methods for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. PMID:26116161

  15. A quantitative index measured on 99mTc GSA SPECT/CT 3D fused images to evaluate severe fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared quantitative indices estimated by use of technetium-99m galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) fused imaging and hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. On the basis of pathological findings we divided 161 patients into non-severe and severe fibrosis groups (n=81 and n=80, respectively). We measured 2 indices by 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fused imaging: liver uptake value (LUV) = [radioactivity (whole liver)/radioactivity (injected)] x 100/body surface area, and functional liver index (FLI)=[radioactivity (hepatocytes)/radioactivity (injected)] x 100/liver volume. We compared these indices with biochemical and histopathological results. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that FLI, LUV, liver and heart ROIs at 15 min post-injection (LHL15), and prothrombin time were significant independent predictors of severe fibrosis. On the basis of receiver operating characteristics analysis, the areas under curve values of FLI, LUV, LHL15, and prothrombin time for predicting severe fibrosis were 0.83, 0.73, 0.69, and 0.68, respectively. Using an FLI value of 0.053, it was possible to predict severe fibrosis with 65% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 76% accuracy. Assessment of functional hepatocytes by use of 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fused images is useful for identifying pathological liver fibrosis. (author)

  16. Radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in Thailand. Final report for the period 10 December 1987 - 15 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide pulmonary function studies such as aerosol inhalation lung imaging, mucociliary clearance and pulmonary epithelial were developed and studied in normal and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The results of the aerosol inhalation lung imaging in 71 cases of COPD revealed that the aerosol inhalation lung scan was the most sensitive test for the diagnosis of early COPD as compared to the chest X-ray, vascular perfusion lung scan and spirometric test (% FEVI). The aerosol and perfusion lung scan were also performed in 21 cases of carcinoma of lung who had been treated with external radiation or chemotherapy. The result of study revealed 5 patients died during treatment, 5 patients were slightly improved, no significant change was detected in 10 cases and deterioration was found in one patient. The lung scintigraphy was studied in 15 cases of well differentiated carcinoma of thyroid with pulmonary metastasis who had I-131 treatment. The study showed that the radioactive iodine treatment dose had minimal effect on the post treatment lung imaging study. The perfusion and aerosol study in 15 cases of operated patients revealed no evidence of pulmonary embolism in post operative study. Abnormal vascular disease or pulmonary embolism was observed in one patient preoperatively. 12 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs

  17. Decreased brain venous vasculature visibility on susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojnacki David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential pathogenesis between the presence and severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its relation to clinical and imaging outcomes in brain parenchyma of multiple sclerosis (MS patients has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CCSVI, and altered brain parenchyma venous vasculature visibility (VVV on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI in patients with MS and in sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC. Methods 59 MS patients, 41 relapsing-remitting and 18 secondary-progressive, and 33 HC were imaged on a 3T GE scanner using pre- and post-contrast SWI venography. The presence and severity of CCSVI was determined using extra-cranial and trans-cranial Doppler criteria. Apparent total venous volume (ATVV, venous intracranial fraction (VIF and average distance-from-vein (DFV were calculated for various vein mean diameter categories: .9 mm. Results CCSVI criteria were fulfilled in 79.7% of MS patients and 18.2% of HC (p Conclusions MS patients with higher number of venous stenoses, indicative of CCSVI severity, showed significantly decreased venous vasculature in the brain parenchyma. The pathogenesis of these findings has to be further investigated, but they suggest that reduced metabolism and morphological changes of venous vasculature may be taking place in patients with MS.

  18. Significance of chronic marked hyperglycemia on FDG-PET. Is it really problematic for clinical oncologic imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of chronic marked hyperglycemia on clinical diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Fifty-seven scans of 54 patients, who received FDG-PET for the diagnosis of various cancer(s), and who showed high plasma glucose level of more than 200 mg/dl at the time of administration of FDG in spite of at least 4-h fasting, were retrospectively analyzed. In the clinical follow-up, this high plasma glucose was confirmed as chronic hyperglycemia derived from uncontrolled diabetes (n=32) and untreated diabetes (n=25). Based on the final diagnosis of malignancy obtained by histopathology or clinical follow-up for at least 6 months, the diagnostic performance of visual PET analysis was evaluated. Excluding nine scans of nine patients without sufficient follow-up, final diagnosis was obtained in 48 scans of 45 patients. In 36 scans of 36 patients, at least one malignant lesion was finally confirmed, and true-positive and false-negative results were obtained in 30 and six cases, respectively. Six cases showed false-negative results due to low FDG-avid pathological characteristics (hepatocellular carcinoma, etc.), chemotherapeutic effect or small tumor size. Overall, the patient-based sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 83, 83, 94, 63 and 83%, respectively. In lesion-based diagnosis, 56 of 75 lesions (74%) were depicted by PET, while 19 lesions were negative on PET, also due to low FDG-avid characteristics or small size (less than 15 mm). At the time of chronic hyperglycemia (not acute hyperglycemia), the adverse effect caused by high plasma glucose level was minimum. The FDG uptake of the tumor maintained a sufficiently high level for visual clinical diagnosis in most cases, except in the cases of low FDG-avid tumors or small lesions (15 mm in size). (author)

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  20. Cellular and subcellular alterations in immune cells induced by chronic, intermittent exposure in vivo to very low doses of ionizing radiation (LDR), and its ameliorating effects on progression of autoimmune disease and mammary tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that low doses of ionizing radiation can enhance immune response and down-regulate tumor incidence. This suggested that low dose ionizing radiation can act as a hormetic agent by modulating antigen-stimulated clonal growth and/or differentiation of immune cells. A mouse model was therefore developed to investigate the enhancing effect of LDR at the cellular and organismic levels. At he cellular level, the author investigated the up-regulating effect of LDR on the proliferative growth of mitogen-stimulated splenocytes and on the modulating influence of LDR on thymocytes undergoing differentiation. At the organismic level, the up-regulating effects of LDR on the resistance to spontaneously occurring mammary tumor and lupus-type autoimmune disease were investigated. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Enhanced cellular uptake and phototoxicity of Verteporfin-conjugated gold nanoparticles as theranostic nanocarriers for targeted photodynamic therapy and imaging of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linlin; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Kim, So Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Activatable theranostics with the capacity to respond to a given stimulus have recently been intensively explored to develop more specific, individualized therapies for various diseases, and to combine diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities into a single agent. In this work, we designed tumor-targeting ligand-conjugated block copolymer-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates as multifunctional nanocarriers of the hydrophobic photosensitizer (PS), verteporfin (Verte), for simultaneous photodynamic therapy and imaging of cancers. Folic acid (FA)-conjugated block copolymers composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly-β-benzyl-l-aspartate (PBLA) were attached to citrate-stabilized AuNPs through a bidentate dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) linker. The resulting AuNP conjugates (FA-PEG-P(Asp-Hyd)-DHLA-AuNPs) were significantly more stable than unmodified AuNPs, and their optical properties were not affected by pH. The hydrophobic PS, Verte, was covalently incorporated onto the surfaces of the AuNP conjugates through a pH-sensitive linkage, which increased the water solubility of Verte from 2000μg/ml. The size of FA-PEG-P(Asp-Hyd)-DHLA-AuNPs-Verte as determined by light-scattering measurements was about 110.3nm, and FE-SEM and FE-TEM images showed that these nanoparticles were spherical and showed adequate dispersivity after modification. In particular, an in vitro cell study revealed high intracellular uptake of FA-PEG-P(Asp-Hyd)-DHLA-AuNPs-Verte (about 98.62%) and marked phototoxicity after laser irradiation compared with free Verte. These results suggest that FA-PEG-P(Asp-Hyd)-DHLA-AuNPs-Verte has great potential as an effective nanocarrier for dual imaging and photodynamic therapy. PMID:27287160

  2. (18)F and (18)FDG PET imaging of osteosarcoma to non-invasively monitor in situ changes in cellular proliferation and bone differentiation upon MYC inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Constadina; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Tseng, Jeffrey R; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Felsher, Dean W

    2008-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common pediatric cancers. Accurate imaging of osteosarcoma is important for proper clinical staging of the disease and monitoring of the tumor's response to therapy. The MYC oncogene has been commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma. Previously, we have described a conditional transgenic mouse model of MYC-induced osteosarcoma. These tumors are highly invasive and are frequently associated with pulmonary metastases. In our model, upon MYC inactivation osteosarcomas lose their neoplastic properties, undergo proliferative arrest and differentiate into mature bone. We reasoned that we could use our model system to develop noninvasive imaging modalities to interrogate the consequences of MYC inactivation on tumor cell biology in situ. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) combining the use of both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) and (18)F-flouride ((18)F) to detect metabolic activity and bone mineralization/remodeling. We found that upon MYC inactivation, tumors exhibited a slight reduction in uptake of (18)FDG and a significant increase in the uptake of (18)F along with associated histological changes. Thus, these cells have apparently lost their neoplastic properties based upon both examination of their histology and biologic activity. However, these tumors continue to accumulate (18)FDG at levels significantly elevated compared to normal bone. Therefore, PET can be used to distinguish normal bone cells from tumors that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene inactivation. In addition, we found that (18)F is a highly sensitive tracer for detection of pulmonary metastasis. Collectively, we conclude that combined modality PET/CT imaging incorporating both (18)FDG and (18)F is a highly sensitive means to non-invasively measure osteosarcoma growth and the therapeutic response, as well as to detect tumor cells that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene inactivation.

  3. CT imaging diagnosis of chronic alcoholic encephalopathy%慢性酒精中毒性脑病的CT影像学诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵西昌

    2015-01-01

    Objective:to investigate the diagnostic value of ct imaging in chronic alcoholic encephalopathy.Methods:the ct imaging data of 30 patients with chronic alcoholism encephalopathy in our hospital from January 2011 -2013 to January, were analyzed retrospectively.Results:30 patients showed that the degeneration of the corpus callosum; 12 cases of patients with bilateral external capsule, capsule or lateral ventricle white matter around the edge fuzzy, surrounding white matter density was low, enhanced scanning after image enhancement, 10 cases of patients with bilateral lentiform nucleus oval shaped low density; 11 cases lateral ventricle light symmetry enlargement with sulci and ventricles, pool, the side of the cleft is widened. ct image analysis results showed that 30 patients had mild symmetric expansion of the lateral ventricle with 4 cases of patients with cerebral sulcus, cerebral ventricle, pool and lateral ifssure. 12 cases of patients with bilateral external capsule, capsule or lateral ventricle white matter around the edge fuzzy, surrounding white matter density was low, enhanced scanning after image enhancement, 10 cases of patients with bilateral lentiform nucleus oval low density. Conclusion: the important manifestation of ct imaging diagnosis of chronic alcoholic encephalopathy is the degeneration of the corpus callosum, which has important diagnostic value.%目的:探讨慢性酒精中毒性脑病的ct影像学诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析2011年1月-2013年1月我院收治的慢性酒精中毒性脑病患者30例患者的ct影像学资料,分析影像学的表现特征。结果:30例患者均表现胼胝体变性;12例患者双侧外囊、内囊或者侧脑室周围白质边缘模糊,周围白质密度低,增强扫面后图像无增强,10例患者的双侧豆状核出现椭圆形的低密度;11例侧脑室轻度对称扩大伴脑沟、脑室、池、侧裂增宽。ct图像分析结果显示,30例患者中有11例侧脑室

  4. 量子点在细胞以及体内生物中成像的研究进展%Development of Quantum Dots for Cellular and in Vivo Animals Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱月琴; 蔡继业

    2012-01-01

    Luminescent quantum dots (QDs)-semiconductor nanocrystals are a promising alternative to organic dyes for fluorescence-based applications. They have unique optical and electronic properties, with size-tunable light emission, superior signal brightness, resistance to photobleaching, and broad absorption spectra for simultaneous excitation of multiple fluorescence colors. Also QDs provide a versatile nanoscale scaffold for designing multifunctional nanoparticles with both imaging and therapeutic functioa When linked with targeting ligands such as antibodies, peptides or small molecules, QDs can be used to target cells biomarkers as well as tumor vasculatures with high affinity and specificity. Researchers have developed procedures for using QDs cellular and in vivo animals imaging so far, demonstrated their use for long-term multicolor imaging of live cells and in vivo. The photo-characters are introduced and the implications of quantum dots in biological imaging are illustrated, and the future of quantum dots is look ahead.%量子点是一种荧光半导体纳米材料,与生物分子结合成一种高亮度而稳定的荧光探针应用于生物成像.通过生物成像可观察量子点标记分子与其靶标的相互作用,实时观测其在活细胞及活体中的运行轨迹,实现对细胞水平及在活体层次的研究.利用这种生物成像技术还可以研究疾病的发生发展过程.介绍了量子点的光学特性,重点综述了量子点在细胞、体内生物成像中的应用,并展望了其发展前景.

  5. 磁共振弥散成像评价星形细胞瘤细胞密度的价值%Value of Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Evaluating Cellular Density of Astrocytomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 夏军; 周义成

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of apparent diffusion coefficients(ADC) in Magnetic Resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR DWI) with echo-planar technique in depicting the tumor cellularity and grading of astrocytomas. Methods: Thirty-four patients with astrocytomas( 18 male, 16 female, ages from 10-73 with average of 38.41 ) were examined by MRI and proved by surgery and pathology, and the number of grade Ⅰ - Ⅱ (low-grade) and grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ (high-grade) is 26 and 8 respectively. ADC values of astrocytomas were determined on MR DWI. Cellularity of astrocytomas was analyzed with Adobe Photoshop 7. 0 software. Results: Mean ADC values of high-grade astrocytomas( 7. 34 ± 2. 95) × 10-4mm2/s were significantly different from that of lowgrade astrocytomas(13. 76 ± 3. 31 ) × 10-4 mm2/s ( t = 4. 913, P < 0. 001 ). Cellularity of high-grade astrocytomas (19. 81 ±9. 73 ) % were significantly higher than that of low-grade astrocytomas (4. 74 ± 2.96 ) % ( t = 4. 32,P =0. 003 ). ADC values of astrocytomas significantly negatively correlated with their cellularities ( r = - 0. 535, P =0. 001 ). Conclusion: The cellularities of astrocytomas contribute very much to ADC values in MR DWI. MR DWI is very valuable in predicting and evaluating the cellularity of astrocytomas. MR DWI might have a potential in predicting the degree of astrocytomas.%目的:运用磁共振弥散加权成像技术(MRDWI)评估近似弥散系数(ADC)在星形细胞瘤的细胞密度和病理分级中的作用.方法:术前进行MRI和MR DWI检查且经手术病理证实的34例星形细胞瘤患者,其中Ⅰ~Ⅱ级(低级别)26例,Ⅲ~Ⅳ级(高级别)8例.在MRI上计算瘤体的ADC值,运用Adobe Photoshop 7.0软件分析星形细胞瘤的细胞密度,用SPSS 10.0软件对资料进行处理.结果:高级别星形细胞瘤的ADC为(7.34±2.95)×10-4mm2/s,低级别星形细胞瘤的ADC(13.76±3.31)×10-4mm2/s,两者之间差异有显著性(t=4.913,P<0.001);高级别星形

  6. Application of measurement of lung volumes from MSCT images in evaluation of pulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the application value of lung volumes from 64 multi-slice CT (MSCT) images in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and study the correlation between lung volumes measured by MSCT and pulmonary function test (PFT) results. Methods: 24 patients clinically diagnosed with COPD (COPD group) and 22 healthy people (control group) were selected and underwent both chest MSCT scans and PFT within one week. The total lung was scanned at full inspiration and full expiration with MSCT, respectively. The total lung volumes were measured by CT Pulmo software (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany). The quantitative total lung volumes from MSCT images were compared with PFT and SPSS13.0 was applied to assess the correlation. Results: Compared with control group, the full inspiration volume (Vin) (P<0.05), the full expiration volume (Vex) (P<0.05), and Vex/Vin (P<0.01) were elevated, while Vin-Vex was declined obviously in COPD group (P<0.05). Vin was in positive correlation with total lung capacity (TLC) (r= 0.923, P<0.01) and Vex was also in positive correlation with residual volume (RV) (r= 0.912, P<0.05), as well as Vin-Vex with vital capacity (VC) (r=0.763, P<0.01) and Vex/Vin with RV/TLC (r= 0.754, P<0.01). The Vex showed best correlation with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.616, P<0.01; r=-0.543, P<0.05). Vin, Vex and Vex/Vin were significantly elevated in patients with COPD compared with those in control group. Conclusion: Lung volumes obtained from MSCT images show a strong correlation with PFT results in patients with COPD. Lung volumes measured from MSCT images can be used to evaluate the pulmonary function in patients with COPD. (authors)

  7. A novel colorimetric and turn-on fluorescent chemosensor for iron(III) ion detection and its application to cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aoheng; Wang, Hongqing; Wang, Yuyuan; Huang, Qiao; Zhang, Qin

    2016-11-01

    A novel rhodamine-based dual probe Rh-2 for trivalent ferric ions (Fe(3+)) was successfully designed and synthesized, which exhibited a highly sensitive and selective recognition towards Fe(3+) with an enhanced fluorescence emission in methanol-water media (v/v=7/3, pH=7.2). The probe Rh-2 could be applied to the determination of Fe(3+) with a linear range covering from 3.0×10(-7) to 1.4×10(-5)M and a detection limit of 1.24×10(-8)M. Meanwhile, the binding ratio of Rh-2 and Fe(3+) was found to be 1:1. Most importantly, the fluorescence and color signal changes of the Rh-2 solution were specific to Fe(3+) over other commonly coexistent metal ions. Moreover, the probe Rh-2 has been used to image Fe(3+) in living cells with satisfying results. PMID:27267282

  8. Cell biology of the future: Nanometer-scale cellular cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, Justin W

    2015-10-26

    Understanding cellular structure is key to understanding cellular regulation. New developments in super-resolution fluorescence imaging, electron microscopy, and quantitative image analysis methods are now providing some of the first three-dimensional dynamic maps of biomolecules at the nanometer scale. These new maps--comprehensive nanometer-scale cellular cartographies--will reveal how the molecular organization of cells influences their diverse and changeable activities.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prior to radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this prospectively planned interim-analysis of a larger clinical trial, NSCLC patients were classified based on COPD imaging phenotypes. A proof-of-concept evaluation showed that FEV1/FVC and smoking history identified NSCLC patients with ventilation abnormalities appropriate for functional lung avoidance radiotherapy.

  10. Serial High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients with Wegener Granulomatosis: Differentiation Between Active Inflammatory and Chronic Fibrotic Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrmann, C.; Uhl, M.; Schaefer, O.; Ghanem, N.; Kotter, E.; Langer, M. [Univ. Hospital of Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-08-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate pulmonary pathologies in Wegener granulomatosis with sequential computed tomography (CT) in order to differentiate active inflammatory lesions from chronic fibrotic lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serial CT findings in 38 patients with Wegener granulomatosis were retrospectively analyzed (mean follow-up period, 21 months). The presence, extension, and distribution of the following findings were evaluated with CT: parenchymal nodules, masses, ground-glass attenuation, airspace consolidation, bronchial wall-thickening, bronchiectasis, linear areas of attenuation, pleural irregularities, pleural effusions, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. RESULTS: Observed in 92% of patients, nodules were the most common CT pathology. Areas of ground-glass attenuation, consolidation, masses of linear attenuation, and tracheal/bronchial wall-thickening were detected in 24%, 26%, 32%, 39%, and 68% of patients. At follow-up, the clearance of lesions was most consistent for areas of ground-glass attenuation (89%), masses (87%), and cavitated nodules (85%). In the follow-up scan, 58% of all nodules, 47% of pulmonary consolidations, and 66% of bronchial wall-thickening were completely resolved. Areas of bronchiectasis and septal/non-septal lines remained stable in 70% and 71% of patients. CONCLUSION: The majority of the lesions decreased or resolved completely with or without areas of linear attenuation. Ground-glass attenuation, cavitated nodules and masses appear to represent active inflammatory lesions. In most probability, areas of bronchiectasis and septal/non-septal lines more often represent chronic fibrotic changes rather than active inflammatory changes. In combination with clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy, CT assists in the assessment of disease activity.

  11. Serial High-Resolution Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients with Wegener Granulomatosis: Differentiation Between Active Inflammatory and Chronic Fibrotic Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To evaluate pulmonary pathologies in Wegener granulomatosis with sequential computed tomography (CT) in order to differentiate active inflammatory lesions from chronic fibrotic lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serial CT findings in 38 patients with Wegener granulomatosis were retrospectively analyzed (mean follow-up period, 21 months). The presence, extension, and distribution of the following findings were evaluated with CT: parenchymal nodules, masses, ground-glass attenuation, airspace consolidation, bronchial wall-thickening, bronchiectasis, linear areas of attenuation, pleural irregularities, pleural effusions, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. RESULTS: Observed in 92% of patients, nodules were the most common CT pathology. Areas of ground-glass attenuation, consolidation, masses of linear attenuation, and tracheal/bronchial wall-thickening were detected in 24%, 26%, 32%, 39%, and 68% of patients. At follow-up, the clearance of lesions was most consistent for areas of ground-glass attenuation (89%), masses (87%), and cavitated nodules (85%). In the follow-up scan, 58% of all nodules, 47% of pulmonary consolidations, and 66% of bronchial wall-thickening were completely resolved. Areas of bronchiectasis and septal/non-septal lines remained stable in 70% and 71% of patients. CONCLUSION: The majority of the lesions decreased or resolved completely with or without areas of linear attenuation. Ground-glass attenuation, cavitated nodules and masses appear to represent active inflammatory lesions. In most probability, areas of bronchiectasis and septal/non-septal lines more often represent chronic fibrotic changes rather than active inflammatory changes. In combination with clinical evaluation and bronchoscopy, CT assists in the assessment of disease activity

  12. Advances in cellular and molecular mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病的细胞与分子机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂莉; 程德云; 高金明

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and results in an economic and social burden. Chronic lung inflammation of COPD is triggered and sustained by the interactions among inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators secreted from those inflammatory cells. Inflammation can trigger both innate and adaptive immunity. This article reviews not only the effects of inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of COPD but also the innate and adaptive immunity in the lung inflammation of COPD in order to improve the recognition of this disease.%慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)以不完全可逆的气流受限为特征,它在世界范围内的高发病率和病死率是导致巨大经济和社会负担的主要原因.COPD肺部慢性炎症由炎症细胞及其分泌的细胞因子和趋化因子等相互作用而发生发展的,并可触发先天性和获得性免疫反应,进一步加重炎症反应.本文就炎症细胞及细胞因子在COPD形成机制中的作用,以及先天性和获得性免疫机制在COPD肺部炎症的作用作一综述,以期提高对本病发病机制的认识.

  13. Study of Osteoclast Adhesion to Cortical Bone Surfaces: A Correlative Microscopy Approach for Concomitant Imaging of Cellular Dynamics and Surface Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Michal; Addadi, Sefi; Milstein, Yonat; Geiger, Benjamin; Addadi, Lia

    2016-06-22

    Bone remodeling relies on the coordinated functioning of osteoblasts, bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells. The effects of specific chemical and physical bone features on the osteoclast adhesive apparatus, the sealing zone ring, and their relation to resorption functionality are still not well-understood. We designed and implemented a correlative imaging method that enables monitoring of the same area of bone surface by time-lapse light microscopy, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy before, during, and after exposure to osteoclasts. We show that sealing zone rings preferentially develop around surface protrusions, with lateral dimensions of several micrometers, and ∼1 μm height. Direct overlay of sealing zone rings onto resorption pits on the bone surface shows that the rings adapt to pit morphology. The correlative procedure presented here is noninvasive and performed under ambient conditions, without the need for sample labeling. It can potentially be applied to study various aspects of cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26682493

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of BSA-modified silver nanoparticles as a selective fluorescent probe for detection and cellular imaging of cadmium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) whose surface is modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The reaction involves reduction of the BSA-Ag(I) complex by tyrosine in strongly alkaline solution to form BSA-AgNPs. The reaction takes a few minutes only owing to rapid and uniform microwave heating. The modified AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The BSA-AgNPs are yellow and display luminescence with a maximum at 521 nm if excited at 465 nm. They have a hydrodynamic diameter of 3–5 nm and possess good colloidal stability in the pH 4.6 to 12.0 range. The fluorescence of the BSA-AgNPs is enhanced by Cd(II) ion due to the formation of a stable hybrid conjugate referred to as Cd-BSA-AgNPs. The effect was exploited to quantify Cd(II) in spiked real water samples with a 4.7 nM detection limit, and also to fluorescently image Cd(II) in Hepatoma cells. (author)

  15. Fluorosis Caused Cellular Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress of Rat Kidneys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; WANG Jin-cheng; XU Hui; DU Zhen-wu; ZHANG Gui-zhen; SELIM Hamid Abdu; LI Guang-sheng

    2013-01-01

    As the strongest electronegative element,fluorine can stimulate the production of superoxide radicals in cells.In view of the important roles of kidneys in bone metabolism,the authors analyzed the quantitative pathomorphological characteristics of renal damage and the potential cellular apoptosis and oxidative stress mechanisms in rats treated with excessive fluoride.Wistar rats were exposed to 50 mg F-(110.5 mg NaF)/L,100 mg F-(221.0 mg NaF)/Land 150 mg F (331.5 mg NaF)/L in drinking water for 70 and 140 d,respectively.Microscope with image analysis was used to quantitate pathomorphological changes in renal tissues of the rats.Reactive oxygen species(ROS),the cell cycle and apoptosis of renal cells were measured by flow cytometry and TUNEL technique(terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling),respectively.The ion concentrations in serum and renal functional parameters were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer.Quantitative analysis results demonstrate the expanded Bowman's space of glomerulus and obvious dilatation of renal tubule.TUNEL technique revealed that NBT/BCIP (nitro blue tetrazoliurn/5-bromo-4-chloro-3′-indolylphosphate,p-toluidine salt)-staining positive apoptotic cells selectively located in medullocortical junction areas.The data suggest that renal damage in chronic fluorostic rats is associated with the cellular apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  16. Deltoid ligament and tibiofibular syndesmosis injury in chronic lateral ankle instability: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at 3T and comparison with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated with prevalence of deltoid or syndesmosis injuries. The diagnostic accuracy of ankle ligament imaging at 3T MRI was analyzed using arthroscopy as a reference standard. On MRI, deltoid ligament injury was identified in 18 (36%) patients as follows: superficial ligament alone, 9 (50%); deep ligament alone 2 (11%); and both ligaments 7 (39%). Syndesmosis abnormality was found in 21 (42%) patients as follows: anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) alone, 19 (90%); and AITFL and interosseous ligament, 2 (10%). There was no correlation between LCLC injury complexity and the prevalence of an accompanying deltoid or syndesmosis injury on both MRI and arthroscopic findings. MRI sensitivity and specificity for detection of deltoid ligament injury were 84% and 93.5%, and those for detection of syndesmosis injury were 91% and 100%, respectively. Deltoid ligament or syndesmosis injuries were common in patients undergoing surgery for CLAI, regardless of the LCLC injury complexity. 3T MRI is helpful for the detection of all types of ankle ligament injury. Therefore, careful interpretation of pre-operative MRI is essential

  17. Deltoid ligament and tibiofibular syndesmosis injury in chronic lateral ankle instability: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation at 3T and comparison with arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ka Young; Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Seok Hoon; Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Dae Jung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of deltoid ligament and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). Fifty patients (mean age, 35 years) who had undergone preoperative 3T MRI and surgical treatment for CLAI were enrolled. The prevalence of deltoid ligament and syndesmosis injury were assessed. The complexity of lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) injury was correlated with prevalence of deltoid or syndesmosis injuries. The diagnostic accuracy of ankle ligament imaging at 3T MRI was analyzed using arthroscopy as a reference standard. On MRI, deltoid ligament injury was identified in 18 (36%) patients as follows: superficial ligament alone, 9 (50%); deep ligament alone 2 (11%); and both ligaments 7 (39%). Syndesmosis abnormality was found in 21 (42%) patients as follows: anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) alone, 19 (90%); and AITFL and interosseous ligament, 2 (10%). There was no correlation between LCLC injury complexity and the prevalence of an accompanying deltoid or syndesmosis injury on both MRI and arthroscopic findings. MRI sensitivity and specificity for detection of deltoid ligament injury were 84% and 93.5%, and those for detection of syndesmosis injury were 91% and 100%, respectively. Deltoid ligament or syndesmosis injuries were common in patients undergoing surgery for CLAI, regardless of the LCLC injury complexity. 3T MRI is helpful for the detection of all types of ankle ligament injury. Therefore, careful interpretation of pre-operative MRI is essential.

  18. Narrowing of lumbar spinal canal predicts chronic low back pain more accurately than intervertebral disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in young Finnish male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Tuomo; Ulaska, Jaana; Eskelin, Marja; Pulkkinen, Pekka

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this magnetic resonance imaging study was to evaluate the role of degenerative changes, developmental spinal stenosis, and compression of spinal nerve roots in chronic low back (CLBP) and radicular pain in Finnish conscripts. The degree of degeneration, protrusion, and herniation of the intervertebral discs and stenosis of the nerve root canals was evaluated, and the midsagittal diameter and cross-sectional area of the lumbar vertebrae canal were measured in 108 conscripts with CLBP and 90 asymptomatic controls. The midsagittal diameters at L1-L4 levels were significantly smaller in the patients with CLBP than in the controls. Moreover, degeneration of the L4/5 disc and protrusion or herniation of the L5/S1 disc and stenosis of the nerve root canals at level L5/S1 were more frequent among the CLBP patients. Multifactorial analysis of the magnetic resonance imaging findings provided a total explanatory rate of only 33%. Narrowing of the vertebral canal in the anteroposterior direction was more likely to produce CLBP and radiating pain than intervertebral disc degeneration or narrowing of the intervertebral nerve root canals. PMID:16450819

  19. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T using 0.15 mmol/kg of contrast agent for the assessment of chronic myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun, E-mail: yangjunyhd@163.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Ma, Heng, E-mail: mahengyhd@163.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: liujingyhd@163.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Chunxiao, E-mail: chunxiaoyhd@163.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Shi, Yinghong, E-mail: yinghongyhd@163.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Haizhu, E-mail: haizhuyhd@163.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Huo, Futao, E-mail: kailinusa@126.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Liu, Fengli, E-mail: fengliyhd@126.com [Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province (China); Lin, Kai, E-mail: kai-lin@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: A recent international, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized trial shows delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) using contrast doses of ≥0.2 mmol/kg is effective in the detection and assessment of myocardial infarction (MI), and 0.1 mmol/kg is not enough; intermediate doses between 0.1 and 0.2 mmol/kg have not been tested. The aim of this study was to prospectively test the performance of DE-MRI using 0.15 mmol/kg of contrast agent for the detection of MI. Materials and methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with chronic MI underwent DE-MRI at 3.0 T using both 0.15 mmol/kg and 0.2 mmol/kg of contrast agent in random order and on separate days. Infarction segment and infarction size were compared on DE-MRI images using a 17-segment model. Bland–Altman analysis was used to analyze correlation and agreement between global infarct sizes. Results: DE-MRI showed enhanced myocardium in all the 31 patients with chronic MI. There was no significant difference between the 0.15 mmol/kg and 0.2 mmol/kg images in all 31 patients based on the infarction segment (7.87 ± 2.72 vs. 7.81 ± 2.64, respectively; p = 0.33). There was no significant difference between the infarction size obtained from 0.15 mmol/kg acquisition and that from 0.2 mmol/kg acquisition (16.3 ± 7.8% vs. 16.4 ± 7.9%, respectively; p = 0.87). A strong correlation between the infarction size obtained from 0.15 mmol/kg acquisition and that from 0.2 mmol/kg acquisition was indicated through Bland–Altman analysis. Conclusion: DE-MRI at 3.0 T using 0.15 mmol/kg of contrast agent is effective for the assessment of MI.

  20. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  1. Reversible quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, B

    2004-01-01

    We define quantum cellular automata as infinite quantum lattice systems with discrete time dynamics, such that the time step commutes with lattice translations and has strictly finite propagation speed. In contrast to earlier definitions this allows us to give an explicit characterization of all local rules generating such automata. The same local rules also generate the global time step for automata with periodic boundary conditions. Our main structure theorem asserts that any quantum cellular automaton is structurally reversible, i.e., that it can be obtained by applying two blockwise unitary operations in a generalized Margolus partitioning scheme. This implies that, in contrast to the classical case, the inverse of a nearest neighbor quantum cellular automaton is again a nearest neighbor automaton. We present several construction methods for quantum cellular automata, based on unitaries commuting with their translates, on the quantization of (arbitrary) reversible classical cellular automata, on quantum c...

  2. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  3. Functional Image-Guided Radiotherapy Planning in Respiratory-Gated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tomoki, E-mail: tkkimura@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima City (Japan); Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima City (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of functional lung image-derived low attenuation area (LAA) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) into respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment planning for lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and Materials: Eight lung cancer patients with COPD were the subjects of this study. LAA was generated from 4D-CT data sets according to CT values of less than than -860 Hounsfield units (HU) as a threshold. The functional lung image was defined as the area where LAA was excluded from the image of the total lung. Two respiratory-gated radiotherapy plans (70 Gy/35 fractions) were designed and compared in each patient as follows: Plan A was an anatomical IMRT or VMAT plan based on the total lung; Plan F was a functional IMRT or VMAT plan based on the functional lung. Dosimetric parameters (percentage of total lung volume irradiated with {>=}20 Gy [V20], and mean dose of total lung [MLD]) of the two plans were compared. Results: V20 was lower in Plan F than in Plan A (mean 1.5%, p = 0.025 in IMRT, mean 1.6%, p = 0.044 in VMAT) achieved by a reduction in MLD (mean 0.23 Gy, p = 0.083 in IMRT, mean 0.5 Gy, p = 0.042 in VMAT). No differences were noted in target volume coverage and organ-at-risk doses. Conclusions: Functional IGRT planning based on LAA in respiratory-guided IMRT or VMAT appears to be effective in preserving a functional lung in lung cancer patients with COPD.

  4. Functional Image-Guided Radiotherapy Planning in Respiratory-Gated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of functional lung image-derived low attenuation area (LAA) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) into respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment planning for lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and Materials: Eight lung cancer patients with COPD were the subjects of this study. LAA was generated from 4D-CT data sets according to CT values of less than than −860 Hounsfield units (HU) as a threshold. The functional lung image was defined as the area where LAA was excluded from the image of the total lung. Two respiratory-gated radiotherapy plans (70 Gy/35 fractions) were designed and compared in each patient as follows: Plan A was an anatomical IMRT or VMAT plan based on the total lung; Plan F was a functional IMRT or VMAT plan based on the functional lung. Dosimetric parameters (percentage of total lung volume irradiated with ≥20 Gy [V20], and mean dose of total lung [MLD]) of the two plans were compared. Results: V20 was lower in Plan F than in Plan A (mean 1.5%, p = 0.025 in IMRT, mean 1.6%, p = 0.044 in VMAT) achieved by a reduction in MLD (mean 0.23 Gy, p = 0.083 in IMRT, mean 0.5 Gy, p = 0.042 in VMAT). No differences were noted in target volume coverage and organ-at-risk doses. Conclusions: Functional IGRT planning based on LAA in respiratory-guided IMRT or VMAT appears to be effective in preserving a functional lung in lung cancer patients with COPD.

  5. VCAM-1-targeted core/shell nanoparticles for selective adhesion and delivery to endothelial cells with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation under shear flow and cellular magnetic resonance imaging in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang H

    2013-05-01

    also significantly greater than that of nontargeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC-NH2 nanoparticles. Magnetic resonance images showed that the superparamagnetic iron oxide cores of the VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC nanoparticles could also act as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Taken together, the cumulative adhesion and uptake potential of these VCAM-1-targeted Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC nanoparticles targeted to inflammatory endothelial cells could be used in the transfer of therapeutic drugs/genes into these cells or for diagnosis of vascular disease at the molecular and cellular levels in the future.Keywords: silica nanoparticles, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, endothelial cells, adhesion, magnetic resonance imaging

  6. Chronic complicated osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen patients with prior trauma and/or surgery of the lower extremity and suspected active chronic osteomyelitis underwent MR imaging. Eleven patients also underwent In-111 scanning. All patients had surgical confirmation, MR imaging could assess the extent of abnormal marrow and distinguish abnormal marrow due to granulation tissue from active osteomyelitis. The presence and extent of soft-tissue infection could be determined and distinguished from bone involvement in spite of tissue distortion. The course and origin of sinus tracts could be followed. MR imaging was more sensitive to active infection than In-111 scanning. All 11 cases of active osteomyelitis were correctly diagnosed with MR imaging. In-111 scans were positive in only five of the eight cases of active infection in which scans were obtained. MR imaging is useful in chronic complicated osteomyelitis

  7. Liver and spleen magnetic resonance imaging evaluation in patients with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection; Avaliacao hepatica e esplenica por ressonancia magnetica em pacientes portadores de esquitossomose mansonica cronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Alexandre Sergio de Araujo; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Cecin, Alexandre Oliveira; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: alexandrebezerra@ig.com.br

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the morphological changes of the liver and spleen using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the reproducibility of MRI findings in the hepatosplenic evaluation of these patients. We prospectively studied 28 schistosomiasis patients submitted to MRI of the upper abdomen. The scans were performed using a high field equipment (1.5 T), a body coil and a power injector for administration of intravenous contrast. The scans were interpreted by two independent examiners who evaluated the presence of morphological changes in the liver and spleen. Interobserver and intra observer agreement were measured using the kappa and intra class correlation tests. The results showed qualitative variables presenting good interobserver and intra observer agreement ({kappa} {>=} 0.65 and r {>=} 0.66, respectively). The best interobserver agreement was for the anteroposterior diameter of the spleen (r = 0.98). The observers identified reduction of the right hepatic lobe, enlargement of the left hepatic lobe and caudate lobes associated with splenomegaly in almost all patients, and also identified fissure widening, heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, irregularity of hepatic contours, presence of peripheral hepatic vessels and peri portal fibrosis in almost all patients. Hepatic morphological changes are characterized by reduction of the right lobe and enlargement of the caudate and left lobes, and morphological changes in the spleen are characterized by the presence of splenomegaly and siderotic nodules. MRI presents high reproducibility for the evaluation of these changes in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni. (author)

  8. Utility of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging in evaluation of chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal morphologic findings in imaging were thought to explain the etiology of low back pain (LBP). However, it is now known that variety of morphologic abnormalities is noted even in asymptomatic individuals. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) could be used to differentiate incidental findings from clinically significant findings. This study was performed to define the SPECT/CT patterns in patients with LBP and to correlate these with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Thirty adult patients with LBP of duration 3 months or more were prospectively evaluated in this study. Patients with known or suspected malignancy, trauma or infectious processes were excluded. A detailed history of sensory and motor symptoms and neurologic examination was performed. All the patients were subjected to MRI and bone scintigraphy with hybrid SPECT/CT of the lumbo-sacral spine within 1 month of each other. The patients were classified into those with and without neurologic symptoms, activity limitation. The findings of clinical examination and imaging were compared. MRI and SPECT/CT findings were also compared. Thirty patients (18 men and 12 women; mean age 38 years; range 17-64 years) were eligible for the study. Clinically, 14 of 30 (46%) had neurologic signs and or symptoms. Six of the 30 patients (20%) had positive straight leg raising test (SLRT). Twenty-two of the 30 patients (73%) had SPECT abnormality. Most frequent SPECT/CT abnormality was tracer uptake in the anterior part of vertebral body with osteophytes/sclerotic changes. Significant positive agreement was noted between this finding and MRI evidence of degenerative disc disease. Only 13% of patients had more than one abnormality in SPECT. All 30 patients had MRI abnormalities. The most frequent abnormality was degenerative disc disease and facet joint arthropathy. MRI showed single intervertebral disc abnormality in 36% of the patients and more than one

  9. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  10. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  11. Lumbar internal disc derangement in patients with chronic low back pain: diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings as compared with provoked discography as the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Park, Jee Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ahn, Yong [Wooridul spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeun [Puchon Daesung Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the MR imaging findings with provoked discography used as the standard for painful lumbar disc derangement. Two hundred patients (412 discs), (age rang: 21-77 year), with chronic low back pain underwent MRI and provoked discography. We evaluated the MRI T2-WI findings such as disc degeneration, high-Intensity zones and endplate abnormalities. Subsequently, provocative discography was independently performed with using MR imaging, and a painful disc was defined when moderate to severe and concordant pain was provoked. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the MRI findings with using provoked discography as the standard. 400 discs showed abnormal findings such as disc degeneration, HIZ and endplate abnormalities on the T2-WI images. 12 discs showed normal finding. HIZ or endplate abnormalities were always combined with disc degeneration. The prevalence of each findings were disc degeneration (400 discs: 97.1%), HIZ (111 discs: 26.9%), type I endplate abnormalities (34 discs: 8.3%), type II endplate abnormalities (75 discs: 18.2%), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (2 discs: 0.5%) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (7 discs: 1.7%). The disc degeneration showed high sensitivity (99.5%) and low specificity (5.0%), so only the NPV (91.7%) was significant, and not the PPV (47.8%). Each findings of HIZ (sensitivity, 36.5%, specificity, 81.4%; PPV, 63.18%; NPV, 59.5%), type I endplate abnormalities (11.0%, 94.1%, 61.8% and 54.8%, respectively), type II endplate abnormalities (19.8%, 83.2%, 50.7% and 54.3%, respectively), the combined findings of HIZ and type I endplate abnormalities (0.5%, 99.6%, 50.0% and 53.4%, respectively) and the combined findings of HIZ and type II endplate abnormalities (26.0%, 99.1%, 71.4% and 53.8%, respectively) show high specificity, but low

  12. A novel method combining cellular neural networks and the coupled nonlinear oscillators' paradigm involving a related bifurcation analysis for robust image contrast enhancement in dynamically changing difficult visual environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that a machine vision-based analysis of a dynamic scene, for example in the context of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), does require real-time processing capabilities. Therefore, the system used must be capable of performing both robust and ultrafast analyses. Machine vision in ADAS must fulfil the above requirements when dealing with a dynamically changing visual context (i.e. driving in darkness or in a foggy environment, etc). Among the various challenges related to the analysis of a dynamic scene, this paper focuses on contrast enhancement, which is a well-known basic operation to improve the visual quality of an image (dynamic or static) suffering from poor illumination. The key objective is to develop a systematic and fundamental concept for image contrast enhancement that should be robust despite a dynamic environment and that should fulfil the real-time constraints by ensuring an ultrafast analysis. It is demonstrated that the new approach developed in this paper is capable of fulfilling the expected requirements. The proposed approach combines the good features of the 'coupled oscillators'-based signal processing paradigm with the good features of the 'cellular neural network (CNN)'-based one. The first paradigm in this combination is the 'master system' and consists of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that are (a) the so-called 'van der Pol oscillator' and (b) the so-called 'Duffing oscillator'. It is then implemented or realized on top of a 'slave system' platform consisting of a CNN-processors platform. An offline bifurcation analysis is used to find out, a priori, the windows of parameter settings in which the coupled oscillator system exhibits the best and most appropriate behaviours of interest for an optimal resulting image processing quality. In the frame of the extensive bifurcation analysis carried out, analytical formulae have been derived, which are capable of determining the various

  13. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  14. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty: Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chachques, J. (J.); Acar, C; J. Herreros; Trainini, J. (Jorge); Prosper, F.; D’Attellis, N. (N.); Fabiani, J. N.; Carpentier, A

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial regeneration can be induced with the implantation of a variety of myogenic and angiogenic cell types. More than 150 patients have been treated with cellular cardiomyoplasty worldwide, 18 patients have been treated by our group. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit postischemic remodelling, and restore regional myocardial contractility. Techniques for skeletal myoblasts culture and ex vivo expansion using auto...

  15. Prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging in asymptomatic patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease on initiation of haemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Babazono, Tetsuya [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Diabetes Centre, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Takatomo [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently develop cardiac events within several years of the initiation of haemodialysis. The present study assesses the prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with diabetic CKD requiring haemodialysis. Fifty-five asymptomatic patients with diabetic stage V CKD and no history of heart disease scheduled to start haemodialysis were enrolled in this study (56{+-}11 years old; 49 with type 2 diabetes mellitus). All patients underwent {sup 201}Tl stress ECG-gated MPI 1 month before or after the initiation of haemodialysis to assess myocardial involvement. We evaluated SPECT images using 17-segment defect scores graded on a 5-point scale, summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference scores (SDS). The patients were followed up for at least 2 years (42{+-}15 months) to determine coronary intervention (CI) and heart failure (HF) as soft events and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all causes of deaths as hard events. The frequencies of myocardial ischaemia, resting perfusion defects, low ejection fraction and left ventricular (LV) dilatation were 24,20,29 and 49%, respectively. Ten events (18%) developed during the follow-up period including four CI, one HF, one AMI and four sudden deaths. Multivariate Cox analysis selected SDS (p=0.0011) and haemoglobin A{sub 1c} (HbA{sub 1c}) (p=0.0076) as independent prognostic indicators for all events. Myocardial ischaemia, in addition to glycaemic control, is a strong prognostic marker for asymptomatic patients with diabetic CKD who are scheduled to start haemodialysis. Stress MPI is highly recommended for the management and therapeutic stratification of such patients. (orig.)

  16. A prediction model for 5-year cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure using {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsuo, Shinro [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakata, Tomoaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology), Sapporo (Japan); Hakodate-Goryoukaku Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Hakodate (Japan); Yamada, Takahisa [Osaka Prefectural General Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Osaka (Japan); Yamashina, Shohei [Toho University Omori Medical Center, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kasama, Shu [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Department of Cardiology, Shibukawa (Japan); Matsui, Toshiki [Social Insurance Shiga General Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Otsu (Japan); Travin, Mark I. [Albert Einstein Medical College, Department of Cardiology and Nuclear Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Jacobson, Arnold F. [GE Healthcare, Medical Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Prediction of mortality risk is important in the management of chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to create a prediction model for 5-year cardiac death including assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation using data from a multicenter cohort study in Japan. The original pooled database consisted of cohort studies from six sites in Japan. A total of 933 CHF patients who underwent {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging and whose 5-year outcomes were known were selected from this database. The late MIBG heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) was used for quantification of cardiac uptake. Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression analyses were used to select appropriate variables for predicting 5-year cardiac mortality. The formula for predicting 5-year mortality was created using a logistic regression model. During the 5-year follow-up, 205 patients (22 %) died of a cardiac event including heart failure death, sudden cardiac death and fatal acute myocardial infarction (64 %, 30 % and 6 %, respectively). Multivariate logistic analysis selected four parameters, including New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, age, gender and left ventricular ejection fraction, without HMR (model 1) and five parameters with the addition of HMR (model 2). The net reclassification improvement analysis for all subjects was 13.8 % (p < 0.0001) by including HMR and its inclusion was most effective in the downward reclassification of low-risk patients. Nomograms for predicting 5-year cardiac mortality were created from the five-parameter regression model. Cardiac MIBG imaging had a significant additive value for predicting cardiac mortality. The prediction formula and nomograms can be used for risk stratifying in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  17. Comparison and significance of specific and non-specific cellular immunity in patients with chronic hepatitis B caused by infection with genotypes B or C of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate possible relationships between the genotypes of hepatitis B virus(HBV) and the HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL) responses.HBV genotypes,HBV specific CTL HBV DNA and other markers of HBV infection were determined in 138 patients with chronic hepatitis B.The results showed that the patients infected with genotype C(n=62) had a significantly lower HBV-specific CTL response than those who were infected with HBV genotype B(P<0.01).HBV DNA titer was higher in patients infected with HBV genotype C than in those infected with HBV geno-type B(P<0.01).Both alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and total bilirubin(TBIL) were higher in HBV genotype C infected patients than in those infected with genotype B(P<0.01 and <0.05,respectively).These results suggest that compared with CHB patients infected with HBV genotype B,the higher HBV DNA level and more severe liver damages in the patients infected with genotype C of HBV may be associated with genotype C of the virus.

  18. Outcomes of unrelated cord blood transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma: a survey on behalf of Eurocord, the Cord Blood Committee of Cellular Therapy and Immunobiology Working Party, and the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Xavier, Erick; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Ceballos, Patrice; Deconinck, Eric; Cornelissen, Jan J; Nguyen-Quoc, Stephanie; Maillard, Natacha; Sanz, Guillermo; Rohrlich, Pierre-Simon; Garderet, Laurent; Volt, Fernanda; Rocha, Vanderson; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Gluckman, Eliane; Fegueux, Nathalie; Mohty, Mohamad

    2016-09-01

    Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation is not a standard therapy for multiple myeloma, some patients can benefit from this intense therapy. There are few reports on outcomes after umbilical cord blood transplantation in multiple myeloma, and investigation of this procedure is warranted. We retrospectively analyzed 95 patients, 85 with multiple myeloma and 10 with plasma cell leukemia, receiving single or double umbilical cord blood transplantation from 2001 to 2013. Median follow up was 41 months. The majority of patients received a reduced intensity conditioning. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 97%±3% at 60 days, and that of 100-day acute graft-versus-host disease grade II-IV was 41%±5%. Chronic graft-versus-host disease at two years was 22%±4%. Relapse and non-relapse mortality was 47%±5% and 29%±5% at three years, respectively. Three-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 24%±5% and 40%±5%, respectively. Anti-thymocyte globulin was associated with decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease, higher non-relapse mortality, decreased overall and progression-free survival. Patients with high cytogenetic risk had higher relapse, and worse overall and progression-free survival. In conclusion, umbilical cord blood transplantation is feasible for multiple myeloma patients.

  19. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year (ΔD) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1±0.07 vs 15.2±0.03 vs 11.8±0.04, p<0.01; ΔD: 3.62±0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58±0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and ΔD (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  20. [Does intravenous gadolinium-DTPA administration have advantages in magnetic resonance imaging of acute injuries or chronic damage to the knee joint?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Castro, W H; Müller, U; Assheuer, J

    1994-12-01

    79 patients with acute or chronic lesions of the knee were evaluated by MRI prior to and after application of Gd-DTPA. The MRI examination was performed by a 1.0 tesla imager with SE as well as FEDIF sequences. These MR studies were compared prior to and after intravenous Gd-DTPA application, focusing on the visibility and the definition of a possible lesion, and scored with a 3-point score. Statistic analysis and case analysis revealed that in patients with meniscus degeneration without a tear, Gd application yields no additional diagnostic information. However, in patients with meniscus tears Gd-DTPA significantly facilitates the definition of the lesion. Furthermore, Gd-DTPA makes differentiation possible between the synovial fluid and the synovial membrane. Whereas in cases with capsule or collateral ligament tears Gd-DTPA facilitates the documentation of the lesion, we found no advantage in using Gd-DPTA in patients with ACL tears. In patients with chondropathia patellae Gd-DTPA application supports the visualization of the secondary synovial reaction.

  1. Myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting cardiac events in Japanese patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: 1-year interim report of the J-ACCESS 3 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Nephrology, Tokyo (Japan); Kawano, Yuhei; Nakamura, Satoko [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi [Kanazawa University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa (Japan); Hatta, Tsuguru [Hatta Medical Office of Internal Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Shigeyuki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Moroi, Masao [Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Susumu [Saiseikai Central Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Kasai, Tokuo [Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Takeishi, Yasuchika [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Cardiology and Hematology, Fukushima (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takehana, Kazuya [Kansai Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Osaka (Japan); Nanasato, Mamoru [Cardiovascular Center, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Yoda, Shunichi [Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina, Hidetaka [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Suruga-dai Nihon University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Whether myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can predict cardiac events in patients with advanced conservative chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. The present multicenter prospective cohort study aimed to clarify the ability of MPI to predict cardiac events in 529 patients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 50 ml/min per 1.73{sup 2} without a definitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. All patients were assessed by stress-rest MPI with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and analyzed using summed defect scores and QGS software. Cardiac events were analyzed 1 year after registration. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities defined as summed stress score (SSS) ≥4 and ≥8 were identified in 19 and 7 % of patients, respectively. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, 33 (6.2 %) cardiac events had occurred that included cardiac death, sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to heart failure. The event-free rates at that time were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.81 for groups with SSS 0-3, 4-7, and ≥8, respectively (p = 0.0009). Thus, patients with abnormal SSS had a higher incidence of cardiac events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that SSS significantly impacts the prediction of cardiac events independently of eGFR and left ventricular ejection fraction. MPI would be useful to stratify patients with advanced conservative CKD who are at high risk of cardiac events without adversely affecting damaged kidneys. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen of chronic aortic dissections using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakurada, Hideki; Ono, Katsuhiro; Urano, Miharu; Hijikata, Yasuyoshi; Saito, Isao; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    In 21 patients with chronic aortic dissections and proven patent false lumens, the flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumens was evaluated using velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (VENC-MRI) and the relationship between the flow characteristics and aortic enlargement was retrospectively examined. Flow patterns in the false lumen were divided into 3 groups: pattern A with primarily antegrade flow (n=6), pattern R with primarily retrograde flow (n=3), and pattern B with bidirectional flow (n=12). In group A, the rate of flow volume in the false lumen compared to the total flow volume in true and false lumens (%TFV) and the average rate of enlargement of the maximum diameter of the dissected aorta per year ({delta}D) were significantly greater than in groups R and B (%TFV: 74.1{+-}0.07 vs 15.2{+-}0.03 vs 11.8{+-}0.04, p<0.01; {delta}D: 3.62{+-}0.82 vs 0 vs 0.58{+-}0.15 mm/year, p<0.05, respectively). There was a significant correlation between %TFV and {delta}D (r=0.79, p<0.0001). Evaluation of flow volume and flow patterns in the patent false lumen using VENC-MRI may be useful for predicting enlargement of the dissected aorta. (author)

  3. Combined Application of Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI in the Diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent to target the liver cells with normal function. In clinical practice, the Gd-EOB-DTPA produces high quality hepatocyte specific image 20 minutes after intravenous injection, so DWI sequence is often performed after the conventional dynamic scanning. However, there are still some disputes about whether DWI sequence will provide more effective diagnostic information in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of combining Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane library database up to March 2015. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Heterogeneous test on the included literature was performed by using the software Review Manager 5.3. The MetaDiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio; meanwhile the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC curve was drawn to compare the diagnostic performance.A total of 13 literatures were included in this study. In 8 literatures regarding HCC diagnosis based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, the pooled sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.93; specificity: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92; positive likelihood ratio: 8.60 (95% CI: 6.20-11.92; negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08-0.14 were obtained. The area under curve (AUC and Q values were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. In 5 literatures relating to HCC diagnosis by combination of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI sequence, the pooled sensitivity: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91, specificity: 0.96 (0.94-0.97, positive likelihood ratio: 19.63 (12.77-30.16, negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (0.07-0.14 were obtained. The AUC value was 0

  4. Resolution of chronic hepatitis C following parasitosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerie Byrnes; Sanjiv Chopra; Margaret J Koziel

    2007-01-01

    An inefficient cellular immune response likely leads to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resolution of chronic HCV infection in the absence of treatment is a rare occurrence. We report the case of a 39-year old white male with a 17-year history of chronic HCV infection, who eradicated HCV following a serious illness due to co-infection with Babesia (babesiosis), Borriela Borgdorferi (Lyme disease) and Ehrlichia (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis). We hypothesize that the cellular immune response mounted by this patient in response to his infection with all three agents but in particular Babesia was sufficient to eradicate HCV.

  5. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  6. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  7. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  8. 二阶可逆耦合触发细胞自动机的加密技术研究%Two-order Reversible Couple Toggle Cellular Automata Based Image Encryption Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭川

    2012-01-01

    为了有效改进细胞自动机加密系统的实现复杂度和加解密效率,提出了一种二阶可逆耦合触发细胞自动机的图像加密方法.通过对简单的可逆细胞自动机进行扩展,构造二阶可逆细胞自动机,并以耦合触发规则对明文图像实行分块加密.二阶可逆细胞自动机的转移状态由其当前状态以及前一状态决定,有效增大了邻域范围,并且因为采用耦合触发规则,因此能明显增大加密系统的密钥空间,保证了系统的计算安全性.与一般触发自动机反向迭代的串行加密方式相比,该方法对于每个细胞的加密具有本质并行性,因此具有极高的加解密效率.通过实验验证其性能,结果表明与其它算法相比,该算法具有较大的密钥空间,能够有效抵抗蛮力攻击和差分分析攻击,且较小的邻域半径即可得到良好的加密效果,因此非常便于硬件实现.%To effectively improve the implement complexity and execution efficiency, an algorithm for image encryption is proposed which is based on two-order reversible couple toggle cellular automata (CA). By ways that extending the structure of simple reversible CA (RCA) and adopting couple toggle rules, the algorithm ciphers image which is divided into blocks previously. The CA's state is determined by previous state and next state, so it has larger key space and this can make system safe enough. Compared with general toggle CA (TCA) methods, the algorithm has much better efficiency because each cell is updated parallel Experiments and analysis indicate that this method has an enough large key space, high cipher and decipher speed and good scrambling effect. And the cryptosystem can resist brute attack and differential attack effectively.

  9. Value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinomas with atypical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced multiphasic MDCT in patients with chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Su [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: kshyun@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Kyoung Doo; Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Keun [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We investigated imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI of HCCs without the typical enhancement pattern on multiphasic MDCT. •Most HCCs showed ancillary MR findings of typical HCC. •Considerable number of HCCs showed MR enhancement pattern of typical HCC. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of enhancement kinetics and ancillary imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) without the typical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced multiphasic MDCT in patients with chronic liver disease. Materials and methods: Eighty-two surgically confirmed HCCs without the typical enhancement pattern (hypervascular in the arterial phase, followed by washout on the portal or equilibrium phases) on triple-phase MDCT were enrolled in this study. The patients were classified into four categories based on the CT density pattern of arterial and equilibrium phases (isodense–isodense, hypodense–hypodense, isodense–hypodense, and hyperdense–isodense) compared to liver parenchyma. Signal intensity of HCCs on T2-weighted images (T2WI), arterial phase, 3 min late-phase, hepatobiliary phase (HBP) and DW images with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} were qualitatively evaluated, and ADC values were measured. Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test were used to compare the frequency and trend of hyperintensity on T2WI, hypointensity on HBP images, hyperintensity on DW images, and histopathologic grades between groups with different CT density patterns. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the ADC value between groups. Results: Thirty and 52 HCCs were categorized as hypervascular (hyperdense–isodense) and non-hypervascular HCCs (3, isodense–isodense; 37, hypodense–hypodense; 12, isodense–hypodense), respectively. Most HCCs showed hyperintensity on T2WI (77/82, 93.9%) and DW images (81/82, 98.8%) and hypointensity on HBP

  10. Value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinomas with atypical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced multiphasic MDCT in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We investigated imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI of HCCs without the typical enhancement pattern on multiphasic MDCT. •Most HCCs showed ancillary MR findings of typical HCC. •Considerable number of HCCs showed MR enhancement pattern of typical HCC. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of enhancement kinetics and ancillary imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) without the typical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced multiphasic MDCT in patients with chronic liver disease. Materials and methods: Eighty-two surgically confirmed HCCs without the typical enhancement pattern (hypervascular in the arterial phase, followed by washout on the portal or equilibrium phases) on triple-phase MDCT were enrolled in this study. The patients were classified into four categories based on the CT density pattern of arterial and equilibrium phases (isodense–isodense, hypodense–hypodense, isodense–hypodense, and hyperdense–isodense) compared to liver parenchyma. Signal intensity of HCCs on T2-weighted images (T2WI), arterial phase, 3 min late-phase, hepatobiliary phase (HBP) and DW images with a b value of 800 s/mm2 were qualitatively evaluated, and ADC values were measured. Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test were used to compare the frequency and trend of hyperintensity on T2WI, hypointensity on HBP images, hyperintensity on DW images, and histopathologic grades between groups with different CT density patterns. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the ADC value between groups. Results: Thirty and 52 HCCs were categorized as hypervascular (hyperdense–isodense) and non-hypervascular HCCs (3, isodense–isodense; 37, hypodense–hypodense; 12, isodense–hypodense), respectively. Most HCCs showed hyperintensity on T2WI (77/82, 93.9%) and DW images (81/82, 98.8%) and hypointensity on HBP images

  11. Prognosis of small hepatocellular nodules detected only at the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging as hypointensity in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Atsushi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki City, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the prognosis of ''strict'' high-risk nodules (small hepatocellular nodules detected only in the hepatobiliary phase of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examination) in patients with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The study included thirty-three patients with 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showing hypointensity at the hepatobiliary phase that was undetectable at the vascular phase and other conventional sequences of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. These nodules were observed on follow-up MR examinations until hypervascularity was detected. The potential predictive factors for hypervascular transformation were compared between two groups (group A showing hypervascular transformation, group B not showing hypervascularization). Ten (16.7 %) of 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods (group A). The growth rates of the nodules in group A (6.3 ± 4.5 mm/year) were significantly higher than those in group B (3.4 ± 7.2 mm/year) (p = 0.003). Additionally, the median observation period in group A (177.5 ± 189.5 day) was significantly shorter than in group B (419 ± 372.2 day) (p = 0.045). The other predictive factors were not significantly correlated with hypervascularization. Subsets of ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods in association with increased growth rates, indicating that nodule growth rate is an important predictive factor for hypervascularization. (orig.)

  12. A Comparison of Two Different High-Volume Image-Guided Injection Procedures for Patients With Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy: A Pragmatic Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Patrick C; Mahadevan, Dev; Bhatt, Raj; Bhatia, Maneesh

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a comparison evaluation of outcomes after 2 different high-volume image-guided injection (HVIGI) procedures performed under direct ultrasound guidance in patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. In group A, the HVIGI involved high-volume (10 mL of 1% lidocaine combined with 40 mL of saline) and no dry needling. In group B, the HVIGI involved a smaller volume (10 mL of 1% lidocaine combined with 20 mL of saline) and dry needling of the Achilles tendon. A total of 34 patients were identified from the clinical records, with a mean overall age of 50.6 (range 26 to 83) years and an overall mean follow-up duration of 277 (range 49 to 596) days. The change between the preinjection and postinjection Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles scores of 33.4 ± 22.5 points in group A and 6.94 ± 22.2 points in group B, was statistically significant (p = .002). In group A, 3 patients (16.7%) required surgical treatment compared with 6 patients (37.5%) in group B requiring surgical treatment (p = .180). Our results indicated that a higher volume without dry needling compared with a lower volume with dry needling resulted in greater improvement in noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. However, confounding factors mean it is not possible to categorically state that this difference was solely due to different injection techniques. PMID:27286927

  13. Redox Imbalance in the Peripheral Mechanism Underlying the Mirror-Image Neuropathic Pain Due to Chronic Compression of Dorsal Root Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, H; Chen, H; Xu, J J; Jiang, Y S; Shen, Y J; Zhou, S Z; Xu, H; Xiong, Y C

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but few studies have examined the role of oxidative stress in the mirror-image neuropathic pain (MINP). The present study was to investigate the role of ROS in MINP caused by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (CCD) in a rat model. SD rats were randomly divided into sham group and CCD group. CCD was conducted to induce MINP. CCD rats were intraperitoneally injected with α-Phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) at 7 days after surgery. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) was measured at -1, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after surgery in sham group and CCD group, and at 8 time points after PBN injection. Rats were sacrificed at 3 and 7 days after surgery in sham group and CCD group and at 0.5 and 2 h after PBN injection, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents were determined in the contralateral DRGs. Results showed bilateral PWMT reduced significantly in sham group and CCD group, but it returned to nearly normal level in sham group. MDA content, H2O2 content and SOD activity increased significantly, while catalase activity remained unchanged in CCD rats. PBN at 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia accompanied by the improvement of oxidative stress in the contralateral DRGs. Our results demonstrate that ROS produced in the contralateral DRG are involved in the pathogenesis of CCD induced MINP, and ROS scavenger may be a promising drug for the therapy of MINP. PMID:26471165

  14. Thermomechanical characterisation of cellular rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, H.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses an experimental possibility to characterise a cellular rubber in terms of the influence of multiaxiality, rate dependency under environmental temperature and its behaviour under hydrostatic pressure. In this context, a mixed open and closed cell rubber based on an ethylene propylene diene monomer is investigated exemplarily. The present article intends to give a general idea of the characterisation method and the considerable effects of this special type of material. The main focus lies on the experimental procedure and the used testing devices in combination with the analysis methods such as true three-dimensional digital image correlation. The structural compressibility is taken into account by an approach for a material model using the Theory of Porous Media with additional temperature dependence.

  15. Spontaneous brain activity in chronic smokers revealed by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation analysis: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Shuilian; Xiao Dan; Wang Shuangkun; Peng Peng; Xie Teng; He Yong; Wang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine is primarily rsponsible for the highly addictive properties of cigarettes.Similar to other substances,nicotine dependence is related to many important brain regions,particular in mesolimbic reward circuit.This study was to further reveal the alteration of brain function activity during resting state in chronic smokers by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),in order to provide the evidence of neurobiological mechanism of smoking.Methods This case control study involved twenty healthy smokers and nineteen healthy nonsmokers recruited by advertisement.Sociodemographic,smoking related characteristics and fMRI images were collected and the data analyzed.Results Compared with nonsmokers,smokers showed fALFF increased significantly in the left middle occipital gyrus,left limbic lobe and left cerebellum posterior lobe but decreases in the right middle frontal gyrus,right superior temporal gyrus,right extra nuclear,left postcentral gyrus and left cerebellum anterior lobe (cluster size >100 voxels).Compared with light smokers (pack years ≤20),heavy smokers (pack years >20) showed fALFF increased significantly in the right superior temporal gyrus,right precentral gyrus,and right occipital lobe/cuneus but decreased in the right/left limbic lobe/cingulate gyrus,right/left frontal lobe/sub gyral,right/left cerebellum posterior lobe (cluster size >50 voxels).Compared with nonsevere nicotine dependent smokers (Fagerstr(o)m test for nicotine dependence,score ≤6),severe nicotine dependent smokers (score >6) showed fALFF increased significantly in the right/left middle frontal gyrus,right superior frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule but decreased in the left limbic lobe/cingulate gyrus (duster size >25 voxels).Conclusions In smokers during rest,the activity of addiction related regions were increased and the activity of smoking feeling,memory,related regions were

  16. The Maastricht Ultrasound Shoulder pain trial (MUST: Ultrasound imaging as a diagnostic triage tool to improve management of patients with non-chronic shoulder pain in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cals Jochen WL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacromial disorders are considered to be one of the most common pathologies affecting the shoulder. Optimal therapy for shoulder pain (SP in primary care is yet unknown, since clinical history and physical examination do not provide decisive evidence as to the patho-anatomical origin of the symptoms. Optimal decision strategies can be furthered by applying ultrasound imaging (US, an accurate method in diagnosing SP, demonstrating a clear relationship between diagnosis and available therapies. Yet, the clinical cost-effectiveness of applying US in the management of SP in primary care has not been studied. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a trial assessing the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound imaging as a diagnostic triage tool to improve management of primary care patients with non-chronic shoulder pain. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial (RCT will involve 226 adult patients with suspected subacromial disorders recruited by general practitioners. During a Qualification period of two weeks, patients receive care as usual as advised by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, and patients are referred for US. Patients with insufficient improvement qualify for the RCT. These patients are then randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The therapies used in both groups are the same (corticosteroid injections, referral to a physiotherapist or orthopedic surgeon except that therapies used in the intervention group will be tailored based on the US results. Ultrasound diagnosed disorders include tendinopathy, calcific tendinitis, partial and full thickness tears, and subacromial bursitis. The primary outcome is patient-perceived recovery at 52 weeks, using the Global Perceived Effect questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are disease specific and generic quality of life, cost-effectiveness, and the adherence to the initial applied treatment. Outcome measures will be assessed

  17. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  18. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  19. 慢性大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞的CT灌注成像%CT perfusion imaging in patients with chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏凯燕; 刘增韬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the blood perfusion character of chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion with CT perfusion imaging. Methods The clinical and imaging dala of 11 cases with unilateral chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion were collected. All cases were examined with CT perfusion and MR (MR1 and MKA). Results The CT perfusion character of chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion included CBV elevated, CBF decreased, and MTI prolonged. Conclusion CT perfusion imaging can describe the blood perfusion character of chronic middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion, and provide theoretical basis for therapeutic plan.%目的 利用CT灌注成像技术研究慢性大动脉狭窄或闭塞患者的脑血流灌注特征.方法 搜集具有完整临床资料的单侧慢性大脑中动脉重度狭窄或闭寨患者11例,行CT灌注成像及磁共振(MRI及MRA)检查.结果 慢性大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞患者的脑CT灌注特征是患侧脑血流量(CBF)降低,脑血容量(CBV)升高,平均通过时间(MTT)延长.结论 CT灌注成像能反映慢性大脑中动脉狭窄或闭塞患者的脑血流灌注特征,为临床治疗方案的制订提供理论依据.

  20. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  1. Magnetic Cellular Switches

    OpenAIRE

    Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...

  2. Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreemanta K. Parida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB. We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs, as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy.

  3. Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2008-12-01

    Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.

  4. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  5. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  6. Chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation and papillary muscle infarction detected by late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Willemsen, Hendrik M; Lexis, Chris P H; Prakken, Niek H; Lipsic, Erik; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Mariani, Massimo A; van der Harst, Pim; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both papillary muscle infarction (PMI) and chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR) are associated with reduced survival after myocardial infarction. The influence of PMI on CIMR and factors influencing both entities are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the

  7. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  8. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  9. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation.......Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...

  10. [Immunological changes in chronic osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi Alvarez, V; Cartón Sánchez, J A; Maradona Hidalgo, J A; López-Larrea, C; Arribas Castrillo, J M

    1992-11-01

    We have studied several aspects of cellular and humoral immunity in 19 patients with chronic osteomyelitis (CO) compared with 11 healthy controls of similar characteristics. Patients with CO showed significantly higher values of GSR, reactive protein C (RPC), IgG and lymphocytes CD3+ and lower values of the CD4+/CD3+ ratio, as well as an hypoergic response to 7 antigens in the different cutaneous hypersensibility tests, compared with healthy controls. The rate of "in vitro" blastic stimulation by different lectins was significantly lower in the group of patients, compared with controls. These changes in the cellular immunity are not correlated with the extent, chronicity and prognosis of the disease, although we did not performed sequential studies of the immunitary condition. None of these immunological markers seem to be a better predictor of the bone infectious activity than the traditional GSR or RPC. PMID:1467399

  11. HDACi: cellular effects, opportunities for restorative dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H F

    2011-12-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.

  12. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  13. CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The educational objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the computed tomography (CT) findings in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This article reviews the key imaging findings at CT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. After reading this article, the reader should have an improved awareness of the condition, its imaging features, and the CT imaging features associated with surgically accessible disease.

  14. Integrated cellular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  15. Multiuser Cellular Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Modern radio communication is faced with a problem about how to distribute restricted frequency to users in a certain space. Since our task is to minimize the number of repeaters, a natural idea is enlarging coverage area. However, coverage has restrictions. First, service area has to be divided economically as repeater's coverage is limited. In this paper, our fundamental method is to adopt seamless cellular network division. Second, underlying physics content in frequency distribution problem is interference between two close frequencies. Consequently, we choose a proper frequency width of 0.1MHz and a relevantly reliable setting to apply one frequency several times. We make a few general assumptions to simplify real situation. For instance, immobile users yield to homogenous distribution; repeaters can receive and transmit information in any given frequency in duplex operation; coverage is mainly decided by antenna height. Two models are built up to solve 1000 users and 10000 users situations respectively....

  16. Imaging manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis%慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺结核的影像表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光; 李宁; 王文秀; 王力; 郑浩; 高江峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the imaging manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease com-plicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods 143 cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into the group A, and another 120 cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with pulmonary infection were taken as the group B. The lesions′location and range and the nature of le-sions were analyzed. Results There was no significant difference in lesions nodules, patchy fibrosis, and flaky exu-dative lesions (P>0. 05). But there were obvious differences in upper lobe segment and dorsal segment of lower lobe basal segment involvement, leaves, lesions of calcification, diaphragmatic surface adhesion, multi form lesions mixed, with effusion change (P0.05;累及上叶尖后段和下叶背段,累及下叶基底段,病变性质的钙化灶、膈面粘连、多形态病灶混合、伴积液改变,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 COPD合并肺结核影像表现为病变范围广泛,呈多肺叶散开模式,不典型部位经常被累及,多性状病灶混合存在,病变影像改变缓慢。

  17. 99mTc-bicisate reliably images CBF in chronic brain diseases but fails to show reflow hyperemia in subacute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Sperling, B

    1994-01-01

    of 115 cases were collected, and of these 105 were considered technically adequate, comprising 18 normal subjects, 18 senile dementia, eight epilepsy, one brain tumor, eight chronic head trauma, and 52 stroke cases. As expected, bicisate gave better spatial resolution than Xe. Agreement between...

  18. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic Tubulointerstitial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic tubulointerstitial diseases are a common final pathway toward chronic renal failure regardless the primary damage (glomerular, vascular or directly the tubulointerstitium). Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (CTN) is characterized by interstitial scarring, fibrosis and tubule atrophy, resulting in progressive chronic kidney disease. Most frequent causes of CTN are drugs, heavy metals, obstructive uropathy, nephrolithiasis, reflux disease, immunologic diseases, neoplasia, ischemia, metabolic diseases, genetics and miscellaneous. At ultrasound (US), kidneys' morphological aspect is similar in all forms of chronic interstitial nephropathy and only chronic pyelonephritis with or without reflux shows distinguishing characteristics. In interstitial nephropathy, kidneys' profiles are finely irregular and corticomedullary differentiation is altered because of a diffused hyperechogenicity. The only indirect sign of chronic interstitial damage can be derived from the value of intrarenal resistive indexes that hardly overcome 0.75. US is mandatory in clinical chronic pyelonephritis work-up because it provides information on kidney's diameter and on growth nomogram in children. Renal profiles can be more or less altered depending on the number of cortical scars and the presence of pseudonodular areas of segmental compensatory hypertrophy. In the early stages, US diagnosis of renal tuberculosis is difficult because parenchymal lesions are non-specific. US sensitivity in the diagnosis of hydronephrosis is very high, close to 100% and, finally, US is the first choice imaging technique in the diagnosis of urinary lithiasis. PMID:27169608

  19. Tracking CNS and systemic sources of oxidative stress during the course of chronic neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossakowski, Agata A; Pohlan, Julian; Bremer, Daniel; Lindquist, Randall; Millward, Jason M; Bock, Markus; Pollok, Karolin; Mothes, Ronja; Viohl, Leonard; Radbruch, Moritz; Gerhard, Jenny; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Behrens, Janina; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Füchtemeier, Martina; Herz, Josephine; Pache, Florence C; Bardua, Markus; Priller, Josef; Hauser, Anja E; Paul, Friedemann; Niesner, Raluca; Radbruch, Helena

    2015-12-01

    The functional dynamics and cellular sources of oxidative stress are central to understanding MS pathogenesis but remain elusive, due to the lack of appropriate detection methods. Here we employ NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect functional NADPH oxidases (NOX enzymes) in vivo to identify inflammatory monocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes expressing NOX1 as major cellular sources of oxidative stress in the central nervous system of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This directly affects neuronal function in vivo, indicated by sustained elevated neuronal calcium. The systemic involvement of oxidative stress is mirrored by overactivation of NOX enzymes in peripheral CD11b(+) cells in later phases of both MS and EAE. This effect is antagonized by systemic intake of the NOX inhibitor and anti-oxidant epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Together, this persistent hyper-activation of oxidative enzymes suggests an "oxidative stress memory" both in the periphery and CNS compartments, in chronic neuroinflammation. PMID:26521072

  20. Unique Microstructural Changes in the Brain Associated with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS) Revealed by Diffusion Tensor MRI, Super-Resolution Track Density Imaging, and Statistical Parameter Mapping: A MAPP Network Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Davis; Mayer, Emeran; Leu, Kevin; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Naliboff, Bruce D; Labus, Jennifer S; Tillisch, Kirsten; Kutch, Jason J; Farmer, Melissa A; Apkarian, A Vania; Johnson, Kevin A; Mackey, Sean C; Ness, Timothy J; Landis, J Richard; Deutsch, Georg; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Mullins, Chris; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested chronic pain syndromes are associated with neural reorganization in specific regions associated with perception, processing, and integration of pain. Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) represents a collection of pain syndromes characterized by pelvic pain, namely Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS), that are both poorly understood in their pathophysiology, and treated ineffectively. We hypothesized patients with UCPPS may have microstructural differences in the brain compared with healthy control subjects (HCs), as well as patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal pain disorder. In the current study we performed population-based voxel-wise DTI and super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) in a large, two-center sample of phenotyped patients from the multicenter cohort with UCPPS (N = 45), IBS (N = 39), and HCs (N = 56) as part of the MAPP Research Network. Compared with HCs, UCPPS patients had lower fractional anisotropy (FA), lower generalized anisotropy (GA), lower track density, and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in brain regions commonly associated with perception and integration of pain information. Results also showed significant differences in specific anatomical regions in UCPPS patients when compared with IBS patients, consistent with microstructural alterations specific to UCPPS. While IBS patients showed clear sex related differences in FA, MD, GA, and track density consistent with previous reports, few such differences were observed in UCPPS patients. Heat maps illustrating the correlation between specific regions of interest and various pain and urinary symptom scores showed clustering of significant associations along the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical loop associated with pain integration, modulation, and perception. Together, results suggest patients with UCPPS have extensive microstructural

  1. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jumaat Mohd. Yussof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth factors initiate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. Inflammation is followed by the proliferation of fibroblasts, which lay down the extracellular matrix. Simultaneously, various white cells and other connective tissue cells release both the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and the tissue inhibitors of these metalloproteinases (TIMPs. MMPs remove damaged structural proteins such as collagen, while the fibroblasts lay down fresh extracellular matrix proteins. Fluid collected from acute, healing wounds contains growth factors, and stimulates fibroblast proliferation, but fluid collected from chronic, nonhealing wounds does not. Fibroblasts from chronic wounds do not respond to chronic wound fluid, probably because the fibroblasts of these wounds have lost the receptors that respond to cytokines and growth factors. Nonhealing wounds contain high levels of IL1, IL6, and MMPs, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio. Clinical examination of wounds inconsistently predicts which wounds will heal when procedures like secondary closure are planned. Surgeons therefore hope that these chemicals can be used as biomarkers of wounds which have impaired ability to heal. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will help the healing of chronic, nonhealing wounds.

  2. Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingfeng

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological specimens, such as living cells and their intracellular components, often exhibit very little amplitude contrast, making it difficult for conventional bright field microscopes to distinguish them from their surroundings. To overcome this problem phase contrast techniques such as Zernike, Normarsky and dark-field microscopies have been developed to improve specimen visibility without chemically or physically altering them by the process of staining. These techniques have proven to be invaluable tools for studying living cells and furthering scientific understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as mitosis. However a drawback of these techniques is that direct quantitative phase imaging is not possible. Quantitative phase imaging is important because it enables determination of either the refractive index or optical thickness variations from the measured optical path length with sub-wavelength accuracy. Digital holography is an emergent phase contrast technique that offers an excellent approach in obtaining both qualitative and quantitative phase information from the hologram. A CCD camera is used to record a hologram onto a computer and numerical methods are subsequently applied to reconstruct the hologram to enable direct access to both phase and amplitude information. Another attractive feature of digital holography is the ability to focus on multiple focal planes from a single hologram, emulating the focusing control of a conventional microscope. Methods A modified Mach-Zender off-axis setup in transmission is used to record and reconstruct a number of holographic amplitude and phase images of cellular and sub-cellular features. Results Both cellular and sub-cellular features are imaged with sub-micron, diffraction-limited resolution. Movies of holographic amplitude and phase images of living microbes and cells are created from a series of holograms and reconstructed with numerically adjustable

  3. Usefulness of Cardiac MetaIodobenzylguanidine Imaging to Improve Prognostic Power of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Scoring System in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakui, Hideyuki; Yamada, Takahisa; Tamaki, Shunsuke; Morita, Takashi; Furukawa, Yoshio; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Masato; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Kondo, Takumi; Ishimi, Masashi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Seo, Masahiro; Ozaki, Tatsuhisa; Ikeda, Iyo; Fukuhara, Eiji; Sakata, Yasushi; Fukunami, Masatake

    2016-06-15

    Liver dysfunction has a prognostic impact on the outcomes of patients with advanced heart failure (HF). The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is a robust system for rating liver dysfunction, and a high score has been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in ambulatory patients with HF. In addition, cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging provides prognostic information in patients with chronic HF (CHF). However, the long-term predictive value of combining the MELD score and cardiac MIBG imaging in patients with CHF has not been elucidated. To prospectively investigate whether cardiac MIBG imaging provides additional prognostic value to the MELD score in patients with mild-to-moderate CHF, we studied 109 CHF outpatients (New York Heart Association: 2.0 ± 0.6) with left ventricular ejection fraction 27%) had a significantly greater risk of CD than those with normal WR in both those with high MELD scores (≥10; hazard ratio 4.0 [1.2 to 13.6]) and with low MELD scores (<10; hazard ratio 6.4 [1.7 to 23.2]). In conclusion, cardiac MIBG imaging would provide additional prognostic information to the MELD score in patients with mild-to-moderate CHF. PMID:27237625

  4. Never-ageing cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrunc, Müge; d’Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Cellular senescence was historically discovered as a form of cellular ageing of in vitro cultured cells. It has been under the spotlight following the evidence of oncogene-induced senescence in vivo and its role as a potent tumour suppressor mechanism. Presently, a PubMed search using keywords ‘cellular senescence and cancer’ reveals 8398 number of references (by April 2011) showing that while our knowledge of senescence keeps expanding, the complexity of the phenomenon keeps us – researchers...

  5. The State of Cellular Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    2003-01-01

    Cellular probe technology is one of several potentially promising technologies for obtaining accurate travel time information. In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated E911 requirements that cellular location be provided when 911 emergency calls come in to emergency management authorities. The E911 requirements allow 50 -300 meters from the emergency call location, depending on the type of cellular phone technology used and whether handset-based or network-based solutions...

  6. Boltzmann learning of parameters in cellular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    1992-01-01

    The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified ...... by unsupervised adaptation of an image segmentation cellular network. The learning rule is applied to adaptive segmentation of satellite imagery......The use of Bayesian methods to design cellular neural networks for signal processing tasks and the Boltzmann machine learning rule for parameter estimation is discussed. The learning rule can be used for models with hidden units, or for completely unsupervised learning. The latter is exemplified...

  7. Chronic spinal cord injury treated with transplanted autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells tracked by magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chotivichit, Areesak; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Chiewvit, Pipat; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak; Sujirattanawimol, Kittipong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intrathecal transplantation is a minimally invasive method for the delivery of stem cells, however, whether the cells migrate from the lumbar to the injured cervical spinal cord has not been proved in humans. We describe an attempt to track bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a patient with a chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Case presentation A 33-year-old Thai man who sustained an incomplete spinal cord injury from the atlanto-axial subluxation was enrolled into a ...

  8. Usefulness of imaging techniques and novel biomarkers in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease in Spain: The NEFRONA project

    OpenAIRE

    Junyent, Mireia; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Borràs, Mercè; Betriu i Bars, M. Àngels; Coll,Blai; Craver Hospital, Lourdes; Marco Mayayo, M. Paz; Sarró, Felipe; Valdivielso Revilla, José Manuel; Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular risk assessment in this population is hampered by the failure of traditional risk factors to fully account for the elevated CVD risk, mainly due to the reverse epidemiology effect, and the presence of risk factors specifically related to uraemia. Hereby, we present the protocol of a prospective study aimed to assess the ...

  9. Effect of Tianqi Injection on the Micro-inflammation and Cellular Immunity in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease at the Ⅱ-Ⅳ Stage%田七注射液对2~4期慢性肾脏病患者微炎症状态及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金玉; 黄仁发; 史伟; 黄雪霞; 覃祚莲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨田七注射液对2~4期慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者微炎症状态及细胞免疫功能的影响.方法 71例2~4期CKD患者根据住院号按照Doll′s临床病例随机表法分为治疗组(36例)和对照组(35例),对照组给予护肾、排毒、降压、纠正贫血、维持水电解质酸碱平衡等治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上给予田七注射液(100 ml/d).两组均治疗1个月为1个疗程,2个疗程后观察两组患者治疗前后血清白介素-8(IL-8)、白介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、TC、TG、LDL、HDL、树突状细胞(DC)和CD4+/CD8+比值的改变.结果 治疗后与对照组相比较,治疗组的血清IL-8、IL-6、TNF-α、TC、TG、LDL水平均降低,HDL升高,DC数量增加,CD4+/CD8+比值增高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 田七注射液能减轻CKD炎症反应,其机制可能与调节脂质代谢和改善细胞免疫功能有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of Tianqi injection on the micro-inflammation and cellular immunity in patients with chronic kidney disease( CKD ) at the II - IV stage. Methods Sevent-one patients with CKD were randomly divided into treatment group( n =36) and the control group( n = 35 ) according to the method of Doll's clinical case.The patients in the two groups were treated by protecting kidney,excreting poisonous,reducing blood pressure,correcting metabolic acidosis and anemia. Besides,the patients in the treatment group treated by intravenous Tianqiinjection for one month. One month was defined as a course of treatment in the two groups. The changes of interleukin-8 ( IL-8 ), interleukin-6( IL-6 ), tumor necrotizing factor-a( TNF-a ), serum total cholesterol( TC ), triglyceride( TG ), low density lipoprotein( LDL ),high density lipoprotein( HDL ),the numbers of dendritic cell( DC ) and the ratio of CD4 + to CD8 + were observed after two courses of treatment. Results Compared with the controls, the level of serum IL-8, IL-6,TNF-a,TC,TG and

  10. Clinical application of musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging in chronic plantar fascitiis%肌肉骨骼超声在评估慢性足底筋膜炎中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 邓建林; 张志杰; 朱毅; 方建辉

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察肌肉骨骼超声在评估慢性足底筋膜炎中的临床应用.方法:应用肌肉骨骼超声对21例单侧足底筋膜炎患者进行足底筋膜厚度的评估,由一位有经验的超声医生分别对患侧和健侧的足底筋膜厚度进行测量,测量2次,时间间隔为2~3d.结果:应用肌肉骨骼超声测量健侧和患侧足底筋膜厚度重复性测量信度分别为0.92和0.87,对比健侧与患侧足底筋膜厚度,患侧明显高于健侧(P<0.05).结论:肌肉骨骼超声可有效可靠地评估足底筋膜厚度,对于诊断慢性足底筋膜炎及评估治疗效果有着重要的意义.%Objective:To determine the clinical application of musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging in patients with unilateral chronic plantar fascitiis. Methods:A experienced ultrasound doctor scanned 21 patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis twice with 2 - 3 days between test and retest. Results:Intrarater reliability of measurement of plantar fascia thickness using musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging for both sides were 0. 92 and 0. 87. The fascia thickness in injuried sides were obviouly thicker than uninjuried sides(P<0. 05). Conclusion:The results revealed that musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging is a reliable method to evaluate the thickness of plantar fascia and diagnose chronic plantar fascitiis.

  11. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  13. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  14. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  15. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  16. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by cellular labile iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kyohei; Kawakami, Toru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tomizawa, Miyu; Fujiwara, Tohru; Ishii, Tomonori; Harigae, Hideo; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2016-02-01

    Cellular labile iron, which contains chelatable redox-active Fe(2+), has been implicated in iron-mediated cellular toxicity leading to multiple organ dysfunction. Iron homeostasis is controlled by monocytes/macrophages through their iron recycling and storage capacities. Furthermore, iron sequestration by monocytes/macrophages is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1, highlighting the importance of these cells in the crosstalk between inflammation and iron homeostasis. However, a role for cellular labile iron in monocyte/macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses has not been defined. Here we describe how cellular labile iron activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes. Stimulation of lipopolysaccharide-primed peripheral blood mononuclear cells with ferric ammonium citrate increases the level of cellular Fe(2+) levels in monocytes and induces production of interleukin-1β in a dose-dependent manner. This ferric ammonium citrate-induced interleukin-1β production is dependent on caspase-1 and is significantly inhibited by an Fe(2+)-specific chelator. Ferric ammonium citrate consistently induced interleukin-1β secretion in THP1 cells, but not in NLRP3-deficient THP1 cells, indicating a requirement for the NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, activation of the inflammasome is mediated by potassium efflux, reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Thus, these results suggest that monocytes/macrophages not only sequestrate iron during inflammation, but also mediate inflammation in response to cellular labile iron, which provides novel insights into the role of iron in chronic inflammation. PMID:26577567

  17. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  18. The need for standardisation of cardiac FDG PET imaging in the evaluation of myocardial viability in patients with chronic ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuti, J. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Turku PET Centre; Schelbert, H.R. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology; Bax, J.J. [Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Cardilogy

    2002-09-01

    The evaluation of myocardial glucose utilisation with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography is currently considered the most reliable tool for the identification of myocardial viability. However, the investigations using FDG imaging to predict improvement in left ventricular (LV) function after revascularisation have reported wide ranges for sensitivity (71%-100%) and, in particular, for specificity (33%-91%). The variable results may be related to differences in study populations but also to differences in the imaging protocols employed. Detailed analysis of the published studies has revealed differences in study populations, patient selection criteria, the methods for assessing changes in LV function post revascularisation and the timing of these assessments. Even more importantly, protocols have varied substantially with regard to imaging equipment, perfusion tracers, metabolic conditions, data analysis and interpretation of results. In addition, evaluation of patients with insulin resistance appears to represent a specific challenge. This review examines the different study protocols and methodologies used for myocardial FDG imaging in order to draw conclusions concerning optimal imaging protocols. It appears that the optimisation and standardisation of study protocols and analysis of FDG images for the assessment of myocardial viability are critical. In addition, multi-centre trials seem warranted on prediction of long-term function, congestive heart failure symptoms, survival and quality of life.

  19. THE CELLULAR AND GENOMIC RESPONSE OF AN IMMORTALIZED MICROGLIA CELL LINE (BV2) TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes cellular and genomic evidence that microglia exposed to concentrated air pollutants (CAPs). These were CAPs achieved from a previous study in which sub-chronically exposed transgenic animals develop neurodegeneration (Veronesi et al., Inhalation Tox,...

  20. Study of [18F]FLT and [123I]IaraU for cellular imaging in HSV1 tk-transfected murine fibrosarcoma cells: evaluation of the tracer uptake using 5-fluoro, 5-iodo and 5-iodovinyl arabinosyl uridines as competitive probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the most intensively studied probes for imaging of the cellular proliferation, [18F]FLT was investigated whether the targeting specificity of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) dependency could be enhanced through a synergistic effect mediated by herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) tk gene in terms of the TK1 or TK2 expression. 5-[123I]Iodo arabinosyl uridine ([123I]IaraU) was prepared in a radiochemical yield of 8% and specific activity of 21 GBq/μmol, respectively. Inhibition of the cellular uptake of these two tracers was compared by using the arabinosyl uridine analogs such as 5-iodo, 5-fluoro and 5-(E)-iodovinyl arabinosyl uridine along with 2′-fluoro-5-iodo arabinosyl uridine (FIAU). Due to potential instability of the iodo group, accumulation index of 1.6 for [123I]IaraU by HSV1-TK vs. control cells could virtually be achieved at 1.5 h, but dropped to 0.2 compared to 2.0 for [18F]FLT at 5 h. The results from competitive inhibition by these nucleosides against the accumulation of [18F]FLT implied that FLT exerted a mixed TK1- and TK2-dependent inhibition with HSV1-tk gene transfection because of the shifting of thymidine kinase status. Taken together, the combination of [18F]FLT and HSV1-TK provides a synergistic imaging potency.

  1. 电针“三阴”穴对慢性非细菌性前列腺炎大鼠细胞免疫功能的影响%Effect of Electroacupuncture at "Sanyin" Acupoints on Cellular Immune Function in Rats with Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安国; 李华章; 严兴科; 何天有; 阚丽丽; 王军燕; 董莉莉

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨电针“三阴”穴对慢性非细菌性前列腺炎大鼠细胞免疫功能的影响.方法:将40只雄性大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组、舍尼通组、电针组,每组10只.在皮内注射同种异体Wistar雄性大鼠前列腺蛋白提纯液,辅以双重免疫佐剂复制自身免疫性慢性非细菌性前列腺炎大鼠模型.电针组、舍尼通组分别给予电针“三阴”穴和舍尼通药物灌胃治疗,连续治疗2个疗程(疗程间隔1d,共15d).称取前列腺湿重并计算前列腺指数,光镜下观察各组动物前列腺组织形态结构,利用流式细胞仪检测各组动物血浆中CD4+、CD8+的百分含量.结果:各组动物前列腺湿重及前列腺指数比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).与正常对照组比较,模型组前列腺组织形态及结构受损明显,舍尼通组、电针组前列腺组织结构有不同程度恢复,但电针组更为显著.模型组血浆CD4+百分含量显著减少(P<0.01),CD4+与CD8+比值明显降低(P<0.05);与模型组比较,舍尼通组血浆CD4+百分含量明显增加(P<0.05),电针组血浆CD4+百分含量及CD4+与CD8+比值明显升高(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论:电针“三阴”穴能有效地调节慢性非细菌性前列腺炎大鼠的细胞免疫应答反应,使全身免疫细胞CD4+数目增多,局部免疫能力增强,从而达到治疗目的.%Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Sanyin" acupoints (bilateral "Jiayin" and "Zhongyin") on the cellular immune function of rats with chronic abacterial prostatitis (CAP),so as to explore its mechanism underlying relieving CAP.Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups:control,model,medication (Cernilton) and EA (n =10 rats/group).The CAP model was made by injection of allogeneic prostatein purification liquid +Freund's complete adjuvant (1 ∶ 1) and diphtheria,pertussis,tetanus (DPT) vaccine (0.5 mL).EA was applied to bilateral "Jiayin

  2. Evaluation of mannitol effect in patients with acute hepatic failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure using conventional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of an intravenous bolus of mannitol in altering brain metabolites, brain water content, brain parenchyma volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and clinical signs in controls and in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and acute- on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), by comparing changes in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before and after its infusion. METHODS: Five patients each with ALF and ACLF in grade 3 or 4 hepatic encephalopathy and with clinical signs of raised intracranial pressure were studied along with five healthy volunteers. After baseline MRI, an intravenous bolus of 20% mannitol solution was given over 10 min in controls as well as in patients with ALF and ACLF. Repeat MRI for the same position was acquired 30 rain after completing the mannitol injection. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between controls and patients with ALF and ACLF in metabolite ratios, DTI metrics and brain volume or CSF volume following 45 min of mannitol infusion. There was no change in clinical status at the end of post-mannitol imaging. CONCLUSION: The osmotic effect of mannitol did not result in significant reduction of brain water content, alteration in metabolite ratios or any change in the clinical status of these patients during or within 45 min of mannitol infusion.

  3. Chronic pain - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  4. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  5. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  6. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  7. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  8. Biomedical optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, James G

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is a rapidly emerging research area with widespread fundamental research and clinical applications. This book gives an overview of biomedical optical imaging with contributions from leading international research groups who have pioneered many of these techniques and applications. A unique research field spanning the microscopic to the macroscopic, biomedical optical imaging allows both structural and functional imaging. Techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy provide cellular level resolution imaging in biological systems. The integration of this tech

  9. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  10. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  11. Cellular systems biology profiling applied to cellular models of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Kenneth A; Premkumar, Daniel R; Strock, Christopher J; Johnston, Patricia; Taylor, Lansing

    2009-11-01

    Building cellular models of disease based on the approach of Cellular Systems Biology (CSB) has the potential to improve the process of creating drugs as part of the continuum from early drug discovery through drug development and clinical trials and diagnostics. This paper focuses on the application of CSB to early drug discovery. We discuss the integration of protein-protein interaction biosensors with other multiplexed, functional biomarkers as an example in using CSB to optimize the identification of quality lead series compounds.

  12. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  13. Value of cardiac 320-multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with known chronic ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kühl, Jørgen T; Mathiasen, Anders B;

    2013-01-01

    The challenge for therapies targeting perfusion abnormalities is to identify and evaluate the region of interest. The aim of this study was to compare rest and stress myocardial perfusion measured by cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging...... in patients with invasive coronary angiography demonstrated occluded vessels. Twenty-four patients with refractory angina due to occluded coronary arteries underwent perfusion imaging obtained by 320-MDCT scanner and 1.5 T MR scanner. Rest and adenosine stress images were obtained and interpreted using......) or 1 (abnormal). The summed rest and stress scores were calculated. MDCT and CMR had a high probability to identify perfusion defects. An excellent correlation between MDCT and CMR summed rest (r = 0.916) and stress scores (r = 0.915) was found. The interobserver reproducibility was high for MDCT...

  14. Actual problems of cellular cardiomyoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kaupov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides review of cellular technologies used incardiology, describes types of cellular preparations depending onsources of cells and types of compounding cells. The generalmechanisms of therapies with stem cells applications are described.Use of cellular preparations for treatment of cardiovascular diseasesand is improvement of the forecast at patients with heartinsufficiency of various genesis is considered as alternative topractice with organ transplantations. Efforts of biotechnologicallaboratories are directed on search of optimum population of cellsfor application in cardiology and studying of mechanisms andfactors regulating function of cardiac stem cells.

  15. In vivo imaging of spinal cord in contusion injury model mice by multi-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Y.; Horiuchi, H.; Ogata, T.; Hikita, A.; Miura, H.; Imamura, T.

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescent imaging technique is a promising method and has been developed for in vivo applications in cellular biology. In particular, nonlinear optical imaging technique, multi-photon microscopy has make it possible to analyze deep portion of tissues in living animals such as axons of spinal code. Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are usually caused by contusion damages. Therefore, observation of spinal cord tissue after the contusion injury is necessary for understanding cellular dynamics in response to traumatic SCI and development of the treatment for traumatic SCI. Our goal is elucidation of mechanism for degeneration of axons after contusion injuries by establishing SCI model and chronic observation of injured axons in the living animals. Firstly we generated and observed acute SCI model by contusion injury. By using a multi-photon microscope, axons in dorsal cord were visualized approximately 140 micron in depth from the surface. Immediately after injury, minimal morphological change of spinal cord was observed. At 3 days after injury, spinal cord was swelling and the axons seem to be fragmented. At 7 days after injury, increased degradation of axons could be observed, although the image was blurred due to accumulation of the connective tissue. In the present study, we successfully observed axon degeneration after the contusion SCI in a living animal in vivo. Our final goal is to understand molecular mechanisms and cellular dynamics in response to traumatic SCIs in acute and chronic stage.

  16. A comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging shows kidney length predicts chronic kidney disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutani, Harpreet; Smith, Vikram; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Grantham, Jared J.; Torres, Vicente E.; Mrug, Michal; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Wu, Zhiyuan; Ge, Yinghui; Landslittel, Doug; Gibbs, Patrice; O’Neill, W. Charles; Arlene B Chapman; ,

    2015-01-01

    ADPKD is marked by gradual renal cyst and kidney enlargement and ultimately renal failure. Magnetic resonance-based, height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) over 600 ml/m predicts the development of CKD Stage 3 within 8 years in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging in Polycystic Kidney Disease cohort. Here we compared simultaneous ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to determine if ultrasound and kidney length (KL) predict future CKD Stage 3 over longer periods of follow-up. A tota...

  17. Image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography: A comparison between patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation and subjects in normal sinus rhythm by propensity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.dicesare@cc.univaq.it [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiotherapy, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Gennarelli, Antonio; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Felli, Valentina; Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Gravina, Giovanni Luca [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiotherapy, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Division of Radiology, Laboratory of Radiobiology, University of L’Aquila (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Atrial Fibrillation (AF) may affect CCTA image quality. •We compare the results of single heartbeat CCTA in subjects with chronic AF and in sinus rhythm. •Single heartbeat CCTA may be feasible also in subjects with cAF and HR <72 bpm. •In cAF patients with heart rate higher than 72 bpm, CCTA has more movement-associated artefacts. •Mean effective dose of single heartbeat CCTA in cAF group was higher than in sinus rhythm one. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation (cAF) in comparison with subjects in normal sinus rhythm. Methods: A cohort of 71 patients with cAF was matched with 71 subjects in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and HR ≤ 65 bpm using a matched by propensity analysis. All subjects underwent a single heartbeat CCTA with prospective gating. In subjects with cAF, we manually established the acquisition of data only from a single heartbeat. Mean effective dose and image quality, with both objective and subjective measures, were assessed. Results: 96.4% of all segments in the cAF group had diagnostic image quality. The rate of subjects with at least one non-diagnostic segment was 14% and 2.8% (p = 0.031) in the cAF and NRS groups, respectively. In the cAF group, the percentage of patients with at least one non-diagnostic segment for acquisition HR ≤ 72 was 1.8% (1/55), and it did not significantly differ from the NSR group (2.8%; 2/71) (p = 1.0). Objective quality parameters did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean effective dose was 4.24 ± 1.24 mSv in the cAF group and 2.67 ± 0.5 mSv in the sinus rhythm group (p < 0.0001) with an increase by 59% in the cAF group with respect to the SNR group. Conclusions: A single heartbeat acquisition protocol with a 640-slice prospectively ECG-triggered CT angiography may be feasible in patients with cAF and HR below 72

  18. Image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography: A comparison between patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation and subjects in normal sinus rhythm by propensity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Atrial Fibrillation (AF) may affect CCTA image quality. •We compare the results of single heartbeat CCTA in subjects with chronic AF and in sinus rhythm. •Single heartbeat CCTA may be feasible also in subjects with cAF and HR <72 bpm. •In cAF patients with heart rate higher than 72 bpm, CCTA has more movement-associated artefacts. •Mean effective dose of single heartbeat CCTA in cAF group was higher than in sinus rhythm one. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of single heartbeat 640-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with chronic Atrial Fibrillation (cAF) in comparison with subjects in normal sinus rhythm. Methods: A cohort of 71 patients with cAF was matched with 71 subjects in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and HR ≤ 65 bpm using a matched by propensity analysis. All subjects underwent a single heartbeat CCTA with prospective gating. In subjects with cAF, we manually established the acquisition of data only from a single heartbeat. Mean effective dose and image quality, with both objective and subjective measures, were assessed. Results: 96.4% of all segments in the cAF group had diagnostic image quality. The rate of subjects with at least one non-diagnostic segment was 14% and 2.8% (p = 0.031) in the cAF and NRS groups, respectively. In the cAF group, the percentage of patients with at least one non-diagnostic segment for acquisition HR ≤ 72 was 1.8% (1/55), and it did not significantly differ from the NSR group (2.8%; 2/71) (p = 1.0). Objective quality parameters did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean effective dose was 4.24 ± 1.24 mSv in the cAF group and 2.67 ± 0.5 mSv in the sinus rhythm group (p < 0.0001) with an increase by 59% in the cAF group with respect to the SNR group. Conclusions: A single heartbeat acquisition protocol with a 640-slice prospectively ECG-triggered CT angiography may be feasible in patients with cAF and HR below 72

  19. 振动反应成像技术在COPD中的临床价值分析%Analysis on clinical value of vibration response imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    如不亚木·土尔孙; 胡昕; 姜素; 赵伟; 齐曼古力·吾守尔

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨VRI在COPD中的临床价值.方法 选择新疆医科大学一附院呼吸科行VRI及肺功能检查的100例住院慢阻肺患者与35例健康志愿者,分析VRI与肺功能的相关性.结果 慢阻肺患者VRI结果与对照组相比存在显著差异 (P<0.01),振动曲线异常和动态图像异常随病情严重程度而改变(P<0.05),且与FEV1%pred呈相关(复合相关系数r=0.549,P<0.01).结论 VRI对COPD诊断及评价病情严重程度有重要临床价值.%Objective To explore the clinical value of vibration response imaging ( VIR ), a new coinputer-assisted lung sound imaging technology, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ). Methods 100 COPD hospitalized patients in the Respiratory De partment of the First .Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and 35 healthy volunteers received lung Junction test ( LIT ) and VRI irom November 2010 to October 2011. Results There was statistical difference between VIR results of COPD patients and that of the control group ( P <0. 01 ). The abnormal scores on either vibration energy graph or dynamic images changed along with higher severity of COPD (P <0. 05 ). There was a linear relationship between the abnormal scores on vibration energy graph and dynamic images of VIR and FEV, % pred ( r =0. 549 ,P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion VIR has an important clinical value in diagnosing the serious degree of COPD pa tients.

  20. Chronic aseptic meningitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancman, M E; Mesropian, H; Granillo, R J

    1989-08-01

    Chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It may occur early in the course of the disease and sometimes may be the initial symptom. We report a patient with chronic aseptic meningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed several ischemic lesions and an appearance which was compatible with chronic inflammation of the ependyma of the lateral ventricles.

  1. Cellular mechanisms during vascular development

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    The vascular system is an essential organ in vertebrate animals and provides the organism with enough oxygen and nutrients. It is composed of an interconnected network of blood vessels, which form using a number of different morphogenetic mechanisms. Angiogenesis describes the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. A number of molecular pathways have been shown to be essential during angiogenesis. However, cellular architecture of blood vessels as well as cellular mechanisms...

  2. Cellular automaton for chimera states

    OpenAIRE

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A minimalistic model for chimera states is presented. The model is a cellular automaton (CA) which depends on only one adjustable parameter, the range of the nonlocal coupling, and is built from elementary cellular automata and the majority (voting) rule. This suggests the universality of chimera-like behavior from a new point of view: Already simple CA rules based on the majority rule exhibit this behavior. After a short transient, we find chimera states for arbitrary initial conditions, the...

  3. Imaging of soft-tissue tumors using L-3-[iodine-123]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine single photon emission computed tomography : Comparison with proliferative and mitotic activity, cellularity, and vascularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Plaat, BEC; de Vries, EGE; Molenaar, WM; Vaalburg, W; Piers, DA; Hoekstra, HJ

    2000-01-01

    The radiolabeled amino acid L-3.[I-123]-iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) is a new tumor tracer that accumulates in many tumors and is suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Using IMT SPECT, we studied 32 patients with a soft-tissue tumor suspected to be a soft-tissu

  4. Imaging of soft-tissue tumors using L-3-[iodine-123]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine single photon emission computed tomography: comparison with proliferative and mitotic activity, cellularity, and vascularity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, P L; Plaat, B E; Vries, E G de; Molenaar, W M; Vaalburg, W; Piers, D A; Hoekstra, H J

    2000-01-01

    The radiolabeled amino acid L-3-[123I]-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine (IMT) is a new tumor tracer that accumulates in many tumors and is suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Using IMT SPECT, we studied 32 patients with a soft-tissue tumor suspected to be a soft-tissue

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Cellular Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nikolaus; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism basically consists of the conversion of chemical compounds taken up from the extracellular environment into energy (conserved in energy-rich bonds of organic phosphates) and a wide array of organic molecules serving as catalysts (enzymes), information carriers (nucleic acids), and building blocks for cellular structures such as membranes or ribosomes. Metabolic modeling aims at the construction of mathematical representations of the cellular metabolism that can be used to calculate the concentration of cellular molecules and the rates of their mutual chemical interconversion in response to varying external conditions as, for example, hormonal stimuli or supply of essential nutrients. Based on such calculations, it is possible to quantify complex cellular functions as cellular growth, detoxification of drugs and xenobiotic compounds or synthesis of exported molecules. Depending on the specific questions to metabolism addressed, the methodological expertise of the researcher, and available experimental information, different conceptual frameworks have been established, allowing the usage of computational methods to condense experimental information from various layers of organization into (self-) consistent models. Here, we briefly outline the main conceptual frameworks that are currently exploited in metabolism research.

  6. Ultrasensitive proteomic quantitation of cellular signaling by digitized nanoparticle-protein counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Thomas; Agarwal, Anupriya; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; O’Hare, Thomas; Gönen, Mehmet; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Druker, Brian J.; Vu, Tania Q.

    2016-01-01

    Many important signaling and regulatory proteins are expressed at low abundance and are difficult to measure in single cells. We report a molecular imaging approach to quantitate protein levels by digitized, discrete counting of nanoparticle-tagged proteins. Digitized protein counting provides ultrasensitive molecular detection of proteins in single cells that surpasses conventional methods of quantitating total diffuse fluorescence, and offers a substantial improvement in protein quantitation. We implement this digitized proteomic approach in an integrated imaging platform, the single cell-quantum dot platform (SC-QDP), to execute sensitive single cell phosphoquantitation in response to multiple drug treatment conditions and using limited primary patient material. The SC-QDP: 1) identified pAKT and pERK phospho-heterogeneity and insensitivity in individual leukemia cells treated with a multi-drug panel of FDA-approved kinase inhibitors, and 2) revealed subpopulations of drug-insensitive CD34+ stem cells with high pCRKL and pSTAT5 signaling in chronic myeloid leukemia patient blood samples. This ultrasensitive digitized protein detection approach is valuable for uncovering subtle but important differences in signaling, drug insensitivity, and other key cellular processes amongst single cells. PMID:27320899

  7. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  8. Cardiac Event Risk in Japanese Subjects Estimated Using Gated Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, in Conjunction With Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Okuyama, Chio; Hatta, Tsuguru; Tsukamoto, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Shigeyuki; Yamashina, Akira; Kusuoka, Hideo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cardiac event risk is estimated using quantitative gated myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and clinical background in patients with ischemic heart disease. The aim of the present study was to calculate major cardiac event risk and tabulate it in the Heart Risk Table for clinical use of risk stratification. Methods and Results: Multivariate logistic regression was performed based on a multicenter prognostic database (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quan...

  9. Pathogenesis of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A P; Greaves, M

    2009-06-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as the presence of urticaria (hives) for at least 6 weeks with the assumption that it occurs daily or close to it. If we eliminate physical urticarias and urticarial vasculitis from consideration, the remainder can be divided into autoimmune chronic urticaria (45%) and idiopathic chronic urticaria (55%). The autoimmune subgroup is associated with the IgG anti-IgE receptor alpha subunit in 35-40% of patients and IgG anti-IgE in an additional 5-10%. These autoantibodies have been shown to activate blood basophils and cutaneous mast cells in vitro with augmentation of basophil activation by complement and release of C5a, in particular. Binding methods (immunoblot and ELISA) yield positives in many autoimmune diseases as well as occasional normal subjects or patients with other forms of urticaria but most such sera are non-functional. Activation of basophils or mast cells causing histamine release is quite specific for chronic urticaria and defines the autoimmune subgroup. Although pathogenicity is not formally proven, the antibodies cause wealing upon intradermal injection, and removal of the autoantibody leads to remission. A cellular infiltrate is seen to be characterized by mast cell degranulation and infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The intensity of the infiltrate and clinical severity of the disease (including accompanying angio-oedema) is more severe in the autoimmune subpopulation. This latter group also has a higher evidence of human leucocyte antigen DR alleles associated with autoimmunity and a 25% incidence of antithyroid antibodies with diagnosed hypothyroidism in some. Hypo-responsiveness of patients' basophils to anti-IgE and hyperresponsiveness to serum defines another subpopulation (at least 50%) that overlaps the idiopathic and autoimmune subgroups. Hypo-responsiveness to anti-IgE has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of cytoplasmic phosphatases that

  10. 星形细胞瘤MRI扩散加权成像、肿瘤细胞密度与缺氧诱导因子-1α表达水平的相关性%Correlation Between Diffusion Weighted Imaging, Tumor Cellularity and Expression Level of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1αin Cerebral Astrocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永鹏; 舒畅; 朱雁兵; 王欢; 郁文芝

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation among diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), tumor Cellularity and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for the high and low grade astrocytoma. Materials and Methods DWI was applied with 33 patients with astrocytoma confirmed by pathology, and ADC value was measured. Tumor Cellularity was measured using Scion Image 4.0.3.2. The expression of HIF-1α was tested using immunohistochemisty. Results Mean ADC value was higher in the low grade astrocytoma than that in the high grade astrocytoma (t=7.300, P<0.001). The tumor Cellularity was higher in the high grade astrocytoma than that in the low grade astrocytoma (t=-3.845, P<0.01). HIF-1αexpression could be demonstrated in the low grade [(20.08±10.01)%] and high grade [(47.91±19.03)%] astrocytoma. The negative correlation was demonstrated between ADC value and HIF-1αand tumor Cellularity (r=-0.756,-0.617;P<0.001). The positive correlation was demonstrated between HIF-1αand tumor Cellularity (r=0.622, P<0.001). Conclusion ADC value can be used to discriminate the low and high grade astrocytoma, and the role of HIF-1αshould be further to study with enlarged sample.%目的探讨高级别和低级别星形细胞瘤MRI DWI、肿瘤细胞密度与缺氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)表达水平的相关性。资料与方法对术后病理确诊的33例星形细胞瘤患者术前行MRI DWI检查,并计算肿瘤实质部分的ADC值;用Scion Image 4.0.3.2软件计算肿瘤细胞密度;采用免疫组化检测HIF-1α的表达情况。结果低级别星形细胞瘤的平均ADC值高于高级别星形细胞瘤,差异有统计学意义(t=7.300, P<0.001)。高级别星形细胞瘤平均细胞密度值明显大于低级别星形细胞瘤,差异有统计学意义(t=-3.845, P<0.01)。低级别和高级别星形细胞瘤中均有HIF-1α表达,其表达强度分别为(20.08±10.01)%、(47.91±19.03)%。肿瘤ADC值与HIF-1α标记指数、肿瘤细胞密

  11. Hierarchical Cellular Structures in High-Capacity Cellular Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, R K; Agrawal, N K

    2011-01-01

    In the prevailing cellular environment, it is important to provide the resources for the fluctuating traffic demand exactly in the place and at the time where and when they are needed. In this paper, we explored the ability of hierarchical cellular structures with inter layer reuse to increase the capacity of mobile communication network by applying total frequency hopping (T-FH) and adaptive frequency allocation (AFA) as a strategy to reuse the macro and micro cell resources without frequency planning in indoor pico cells [11]. The practical aspects for designing macro- micro cellular overlays in the existing big urban areas are also explained [4]. Femto cells are inducted in macro / micro / pico cells hierarchical structure to achieve the required QoS cost effectively.

  12. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Myat Khine K; Khan Mohamed A; Ritchie Shawn A; Jayasinghe Dushmanthi; Ma Hong; Ahiahonu Pearson WK; Mankidy Rishikesh; Wood Paul L; Goodenowe Dayan B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies ...

  13. Dipyridamole-dobutamine-stress-magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and comparison to positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, B

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of (infra-low-dose)dipyridamole-(low-dose)-dobutamine-stress-MRI (DDS-MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability by comparing the results to those of positron emission tomography (PET). Multisectional baseline- and stress-CINE-MRI as well as (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)and (13N)-ammonia-PET were performed in 8 patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. MRI data analysis included the quantitative assessment of enddiastolic wall thickness (EDWT) and systolic wall thickening (SWT) for both baseline and stress examination in a total of 864 myocardial segments (6 slices, 18 seg./slice). MRI- and PET-results were compared in 128 corresponding myocardial regions following a 16-regions-model covering the entire left ventricle from apex to base. MRI viability criterions were a mean regional EDWT > 5.5 mm or a mean regional stress-induced SWT > 1.5 mm. PET defined regional myocardial viability either by a norm...

  14. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  15. Prognosis of Different Cellular Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetish Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement in mobile telephony from 1G to 3G, 4G and