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Sample records for chronic benzene poisoning

  1. Study on Life Quality of Patients with Chronic Benzene Poisoning and Chronic Lead Poisoning in Wuhan City%武汉市苯中毒和铅中毒患者生存质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓慧; 毕勇毅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the quality of life (QOL) of patients with chronic benzene poisoning and chronic lead poisoning and the influencing factors. [Methods]The study object were collected from Wuhan Occupational Disease Prevention Hospital, who were diagnosed as chronic benzene poisoning or lead poisoning. Their QOL was evaluated by WHOQOL-BREF ( Chinese Version). Meanwhile, 100 health workers were chosen by the random sampling method as control group, who came from the Wuhan Turbine Engine Plant. Also, the average QOLs level of the nation were used as reference. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship between the factors and the scores of the four domains. [Results]The objects were 36 cases of chronic benzene poisoning patients, 68 cases of chronic lead poisoning patients and 100 health works. There were difference about 3 groups QOL scores and their influencing factors. The physical, psychological, social and environmental scores (x ±s) of the chronic benzene poisoning patients were (10.57 ±2.09), (11.51 ±2.76) , (12.63 ±2.12) , (8.97 ±2.33), which were lower than the average levels of the nation , the scores of the chronic lead poisoning and the scores of the health workers. The physical, psychological, social and environmental scores (x ± s) of the chronic lead poisoning patients were (14.01 ±2.31), (13.91 ±1.77), (14.54 ±2. 89), (11. 81 ±2. 25), which were higher than the scores of the chronic benzene poisoning patients. The physical, psychological scores of the chronic lead poisoning patients were higher than the average levels of the nation, but the social domain was reverse. The influencing factors of the chronic lead poisoning patients and the chronic benzene poisoning patients QOL were age, personal income, education, medical history, systems of work, daily working hours, appetite. [ Conclusion] ] Comparing with the average QOLlevel of the nation, all of the 3 groups 'QOL were poor, especially for the chronic

  2. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  3. 35例职业性慢性苯中毒的临床分析及防治对策%Clinical Analysis and Prevention and Cure on 35 Cases with Chronic Benzene Occupation Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文晖

    2013-01-01

    目的:探析职业性慢性苯中毒临床特点、治疗方法及预后转归。方法:选取2006年11月-2012年11月期间本院收治的职业性慢性苯中毒患者35例临床资料,进行回顾性分析。结果:本组35例患者中,出现神经系统症状如头痛、头晕、失眠、记忆力减退7例,呼吸循环系统症状如心悸、气短、胸闷8例、出现肺部症状6例,其中呼吸音增粗2例、干湿啰音3例、心脏杂音1例;肝区叩击痛6例、腹部压痛5例,肢体疼痛3例。全部患者均给予激素、免疫调节剂、抗生素治疗以及营养支持等疗法;35例患者中,有效17例,显效7例,好转9例,无效2例。住院平均时间2~4个月。结论:苯中毒可严重侵害人体的血液系统,易出现感染等并发症。临床应加强防护,减少苯接触造成的中毒损害。%Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics,treatment and prognosis of outcome of occupational chronic benzene poisoning. Method:The clinical data of 35 patients with chronic benzene poisoning occupation who were admitted in our hospital from November 2011 to November 2012 were selected and analyzed retrospectively.Result:In 35 patients,7 cases occured the nervous system symptoms such as headache,dizziness, insomnia,memory loss in,8 cases occured respiratory system symptoms such as palpitations,shortness of breath,chest tightness,6 patients with lung symptoms,including 2 cases occured lung breath sounds of enlargement,3 cases occured dry wet,1 case with heart murmur;6 cases occured liver area taps,5 cases with abdominal tenderness,3 cases with the physical pain.All patients were given hormone,immune modulators,antibiotics and nutrition support therapy;In 35 patients,17 cases were effective,7 cases had marked effect,9 cases had improvement effect,and 2 cases failed.The average time of in hospital was 2-4 months.Conclusion:Benzene poisoning can seriously infringe on the blood system of the body

  4. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  5. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Ataş, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  6. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  7. Effect of laser radiation on reparative processes in the hemogenic system of rabbits after benzene poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkisyan, A.P.; Teodorovich, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    Benzene was administered to 30 rabbits at a rate of 0.37 ml per kg of body weight on a daily basis, with the general dosage ranging from 8.12 to 21.3 ml. Doses were continued until the appearance of persistent leucopenia. Then a complete blood picture was prepared and histological material collected and evaluated. Of 18 rabbits who survived the benzene poisoning, 9 were treated with a helium-neon laser and the others used as controls. Results indicated that the laser treatment accelerated the regeneration of blood cells, particularly of the red part of hemogenic tissue. 11 references, 1 figure.

  8. 深圳市苯中毒职业病诊断状况%Diagnosis of Occupational Benzene Poisoning in Shenzhen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美琼; 罗孝文; 王晓蓉

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市苯中毒职业病诊断状况及存在的问题,为卫生行政部门和专业机构今后工作提供参考.方法 对深圳市近3年的职业性慢性苯中毒病例资料进行分析.结果 2006年-2009年4月经深圳市职业病诊断组诊断的职业性慢性苯中毒病例共17例,现场空气中苯浓度检测结果均低于国家职业卫生标准;8例(47.1%)有职业健康监护资料,但检查项目不规范.结论 建议规范苯及苯系物行业健康监护及卫生监测档案,在职业病诊断实践中应明确苯中毒"阈限值".%[Objective]To understand the status of occupational benzene poisoning diagnosis and the existing problem in Shenzhen City ,and provide reference for health administrative departments and professional organizations to carry out future work.[Methods]The case information of occupational chronic benzene poisoning in Shenzhen City in the recent 3 years were analyzed.[Results]A total of 17 cases of occupational chronic benzene poisoning were diagnosed by occupational diseases diagnosis group of Shenzhen City form 2006 - April 2009.Air benzene levels were all below national occupational health standards; 8 cases ( 47.1% ) had occupational health surveillance data , but the examination items were lack of standardization.[Conclusion]It is suggested to standardize the health monitoring and health surveillance files in industries with benzene and its homologues involved, and to make definite threshold limit value in diagnosis of occupational disease.

  9. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning.

  10. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP, but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF and Clinical Findings (CF groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  11. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    O`Sullivan, K.; Taylor, M.

    1983-01-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  12. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

    1983-09-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  13. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  14. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, M.E.; Albores, A.; Aguilar, M.; Blakely, E.

    1983-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations. The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg/l, and 0.007 mg/l in the control population. The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form. The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic ingestion of arsenic in contaminated water. In the exposed population, 21.6% of the sample, showed at least one of the cutaneous signs of chronic arsenic poisoning against 2.2% in the control town. Non-specific symptoms were more prevalent in the exposed population and they occurred more frequently in those individuals with skin signs. The relative risk of suffering a particular manifestation of poisoning, ranged from 1.9 to 36 times higher in the exposed population. We estimated the risks above mentioned, which were derived from exposure to minute quantities of arsenic in a known proportion of its oxidation states during a life time period.

  15. Recommended Diagnostic Criteria for Occupational Chronic Lead Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIN-BAI; WANGJIN-PING

    1995-01-01

    The present study aims to recommend the normal upper limit,the acceptable upper limit,the subclinical lead absorption and intoxication diagnostic criteria in an effort to re-evaluate the current national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning.The study was conducted on 330 lead exposed workers and 100 non-exposed controls based on the determination of blood and urinary lead,porphyrin metabolism indices,as well as other indices under a nationwide quality control program.The data were subsequently treated by the curve fitting,multi-step transformation to Gauss distribution,and discriminant analysis with the aid of a SAS software package.The relationships between the air lead and blood lead level with certain biological parameters indicative of excessive lead exposure and poisoning were well established.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,false positive and false negative results of these critical values were also fully evaluated.This study would be useful for the amendment of the new edition of the national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning in China and would provide new approaches for similar investigations.

  16. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  17. Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-09-01

    EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

  18. Chronic Lead Poisoning in Iran; a Silent Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahrpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the oldest, permanent hazards in the world and Iran is not excluded and has the same risk of lead toxicity. Humans have known about the potential hazards of lead poisoning for centuries. Lead is widespread in natural substances, and almost all people are in touch with this insidiously toxic heavy metal in different ways either in workplace or at homes. The level of exposure is higher in most of countries because of extensive use of lead containing materials in normal life and the environment.

  19. Chronic myelogenous leukemia and benzene exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the case-control literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Steven H; Engel, Arnold; Joshi, Kiran P; Byrd, Daniel M; Chen, Rusan

    2009-12-10

    Benzene exposure is well demonstrated as a cause of acute myelogenous leukemia, but not of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Previous literature reviews based on case series and cohort studies have not shown an association. We have now conducted a literature search for case-control studies that examine the association between benzene exposure and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Six case-control studies have been found. These derive from occupational groups, cancer registries, and a clinical laboratory. Their exposure ascertainments are all based on job histories, job-exposure matricies, or industrial hygiene data. The odds ratios (ORs) for individual studies range from 0.73 to 1.2. The pooled OR is 1.003 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.94-1.07 (p=0.98) for both a fixed effects model and a random effects model. The case-control literature indicates that chronic myelogenous leukemia does not appear to be related to benzene exposure.

  20. Treatment of a mild chronic case of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article describes a recent case of ciguatera poisoning treated with intravenous mannitol. Mannitol has been used with good effect in non-controlled studies in acutely severely poisoned patients, but is not described in the treatment of chronic or milder poisoning. Our patient was a 35-year-old Niuean man who had eaten a ciguatoxic fish two weeks previously. His symptoms were not severe but were very unpleasant and restricted his ability to work. He was given a single dose of mannitol (0.66g/kg) as an intravenous infusion over two hours. His symptoms dramatically improved within 24 hours, and within a few days he felt virtually back to his former self. He experienced no side effects to the mannitol. It is suggested that intravenous mannitol may prove to be a useful treatment for mild to moderate ciguatera poisoning, and for patients who present late for treatment.

  1. Chronic arsenic poisoning masquerading as Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, M J; Tanhehco, J L; Dau, P C

    1992-09-01

    Acute arsenic intoxication may present as Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome because of similarities in clinical symptoms involving the gastrointestinal tract, weakness, and sensory symptoms. Electrodiagnostic findings may be similar with demyelinating changes predominating early in both diseases. A case is presented of repeated arsenic poisoning over two years misdiagnosed as Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome. Proximal F-loop latency (M-wave latency at wrist + F-wave latency at wrist - 2 M-wave latency at axilla) helped to establish the correct diagnosis. Serial electrodiagnostic studies were done documenting the evolution of chronic repeated arsenic poisoning from a picture showing demyelination to one with severe axonal loss.

  2. Rehabilitation in an individual with chronic arsenic poisoning: medical, psychological, and social implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, T L; Richards, J S; Matthews, G

    1998-04-01

    Although arsenic poisoning was a common cause of homicide in the past, it is seldom suspected today; thus there may be serious delays in diagnosis and treatment of arsenic ingestion. Rehabilitation specialists have traditionally dealt with the debilitating consequences of the classic arsenic-induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy; however, a knowledge of the presentation of acute toxicity combined with the effects of chronic exposure is essential for proper treatment, particularly in the event of ongoing exposure. This case report demonstrates the wide spectrum of medical complications associated with arsenic poisoning and briefly reviews its pathophysiology and treatment from both the medical and psychosocial perspective.

  3. [Chronic lead poisoning in children today. A pathology of poverty and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnaeve, O; Berthier, M; Guillard, O; Perault, M C; Oriot, D

    1999-07-01

    Despite the recognition of lead poisoning in children as a major public health problem in France since the 1980's, the setting-up of systematic detection of lead poisoning at a national level has not yet been done. The main source of intoxication in children is in paintings containing ceruse in housing built before 1948. Moderate chronic poisoning, although leading to irreversible lesions, particularly of the central nervous system, remains usually unnoticed. The biological diagnosis is mainly based upon blood lead level, completed by the protoporphyrine-zinc level. Large scale identification of dangerous housing and the control of rehabilitation are the only means available to decrease the incidence of lead posioning. Targeted screening is difficult because it concerns children excluded from classical health care systems. Prevention and long-term treatment requires elimination of the source of lead intoxication after an environmental inquiry. This raises the problems of rehousing and follow-up of intoxicated children.

  4. Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Kiran; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. There have been a number of reports in the recent past suggesting an incidence of childhood lead poisoning and chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated drinking water in many areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh has become a national calamity. Low level metal exposure in humans is caused by air, food and water intake. Lead and arsenic generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the central nervous system (CNS), the haematopoietic system, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there has been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at a lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Medical treatment of acute and chronic lead and arsenic toxicity is furnished by chelating agents. Chelating agents are organic compounds capable of linking together metal ions to form complex ring-like structures called chelates. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL) has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been tried successfully in animals as well as in a few cases of human lead and arsenic poisoning. DMSA could be a safe and effective method for treating lead or arsenic poisoning, but one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove lead from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy is to use combined treatment. This includes the use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant and a chelator to

  5. Chronic arsenic poisoning: a global health issue -- a report of multiple primary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvekar, R R; Kane, S V; Nadkarni, M S; Bagwan, I N; Chaukar, D A; D'Cruz, A K

    2007-02-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning is a worldwide public health problem. Effects of prolonged exposure to high levels of As in drinking water have been observed and documented in various epidemiological studies from all over the world. The non-malignant cutaneous effects of chronic exposure to inorganic As are well known. A case presenting with multiple cutaneous cancers as well as an internal lung primary in a patient exposed to toxic levels of As in the drinking water is discussed along with a review of literature.

  6. Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vesna Begovic; Darko Nozic; Srdjan Kupresanin; Dino Tarabar

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans.In the majority of adults,chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions,paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics.In some countries, lead is added to petrol.We present a rare case of gastric dilation caused by long-term petrol ingestion.A 16-year-old young man was admitted to our hospital due to a 6-mo history of exhaustion, dizziness,nausea, abdominal cramps and constipation.X-ray examination revealed dilated stomach descending into the pelvis and small bowel distension.After a long clinical observation, we found that the reason for the chronic lead poisoning of the patient was due to a 3-year history of petrol ingestion.The patient spontaneously recovered and stomach returned to its normal position and size.Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration in all unexplained cases of gastric dilation.

  7. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners

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    Dhatrak Sarang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

  8. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatrak, Sarang V; Nandi, Subroto S

    2009-08-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

  9. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Study on Urine Metabolomics in Rats Chronically Poisoned with Hydrogen Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Mingjie Deng; Meiling Zhang; Fa Sun; Jianshe Ma; Lufeng Hu; Xuezhi Yang; Guanyang Lin; Xianqin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was applied to explore the metabolic variability in urine of chronically hydrogen sulfide- (H2S-) poisoned rats relative to control ones. The changes in endogenous metabolites were studied by partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and independent-samples t-test. The metabolic patterns of H2S-poisoned group are separated from the control, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of H2...

  10. Minamata disease revisited: an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekino, Shigeo; Susa, Mari; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2007-11-15

    The first well-documented outbreak of acute methyl mercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of contaminated fish occurred in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. The clinical picture was officially recognized and called Minamata disease (MD) in 1956. However, 50 years later there are still arguments about the definition of MD in terms of clinical symptoms and extent of lesions. We provide a historical review of this epidemic and an update of the problem of MeHg toxicity. Since MeHg dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea, residents living around the sea were exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). These patients with chronic MeHg poisoning continue to complain of distal paresthesias of the extremities and the lips even 30 years after cessation of exposure to MeHg. Based on findings in these patients the symptoms and lesions in MeHg poisoning are reappraised. The persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex, but not by damage to the peripheral nervous system, as previously believed.

  11. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  12. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  13. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based study on urine metabolomics in rats chronically poisoned with hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingjie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Fa; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng; Yang, Xuezhi; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was applied to explore the metabolic variability in urine of chronically hydrogen sulfide- (H2S-) poisoned rats relative to control ones. The changes in endogenous metabolites were studied by partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and independent-samples t-test. The metabolic patterns of H2S-poisoned group are separated from the control, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of H2S-poisoned rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, compared to the control group, the level of alanine, d-ribose, tetradecanoic acid, L-aspartic acid, pentanedioic acid, cholesterol, acetate, and oleic acid in rat urine of the poisoning group decreased, while the level of glycine, d-mannose, arabinofuranose, and propanoic acid increased. These metabolites are related to amino acid metabolism as well as energy and lipid metabolism in vivo. Studying metabolomics using GC-MS allows for a comprehensive overview of the metabolism of the living body. This technique can be employed to decipher the mechanism of chronic H2S poisoning, thus promoting the use of metabolomics in clinical toxicology.

  14. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Study on Urine Metabolomics in Rats Chronically Poisoned with Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was applied to explore the metabolic variability in urine of chronically hydrogen sulfide- (H2S- poisoned rats relative to control ones. The changes in endogenous metabolites were studied by partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA and independent-samples t-test. The metabolic patterns of H2S-poisoned group are separated from the control, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of H2S-poisoned rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, compared to the control group, the level of alanine, d-ribose, tetradecanoic acid, L-aspartic acid, pentanedioic acid, cholesterol, acetate, and oleic acid in rat urine of the poisoning group decreased, while the level of glycine, d-mannose, arabinofuranose, and propanoic acid increased. These metabolites are related to amino acid metabolism as well as energy and lipid metabolism in vivo. Studying metabolomics using GC-MS allows for a comprehensive overview of the metabolism of the living body. This technique can be employed to decipher the mechanism of chronic H2S poisoning, thus promoting the use of metabolomics in clinical toxicology.

  15. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  16. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Q. Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each. The model group received 60% (v/v ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N and microglia (by Ib1 were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05 by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01, and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01 in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05, and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01 with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  17. Is it homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis derived from [RhCp*Cl2]2? In operando XAFS, kinetic, and crucial kinetic poisoning evidence for subnanometer Rh4 cluster-based benzene hydrogenation catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ercan; Linehan, John C; Fulton, John L; Roberts, John A S; Szymczak, Nathaniel K; Smurthwaite, Tricia D; Özkar, Saim; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Finke, Richard G

    2011-11-23

    Determining the true, kinetically dominant catalytically active species, in the classic benzene hydrogenation system pioneered by Maitlis and co-workers 34 years ago starting with [RhCp*Cl(2)](2) (Cp* = [η(5)-C(5)(CH(3))(5)]), has proven to be one of the most challenging case studies in the quest to distinguish single-metal-based "homogeneous" from polymetallic, "heterogeneous" catalysis. The reason, this study will show, is the previous failure to use the proper combination of: (i) in operando spectroscopy to determine the dominant form(s) of the precatalyst's mass under catalysis (i.e., operating) conditions, and then crucially also (ii) the previous lack of the necessary kinetic studies, catalysis being a "wholly kinetic phenomenon" as J. Halpern long ago noted. An important contribution from this study will be to reveal the power of quantitiative kinetic poisoning experiments for distinguishing single-metal, or in the present case subnanometer Rh(4) cluster-based catalysis, from larger, polymetallic Rh(0)(n) nanoparticle catalysis, at least under favorable conditions. The combined in operando X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and kinetic evidence provide a compelling case for Rh(4)-based, with average stoichiometry "Rh(4)Cp*(2.4)Cl(4)H(c)", benzene hydrogenation catalysis in 2-propanol with added Et(3)N and at 100 °C and 50 atm initial H(2) pressure. The results also reveal, however, that if even ca. 1.4% of the total soluble Rh(0)(n) had formed nanoparticles, then those Rh(0)(n) nanoparticles would have been able to account for all the observed benzene hydrogenation catalytic rate (using commercial, ca. 2 nm, polyethyleneglycol-dodecylether hydrosol stabilized Rh(0)(n) nanoparticles as a model system). The results--especially the poisoning methodology developed and employed--are of significant, broader interest since determining the nature of the true catalyst continues to be a central, often vexing issue in any and all catalytic reactions

  18. The efficacy of monoisoamyl ester of dimercaptosuccinic acid in chronic experimental arsenic poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Kannan, G M; Pant, B P; Jaiswal, D K

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new monoester of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver and kidneys, alterations in hematopoietic system and depletion of arsenic burden was assessed, in mice. Three different doses of MiADMSA (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) for five consecutive days were administered in chronically arsenic exposed mice (10 ppm in drinking water for six months). Oral administration of MiADMSA particularly at a dose of 50 mg/kg, produced relatively more pronounced beneficial effects on the inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), biochemical variables indicative of hepatic and renal oxidative stress and depletion of arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidneys, compared with intraperitoneal administration of the drug. The treatment with MiADMSA although, produced essential metals imbalance which could be a restrictive factor for the possible therapeutic use of this compound in chronic arsenic poisoning and thus require further exploration.

  19. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. [A case of chronic inorganic mercury poisoning with progressive intentional tremor and remarkably prolonged latency of P300].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, E; Mochizuki, Y; Oishi, M; Takasu, T

    1998-12-01

    A 59-year-old man showed slowly progressive intentional tremor for 40 years prior to first visit to us in 1996. He was exposed to mercury vapor for about 3 years (1956-1959) and the diagnosis of chronic inorganic mercury poisoning was made. Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state (MMS) examination and P300 examination were performed. HDS-R and MMS were within normal range but the latency of P300 was remarkably prolonged. His tremor was considered to be due to chronic inorganic poisoning because there were no other causes and the frequency of his tremor was 3-4 Hz. which was lower than that in essential tremor. The prolonged P300 latency was also considered to be due to the same cause because there were no other causes and the head MRI were normal. Chronic inorganic mercury poisoning has been reported to produce organic changes in the brain and P300 is considered to be useful to detect these changes.

  1. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S Q; Wang, Q; Zheng, Y; Xiao, B; Sun, H W; Gu, X L; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C H; Dong, P X; Wang, X M

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (Pmice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (Pmemory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  2. Element concentrations in urine of patients suffering from chronic arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.X.; Miyamato, H.; Kondo, M.; Koga, H.; Zhang, A.; Ohmichi, M.; Inaba, Y.; Chiba, M. [Juntendo University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine, Dept. of Epidemiology and Environmental Health

    2001-03-01

    In order to know the element levels in the urine of patients with chronic arsenic poisoning caused by arsenic assimilated from burning coal via air and food, the authors investigated various elements in the urine of 16 patients with this disease and 16 controls living in the same county in Guizhou Province of China. Concentrations of 25 elements (Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer or an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. The average concentrations of Cu, Ga and Sn as well as As in the patients were significantly higher, and those of Cr, Rb, Sr and Ti in the patients were significantly lower than the control values. Al, Ba, Mn, Ni and Se mere under detection limit in the patients, though they could be detected in the controls. There were no positive correlations between the concentration of As and the concentrations of other elements, including Cu, Ca and Sn in the patients. The results of this study suggest that As from burning coal might influence the urinary excretion of some elements.

  3. Chronic methyl mercury poisoning may trigger endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    In endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) or "fogo selvagem" the epidemiological evidence shows that all the described outbreaks occur on the banks of rivers where there is mercury contamination from alluvium gold mining and deforestation. Pathophysiological evidence shows a similarity to pemphigus induced by sulphydryl (SH-) drugs that act by denaturing cadherins at the desmosomal level, which are the pemphigus antigens. The sulfhydryl radical (SH-) call also thiol or mercaptans from the SH-drugs, act at the level of SH-groups of cystein as would the methyl mercury from the contaminated animals and fish in the diet of humans from endemic areas of pemphigus foliaceus. The methyl mercury would join the SH-groups from the cysteines amino acids from cadherin proteins in the skin. The autoimmune disease would only be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB 1 haplotypes, just as Brown-Norway (BN) rats which are susceptible to develop Th2-dependent autoimmunity induced by metals. Immunological evidence from all the seroepidemiological studies could also be explained by binding mechanism of the methyl mercury to the SH-groups from the cysteines in the desmosomal cadherins proteins. The conclusion is that chronic methyl mercury poisoning is the most likely trigger of endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem". To reduce the contamination of methyl mercury in the animals of the polluted rivers is pertinent to the design of campaigns and education programs with the population. Implement reforestation and biological control measures like phytoremediation technologies using decontaminant plants to decrease the methylation, and the process of biomagnifications of the methyl mercury in the Latin-America EPF foci.

  4. Family aggregation in a population of chronic arsenic poisoning associated with high arsenic coal burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinGF; ChenJG

    2002-01-01

    About 2600 cases of chronic arsenic poisoning (CAP) in Southwest China-Guizhou Povince represent a unique case of CAP in the world associated with indoor high As coal burning.An epidemiological investigation in 4 clans (694 subjects,male 299,female 395) was launched in one Cun(village) in JL area(21000 residents,about 2000 CAP cases).(1)Clan G(possible Hanized Yi origin).The ancestors,a couple settled here in Qing dynasty.CAP prevalence was 43.3%(93/215).It was found that in 9 of 25 brotherhood groups all the members suffered with CAP.(2) An non-consanguinous branch of family G.The ancestor,a boy was adopted by family G in 1890s.The incidence rate was 20.8%(11/53) which was lower than that in clan G(consanguineous)(P=0.00261,r=0.344),though both clans have been living in the same family for 4 generations.(3)Clan B(Han origin).The ancestor moved the family from Nanjing in Ming dynasty.The CAP prevalence is 45.5%(75/165).(4)Clan P(ethnic Miao).The CAP prevalence is 3.9(9/232),far less than other ethnic clans,for example,less than clan G (consanguineous)(P=3.706E=23,r=0.052944).The observation suggests possible family aggregation of CAP in high As coal using area.further work is required.

  5. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  6. The effects of chronic lead poisoning on the values of hypertension in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Jovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the treatment of Roma children from Kosovska Mitrovica suffering from chronic lead poisoning (which began in the second half of the last decade, hypertension has also been observed. The examination and treatment were conducted under the patronage of World Health Organization, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia and local administration. Aim of this work is show correlation between lead levels in blood and hypertension in children. Materials and methods: Lead from capillary blood flow was measured by Lead care analyzer. Extracted blood from a vein measured lead level in the toxicological laboratory of the Institute 'Karajović' Belgrade. The pressure was measured by standard devices with changeable cuffs and has been expressed in mmHg. Hypertension has been observed in 159 children. They were divided into four groups. First group: non-Roma children (n = 32 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Second group: Roma children (n = 31 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Third group: Roma children (n = 53 with blood lead levels of 10-45 mcg/dl. Fourth group: Roma children (n = 43 with blood lead levels more than 45 mcg/dl, with an average value of 61.6 mcg/dl. Results: There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of systolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 31,179; p < 0,001, the first (x = 107,2 mmHg and the fourth group (x = 114,6 mmHg, the second (x = 104,5 mmHg and fourth group, third (x =106,4 mmHg and fourth group. There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of diastolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 32,028; p < 0,001, the first (x = 67,7 mmHg and the fourth group (x =73,4 mmHg, the second (x = 66 mmHg and third group (x = 69 mmHg, second and fourth group, third and fourth group of children. It is concluded that when the value of lead in the blood was higher its effect on blood pressure was more pronounced. Conclusion: Most children with lead

  7. Effect of small concentrations of sulfur dioxide during chronic poisoning on the immunologic reactivity of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navrotzky, V.K.

    1959-01-01

    A concentration of 0.018 to 0.022 mg SO/sub 2//liter decreased agglutination titer of rabbit blood serum to immunization with typhoid vaccine 4 to 8 times and reduced duration of high titer 3 to 4 times. Titer of blood complement was not altered. SO/sub 2/ poisoning increases both blood acetylcholine and cholinesterase activity.

  8. Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

    1987-10-01

    Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

  9. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  10. Mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose and age-specific prevalence rate from endemic chronic arsenic poisoning: a human toxicology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zald' ivar, R.; Ghai, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose, and age-specific prevalence rate for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. Data on mean age (years), mean arsenic dietary dose (mg/kg body weight/day), and age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, for the 1968 to 1971 period, were collected. Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning means here chronic arsenical dermatosis associated with marked or sever symptoms (or signs) of chronic arsenic poisoning (chronic diarrhea, hepatic cirrohsis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent broncho-pneumonia, cardiomegaly, systemic occlusive arterial disease, cerebral thrombosis, etc.). There was a strong positive correlation between age-specific pevalence rate per 100,000 population and mean arsenic dose (r = + 0.9593) and a negative correlation between prevalence rate and mean age (r = 0.8789). These findings show that the prevalence rate declines with the advancing age and increases with the increase of arsenic dose. A multiple linear regression model E(y) = alpha + beta X1 + gamma X2, where y represents the age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population, X1 the mean arsenic dose, and X2 the mean age, was fitted to the data. The estimates of the parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma) were obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares sigma(y - alpha - beta X1 - gamma X2)2. The following multiple linear regression equation was obtained: Y = 202.161 + 8452.455 X1 - 2.394 X2. Of the total variability in the prevalence rate, 96.22 percent was accounted for by the multiple regression.

  11. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Zheng, B.S.; Aposhian, H.V.; Zhou, Y.S.; Chen, M.L.; Zhang, A.H.; Waalkes, M.P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA)

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China was investigated. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such over exposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  12. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  13. Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y

    1977-01-01

    Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners. PMID:908287

  14. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  15. MiR-133a regarded as a potential biomarker for benzene toxicity through targeting Caspase-9 to inhibit apoptosis induced by benzene metabolite (1,4-Benzoquinone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujiao; Sun, Pengling; Bai, Wenlin; Gao, Ai

    2016-11-15

    Benzene is an environmental and industrial chemical which is widely utilized in various applications. Our previous study showed that miR-133a expression was down-regulated in chronic benzene poisoning workers, but the mechanism of miR-133a in benzene-induced hematotoxicity remains unclear. In this population-based study, benzene-exposed group recruited workers whose concentration of air benzene was 3.50±1.60mg/m(3), and control workers who were exposed to 0.06±0.01mg/m(3) air benzene. By comparison, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 was up-regulated while miR-133a expression decreased in benzene-exposed workers. Pearson correlation analysis showed that miR-133a was reversely correlated with pro-apoptotic gene Caspase-9 in population-based study. Moreover, multiple linear regressions indicated that miR-133a was positively associated with blood cells count. To explore the underlying mechanism of miR-133a in benzene-induced hematotoxicity, AO/EB staining and TEM ultrastructural analysis were conducted to verify the activation of apoptosis in Human Leukemic U937 Cells induced by benzene metabolites (1,4-Benzoquinone, 1,4-BQ), while the mechanism of miR-133a in 1,4-BQ-induced apoptosis was performed using lentivirus vectors transfection. The results demonstrated that 1,4-BQ evidently induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and increased pro-apoptotic genes (Caspase-9 and Caspase-3) expression in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanistic study showed 1,4-BQ decreased miR-133a expression and miR-133a over-expression attenuated 1, 4-BQ-caused upregulation of Caspase-9, Caspase-3 and apoptosis. In conclusion, our research suggested that benzene induced hematotoxicity by decreasing miR-133a and caspase-dependent apoptosis which might contribute to the underlying mechanism of miR-133a in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  16. 慢性汞中毒致神经系统损害的临床观察%The neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩; 宋冉; 李存江

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析慢性汞中毒对患者神经系统损害的表现,以提高对慢性汞中毒的临床认识.方法 总结分析2006--2010年首都医科大学宣武医院神经内科收治的8例慢性汞中毒患者的临床资料.结果 慢性汞中毒造成的神经系统损害包括周围神经病变以及感觉异常(6/8例)、思维缓慢及精神异常(3/8例)、肢体无力萎缩(3/8例)、震颤(4/8例)、睡眠障碍(3/8例)等.结论 慢性汞中毒可以有各种各样的神经系统损害的表现,在临床工作中要注意鉴别.尽早诊治会减少患者痛苦.%Objective To analyze the neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning for the improvement of clinical understanding of this disease.Methods The clinical data of 8 cases diagnosed as chronic mercury poisoning admitted in the department of neurology of Xuanwu hospital during the past 5 years were collected and analysed.Results Neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning involved psychological problems,sleep disorders,ataxia,extremities weakness and atrophy,tremor,peripheral neuropathy and paresthesia.Conclusions There are various kinds of neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning.Identification of these manifestations in clinical practice and early diagnosis are beneficial for the relief of pains in the patients.

  17. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  4. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Poison Ivy KidsHealth > For Kids > Poison Ivy Print A ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  7. Inactivation of p15INK4b in chronic arsenic poisoning cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal has been associated with human skin lesion and cancer. However, the mechanisms of arsenic-related carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Inactivation of critical tumor suppression genes by epigenetic regulation or genetic modification might contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. This study aims to clarify the correlation between arsenic pollution and functional defect of p15INK4b gene in arsenic exposure residents from a region of Guizhou Province, China. To this end, 103 arsenic exposure residents and 105 control subjects were recruited in this study. The results showed that the exposure group exhibited higher levels of urinary and hair arsenic compared with the control group (55.28 vs 28.87 μg/L, 5.16 vs 1.36 μg/g. Subjects with higher arsenic concentrations are more likely to have p15INK4b methylation and gene deletion (χ2 = 4.28, P = 0.04 and χ2 = 4.31, P = 0.04. We also found that the degree of p15INK4b hypermethylation and gene deletion occurred at higher incidence in the poisoning cases with skin cancer (3.7% and 14.81% in non-skin cancer group, 41.18% and 47.06 in skin cancer group, and were significantly associated with the stage of skin lesions (χ2 = 12.82, P < 0.01 and χ2 = 7.835, P = 0.005. These observations indicate that inactivation of p15INK4b through genetic alteration or epigenetic modification is a common event that is associated with arsenic exposure and the development of arsenicosis.

  8. Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinspan, D.; Biagini, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  9. Mechanism of histopathological changes of nerve cells experimentally induced by chronic alcohol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T; Sumiyoshi, S; Deshimaru, M; Hattori, E; Shikai, I

    1977-01-01

    Experimental alcoholism was produced in rats by supplying them with 15% ethanol as the only source of liquid for a whole year. Histopathological examination revealed that Purkinje cells and granule cells in the cerebellum mainly showed such changes as decrease of ER, ribosomes and severe atrophy of the nerve cells. It might be speculated that these changes were caused by the disturbance of protein synthesis in the nerve cells induced by chronic alcohol effect.

  10. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  11. Hypermethylation and downregulation of tumor suppressor gene p16 in benzene poisoning%苯中毒患者中抑癌基因p16高甲基化及其表达下调

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢彩虹; 王前飞; 田昊渊; 李斌; 倪蕴娥; 尹松年; 郭新彪; 李桂兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether benzene negatively affects the expression of pi6 through DNA methylation. Methods We carried out a case-control study in Chinese occupational benzene poisoning patients. Eleven cases of BP and 8 controls who were matched for age ( ± 5years) , sex, working duration and job title with BP were recruited. Expression level was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Bisulfite-PCR pyrosequencing was used to quantitate the level of DNA methylation. Results The expression levels of p16 are down-regulated in BP patients compared to the control group (0.53 versus 2.06, P =0.064). The average percentage of methylated cytosines of pl6 was higher in BP group than in controls (12.4% , 11.3% , respectively, P >0. 05) . p16 mRNA level decreased with increasing methylation (Pearson r = -0. 64, P >0. 05) .The fourth CpG site in pl6 promoter is located within the consensus binding sequence for olfactory neuron-specific transcription factor. A significant negative correlation between mRNA level and the fourth CpG site was exhibited ( Pearson r = - 0.88, P < 0.05 ) . Conclusion Our report demonstrated that mRNA expression of pi6 is significantly downregulated in BP patients. Hypermethylation in promoter CpG islands is likely to contribute to the downregulation of pi6. Further in-depth studies, utilizing large number of samples, are needed to fully understand the molecular mechanism involved in the tumor-suppressor gene inactivation in benzene-related diseases.%目的 研究苯是否通过引起DNA甲基化使抑癌基因p16转录失活.方法 应用病例-对照研究对11名苯中毒患者和8名与苯中毒患者年龄(±5岁)、性别匹配,并且同工种同工龄的接苯但无苯中毒的对照进行检测.分别用实时荧光定量PCR及焦磷酸测序检测基因表达及甲基化水平.结果 p16的表达水平在苯中毒组(0.53)低于对照组(2.06) (P =0.064).p16启动子区CpG位点甲基化平均水平苯中毒组(12.4

  12. Evaluation of biochemical changes in chronic arsenic poisoning among Bangladeshi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, A H M Nurun; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Islam, Laila N

    2005-12-01

    An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.1 microg/L and 234.6 microg/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 +/- 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  13. Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Chronic Arsenic Poisoning among Bangladeshi Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila N. Islam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.18g/L and 234.68g/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  14. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the rat: treatment with combined administration of succimers and an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Gurusamy M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of the coadministration of vitamin C or vitamin E on the efficacy of two thiol chelators, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or monoisoamyl DMSA, in counteracting chronic arsenic toxicity was investigated in rats. Vitamin C and vitamin E were only mildly effective when given alone or in combination with the above chelators in mobilizing arsenic from the target tissues. However, combined administration of vitamin C plus DMSA and vitamin E plus MiADMSA led to a more pronounced depletion of brain arsenic. The supplementation of vitamins was significantly effective in restoring inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) oxidative stress in liver, kidneys, and brain as reflected by reduced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and oxidized and reduced glutathione levels. The results thus lead us to suggest that coadministration of vitamin E or vitamin C may be useful in the restoration of altered biochemical variables (particularly the effects on heme biosynthesis and oxidative injury) although it has only a limited role in depleting arsenic burden.

  15. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin ... tips to avoid it. back to top Recognizing Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Open PDF ...

  16. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  17. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  18. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  19. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  20. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a vein (by IV) Laxatives Medicine called an antidote to reverse the effect of the poison Tube ... chance for recovery. If the person takes an antidote to reverse the poison within 1 week, recovery ...

  1. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  2. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  3. Influence of chronic arsenic poisoning on the ultrastructure of skeletal muscles%慢性砷中毒对骨骼肌超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝飞; 王恒; 康朝胜; 余资江; 季亮; 肖朝伦; 罗时鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察慢性砷中毒对小鼠骨骼肌形态学的变化,研究慢性砷中毒对小鼠骨骼肌的损伤机制。方法:将60只昆明种小鼠分为对照组、高、低剂量染砷组,检测各组小鼠血、尿以及骨骼肌中含砷量,采用电镜(透射)观察小鼠骨骼肌细胞内超微结构的变化。结果:各染砷组小鼠血、尿及骨骼肌中含砷量明显高于对照组(P <0.01);透射电镜显示正常组小鼠骨骼肌细胞结构未见异常,低砷染毒组骨骼肌细胞出现轻度损伤,高砷染毒组细胞出现 Z 线漂移,局部 Z 线消失,线粒体出现肿胀、内部嵴断裂,部分发生空泡样改变。结论:慢性砷中毒明显损伤小鼠骨骼肌细胞超微结构,并随浓度增加损害加重。%Objective:To study the effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on the change of skeletal mus-cles ultrastructure in mouse.Methods:A total of 60 healthy adult Kunming mouse were divided into three groups:the normal control group,high -dose group and low -dose group.They were respectively fed for 3 months.After the model of chronic arsenic poisoning was established,the exact amounts of arsenic in the rec-tus femoris,the blood and urine were measured.The change of ultrastructure in rectus femoris was observed by electron microscope.Results:The content of blood and urine in groups of arsenic poisoning was signifi-cantly higher than the group of normal control (P <0.05);By electron microscope,myofibril appeared dis-orderly and mitochondria became swollen and vacuole in the high -dose group.Conclusion:Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage the ultrastructure on skeletal muscles in dose dependent manner.

  4. 一起疑似职业性慢性铅中毒的案例评析%Case Analysis of Suspected Occupational Chronic Lead Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红平; 朱士新; 蔡见远; 朱鸣; 顾永生; 赵林辉; 周思远; 汪亮

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查某铅蓄电池加工企业铅污染引起的疑似职业性慢性铅中毒1例.方法 采用职业流行病学调查、检验检测等方法,依据相关法律法规,综合分析判断.结果 该厂厂房简陋,生产设施落后,劳动防护用品缺乏,大量铅尘、铅烟逸出,是引起职业中毒的主要原因.经检测病人尿铅含量为2.39 μmol/L,结合职业史、症状体征以及现场调查,初步判断为疑似职业性慢性铅中毒.结论 该厂生产条件落后,未提供有效的防护用品,铅蒸气严重污染环境,对工人健康造成危害.%[ Objective] To investigate 1 case of suspected occupational chronic lead poisoning in a lead-acid battery enterprise.[Methods] Occupational epidemiolngy investigation, inspection and test, etc were adopted for comprehensive analysis and judgment, according to relevant laws and regulations. [ Results] The crude plant, backward production facilities, lack of labor protection articles, large amount of lead dust, lead smoke escape were the main reasons inducing occupational poisoning. The lead content in urine of patient was 2.39 μmol/L, combined with occupational history, symptoms and signs, and field investigation, the incident was primarily identified as occupational chronic lead poisoning. [ Conclusion]The production condition is poor in this factory. The lack of effective protection articles and serious environmental pollution by lead vapor are harmful to workers'health.

  5. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  6. Two cases of chronic benzene poisoning induced macrocytic anemia%慢性苯中毒致大红细胞性贫血二例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕亚莉; 吕玉明; 官进华; 刘笑笑

    2010-01-01

    @@ 苯对骨髓有毒性作用,长期高浓度接触苯可导致造血异常.苯中毒可引起血细胞减少骨髓低增生的再生障碍性贫血[1].慢性苯中毒表现为大红细胞性贫血国内未见报道,现将我们收住的2例表现为大红细胞性贫血慢性苯中毒病例报告如下.

  7. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  8. 671例慢性正己烷中毒病例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 671 chronic n-hexane poisoning cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽丽; 王洁; 李思惠

    2014-01-01

    目的 对671例慢性正己烷中毒临床病例进行分析研究,总结出慢性正己烷中毒的临床特征及治疗要点,为临床诊断与治疗提供参考.方法 通过电子检索数据库及本院近10年间病史资料,收集慢性正己烷中毒病例,筛选后提取数据,然后采用SPSS17.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 90.45%病例的工作场所空气检测正己烷浓度超过国家容许值,86.7%劳动者无任何个人防护措施.慢性正己烷中毒是以周围神经损害为主的疾病,临床表现为四肢远端为重的双侧对称性感觉异常或运动障碍,及神经肌电图出现神经源性损害等改变.其发病与血清神经生长因子(NGF)的减少存在一定联系.目前治疗无特效解毒剂,主要针对周围神经损害,采用促进神经修复、再生和功能恢复的药物.结论 (1)正己烷中毒的临床特征是周围神经病,神经肌电图检查是判断周围神经损害的重要手段;(2)中毒患者血清NGF水平降低,补充外源性NGF有助于周围神经损害的改善;(3)治疗要点目前为综合疗法,以病因治疗为主.(4)经治疗患者预后良好.%Objective To analyze the clinical feature and main point of treatment of 671 chronic n-hexane poisoning cases,then provide a valuable reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods A total of 671 cases were selected from the medical records of our center during 2001-2013 and the electronic databases during 1990 and 2012.All the data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 Software.Results A total of 671 cases were collected in the study.The workplace air concentrations of n-hexane were exceeded the national permissible value in 90.45% of the cases.The main manifestation of chronic n-hexane poisoning is peripheral nerve damage,such as bilateral symmetrical paresthesia,dyspraxia etc.especially the distal limbs,the electromyography appears neurogenic change,and there seems some relation with the reduction of serum nerve growth factor

  9. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  10. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  11. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  12. Glaze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ...

  13. Biochemical toxicity of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V S; Verma, Yeshvandra

    2005-04-01

    Human exposure to benzene in work environment is a global occupational health problem. After inhalation or absorption, benzene targets organs viz. liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain etc. It is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 multifunctional oxygenase system. Benzene causes haematotoxicity through its phenolic metabolites that act in concert to produce DNA strand breaks, chromosomal damage, sister chromatid exchange, inhibition of topoisomerase II and damage to mitotic spindle. The carcinogenic and myelotoxic effects of benzene are associated with free radical formation either as benzene metabolites or lipid peroxidation products. Benzene oxide and phenol have been considered as proheptons. Liver microsomes play an important role in biotransformation of benzene whereas in kidney, it produces degenerative intracellular changes. Cohort studies made in different countries suggest that benzene induces multiple myeloma in petrochemical workers. Though extensive studies have been performed on its toxicity, endocrinal disruption caused by benzene remains poorly known. Transgenic cytochrome P450 IIE1 mice may help in understanding further toxic manifestations of benzene.

  14. Protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage and oxidative stress related gene expression in rat liver under chronic poisoning of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao; Wang, Zhou; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ping-chuan; Dong, Lu; Chen, Jing-hong; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiao-tian; Wang, Zhi-lun

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and chronic exposure to it through contaminated drinking water has become a global problem of public health. The present study focused on the protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage of chronic arsenic poisoning in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups at random and given designed treatments for 20 weeks. The oxidative damage of liver tissue was evaluated by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress related genes were detected to reflect the liver stress state at the molecular level. Compared to the control and Na2SeO3 groups, the MDA content in liver tissue was decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the Na2SeO3 intervention group. The mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx and Txnrd1 were increased significantly (Ptreatment group. The expressions of HSP70 and HO-1 were significantly (Ptreatment group. The results indicate that long-term intake of NaAsO2 causes oxidative damage in the rat liver, and Na2SeO3 protects liver cells by adjusting the expression of oxidative stress related genes to improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  16. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  17. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  18. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  19. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  20. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and toxins may cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish ... Read More Botulism Campylobacter infection Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish tapeworm infection Pericarditis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Patient ...

  1. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  2. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  3. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  4. Recent advances in the metabolism and toxicity of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalf, G F

    1987-01-01

    Benzene is a heavily used industrial chemical, a petroleum byproduct, an additive in unleaded gas, and a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Benzene is also a genotoxin, hematotoxin, and carcinogen. Chronic exposure causes aplastic anemia in humans and animals and is associated with increased incidence of leukemia in humans and lymphomas and certain solid tumors in rodents. Bioactivation of benzene is required for toxicity. In the liver, the major site of benzene metabolism, benzene is converted by a cytochrome P-450-mediated pathway to phenol, the major metabolite, and the secondary metabolites, hydroquinone and catechol. The target organ of benzene toxicity, the hematopoietically active bone marrow, metabolizes benzene to a very limited extent. Phenol is metabolized in the marrow cells by a peroxidase-mediated pathway to hydroquinone and catechol, and ultimately to quinones, the putative toxic metabolites. Benzene and its metabolites appear to be nonmutagenic, but they cause myeloclastogenic effects such as micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, and sister chromatid exchange. It is unknown whether these genomic changes, or the ability of the quinone metabolites to form adducts with DNA, are involved in benzene carcinogenicity. Benzene, through its active metabolites, appears to exert its hematological effects on the bone marrow stromal microenvironment by preventing stromal cells from supporting hemopoiesis of the various progenitor cells. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which benzene exerts its genotoxic, hematotoxic, and carcinogenic effects are detailed in this review.

  5. Benzene from Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Skov, H.;

    The measurements of benzene showed very clear decreasing trends in the air concentrations and the emissions since 1994. At the same time the measurements of CO and NOx also showed a decreasing trend, but not so strong as for benzene. The general decreasing trend is explained by the increasing...... number of petrol vehicles with three way catalysts, 60-70% in 1999. The very steep decreasing trend for benzene at the beginning of the period from 1994 was explained by the combination of more catalyst vehicles and reduced benzene content in Danish petrol. The total amount of aromatics in petrol......, including toluene, increased only weakly. The analyses of air concentrations were confirmed by analyses of petrol sold in Denmark. The concentration of benzene at Jagtvej in Copenhagen is still in 1998 above the expected new EU limit value, 5 µg/m3 as annual average. However, the reduced content of benzene...

  6. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated usi...

  7. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Rejeb Imen; Boujelben Mariem; Chaari Adel; Chtara Kamilia; Bouaziz Mounir; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  8. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  9. Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, S; Flora, S J S

    2007-03-01

    Arsenic and its compounds cause adverse health effects in humans. Current treatment employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), which facilitate its excretion from the body. However, these chelating agents are compromised by number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature, particularly in case of chronic poisoning. Combination therapy is a new approach to ensure enhanced removal of metal from the body, reduced doses of potentially toxic chelators, and no redistribution of metal from one organ to another, following chronic metal exposure. The present study attempts to investigate dose-related effects of two thiol chelators, DMSA and one of its new analogues, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), when administered in combination with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical parameters suggestive of oxidative stress and depletion of inorganic arsenic following chronic arsenic exposure. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were given 25 ppm arsenic for 10 weeks followed by chelation therapy with the above chelating agents at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (orally) when administered individually or 0.15 mmol/kg and 0.3 mmol/kg (once daily for 5 consecutive days), respectively, when administered in combination. Arsenic exposure led to the inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and depletion of glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by significant depletion of hemoglobin, RBC and Hct as well as blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) acitivity. There was an increase in hepatic and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, while GSH:GSSG ratio decreased significantly, accompanied by a significant increase in metallothionein (MT) in hepatocytes. DNA damage based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significant loss in the integrity of DNA extracted from the liver of arsenic

  10. Risk factor benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobbe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Nearly one hundred years ago clinical and epidemiological studies have already assigned benzene as a markedly haematotoxic substance. Nowadays benzene is known as an important professional noxa, which is straight off directed against the haematopoietic system, essentially to a dose-time-effect. By this it can be taken as a model also for other noxious substances. Similar solvents often contain so-called 'hidden benzene', that means not declared benzene, so that the consumer doesn't know what dangerous substance are available for his personal use. Impairments caused by benzene mostly are manifested earliest after months, years or for tens of years, and the point is, that these haematopoietic disorders are irreversible disturbances of the haematopoietic stem cell compartment. The consequence of this fact is a deep involvement of the proliferation of the erythro-, mono-, granulo- and thrombopoietic cell lines, mostly with predominance of one of these myeloproliferative cell systems. In the further progression of the impairments due to benzene three different clinical pictures can be observed: the aplastic bone marrow syndrome (i.e. aplastic anemia), the haematopoietic dysplasia (i.e. preleukemia) and the acute leukemias (with the subtypes erythroleukosis, myeloblastic-promyelocytic or myelomonocytic from respectively). Also the transition from one clinical picture to another is possible.

  11. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  12. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  13. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-12-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity.

  14. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. ... Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: ...

  15. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  16. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  20. Modulation of the immune response to Listeria monocytogenes by benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, G J; Snyder, C A

    1985-09-30

    Benzene is a potent bone marrow toxicant. While all blood cell types are targets for benzene poisoning, lymphocytes are particularly sensitive. The immunotoxic consequences of benzene or its metabolites have been demonstrated in a number of in vitro studies; however, little data exist regarding the effects of benzene on host resistance to infectious agents. This investigation examined the effects of benzene on murine resistance to an infectious agent, Listeria monocytogenes. Four concentrations of benzene were employed, 10, 30, 100, and 300 ppm. To determine recovery from the effects of benzene, two exposure regimens were employed: 5 days prior to infection (preexposure), or 5 days prior to and 7 days during infection (continuous exposure). Appropriate air controls were maintained. Splenic bacterial counts and immune responsive cell populations were determined from mice killed at Days 1, 4, and 7 of infection. Preexposure to benzene produced increased bacterial numbers at Day 4 of the infection only at the highest benzene concentration (300 ppm). In contrast, continuous exposure produced increased bacterial numbers at Day 4 of infection at all but the lowest benzene concentration (10 ppm). Bacteria counts were not increased in any benzene-treated group at Day 1 or Day 7 of infection. The increased bacterial numbers at Day 4 suggest an effect on cell-mediated immune responses. Both T and B lymphocytes were particularly sensitive to benzene exhibiting reductions at all concentrations greater than or equal to 30 ppm for both exposure regimens. Esterase-positive cells, however, were relatively resistant to benzenes effects. The results point to a benzene-induced delay in the immune response to L. monocytogenes.

  1. 职业性慢性1-溴丙烷中毒事故处置%Management of occupational chronic 1-Bromopropane poisoning accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辉; 郭翔; 郭美琼; 戎伟丰; 黄永顺; 郑倩玲; 余新天; 黄振烈; 何坚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨职业性慢性1-溴丙烷(1-BP)中毒事故的职业病危害因素识别、事故处置和职业病诊断的思路。方法采用现场职业卫生调查和应急职业健康检查相结合的方法,对某五金真空镀膜企业发生的群体性职业性1-BP中毒事故进行职业病危害因素识别,对患者进行职业病诊断。结果该企业由于使用含1-BP 的清洗剂替代三氯乙烯进行超声波清洗作业,导致4名清洗房作业工人在接触1-BP 清洗剂11~13个月后,均出现周围神经系统损害。在企业已经对清洗房进行改造的前提下,事后应急检测结果显示:清洗房空气中1-BP 的短时间接触浓度为1038.800~1466.100 mg/m3,时间加权平均浓度为371.500~654.100 mg/m3;1-BP 清洗剂顶空气中1-BP 相对百分比为97.1%。清洗房作业工人班后尿中1-BP 水平为25.50~155.64μg/L。4例患者均被诊断为职业性慢性1-BP 中毒性周围神经病。结论快速识别中毒事故的职业病危害因素,早期明确职业病诊断,有利于做好1-BP 所致职业危害的防治工作。%Objective To discuss occupational hazard factor recognition,disposal method and diagnostic strategy for occupational chronic 1-Bromopropane (1-BP)poisoning accident.Methods By occupational health investigation and emergency occupational physical examination,the occupational hazard factors were identified in a mass 1-BP poisoning accident happened in a hardware vacuum coating enterprise.The patients were provided with occupational disease diagnosis.Results Four workers were detected suffering from peripheral nerve system damage after exposure to 1-BP for 11-13 months,due to using cleaning agent containing 1-BP instead of trichloroethylene for ultrasonic cleaning operation in an enterprise.After cleaning room was reformed,the emergent testing results showed that the short-time exposure concentration and time-weighted average concentration of 1-BP were 1

  2. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  3. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  4. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  5. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  6. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  7. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  8. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  9. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  10. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  11. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  12. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  13. 职业性慢性镉中毒早期肾功能损害的分析%Analysis of Early Renal Damage in Occupational Chronic Cadmium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余燕湘; 李颖; 肖雄斌; 李莉; 张晓华

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨职业性慢性镉中毒肾早期损害指标,为及时发现镉中毒提供科学依据. 方法 回顾分析湖南省职业病防治院收治的59名职业性慢性轻度镉中毒患者的临床资料,分别对尿镉、工龄与尿视黄醇结合蛋白、尿β2微球蛋白之间关联进行综合分析. 结果 尿镉与尿视黄醇结合蛋白之间无相关性(P>0.05),工龄与肾早期损害指标之间无相关性(P>0.05),但尿镉与尿β2微球蛋白存在剂量效应曲线(P<0.05),镉中毒患者,尿视黄醇结合蛋白的敏感性要高于尿β2微球蛋白(P<0.05). 结论 工龄长短与肾早期损害指标之间无直线相关关系,尿β2微球蛋白水平随着尿镉浓度的增高而增高.%Objective To explore the indexes of early renal damage in occupational chronic cadmium poisoning, and to provide a scientific basis for timely detecting cadmium poisoning. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data about 59 inpatients with mild occupational chronic cadmium poisoning, and the correlation between urinary cadmium, cadmium exposure duration and urinary β2 microglobulin, urinary retinol binding protein was synthetically analyzed. Results No association was found between urinary cadmium and urinary retinol binding protein (P>0.05) as well as between cadmium exposure duration and early renal damage (Ρ>0.05), but there was a dose- response curve between urinary cadmium and urinary β2 micro-globulin (P<0.05) . Among the patients with cadmium poisoning, the sensitivity of urinary retinol - binding protein was higher than that of urinary β2 microglobulin (P<0.05). Conclusions There was no linear correlation between service length and the indicators of early renal damage. The level of urinary β2 microglobulin was increased with the increase of urinary cadmium concentrations.

  14. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  15. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  16. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  17. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  18. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  19. 镉电池厂职业性慢性镉中毒发病情况分析%Prevalence of Occupational Chronic Cadmium Poisoning in Cadmium Battery Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田娇; 朱志良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the'incidence of occupational chronic cadmium poisoning in cadmium battery plants and the correlation between working age and the three key diagnosis indicators, including urinary cadmium, urinary retinol binding protein and urinary β2 microglobulin, and to provide the scientific evidence for prevention and control of cadmium poisoning. Methods Forty- five cases diagnosed with cadmium poisoning were served as the study objects, and the diagnosis data were collected for comprehensive analysis by vocational health care investigation, risk factors in site detection and vocational health examination. Results The concentration of cadmium in workplace air was 0.001 ~0.848 mg/m3, which was higher than that of the requirement of "Operational Site Harm Factor Occupation Contact Limiting Value" (GBZ2.1 - 2007). Among the 45 cases, RBP was linearly correlated with β2MG content, while urinary cadmium, RBP and β2MG were not linearly correlated with working age. The incidence of accompanying kidney stone was higher in those poisoning cases. Conclusions RBP has greater diagnostic significance for patients with occupational chronic cadmium poisoning, but the diagnostic value of β2MG is subject to decline. It is necessary to strengthen the control of occupational cadmium hazards and control occupational hazards at its sources by replacing cadmium battery with other batteries.%目的 探讨镉电池厂职业性慢性镉中毒发病情况,尿镉、尿视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)和尿β2微球蛋白(β2MG)与工龄的关系,为镉中毒的防治提供科学依据.方法 回顾分析45例职业性慢性镉中毒病例,采用职业卫生学调查、工作场所职业病危害因素现场检测和职业健康检查进行综合分析.结果 工作场所空气中镉浓度0.001~0.848mg/m3,超过《工作场所有害因素职业接触限值》GBZ2.1 ~ 2007的要求;45例病例中,RBP与β2MG含量有直线相关关系,尿镉与RBP、β2MG及工龄之间均

  20. Gene expression profile in bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells in mice exposed to inhaled benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiola, Brenda; Fuller, Elizabeth S.; Wong, Victoria A.; Recio, Leslie

    2004-05-18

    Acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated with benzene exposure. In mice, benzene induces chromosomal breaks as a primary mode of genotoxicity in the bone marrow (BM). Benzene-induced DNA lesions can lead to changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to leukemic clones. To gain insight into the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia, we investigated the DNA damage repair and response pathways in total bone marrow and bone marrow fractions enriched for HSC from male 129/SvJ mice exposed to benzene by inhalation. Mice exposed to 100 ppm benzene for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 2 week showed significant hematotoxicity and genotoxicity compared to air-exposed control mice. Benzene exposure did not alter the level of apoptosis in BM or the percentage of HSC in BM. RNA isolated from total BM cells and the enriched HSC fractions from benzene-exposed and air-exposed mice was used for microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Interestingly, mRNA levels of DNA repair genes representing distinct repair pathways were largely unaffected by benzene exposure, whereas altered mRNA expression of various apoptosis, cell cycle, and growth control genes was observed in samples from benzene-exposed mice. Differences in gene expression profiles were observed between total BM and HSC. Notably, p21 mRNA was highly induced in BM but was not altered in HSC following benzene exposure. The gene expression pattern suggests that HSC isolated immediately following a 2 weeks exposure to 100 ppm benzene were not actively proliferating. Understanding the toxicogenomic profile of the specific target cell population involved in the development of benzene-associated diseases may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia and may identify important interindividual and tissue susceptibility factors.

  1. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  2. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  3. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  4. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  5. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  6. Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

    2008-07-14

    The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

  7. 慢性苯中毒患者T淋巴细胞rDNA转录活性的研究%Study of T lymphocyte rDNA transcription activity in chronic benzene poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丽君; 赵金垣; 丁丽华

    2003-01-01

    目的观察慢性苯中毒患者外周血T淋巴细胞rDNA转录活性的变化,探讨其对慢性苯中毒人群免疫监测的意义.方法慢性苯中毒患者39人、恶性肿瘤患者20人和健康体检者22人分别取静脉血,通过细胞培养、银染等方法,并采用I-CLQ细胞分析系统,分别测定核仁积分面积与细胞核积分面积的比值(IA)和核仁银染积分光密度与细胞核银染积分光密度的比值(IOD).结果(1)慢性苯中毒患者IA和IOD值分别为7.95%±1.13%和7 15%±1.15%,较正常对照组(IA和IOD值分别为9.59%±1 26%和8.92%±1.18%)明显降低,差异有显著性(P<0.01);慢性中度苯中毒组IA和IOD值分别为6.54%±0.88%和5 47%±0 80%,较观察对象组(IA和IOD值分别为7.98%±1.06%和7.13%±0.96%)和轻度中毒组(IA和IOD值分别为8 19%±1.06%和7.44%±1.06%)明显下降,差异有显著性(P<0.05).(2)恶性肿瘤组IA和IOD值分别为4.10%±1.50%和3.67%±1.42%,较正常对照组和慢性苯中毒组均明显下降,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论rDNA转录活性可作为监测慢性苯中毒患者细胞免疫功能的一项指标.

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. A physiological model for simulation of benzene metabolism by rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Sabourin, P J; Lucier, G; Birnbaum, L S; Henderson, R F

    1989-06-15

    Studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program on the chronic toxicity of benzene indicated that B6C3F1 mice are more sensitive to the toxic effects of benzene than are F344 rats. A physiological model was developed to describe the uptake and metabolism of benzene in rats and mice and to determine if the observed differences in toxic effects could be explained by differences in the pathways for metabolism of benzene or by differences in uptake of benzene. Major pathways for elimination of benzene included metabolism to hydroquinone glucuronide or hydroquinone sulfate, phenyl glucuronide or phenyl sulfate, muconic acid, and prephenyl mercapturic acid or phenyl mercapturic acid. Model simulations for total benzene metabolized and for profiles of benzene metabolites were conducted for oral or inhalation exposure and compared to data for urinary excretion of benzene metabolites after exposure of rats and mice to [14C]- or [3H]-benzene by inhalation or gavage. Results for total amount of benzene metabolized, expressed per kilogram body weight, indicated that for inhalation exposure concentrations up to 1000 ppm, mice metabolized at least two to three times as much benzene as did rats. Simulations of oral exposure to benzene resulted in more benzene metabolized per kilogram body weight by rats at oral exposures of greater than 50 mg/kg. Patterns of metabolites formed after either route of exposure were very different for F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats primarily formed the detoxification metabolite, phenyl sulfate. Mice formed hydroquinone glucuronide and muconic acid in addition to phenyl sulfate. Hydroquinone and muconic acid are associated with pathways leading to the formation of the putative toxic metabolites of benzene. Metabolic rate parameters, Vmax and Km, were very different for hydroquinone conjugate and muconic acid formation compared to formation of phenyl conjugates and phenyl mercapturic acids. Putative toxication pathways could be characterized as

  10. Benzene inhalation effects upon tetanus antitoxin. Responses and leukemogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, R D; Drew, R T; Bernstein, D M

    1980-01-01

    The effects of inhaled benzene on primary and secondary antibody responses and the incidence of leukemia in mice are reported. Young adult mice were given 5, 12, or 22 exposures to 400 ppM benzene for 6 hrs/day 5 days/week. After the exposure periods, the mice were immunized with absorbed tetanus toxoid (APTT) and/or fluid tetanus toxid (FTT). Exposure to benzene increasingly suppressed primary antibody responses to both antigens. Secondary antibody responses to FTT were nearly normal in animals given 10, 15, or 20 exposures to 400 ppM benzene. Other groups of mice were exposed to either 200 ppM or 50 ppM benzene. Primary antibody responses elicited with FTT and/or APTT were nearly normal in all mice exposed to 50 ppM benzene and in mice exposed to 200 ppM benzene for 5 days. However, 10 and 20 exposures to 200 ppM benzene inhibited antibody production. The effects of chronically inhaled 300 ppM benzene on the time of onset and incidence of leukemia in 400 7-month-old female HRS/J mice were also studied. Two genotypes were used; the (hr/hr) hairless mice are leukemia-prone, whereas the (hr/+) haired mice are more resistant to leukemia. The exposure continued for a period of 6 months. Lymphoid, myeloid, and mixed (lymphoid and myeloid) leukemias were observed. Ninety percent of the (hr/hr) mice exposed to benzene died from leukemia as compared with 91% for the (hr/hr) air control group. Eighty-five percent of the (hr/+) mice exposed to benzene died from leukemia as compared with 81% for the (hr/+) air control group. Exposures to 300 ppM benzene did not alter the time of onset or the incidence of leukemia commonly expected in HRS/J mice.

  11. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  12. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  13. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisel, C.; Yu, R.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine differences in metabolism. Biomarkers in humans have shown that the percentage of benzene metabolized by the ring-opening pathway is greater at environmental exposures than that at higher occupational exposures, a trend similar to that found in animal studies. This suggests that the dose-response curve is nonlinear; that potential different metabolic mechanisms exist at high and low doses; and that the validity of a linear extrapolation of adverse effects measured at high doses to a population exposed to lower, environmental levels of benzene is uncertain. Time-series measurements of the biomarker, exhaled breath, were used to evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Biases were identified between the PBPK model predictions and experimental data that were adequately described using an empirical compartmental model. It is suggested that a mapping of the PBPK model to a compartmental model can be done to optimize the parameters in the PBPK model to provide a future framework for developing a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  15. Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondle Raghu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, r-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridium dichloride, a brown syrupy liquid is an effective herbicide that has low chronic toxicity because of its rapid deactivation on contact with soil. A high dose of paraquat or severe poisoning has a poor prognosis. At present there is no specific antidote to paraquat poisoning, hence the need to focus on prevention and in case of exposure or ingestion, aggressive decontamination to prevent further absorption. Although uncommon, paraquat ingestion can lead to severe and often fatal toxicity. However, despite its widespread availability, reports of this herbicide poisoning in India are uncommon.

  16. Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Loco, Joris; Matsiko, Eric; Lachat, Carl; de Schaetzen, Thibault; Canfyn, Michael; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Benzene is a volatile organic compound known to be carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and may be present in food. In the present study, 455 food samples from the Belgian market were analyzed for benzene contents and some possible sources of its occurrence in the foodstuffs were evaluated. Benzene was found above the level of detection in 58% of analyzed samples with the highest contents found in processed foods such as smoked and canned fish, and foods which contained these as ingredients (up to 76.21 μg kg(-1)). Unprocessed foods such as raw meat, fish, and eggs contained much lower concentrations of benzene. Using the benzene concentrations in food, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of benzene intake was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population over 15 years of age. The mean benzene intake for all foods was 0.020 μg kg bw d(-1) according to a probabilistic analysis. These values are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure to benzene (0.5 μg kg bw d(-1)).

  17. [Interaction between benzene and toluene in long term inhalation exposure in rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradiski, D; Bonnet, P; Duprat, P; Zissu, D; Magadur, J L; Guenier, J P

    1981-07-01

    Industrial chemicals are seldom used as pure substances; hazards resulting from exposure to mixtures have, however not been solved. Our study deals with chronic inhalation toxicity of a mixture of benzene and toluene; few studies have been completed on this subject. Our results show: - leucopenia with benzene alone, at a concentration of 50 p.p.m., that is not detectable in the presence of toluene; - metabolic variations consisting in: a decrease in the phenol urinary rate versus time with benzene alone; a sharp decrease of this rate from the third month of exposure on, in presence of toluene.

  18. Induction of granulocytic differentiation in a mouse model by benzene and hydroquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazel, B.A.; O`Connor, A.; Niculescu, R.; Kalf, G.F. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Chronic exposure of humans to benzene causes acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The studies presented here were undertaken to determine whether benzene, or its reactive metabolite, hydroquinone (HQ), affects differentiation of myeloblasts. Benzene or HQ administered to C57BL/6J mice specifically induced granulocytic differentiation of myeloblasts. The ability of these compounds to induce differentiation of the myeloblast was tested directly using the murine interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent 32D.3 (G) myeloblastic cell line, and the human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line. 37 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  20. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  3. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  4. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  5. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  6. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  7. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock , organ failure, and death. As little as 120 milliliters (approximately 4 fluid ...

  8. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  9. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  10. Poison plants (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  11. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  12. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  13. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  14. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  15. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  16. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  17. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  18. 慢性镉中毒对小鼠海马齿状回结构的影响%Effect on hippocampal dentate gyrus structure of mice with chronic cadmium poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊德; 余资江; 戈果; 刘鲜林; 常傲霜

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察慢性镉中毒对小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层细胞结构的影响.方法 将清洁级4~5月龄昆明种小鼠40只随机分为对照组与镉中毒组,每组20只,雌雄各半.适应性饲养1周后,镉中毒组采用皮下注射氯化镉(2mg/kg),每周2次,连续染毒3个月,对照组同时注射等体积生理盐水.连续喂养3个月后取大脑海马组织分别进行尼氏染色、胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)、神经元特异性烯醇酶(NSE)免疫组化染色和透射电镜观察.结果 光镜下,尼氏染色与免疫组化染色结果显示,对照组小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层神经元排列整齐、规则,结构完整,胞体较大,细胞轮廓清楚,胞核居中、核仁明显、胞浆尼氏体丰富,均匀分布于核周;胶质细胞分散在海马神经元之间,呈星形或梭形,体积小、核圆形或卵圆形;镉中毒组小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层神经元胞体变小、胞核固缩、胞浆减少,尼氏体明显减少或消失、着色浅,胶质细胞分散在海马神经元之间,体积增大;与对照组相比,镉中毒组海马齿状回颗粒层胶质细胞与NSE阳性神经元的数量增多(P<0.05).电镜下,对照组海马齿状回颗粒层神经元形态规则,胞膜清晰,细胞器丰富,结构完整;镉中毒组神经元胞体轻度水肿,核膜皱褶,核染色质皱缩,胞浆密度降低,细胞器减少,线粒体肿胀,部分透明成空泡.结论 慢性镉中毒可导致小鼠海马齿状回颗粒层神经元减少、星型胶质细胞增多,这些变化可能是镉的神经毒性作用之一.%Objective To observe the morphological changes in granule cell layer on astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of mice with chronic cadmium poisoning. Methods Forty Kunming mice (4--5 months old) of clean grade were randomly divided into two groups, 20 in each and half of females and males.The rats in cadmium-exposed group were injected subcutaneously with cadmium (CdCI2, 2.0 mg/kg, twice a week

  19. Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on serum inhibin-B and testosterone in male rats%慢性砷中毒对雄性大鼠血清抑制素-B和睾酮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喆; 高晓勤; 谷江; 杨燕平; 马晓萍; 刘智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on serum inhibin-B (INH-B) and testosterone of male rats.Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley rats in cleanliness grad were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight:high-dose,middle-dose,low-dose arsenic exposure groups and control group,10 animals in each group.Rats in high-dose,middle-dose,and low-dose groups were administered with arsenic in concentrations of 10.0,5.0,2.5,0.0 mg/kg in distilled water,respectively.Rats in control group were fed with distilled water freely.After 9 months,serum INH-B and testosterone were tested using an ELISA Kit.Results Serum INH-B and testosterone levels in the above mentioned four groups,respectively,were (66.31 ± 37.21),(75.13 ± 29.88),(119.02 ± 36.10),(133.04 ± 38.67)ng/L and (1.292 ± 0.715),(1.757 ± 0.649),(2.359 ± 0.675),(2.817 ± 0.890)μg/L,and the differences between different groups were statistically significant (F=84.88,8.214,all P < 0.05).Serum INH-B and testosterone levels in high-dose and middle-dose groups were significantly lower than that of control group(all P< 0.05),whereas no significant difference was found between low-dose group and control group (all P > 0.05).Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning has led to decreased concentration of serum INH-B and testosterone in male rats.%目的 探讨慢性砷中毒对雄性大鼠血清抑制素-B(INH-B)和睾酮的影响.方法 将40只SD雄性大鼠按体质量随机分为高、中、低剂量组和对照组,每组10只,分别用含砷(三氧化二砷,As2O3)量为10.0、5.0、2.5、0.0 mg/kg的水溶液喂养9个月.实验结束时通过股动脉采血,酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)法测定血清INH-B和睾酮水平.结果 上述4组大鼠血清INH-B和睾酮水平分别为(66.31±37.21)、(75.13±29.88)、(119.02±36.10)、(133.04±38.67)ng/L和(1.292土0.715)、(1.757±0.649)、(2.359±0.675)、(2.817±0.890)μg/L,组间比较差异有统计学意义(F值分别为84.88、8

  20. Expression of Caspase-3 in Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice with Chronic Arsenic Poisoning%慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回caspase-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝飞; 康朝胜; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠齿状回神经元的形态学影响,探讨慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠脑部的神经毒性机制.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组、高、中、低剂量砷染毒组,每组20只,高、中、低剂量砷染毒组分别以As03的1/5、1/10、1/40 LD50(9、4.5、1.1 mg/kg)灌胃染毒,对照组以蒸馏水灌胃,连续3个月.利用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术观察小鼠齿状回部位神经元半胱氨酸蛋白水解酶-3(caspase-3)蛋白的表达.结果 免疫组化染色显示,与正常对照组比较,砷染毒组小鼠齿状回caspase-3阳性细胞明显增多(P<0.01),阳性反应产物平均光密度增高(P<0.01),同时蛋白印迹结果显示随砷中毒剂量的增加,小鼠齿状回caspase-3蛋白含量随之增加(P<0.01),各剂量组雌雄间各数据差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 慢性砷中毒导致脑齿状回神经元细胞凋亡可能与齿状回细胞caspase-3增加有关,同时脑细胞caspase-3随砷浓度增加而增高.%Objective To investigate the effects of chronic arsenic exposure at different doses on dentate gyrus neurons in adult mice. Methods Eighty healthy adult Kunming mice, 20-22 g, were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, low-dose group, moderate dose group and high dose group, 20 in each (10 males and 10 females in each group), each group was fed respectively with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 As203 for 3 consecutive months, and adjusting the dose according to their weight changes. The content of arsenic in brain was determined. The expression of caspase-3 in dentate gyrus neurons was detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and analyzed by morphology methods. Results Compared with normal control group, groups of arsenic poisoning had been the main changes: caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining positive cells increased significantly (P0.05). Conclusion The obvious up

  1. 慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回GFAP表达的影响%Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on GFAP expression in the dentate gyms of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康朝胜; 孙宝飞; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the dentate gyrus of adult mice after chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods 80 healthy adult Kunming mice, weighing 20-22g, were divided into four groups: the normal control group, the low-dose group, the medium-dose group and the high-dose group ( 10 males and 10 females in each group). Mice in the four groups were respectively fed with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 AS2O3 for 3 months, and the dosage was adjusted according to changes of weight. Then ability of learning and memory was tested by a Y-maze, and expression of the GFAP protein in the dentate gyrus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Ability of learning and memory in the high-dose group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group ( P < 0.05 ). Immunohistochemical results showed that the number of GFAP-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly more increased in the dose groups compared with the normal control group(P<0.01 ), and the average optical density was also increased (P <0.01 ). Western blot results showed the GFAP protein content increased with the dosage increasing (P <0.01 ). Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage ability of learning and memory in mice, which may be related to proliferation of astroeytes and expression of GFAP in the dentate gyrus.%目的 研究砷中毒后小鼠齿状回胶质原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的变化.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组及慢性砷中毒高、中、低剂量组,每组20只,分别以蒸馏水、1/5 LD50、1/10 LD50、1/40LD50 As2O3连续灌胃3个月,根据其体质量变化随时调整用药剂量,采用Y-电迷宫检测各组小鼠学习记忆行为,采用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术检测不同浓度砷中毒对小鼠齿状回部位GFAP表达的影响.结果 与正常对照组比较,高剂量砷中毒组学习、记忆Y-迷

  2. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  3. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  4. Chronic insomnia in workers poisoned by inorganic mercury: psychological and adaptive aspects Insônia crônica em trabalhadores contaminados por mercúrio inorgânico: aspectos psicológicos e adaptativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUELI REGINA G. ROSSINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is one of the symptoms of inorganic mercury poisoning (IMP. The objective of this study is to analyze the chief psychological aspects in the adjustment of workers with chronic insomnia associated with IMP. For this purpose the Preventive Clinical Interview and the Ryad Simon Operational Adaptive Diagnostic Scale (Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada-EDAO were utilized. Fifteen subjects with mean age of 40 years (10 males and 5 females were studied. Nine were diagnosed with High Adaptive Inefficacy, five with Moderate Inefficient Adaptation and only one with Mild Inefficient Adaptation. Impairment occurred in four adaptive sectors: affective relationship, social-cultural, productivity and organic. Adaptive efficiency indicated that in all the 15 subjects studied the adaptive solutions were frustrating and led to psychic suffering and/or environmental conflict confirming the severity of the involvement in chronic IMP.Insônia é um dos sintomas da contaminação por mercúrio inorgânico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os principais aspectos psicológicos presentes na organização adaptativa de trabalhadores com insônia crônica associada à contaminação por mercúrio inorgânico. Utilizaram a Entrevista Clínica Preventiva e a Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada (EDAO de Ryad Simon. Foram estudadas 15 pessoas, com média de idade de 40 anos (10M; 5 F. Nove foram diagnosticadas como tendo Adaptação Ineficaz Severa; cinco, Adaptação Ineficaz Moderada; e somente um, Adaptação Ineficaz Leve. O comprometimento na adaptação ocorreu nos quatro setores adaptativos: afetivo-emocional, sócio-cultural, da produtividade e orgânico. A eficácia adaptativa indicou que em todos as15 pessoas estudadas, as soluções adaptativas encontradas foram frustrantes e levaram a sofrimento psíquico e/ou atritos ambientais, evidenciando a severidade de comprometimento na intoxicação crônica por mercúrio inorgânico.

  5. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems.

  6. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  7. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  8. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  9. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  10. Double photoionization of halogenated benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlKhaldi, Mashaal Q. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Wehlitz, Ralf, E-mail: rwehlitz@gmail.com [Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    We have experimentally investigated the double-photoionization process in C{sub 6}BrF{sub 5} using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. We compare our results with previously published data for partially deuterated benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 3}D{sub 3}) over a wide range of photon energies from threshold to 270 eV. A broad resonance in the ratio of doubly to singly charged parent ions at about 65 eV appears shifted in energy compared to benzene data. This shift is due to the difference in the bond lengths in two molecules. A simple model can explain the shape of this resonance. At higher photon energies, we observe another broad resonance that can be explained as a second harmonic of the first resonance.

  11. Functionalization of benzene by superhalogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    We perform ab initio MP2/6-311++G(d,p) calculations to analyze the molecular properties and aromaticity of NO3, BO2 as well as BF4 superhalogen substituted benzene and compare them with well known electron withdrawing group substituted benzene such as C6H5F and C6H5CN in neutral and ionic forms. It has been noticed that the properties (including aromaticity) of C6H5BO2 closely resemble those of C6H5F and C6H5CN. On the contrary, C6H5NO3 possesses some quite different properties such as high electron affinity, small frontier orbital energy gap and enhanced aromaticity. It is also revealed that C6H5BF4 exists only in the form of C6H5F⋯BF3 complex.

  12. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  13. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  14. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  15. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  16. A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2003-12-01

    Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic or mildly pruritic discreet papular and papulovesicular eruption that correlated with high blood mercury levels. The mercury evidently came from increased seafood consumption. All of the patients improved when they were placed on either a seafood-free diet or chelation therapy. Physicians should suspect mercury poisoning in patients who eat a high-seafood diet who present with an asymptomatic or mildly pruritic papular or papulovesicular eruption.

  17. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  18. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as ′chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders′ (COPIND. Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.

  19. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  20. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    for months and years, there is a possibility that every medic can encounter its unusual symptoms, requiring specific treatment. The following toxins cause the poisoning: ciguatoxin, meitotoxin, ostreotoxin, domoic acid and some other unspecified toxins. They are lipid soluble, thermo stable and cannot be decomposed by culinary processing. These toxins have neurotoxic, cardiotoxic, hemolytic properties and cause diarrheic syndrome. Clinical presentation is characterized by average latent period of 12 hours after the consummation, vomiting and diarrhea next 24 hours and neurological symptoms that appear at the beginning of the poisoning with paresthesias along the body, changing feeling of hot and cold, strong myalgia. Disturbances in cardiac rhythm and conduction, strong dehydration or shock are possible in severe cases. Light cases pass over in several days, but, more often the poisoning has a chronic course – from 3-4 months to 1 year, with prevalence of neurologic symptoms: myalgia, paresthesias, skin itching with scratches, depression. The management is not specific and includes stomach lavage with activated charcoal, fluids replacement during the first 24 hours, corticosteroids, antiallergics, high doses of vitamins from group B (Vit. B1, Vit. B6, Vit. B12, mannitol IV, nootropic medicaments, antidepressants and other symptomatic medicaments. The prophylaxis is done by examining every fish with specific test for detecting ciguateratoxin.

  1. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  2. Natural Biological Attenuation of Benzene in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Benzene has been found in subsurface unsaturated soil and groundwater beneath a petro-chemical plant. Although the groundwater contained several mg/L of benzene in the area immediately beneath the source, benzene was not detected in monitoring wells approximately 800m down stream. All kinds of physical processes such as adsorption and advection/dispersion are considered to account for the observed attenuation. The results indicated that the attenuation was primarily due to natural biological processes occurring within the aquifer. The evidence for the natural bioremediation of benzene from the groundwater included: (1) analysis of groundwater chemistry, (2) laboratory studies demonstrating benzene biodegradation in aquifer samples, and (3) computer simulations examining benzene transport. Laboratory experiments indicated that for conditions similar to those in the plume, the aerobic degradation of benzene by the naturally occurring microorganisms in the polluted groundwater samples was quite rapid with a half-life time of from 5 to 15 days. In situ analyses indicated the level of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater was over 2mg/L. Thus, oxygen should not limit the biodegradation. In fact, the benzene was also shown to degrade under anaerobic conditions. The results from the modeling simulations indicate that biodegradation is the dominant process influencing attenuation of the benzene.

  3. Carcinogenic effects of benzene: Cesare Maltoni's contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Cesare Maltoni's contributions to understanding, identifying, and characterizing widely used commercial chemicals in experimental animals are among the most important methods developed in the history of toxicology and serve to protect working men and women, the general population, and our environment from hazardous substances. Maltoni developed experimental methods that have reached the "platinum standard" for protection of public health. Benzene was among the 400 or more chemicals that Maltoni and his associates tested for carcinogenicity. In 1976, Maltoni reported that benzene is a potent experimental carcinogen. Maltoni's experiments clearly demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice when administered by inhalation or ingestion. Benzene caused carcinomas of the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, nasal cavities; cancers of the skin, forestomach, mammary glands, and lungs; angiosarcomas and hepatomas of the liver; and hemolymphoreticular cancers. Thus, benzene was shown to be a multipotential carcinogen that produced cancers in several species of animals by various routes of administration. On November 2, 1977, Chemical Week reported that Maltoni provided a "bombshell" when he demonstrated the "first direct link" between benzene and cancer. In this paper, I shall summarize early experiments and human studies and reports; Maltoni's experimental contribution to understanding the carcinogenicity of benzene in humans and animals; earlier knowledge concerning benzene toxicity; and benzene standards and permissible exposure levels.

  4. Production of Phenol from Benzene via Cumene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, D. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment involving the production of phenol from benzene with the intermediate production of isopropylbenzene and isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide. (SL)

  5. 亚慢性砷中毒对大鼠精子透明质酸酶的影响%Effect of sub-chronic arsenic poisoning on rat sperm hyaluronidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕平; 高晓勤; 丁贤胜; 马晓萍; 杨喆; 刘智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sub-chronic arsenic poisoning on hyaluronidase activity of rat sperm.Methods Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in cleanliness grade,weighing 100-200 g,were randomly divided into four groups:control group,low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose arsenic exposure groups,10 in each group,and allotted to cages.Rats of arsenic groups were exposed to arsenic through drinking water (As2O3 was dissolved in distilled water).The concentrations of As2O3 in low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose groups were 25,50,and 100 mg/L,respectively.Body weight of each rat was weighed once a week.The rats in control group drank distilled water freely.All rats were fed for three months.After the experiment,all rats were killed and their sperms were collected.The positive rates and hyaluronidase activity intensities of the sperms in different groups were examined by the mature improved fixed-substrate film method.Results The positive rate of sperm hyaluronidase in control,low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose groups were (90.8 ± 13.2)%,(79.1 ± 15.6)%,(59.7 ± 20.3)% and (33.8 ± 14.5)%,respectively.Compared with the control group,the positive rates of the middledose and the high-dose groups were significantly reduced(all P < 0.05).The activity intensities of hyaluronidase in the sperms in control,low-dose,middle-dose and high-dose groups were (45.1 ± 24.0),(31.1 ± 21.3),(19.4 ± 15.3) and (9.8 ± 3.1)μm,respectively.Compared with the control group,the activity intensities of hyaluronidase of the middle-dose and the high-dose groups were significantly reduced(all P < 0.05).Conclusion Sub-chronic arsenic poisoning reduces the activity intensities and positive rates of sperm hyaluronidase of rat,resulting in reduced sperm fertilizing capacity.%目的 探讨亚慢性砷中毒对大鼠精子透明质酸酶活性及活性强度的影响.方法 清洁级SD雄性大鼠40只,体质量100~120 g,按体质量随机分为对照组、低剂量组

  6. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Mundle; Neelima; Sushrut; Yogesh; Shukan; Shalik; Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  7. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  8. Chemical of current interest--benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, W L

    1987-03-01

    Benzene is one of the world's major commodity chemicals. It is derived from petroleum and coal and is used both as a solvent and as a starting material in chemical syntheses. The numerous industrial uses of benzene over the last century need not be recounted here, but the most recent addition to the list of uses of benzene is as a component in a mixture of aromatic compounds added to gasoline for the purpose of replacing lead compounds as anti-knock ingredients. The best known and longest recognized toxic effect of benzene is the depression of bone marrow function seen in occupationally exposed individuals. These people have been found to display anemia, leucopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. When pancytopenia, i.e., the simultaneous depression of all three cell types, occurs and is accompanied by bone marrow necrosis, the syndrome is called aplastic anemia. In addition to observing this decrease in humans and relating it to benzene exposure, it has been possible to establish animal models which mimic the human disease. The result has been considerable scientific investigation into the mechanism of benzene toxicity. Although the association between benzene exposure and aplastic anemia has been recognized and accepted throughout most of this century, it is only recently that leukemia, particularly of the acute myelogenous type, has been related to benzene. The acceptance of benzene as an etiological agent in aplastic anemia in large measure derives from our ability to reproduce the disease in most animals treated with sufficiently high doses of benzene over the necessary time period. Unfortunately, despite extensive efforts in several laboratories, it has not been possible to establish a reproducible, reliable model for the study of benzene-induced leukemia. The recent demonstration that several animals exposed to benzene either by inhalation or in the drinking water during studies by Drs. B. Goldstein and C. Maltoni suggests that such a model may be forthcoming

  9. Anaerobic benzene oxidation by Geobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Bain, Timothy S; Nevin, Kelly P; Barlett, Melissa A; Lovley, Derek R

    2012-12-01

    The abundance of Geobacter species in contaminated aquifers in which benzene is anaerobically degraded has led to the suggestion that some Geobacter species might be capable of anaerobic benzene degradation, but this has never been documented. A strain of Geobacter, designated strain Ben, was isolated from sediments from the Fe(III)-reducing zone of a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which there was significant capacity for anaerobic benzene oxidation. Strain Ben grew in a medium with benzene as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Furthermore, additional evaluation of Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that it could also grow in benzene-Fe(III) medium. In both strain Ben and G. metallireducens the stoichiometry of benzene metabolism and Fe(III) reduction was consistent with the oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. With benzene as the electron donor, and Fe(III) oxide (strain Ben) or Fe(III) citrate (G. metallireducens) as the electron acceptor, the cell yields of strain Ben and G. metallireducens were 3.2 × 10(9) and 8.4 × 10(9) cells/mmol of Fe(III) reduced, respectively. Strain Ben also oxidized benzene with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as the sole electron acceptor with cell yields of 5.9 × 10(9) cells/mmol of AQDS reduced. Strain Ben serves as model organism for the study of anaerobic benzene metabolism in petroleum-contaminated aquifers, and G. metallireducens is the first anaerobic benzene-degrading organism that can be genetically manipulated.

  10. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Kenyon, E.M.; Seaton, M.J.; Schlosser, P.M. [Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase 11 enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Exposure of hematopoietic stem cells to benzene or 1,4-benzoquinone induces gender-specific gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Brenda; Fuller, Elizabeth S; Wong, Victoria A; Pluta, Linda; Abernethy, Diane J; Rose, Jason; Recio, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Chronic exposure to benzene results in progressive decline of hematopoietic function and may lead to the onset of various disorders, including aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Damage to macromolecules resulting from benzene metabolites and misrepair of DNA lesions may lead to changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that give rise to leukemic clones. We have shown previously that male mice exposed to benzene by inhalation were significantly more susceptible to benzene-induced toxicities than females. Because HSCs are targets for benzene-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, we investigated DNA damage responses in HSC from both genders of 129/SvJ mice after exposure to 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in vitro or benzene in vivo. 1,4-BQ is a highly reactive metabolite of benzene that can cause cellular damage by forming protein and DNA adducts and producing reactive oxygen species. HSCs cultured in the presence of 1,4-BQ for 24 hours showed a gender-independent, dose-dependent cytotoxic response. RNA isolated from 1,4-BQ-treated HSCs and HSCs from mice exposed to 100 ppm benzene by inhalation showed altered expression of apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle, and growth control genes compared with unexposed HSCs. Rad51, xpc, and mdm-2 transcript levels were increased in male but not female HSCs exposed to 1,4-BQ. Males exposed to benzene exhibited higher mRNA levels for xpc, ku80, ccng, and wig1. These gene expression differences may partially explain the gender disparity in benzene susceptibility. HSC culture systems such as the one used here will be useful for testing the hematotoxicity of various substances, including other benzene metabolites.

  12. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5 % was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39 % of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99 %); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26 % (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46 %); products of daily use in about 14 % (of these, cosmetics in 40 %); and plants in about 10 %. More than 90 % of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5 %, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44 % of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30 %, moderate ones in 6 %, and severe manifestations in 2 % of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (poisoning accidents

  13. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  14. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  15. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  16. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  17. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  18. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  19. Methaemoglobinemia in nitrobenzene poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongtham D

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia was saved by the timely use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Though parenteral methylene blue is the antidote of choice, due to its non-availability, the laboratory preparation of methylene blue have been utilized orally. The rare occurrence of such cases, and the efficacy of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to Nitrobenzene poisoning have been highlighted.

  20. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  1. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  2. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  3. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  4. Protein kinase C-α expression in kidney of rat with chronic arsenic poisoning%慢性砷中毒大鼠肾脏蛋白激酶C-α表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远慧; 钱立全; 李金华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and relevant function of protein kinase C (PKC)-α in kidney of rat with chronic arsenic poisoning.Methods Totally 60 healthy SD rats of clean grade were randomly divided by body weight into 3 groups:high-dose arsenic exposure group (10.0 mg/kg),low-dose arsenic exposure group (0.4 mg/kg),and control group.The rats were exposed by drinking arsenic solution which was mixed with distilled water.Rats were weighed every 10 days and dose volume of arsenic solution was adjusted.After continuous exposure for 4 months,blood and urinary arsenic were determined.Rat kidneys were taken and stained by Immunohistochemistry SABC.PKC-o positive cells in the kidney were observed and counted,and its average gray value was analyzed with image analysis software (Biomias).Results Proximal tubules PKC-α-positive cell count [(3.62 ± 1.90),(10.07 ± 3.22)/field],glomerular PKC-α-positive cell count [(3.62 ± 1.90),(10.07 ± 3.22)/field]in high and low arsenic group of SD rat kidney were lower than those of the control group [(60.00 ± 9.63),(18.57 ± 2.71/field,all P < 0.05]; both urinary arsenic level[(7366.62 ± 1086.50),(1744.31 ± 300.12)μg,/L]and blood arsenic level [(31.59 ± 9.24),(16.58 ± 2.08)μg/L] in high-dose and low-dose groups were higher than those of the control group [(18.97 ± 3.58),(18.97 ± 3.58)μg/L,all P < 0.05] ; the average gray values of SD rat kidney proximal tubule,glomerular PKC-o positive cells in high-dose and low-dose groups( 142.79 ± 11.16,122.15 ±5.91 ) were higher than that of the control group (114.33 ± 6.70,all P < 0.05).Conclusions Arsenic can decrease SD rat kidney PKC-α -positive cells.The regulatory function of PKC-o in inhibiting cell apoptosis of kidney of rats with arsenic poisoning is weakened.%目的 探讨蛋白激酶C(PKC)-α在慢性砷中毒大鼠肾脏的表达及作用.方法 将60只清洁级SD大鼠按体质量随机分为高砷(10.0 mg/kg)、低砷(0.4mg/kg)组和对照(蒸馏

  5. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, P J; Sun, J D; MacGregor, J T; Wehr, C M; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G; Henderson, R F

    1990-05-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased. Exposure to the same level of benzene for an additional 2 weeks did not further increase the frequency of micronuclei in PCEs. These results indicate

  6. Organophosphate Poisoning and Subsequent Acute Kidney Injury Risk: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI.The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000-2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk.The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI.The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function.

  7. Impact of the chronic arsenic poisoning on the ultraturcture of adult mouse brain temporal lobe cortex%慢性砷中毒对成年小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花伟; 臧贵勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of the ultrastructure of the temporal lobe cortex for the brains of these mouse with chronic arsenicpoisoning ,to explore the mechanism of arsenic toxicity on the brain .Method 60 healthy adult Kunming mouse ( 30 male and 30 female) were selected and divided into control group ,low and high dose groups . There were 20 mouse in each group . The dye arsenic group respectively with distilled water , 1/5LD50 ,1/50LD50 ,As2 O3 solution to fill the stomach ,for three consecutive months .After building ,canister , based on the determination of arsenic in groups of mice brain ,Nepal’s dyeing were used to observe the cerebral cor‐tex of temporal morphology change ,transmission electronmicroscope to observe the changes of the ultrastructure of the cerebral cortex temporal lobe in mice .Result It might be the type the type of arsenic content in the cerebral cor‐tex was significantly higher than the control group (P<0 .05) .It was observed the decrease in the number of infec‐ted each cortical neurons ,shape was irregular ,intracytoplasmic austenite reduced .It was observed under electron microscope the prion edema groups of nerve cells ,organelles decreased ,mitochondrial cristae fracture and cavity . Conclusion Arsenic poisoning can cause nerve cell pathology and ultrastructure change of cerebral cortex .%目的:观察慢性砷中毒对小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的改变,探讨砷对大脑的毒性机制。方法选取健康成年昆明小鼠60只,雌雄各半,分为对照组、慢性砷中毒低、高剂量组,每组20只,各染砷组分别以蒸馏水、1/5LD50、1/50 LD50的As2 O3溶液灌胃,连续3个月。经造模、染毒、取材后,测定各组小鼠大脑中砷含量,采用尼氏染色观察大脑皮质颞叶形态学改变,透射电镜观察小鼠大脑皮质颞叶超微结构的变化。结果(1)染毒各组小鼠大脑皮质中砷含量明显高于对照组(P<0.05);(2)

  8. XRCC3、XPD 基因多态性与职业性慢性铅中毒易感性关系病例-对照研究%Matched case-control study on relationship between polymorphisms of gene XRCC3, XPD and the susceptibility of occupational chronic lead poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥铨; 吴小南; 吴京颖; 刘合焜

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨X射线交错互补修复基因3(XRCC3) Thr241Met和人类着色性干皮病基因D (XPD) Asp312Asn及Lys751Gln与职业性慢性铅中毒的关系。方法选择103名蓄电池厂确诊为职业性慢性铅中毒的男性工人为病例组,按照工种和年龄1∶1匹配选择同厂无诊断为铅中毒的铅作业男性工人为对照组。采集2组人群周围静脉血,采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性技术检测XRCC3 Thr241Met、XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln位点的多态性,采用条件Logistic回归分析分析不同基因型与职业性慢性铅中毒的关系。结果2组人群中XRCC3 Thr241Met、XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln多态位点的基因型分布均符合遗传学Hardy-Weinberg平衡定律( P>0.05)。2组人群XRCC3 Thr241Met 3种基因型总体分布比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。2 组人群XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln 3种基因型总体分布分别比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。 XRCC3 Thr241Met的CT和TT基因型均增加铅中毒易感性[校正比值比分别为2.44和3.37,95%可信区间为(1.17~5.09)和(1.09~11.14)],而XPD Asp312Asn 和 XPD Lys751Gln 不同基因型与铅中毒易感性无关( P >0.05)。结论 XRCC3 Thr241Met的CT或TT基因型与职业性慢性铅中毒相关;而XPD Asp312Asn和XPD Lys751Gln多态性与职业性慢性铅中毒易感性无关。%Objective To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of gene XRCC3 Thr241Met and XPD Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln and occupational chronic lead poisoning .Methods Based on 1∶1 matched case-control study, 103 couple lead-exposed male workers were selected as the case group ( occupational chronic lead poisoning patients ) and the control group ( workers without poisoning manifestations ) from storage battery factories , and their peripheral venous blood was collected .Single nucleotide polymorphisms of XRCC3 Thr241Met, XPD Asp312

  9. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  10. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  11. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Benzene metabolites induce apoptosis in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Velázquez, M; Maldonado, V; Ortega, A; Meléndez-Zajgla, J; Albores, A

    2006-08-01

    Benzene is an important environmental pollutant with important health implications. Exposure to this aromatic hydrocarbon is associated with hematotoxicity, and bone marrow carcinogenic effects. It has been shown that benzene induces oxidative stress, cell cycle alterations, and programmed cell death in cultured cells. Hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bone marrow toxicity. Nevertheless, there are no reports on the cellular effects of reactive intermediates derived from hepatic metabolism of benzene. Thus, the goal of this project was to determine the cellular alterations of benzene metabolites produced by the cultured hepatic cell line HepG2. Supernatants collected from these cells were applied to a culture of freshly isolated lymphocytes. A higher decrease in cell viability was found in cells exposed to these supernatants than to unmetabolized benzene. This viability decrease was due to apoptosis, as determined by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. When supernatants were analyzed by HPLC, we found that not all the hydrocarbon was biotransformed, since a 28 microM concentration (37%) remained. The only metabolite found in the culture medium was muconic acid. The present results show that muconic acid derived from benzene metabolism is able to cooperate with the pollutant for the induction of apoptosis in rat lymphocytes.

  13. Reduction of benzene toxicity by toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plappert, U; Barthel, E; Seidel, H J

    1994-01-01

    BDF1 mice were exposed in inhalation chambers to benzene (900 ppm, 300 ppm) and/or toluene (500 ppm, 250 ppm) 6 hr per day, 5 days per week, for up to 8 weeks. Benzene alone induced a slight anemia after 4 and 8 weeks and a reduction of BFU-E and CFU-E numbers in the marrow. The coexposure to toluene reduced the degree of anemia. These results confirm previous studies where toluene was found to reduce benzene toxicity. This protective effect was most pronounced when DNA damage was studied in peripheral blood cells, bone marrow, and liver using the single cell gel (SCG) assay. With benzene alone, either with 300 or 900 ppm, a significant increase in DNA damage was detected in cells sampled from all three organs. Toluene alone did not induce a significant increase in DNA damage. The coexposure of benzene and toluene reduced the extent of DNA damage to about 50% of benzene alone. This result is considered a clear indication for a protective effect of toluene on the genetic toxicity of benzene.

  14. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  15. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  16. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  17. Excited state of protonated benzene and toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves-López, Natalia; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.jouvet@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, UMR-7345, Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires (PIIM), Marseille (France)

    2015-08-21

    We present photo-fragmentation electronic spectra of the simplest protonated aromatic molecules, protonated benzene and toluene, recorded under medium resolution conditions and compared with the photo-fragmentation spectrum of protonated pyridine. Despite the resolution and cold temperature achieved in the experiment, the electronic spectra of protonated benzene and toluene are structure-less, thus intrinsically broadened. This is in agreement with the large geometrical changes and the fast dynamic toward internal conversion predicted by ab initio calculations for protonated benzene [Rode et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 5865–5873 (2009)].

  18. [Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

    2000-11-01

    Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population.

  19. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  20. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  1. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  2. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  3. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  4. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

  5. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  6. [Epigenic modifications associated with low benzene exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Bollati, Valentina; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomeres shortening are cellular modifications associated with an increasing number of tumors, cardiovascular and aging diseases. In our studies these modifications were evaluated in subjects occupationally exposed to low levels of benzene and in the general population. In peripheral blood lymphocytes a decrease of DNA methylation with the increase of personal benzene exposure was found, both in Alu and LINE-1 repetitive elements, and in the global DNA. Telomere length shortening in subjects exposed to traffic exhausts and an increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number correlated to benzene exposure was also found. DNA methylation measured in specimen repeats collected at intervals of 8 years decreased more markedly in exposed subjects than in controls. Our studies highlighted the association of epigenetic modifications of DNA with low benzene exposure.

  7. [Implication of lead poisoning in psychopathology of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Luque, F J; Montejo González, A L

    1997-01-01

    The authors, by means of documental research, study the possibility that the physical and psychic symptoms of Vincent van Gogh may have been due to chronic lead poisoning. The technique and materials used by Van Gogh are analysed as the cause of repeated exposure to lead as well as the possible means of penetration of the metal. Through historical-biographical analysis, the progressive symptoms of the illness are compared with those of lead poisoning. The authors conclude that the excessive and continuous use by Van Gogh of pigments which were highly toxic due to their high lead content, such as white lead (lead carbonate) and yellow chrome (lead chromium), could have penetrated his organism by digestive system (primarily) in minimal daily amounts, giving rise to a clinical condition of chronic lead poisoning. This type of poisoning coincides with the clinical symptoms Van Gogh describes in his autographed letters: initial debilitation, stomatitis with loss of teeth, recurring abdominal pains, anaemia (with a "plumbic" skin tone), neuropathy of the radial and saturnine encephalopathy including epileptic crises, progressive character changes and periods of delirium. The clinical symptoms shown by Van Gogh meet present criteria for diagnosis of Organic Mental Disorder due to cerebral lesion or somatic illness (F.06; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R), and Organic Character Disorder (F.07; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R).

  8. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  9. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th c...

  10. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  11. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  12. Differences in the pathways for metabolism of benzene in rats and mice simulated by a physiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Sabourin, P J; Henderson, R F; Lucier, G; Birnbaum, L S

    1989-07-01

    Studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program on the chronic toxicity of benzene indicated that B6C3F1 mice were more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of benzene than were F344 rats. A physiological model was developed to describe the uptake and metabolism of benzene in rats and mice. Our objective was to determine if differences in toxic effects could be explained by differences in pathways for benzene metabolism or by differences in total uptake of benzene. Compartments incorporated into the model included liver, fat, a poorly perfused tissue group, a richly perfused tissue group, an alveolar or lung compartment and blood. Metabolism of benzene was assumed to take place only in the liver and to proceed by four major competing pathways. These included formation of hydroquinone conjugates (HQC), formation of phenyl conjugates (PHC), ring-breakage and formation of muconic acid (MUC), and conjugation with glutathione with subsequent mercapturic acid (PMA) formation. Values for parameters such as alveolar ventilation, cardiac output, organ volumes, blood flow, partition coefficients, and metabolic rate constants were taken from the literature. Model simulations confirmed that during and after 6-hr inhalation exposures mice metabolized more benzene on a mumole per kilogram body weight basis than did rats. After oral exposure, rats metabolized more benzene than mice at doses above 50 mg/kg because of the more rapid absorption and exhalation of benzene by mice. Model simulations for PHC and PMA, generally considered to be detoxification metabolites, were similar in shape and dose-response to those for total metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. A brief case report and review of ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farstad, D J; Chow, T

    2001-01-01

    Although ciguatera fish poisoning is generally a mild, self-limited disease, both life-threatening acute reactions and troublesome chronic symptoms can occur. Because ciguatera has been largely confined to tropical locations, a relative lack of recognition exists among many US physicians. As access to tropical locations has increased, so has the distribution of ciguatera. Herein, we present a case report and review the current literature on ciguatera.

  14. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  15. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  16. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  17. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  18. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-12-15

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  19. Anaerobic benzene oxidation via phenol in Geobacter metallireducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Smith, Jessica A; Bain, Timothy S; Lovley, Derek R

    2013-12-01

    Anaerobic activation of benzene is expected to represent a novel biochemistry of environmental significance. Therefore, benzene metabolism was investigated in Geobacter metallireducens, the only genetically tractable organism known to anaerobically degrade benzene. Trace amounts (Geobacter metallireducens anaerobically oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide with the reduction of Fe(III). Phenol was not detected in cell-free controls or in Fe(II)- and benzene-containing cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a Geobacter species that cannot metabolize benzene. The phenol produced in G. metallireducens cultures was labeled with (18)O during growth in H2(18)O, as expected for anaerobic conversion of benzene to phenol. Analysis of whole-genome gene expression patterns indicated that genes for phenol metabolism were upregulated during growth on benzene but that genes for benzoate or toluene metabolism were not, further suggesting that phenol was an intermediate in benzene metabolism. Deletion of the genes for PpsA or PpcB, subunits of two enzymes specifically required for the metabolism of phenol, removed the capacity for benzene metabolism. These results demonstrate that benzene hydroxylation to phenol is an alternative to carboxylation for anaerobic benzene activation and suggest that this may be an important metabolic route for benzene removal in petroleum-contaminated groundwaters, in which Geobacter species are considered to play an important role in anaerobic benzene degradation.

  20. Benzene toxicity of the occurrence of benzene in the ambient air of the Houston area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted by either literature review or actual field survey. Results are summarized as follows: (1) long-term occupational exposure of workers to benzene vapor at levels of 3 to 7 ppM, 2 to 3 ppM and 1.6 ppM may result in a decreased level of leucocyte alkaline phosphates, an increased incidence of chromosome aberrations and an increased level of ALA in erythrocytes, respectively; (2) benzene is capable of causing fetotoxic effects in animals at levels as low as 10 ppM by volume; (3) exposure of animals to or less than 1 ppM benzene vapor may result in leucopenia, an inverse ratio of muscle antagonist chronaxy and a decreased level of ascorbic acid in fetus's and mother's liver as well as whole embryo; (4) benzene is causally associated with the increased incidence of pancytopenia, including unicytopenia, bicytopenia and aplastic anemia, and chromosome aberrations in occupational exposure population, and at best benzene must also be considered as a leukemogen; (5) since it can be emitted into the atmosphere from both man-made and natural sources, benzene in some concentrations is presented everywhere in the various compartments of the environment; (6) the findings of the emission of benzene from certain natural sources indicate that reducing benzene to a zero-level of exposure is theoretically impossible; (7) the annual average of benzene concentration detected in the Houston ambient air is 2.50 ppB, which is about 2.4 times higher than the nation-wide annual average exposure level and may have some health implications to the general public; and (8) in the Houston area, stationary sources are more important than mobile sources in contributing to benzene in the ambient air.

  1. Effect of chronic arsenic poisoning on behavior, neuronal morphology and dopomine content in rats%慢性砷中毒对大鼠行为能力及中脑黑质多巴胺含量与结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊德; 王玉林; 余资江; 余彦; 孙宝飞; 龚明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study behavior capability and determine dopamine (DA) content and observe the morphological structure of neurons and astrocytes in substantia nigra (SN) of rats with chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods: The Arsenic poisoning group received arsenic (AS203) by distilled water diluted for 3 months continuously and the normal control group received equate saline. The DA content of the SN was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography after behavior capability determined. Then, the structures of neurons and astrocytes were observed under a light microscope and quantitative analysis was performed by morphometric technique. Eventually, the ultrastructures of neurons were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Western blot was performed for detecting the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and nitric oxide synthase (Inos) of SN in rats. Results: The behavior capability and DA content of the SN were significantly decreased in the chronic arsenic exposed group. Under the light microscope, the TH, GFAP and NSE immunopositive neurons were mainly observed in the compact part of SN. The neurons of the arsenic poisoning group ap-pearanced smaller in cell body, and karyopycnosis and Nissl bodies decreased significantly or even disappeared. Compared with the normal control group, the quantity of TH and NSE positive cells was significantly decreased in the chronic arsenic exposed groups however, astrocytes were obviously increased. Under TEM, neurons of the normal control group had regular morphology, a clear membrane, rich organelles and structural integrity; but those of the arsenic poisoning group appeared swelling, the nuclear membrane reductus, nuclear chromatin shrinkage, cytoplasmic density, mitochondria swelling, and some of organelles were transparent even into vacuolus. Compared with the normal control group, the expression of Inos in SN of the arsenic poisoning group rats was increased, while the expression of TH was

  2. Clinical observations and acid-base imbalances in sheep during chronic copper poisoningAvaliação clínica e hemogasométrica de ovinos com intoxicação cúprica acumulativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Satsuk Mori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve male sheep were intoxicated with copper and four served as controls. When hemoglobinuria was first diagnosed, the poisoned sheep were randomly distributed into two groups: 4 untreated and 8 tetratiomolybdate-treated. Blood samples and clinical evaluation were performed daily, from the onset of poisoning until the 30th day. Analysis of packed cell volume, plasma free hemoglobin, and blood gas were made. Elevated heart rates and rectal temperature, and reduced respiratory and ruminal movement rates were recorded in the intoxicated group. The poisoned sheep developed mild alkalosis caused by bicarbonate retention, while a short-periodic increase of pCO2 occurred to compensate the ongoing alkalosis. Elevated degree of anemia was directly proportional to heart rate, while high degree of alkalosis was inversely proportional to respiratory rate. Further, there was an elevated positive relationship between plasma free hemoglobin and rectal temperature, and an increase in rectal temperature accompanied a reduced ruminal movement.Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, sendo 12 submetidos à intoxicação cúprica e quatro animais controle. Quando foi verificada a presença de hemoglobinúria, os animais intoxicados foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em dois grupos, quatro animais não tratados e oito animais tratados com tetratiomolybidato de amônia. Foi realizado exame clínico e coleta de sangue diariamente desde o início da intoxicação até 30 dias após. Foram analisados o volume globular, concentração de hemoglobina plasmática e avaliação hemogasométrica. Nos animais intoxicados, foi observado elevação da freqüência cardíaca e da temperatura retal e redução da freqüência respiratória e dos movimentos ruminais. Os ovinos intoxicados desenvolveram alcalose moderada causada por retenção de bicarbonato seguido de um aumento pontual da pCO2 para compensar a alcalose em curso. Quanto maior o grau de anemia foi maior a freqüência card

  3. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  4. Cestrum diurnum poisoning in Florida cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, L; Wasserman, R H; McEntee, K; Brokken, T D; Teigland, M B

    1975-10-01

    Cestrum diurnum poisoning was described in a Florida bull. Clinical signs included chronic wasting and progressive lameness. Plasma calcium was elevated for long periods of time but decreased toward low normal values. There was pronounced C-cell hyperplasia. Osteopetrosis was very severe and reflected retarded osteocytic osteolysis and chondrolysis. Further negative effects on the osteocytes eventually lead to osteonecrosis. Soft tissue calcinosis involved tendons and ligaments, major arteries and veins but kidneys and lungs were spared. Whereas the osteopetrosis could be explained by hypercalcitoninism, the osteonecrosis was believed to result from direct action by the Cestrum diurnum factor, previously shown to have an action similar to that of 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol, which is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3.

  5. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  6. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  7. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  8. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  9. Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Machado, Carol; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin poisoning still remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, digoxin-specific Fab fragments are commercially available as an antidote. However, these Fab fragments are several thousand dollars per vial. There is a standardized formula to calculate appropriate Fab fragment dosage based on the serum digoxin concentration. This can greatly reduce the amount of Fab fragment administered. There is also an empiric dosing guideline recommending 6-10 vials be given; however, this may result in higher amounts of Fab fragments being administered than required. We performed this study to assess the amounts of digoxin-specific Fab fragments administered in the treatment of digoxin poisonings recorded in a poison control system database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, in which digoxin serum concentrations were available. This was a retrospective study of 278 patients, 107 with acute poisonings (group A) and 171 following chronic poisoning (group B). In group A, the calculated Fab dose was higher than the calculated dose based on available concentrations in 39 (36%) of group A and 15 (9%) of group B patients. The average wholesale price cost of the excessive dosages ranged from $4818 to as high as $50,589 per patient. Our data suggests that clinician education on digoxin poisoning and the use of the standardized formula to calculate the Fab dose may decrease over utilization and decrease costs associated with the administration of digoxin-specific Fab fragments in the treatment of digoxin poisonings.

  10. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  11. The Pittsburgh Poison Center profile of an American poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P

    2005-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Poison Center (PPC), a department of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, was established in 1971 to provide emergency poison information to the residents of western Pennsylvania, especially the children. The PPC provides comprehensive poison information center services to the lay public and to medical professionals, poison prevention education, professional education and specialized services to the business and industry sector and governmental agencies.

  12. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  13. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  14. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  15. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met...... depression necessitating mechanical ventilation, shock, persistent toxicity, or increasing or persistently elevated serum barbiturate concentrations despite treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal. (3) Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred mode of ECTR, and multiple-dose activated charcoal...

  19. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  20. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  1. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  2. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  3. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  4. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion...

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...

  7. Clinical characteristics of the patients with occupational chronic carbon disulfide poisoning in a chemical fiber factory of Nanjing%某化纤厂职业性慢性轻度二硫化碳中毒病例临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季春萍; 朱宝立; 倪春辉; 宋海燕; 徐进; 王美林; 侯志国; 魏春龙; 董秋; 王守宇; 乔善磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过分析267例职业性慢性二硫化碳(CS2)中毒病例的临床特征,为修订我国CS2接触者职业性健康体检项目提供依据.方法 选择2006年4月至2010年5月某市职业病院诊断专家组依据GBZ 4-2002《职业性慢性二硫化碳中毒诊断标准》,诊断的职业性慢性轻度CS2中毒267例病例为研究对象.所有病例均来自同一化纤厂,初次诊断为CS2中毒时,由职业卫生专业人员以问卷调查采集详细病史及职业史,并进行神经系统、心血管系统检查,生化指标、神经-肌电图检测.结果 87.3%( 233/267)的病例出现腓总神经、正中神经、尺神经、胫后神经运动传导速度减慢,英中腓总神经和正中神经运动传导速度降低检出率分别为48.6%( 138/248),37.0%(155/419).中毒病例自觉症状以神经衰弱、肢体麻木、感觉异常为主,神经系统体征中跟腱反射(79.4%,212/267)、膝反射(49.8%,133/267)阳性检出率较高.心电图ST段改变(T波低平、T波倒置、ST段压低)检出率为19.1%(51/267);高血压、收缩压升高及舒张压升高检出率依次为27.3%( 73/267)、22.5%( 60/267)和21.1%( 59/267).乳酸脱氢酶、三酸甘油酯、低密度脂蛋白异常阳性检出率较高.男性病例的间接胆红素、直接胆红素、尿酸阳性检出率明显高于女性,并且尿素氮、间接胆红素阳性检出率随接毒工龄的延长而逐渐增加.结论 职业性慢性CS2中毒主要影响神经系统,对肝肾功能也有一定的影响.CS2作业人员职业性健康体检中,用神经肌-电图筛检运动神经损伤时,建议首先检查正中运动神经和腓总运动神经传导速度.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of 267 cases with occupational chronic carbon disulfide (CS2) poisoning and to provide the basis for revising the items of periodical medical examination of workers occupationally exposed to CS2.Methods The subjects of present study were 267

  8. Oral hyposensitization to poison ivy and poison oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G; Trautlein, J J; Epstein, W L; Laws, D M; Sicard, G R

    1987-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a 1:1 mixture of pentadecylcatechol (PDC) and heptadecylcatechol (HDC) diacetate in reducing hypersensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak. The study was double-blind, parallel, randomized, and placebo controlled. The 44 subjects receiving the active drug ingested a cumulative dose of 306.5 mg over a five-week period. Subsequently, 14 patients were continued on a maintenance phase, ingesting an additional 960 mg of drug. The PDC-HDC diacetate was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Evaluation of efficacy compared poststudy and prestudy reactions to patch tests using urushiol in doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 micrograms applied to the forearm. The results indicated that the induction phase as well as the maintenance phase did not induce a statistically significant hyposensitivity to urushiol, and we were thus unable to decrease sensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak in humans using orally ingested PDC-HDC diacetate.

  9. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    and an APAP concentration over 900 mg/L (5960 mmol/L) if NAC is administered (1D). Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is the preferred ECTR modality in APAP poisoning (1D). CONCLUSION: APAP is amenable to extracorporeal removal. Due to the efficacy of NAC, ECTR is reserved for rare situations when the efficacy...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  11. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    that salicylates are dialyzable by hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (level of evidence=B) and recommended extracorporeal treatment in patients with severe salicylate poisoning (1D), including any patient with altered mental status (1D), with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring supplemental oxygen (1D...

  12. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  13. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  14. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  15. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  16. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  18. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  19. 镉对慢性镉中毒小鼠黑质神经元的损害及维生素C的拮抗作用%Impairment on neurous of substantia nigra in chronic cadmium poisoning mice and antioxidation effects of vitamin C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈果; 余资江; 朱俊德

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究维生素C(VC)对慢性镉中毒小鼠黑质神经元的保护作用.方法 将75只雄性昆明种小鼠随机分为3组,每组25只.镉中毒组皮下注射氯化镉(CdCl2),每周2次,每次2 mg/kg,VC加镉组(VC组)上述方法和剂量染镉外,VC按每次25 mg稀释后灌胃,正常组同时给予生理盐水.3个月后对小鼠进行Y型迷宫学习能力检测,并通过光镜及透射电镜观察小鼠黑质神经元的细微结构.结果 Y型迷宫检测显示,VC组与镉中毒组相比,小鼠的学习、记忆能力均降低,差异有统计学意义(P 0.05 ). The microstructure of the substantia nigra in vitamin C treatment group was similar to that in control group, but it was obviously different from that in Cd-exposed group. Conclusion The antioxidants of vitamin C could efficiently protect the neurons of substantia nigra in chronic cadmium poisoning mice.

  20. Optical coherence tomography findings of quinine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Christoforidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available John Christoforidis, Robert Ricketts, Theodore Loizos, Susie ChangThe Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAPurpose: To report a case of acute quinine poisoning, document acute and chronic macular changes with optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescein angiography (FA, and to review the literature on ocular toxicity of quinine.Methods: A 32-year-old white female presented to our Emergency Department after ingesting over 7.5 g of quinine. She underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein angiography, Stratus time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and electroretinography at 72 hours and 15 months postingestion. Stratus time-domain and Cirrus spectral-domain OCT, fundus autofluorescence, and FA were obtained at 28 months postingestion.Results: Fluorescein angiography at 72 hours postingestion revealed normal filling times and vasculature. OCT showed marked thickening of the inner retina bilaterally. At 15 and 28 months follow-up, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography demonstrated optic nerve pallor, severely attenuated retinal vessels while OCT showed inner retinal atrophy. Fundus autofluorescence did not reveal any retinal pigmentary abnormalities.Conclusions: Quinine toxicity as seen by OCT reveals increased thickness with inner retinal hyperreflectivity acutely with development of significant retinal atrophy in the long-term. Fundus autofluorescence reveals an intact retinal pigment epithelial layer at 28 months. These findings suggest that quinine poisoning may produce a direct toxic effect on the inner retina in the acute phase resulting in long-term retinal atrophy.Keywords: retinal, optical coherence tomography, quinine toxicity 

  1. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  2. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice

  3. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool.

  4. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management.

  5. Emergency Poisoning and Toxic Effects Characteristic of Mortality Factors%急诊中毒特点与中毒死亡影响因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱日磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the emergency poisoning characteristics and influencing factors of poisoning.Method:The clinical data of 100 cases of poisoning patients in our hospital emergency department from Jan 2013 to Dec 2014 between diagnosis and treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Result:The average age of all patients was (34.01±2.16) years old.Female ratio was 1∶1.The occupational distribution of the main workers,agricultural workers,domestic workers, etc.Male cause of poisoning was usually accidental poisoning,women was suicide.The main types of chemical poisoning. Poisoning cause of death was mainly affected by the patient’s age,residence,organic poisoning,benzene and benzene poisoning,drug intoxication and other factors greatly.Conclusion:Characteristics and influencing factors of poisoning deaths grasp emergency poisoning emergency treatment to improve work efficiency has a crucial role.%目的:急诊中毒特点与中毒死亡影响因素探析。方法:回顾性分析2013年1月-2014年12月笔者所在医院诊治的100例急诊中毒患者的临床资料。结果:所有中毒患者的平均年龄为(34.01±2.16)岁;男女比例为1∶1;职业分布主要为工人、农业劳动者、家庭劳动者等;男性中毒原因一般为意外中毒,女性为服毒自杀;中毒类型主要为化学品中毒;中毒死亡原因主要受年龄、户籍、有机物中毒、苯及苯系物中毒、毒品中毒等因素影响较大。结论:及时掌握急诊中毒的特点与中毒死亡的影响因素对于提高急诊救治的工作效率具有至关重要的作用。

  6. An expanded cohort study of cancer among benzene-exposed workers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song-Nian Yin; Gui-Lan Li; Zhi-Nan Zhang [Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Bejing (China)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    An expanded cohort study of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers were followed during 1972 to 1987, based on a previous study in 12 cities in China. A small increase was observed in total cancer mortality among benzene-exposed compared with unexposed Workers (relative risk [RR] = 1-2). Statistically significant excesses were noted for leukemia (RR = 2.3), malignant lymphoma (RR = 4.5), and lung cancer (RR = 1.4). When risks were evaluated by leukemia subtype, only acute myelogenous leukemia was significantly elevated (RR = 3.1), although nonsignificant excesses were also noted for chronic myelogenous leukemia (RR = 2.6) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 2.3). A significant excess was also found for aplastic anemia. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Investigation of urine β2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and mAlb determination in the diagnosis of chronic cadmium poisoning%尿液β2-微球蛋白、视黄醇结合蛋白和微量白蛋白测定对慢性镉中毒诊断价值的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妮; 伍细言; 彭艳华; 易海燕

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the changes and the clinical significance of its value of urine p2-microglobulin ((β2-mi-croglobulin, β2-MG) , retinol binding protein (retinol binding protein, RBP) and mAlb (Microalbuminuria, mAlb) in the diagnosis of chronic cadmium poisoning. METHODS Urinary β2-MG, RBP and mAlb were detected in 86 inpatients whose twice cadmium exceeded (cadmium > 5μg/g.Cr) and normal medical groups (102 people) by latex enhanced immunoturbidi-metric assay, which was adjusted with urine creatinine, then the results of two populations were compared. RESULTS β2-MG, RBP and mAlb by creatinine correction had different levels increasing in the group with urinary cadmium exceeding compared with the normal population. In urinary β2-MG (β2-MG > 1 000.0μg/g.cr) , RBP (RBP > 1 000.0μg/g.cr) , mAlb (mAlb > 30.0mg/g.cr), the positive rates of β2-MG, RBP, mAlb were 40.7%, 37.2%, 46.5%; Positive rates of β2-MG + RBP, β2-MG + mAlb, RBP + mAlb were 51.2%, 58.2%, 54.7%, which was combination with at least one of positive; The positive rate of three combined (β2-MG + RBP + mAlb) was 59.3%, the positive rates of latter three combinations was greater than only urinary β2-MG or RBP and urinary cadmium exceeded twice as the standard diagnosis of chronic cadmium poisoning in GBZ17-2002 "occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria" . CONCLUSION The urinary β2-MG, RBP, and mAlb of early kidney damage indicators increase in varying degrees in occupational cadmium exceeded the population, and joint detection in combination with clinical symptoms contribute to overall diagnosis of chronic cadmium poisoning patients in cadmium exceeded population.%目的 探讨尿β2-微球蛋白(β2-microglobulin,β2-MG)、视黄醇结合蛋白(retinol binding protein,RBP)和微量白蛋白(Microalbuminuria,mAlb)的改变在慢性镉中毒诊断中的临床意义及其价值.方法 分别应用胶乳增强免疫比浊法、免疫透射比浊法、免疫速率比浊法对某

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles met inclusion criteria. Articles included case reports, case series, descriptive cohorts, pharmacokinetic studies, and in......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...

  9. [Materials for the substantiation of the biological MAC of benzene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanova, I P; Avilova, G G; Karpukhina, E A; Karimova, L K; Boĭko, V I; Makar'eva, L M

    1990-09-01

    Relatively great amount of benzene-originated phenol, the presence of a definite relationship between phenol amount in the urine and benzene content in the air indicate that it is reasonable to use a phenol sample as an exposure test. To determine the intensity of benzene exposure, data on phenol content in the urine of people working at some big-tonnage enterprises has been analyzed. On the basis of the national and foreign literature data on the correlation between the phenol urine concentration and the level of benzene exposure a regression equation was deduced, which has made it possible to calculate phenol content in the urine on the level of average working day benzene concentration adopted in the USSR. This value equals 15 mg/l, which was proposed as a biological benzene MAC.

  10. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the b...

  11. 2006-2013年通州区职业中毒发病情况分析%Situation analysis of the incidence of occupational poisoning at Tongzhou District of Beijing from 2006 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓峰; 武昌; 李秋红; 王凯; 李长江; 袁建国

    2014-01-01

    distributed in youth and middle adults,accounting for 82.7% (43/52);Female age distribution of the poisoning cases,however,was mainly in the middle and the elderly adults,accounting for 75.0% (9/12).The occupational poisonings occurred in 45.8% (11/24)of the private economy、70.8% (17/24)of the SMEs and 40.0% (6/1 5 )of the chemical raw materials and chemical products manufacturing industry enterpri-ses.About 20 kinds of chemicals were found to be the causes of the occupational poisonings.Chronic occupa-tional poisonings were mainly from benzene,acrylamide etc,which were distributed in the paint,ingredients and other positions.Acute occupational poisonings were mainly from hydrogen sulfide、chlorine etc,which were distributed in the wastewater treatment,the prosecution (Victoria)repair、transportation and other jobs.Conclusions Relevant administrative departments at all levels should pay more attention to the charac-teristics of occupational poisoning,especially strengthening montoring key industries,key positions,high-risk chemical substances,as welll as the private economy,SMEs where there are frequently occupational poi-soning hazards,in order to develop effective prevention and control measures of occupational diseases.

  12. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  13. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...

  14. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  15. Unilateral Antidotes to DNS Cache Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Amir; Shulman, Haya

    2012-01-01

    We investigate defenses against DNS cache poisoning focusing on mechanisms that can be readily deployed unilaterally by the resolving organisation, preferably in a single gateway or a proxy. DNS poisoning is (still) a major threat to Internet security; determined spoofing attackers are often able to circumvent currently deployed antidotes such as port randomisation. The adoption of DNSSEC, which would foil DNS poisoning, remains a long-term challenge. We discuss limitations of the prominent r...

  16. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable chlorate-reducing benzene-degrading microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, ten H.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20¿1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradation

  17. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  18. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.

  19. 某些同源重组修复基因多态性与慢性苯中毒风险性关系研究%Study on the association of Genetic Polymorphism in XRCC2 c.188 and XRCC3c.241 with the risks of chronic benzene poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠彬; 管继如; 叶榕; 顾寿永; 万俊香; 金锡鹏; 夏昭林

    2004-01-01

    目的 探讨X线修复交叉互补基因2(XRCC2)、X线修复交叉互补基因3(XRCC3)的基因多态性与慢性苯中毒发病风险的关系.方法采用病例对照设计,以152名苯中毒工人为病例组,152名接触苯而没有中毒表现的工人为对照组.应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性分析技术(PCR-RFLP)检测XRCC2c.188和XRCC3c.241位点的多态性.结果未检测到XRCC2c.188的突变基因型,XRCC3c.241基因各基因型在病例组和对照组间的分布差异无显著性.结论 XRCC2c.188和XRCC3c.241位点的多态性与慢性苯中毒的发病风险没有关系,它们其他位点的多态与慢性苯中毒易感性的关系需进一步研究确证.

  20. XRCC1、XPD、XRCC3、CCND1基因多态性与职业慢性苯中毒发病工龄的关联%Analysis for the association between genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1, XPD, XRCC3, CCND1 and the latency of the occupational chronic benzene poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建宁; 黄慧隆; 王全凯; 王雅文; 杨敏; 郑玉新

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨DNA损伤修复基因XRCC1、XPD、XRCC3基因和细胞周期调控基因CCND1的多态性与慢性苯中毒发病工龄的关系.方法 以确诊的80名慢性苯中毒患者作为研究对象,应用PCR-RFLP分析技术,检测DNA损伤修复基因XRCC1(C26304T、G27466A、G28152A、G36189A位点)、XPD(C22541A、C23591T、A35931C位点)、XRCC3(C18067T位点)和细胞周期调控CCND1基因G870A位点的多态性,比较不同基因型Kaplan-Meier生存曲线,评价慢性苯中毒发病工龄与XRCC1、XPD、XRCC3和CCND1基因多态性的关联.结果 携带XRCC1 27466G/G基因型的个体发生慢性苯中毒的发病工龄比携带27466G/A+A/A变异基因型的个体长6.9年;携带CCND1870G/G基因型的个体比G/A+A/A基因型个体的发病工龄短6.2年.结论 XRCC1和CCND1基因多态性可能影响慢性职业性苯中毒的发病工龄.

  1. DNA修复基因XRCC1和XRCC3多态性与慢性苯中毒易感性的关系%Association between genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3 and susceptibility to chronic benzene poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧隆; 许建宁; 王全凯; 杨敏; 王雅文; 陈艳; 李桂兰

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨DNA修复基因XRCC1、XRCC3多态性与慢性苯中毒遗传易感性的关联及其与慢性苯中毒潜伏期的关系.方法 采用病例-对照研究方法,以确诊并已脱离苯作业的80名慢性苯中毒患者为病例组,以同期接苯的62名苯作业工人为对照组,应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)分析技术,检测XRCC1基因C26304T(Arg194Trp)、G27466A(Arg280His)、G28152A(Arg399Gln)、G36189A(Gln632Gln)位点和XRCC3基因C18067T(Thr241Met)位点的多态性,并采用生存分析方法对慢性苯中毒的潜伏期进行分析.结果 携带XRCC3 18067C/T基因型的个体发生慢性苯中毒的危险性低于携带XRCC3 18067C/C基因型的个体(0R=0.233,95%CI:0.085~0.639,P=0.0046);携带XRCC1 27466G/G基因型的个体发生慢性苯中毒的潜伏期比携带27466G/A或A/A基因型的个体长6年.结论 在相同的苯作业暴露环境下,携带XRCC3 18067T变异等位基因的个体发生慢性苯中毒的危险性降低;在慢性苯中毒患者中,携带XRCC1 27466 G/G基因型的个体发生慢性苯中毒的潜伏期较长.

  2. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.;

    2009-01-01

    -acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratios to creatine (Cr), predominantly in the white matter. Lactate peaks were detected in two patients during the early phase of high-dose CO poisoning. Two patients with chronic low-dose CO exposure and without loss of consciousness had normal MRI and MRS scans. On follow-up. five of our...... limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological effects of CO poisoning. To further examine the short-term and long-term effects of CO on the central nervous system, we have studied seven patients with CO poisoning assessed by gray and white matter MRS......, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Five patients suffered from acute high-dose CO intoxication and were in coma for 1-6 days. In these patients, MRI revealed hyperintensities of the white matter and globus pallidus and also showed increased choline (Cho) and decreased N...

  3. Mercury poisoning as a cause of intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençpınar, Pınar; Büyüktahtakın, Başak; İbişoğlu, Zeynep; Genç, Şakir; Yılmaz, Aygen; Mıhçı, Ercan

    2015-05-01

    Mercury poisoning is a rare but fatal toxicologic emergency. Neurologic manifestations involving the central nervous system are seen usually with chronic mercury intoxication. The most commonly seen complaints are headache, tremor, impaired cognitive skills, weakness, muscle atrophy, and paresthesia. Here, we present a male patient who was chronically exposed to elemental mercury and had papilledema and intracranial hypertension without parenchymal lesion in the central nervous system. A 12-year-old male patient was referred to our emergency room because of severe fatigue, generalized muscle pain and weakness, which was present for a month. Physical examination revealed painful extremities, decreased motor strength and the lack of deep tendon reflexes in lower extremities. He had mixed type polyneuropathy in his electromyography. Whole blood and 24-hour urinary mercury concentrations were high. A chelation therapy with succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid) was started on the fourth day of his admission. On the seventh day of his admission, he developed headache and nausea, and bilateral papilledema and intracranial hypertension were detected on physical examination. Acetazolamide was started and after 1 month of treatment, the fundi examination was normal. The patient stayed in the hospital for 35 days and was then discharged with acetazolamide, vitamin B6, gabapentin, and followed as an outpatient. His clinical findings were relieving day by day. Although headache is the most common symptom in mercury poisoning, the clinician should evaluate the fundus in terms of intracranial hypertension.

  4. Treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, B; Barriot, P; Rimailho, A; Baud, F J

    1988-01-07

    No therapy has been proved to be effective for patients with severe chloroquine poisoning, which is usually fatal. In a retrospective study of 51 cases, we found that ingestion of more than 5 g of chloroquine was an accurate predictor of a fatal outcome, and therefore chose this dose as the criterion for severe chloroquine poisoning. We selected as a control group 11 consecutive patients who had ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine between July 1983 and December 1985. We then undertook a prospective study to determine whether a better outcome could be obtained with immediate mechanical ventilation and the administration of diazepam and epinephrine. Eleven consecutive patients who ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine in 1986 received this combination therapy. Ten of these patients survived, whereas only one control had survived (P = 0.0003). There was no significant difference between the combination-therapy and control groups in age (29 +/- 3 vs. 27 +/- 2 years), amount of chloroquine ingested (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.5 +/- 0.8 g), systolic arterial pressure (74 +/- 2 vs. 74 +/- 3 mm Hg), or QRS duration (0.14 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.01 second). In our combination-therapy group, blood chloroquine levels ranged from 40 to 80 mumol per liter, whereas a literature search showed that no patient in whom blood levels were more than 25 mumol per liter had survived. These preliminary data suggest that combining early mechanical ventilation with the administration of diazepam and epinephrine may be effective in the treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

  5. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Peter C; WANG Dei-Haw; LU Kaitao; MANI Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis (dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis, The yields were significantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  6. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Peter; C; WANG; Der-Haw; MANI; Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis(dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid,followed by hydrolysis. The yields were signifi-cantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  7. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviano dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. PMID:26904662

  8. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food.

  9. [Benzene in soft drinks: a study in Florence (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Perico, Andrea; Colzi, Alessio; Bavazzano, Paolo; Di Giusto, Maurizio; Lamberti, Ilaria; Martino, Gianrocco; Puggelli, Francesco; Lorini, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of benzene present in soft drinks sold in Florence (Italy). We analyzed 28 different types of soft drinks, by measuring concentrations of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, ascorbic acid (using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection) and benzene (using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Data was analysed by using SPSS 18.0.Traces of benzene were detected in all analyzed beverages, with a mean concentration of 0.45 µg/L (range: 0.15-2.36 µg/L). Statistically significant differences in mean benzene concentrations were found between beverages according to the type of additive indicated on the drink label, with higher concentrations found in beverages containing both ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate. Two citrus fruit-based drinks were found to have benzene levels above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 µg /L. Sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid were also detected in the two drinks.In conclusion, not all soft drink producers have taken steps to eliminate benzoic acid from their soft drinks and thereby reduce the risk of formation of benzene, as recommended by the European Commission. Furthermore, the presence of benzene in trace amounts in all beverages suggests that migration of constituents of plastic packaging materials or air-borne contamination may be occurring.

  10. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  11. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  12. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  13. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  14. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  15. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  16. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  17. Neuropsychiatric manifestations following acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute muscarinic and nicotinic side effects of organophosphate (OP poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 22-year-old male who developed psychotic features and motor neuropathy following acute OP poisoning.

  18. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  19. Neuromuscular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: There is no evoked potential studies performed in organophosphate poisoning althoung electroneurography repetitive and P300 studies exist in literature. More further studies are needed to evaluate the cardiac and neuromuscular effects of organophosphate poisoning. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 795-800

  20. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  1. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  2. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  3. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    following parameters: sex (p < 0.05, chronic alcohol intake (p < 0.05, underlying diseases (p < 0.01, central venous catheter (p < 0.05 vasopressors (p < 0.05, coma (p < 0.001, H2 blockers (p < 0.001 and corticosteroids (p < 0.001. The multivariate analysis retained endotracheal intubation and antidepressant drug poisoning as an independent risk factor for pneumonia. Conclusion. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, risk factors for developing pneumonia were disclosed. Some of these factors may be modified by simple medical procedures, thus the incidence and mortality rate of pneumonia in drug poisoning might be substantially reduced.

  4. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  5. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  6. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  7. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  8. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  10. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  11. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  12. Urinary t,t-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and benzene as biomarkers of low benzene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Buratti, Marina; Campo, Laura; Colombi, Antonio; Consonni, Dario; Pesatori, Angela C; Bonzini, Matteo; Farmer, Peter; Garte, Seymour; Valerio, Federico; Merlo, Domenico F; Bertazzi, Pier A

    2005-05-30

    This research compared the capability of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and benzene excreted in urine (U-benzene) to monitor low benzene exposure and evaluated the influence of smoking habit on these indices. Gasoline attendants, urban policemen, bus drivers and two groups of referents working in two large Italian cities (415 people) were studied. Median benzene exposure was 61, 22, 21, 9 and 6 microg/m3, respectively, with higher levels in workers than in referents. U-benzene, but not t,t-MA and S-PMA, showed an exposure-related increase. All the biomarkers were strongly influenced by cigarette smoking, with values up to five-fold higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. In conclusion, in the range of investigated benzene exposure (<478 microg/m3 or <0.15 ppm), the smoking habit may be regarded as a major source of benzene intake; among the study indices, U-benzene is the marker of choice for the biological monitoring of occupational and environmental exposure.

  13. Competitive Nitration of Benzene-Fluorobenzene and Benzene-Toluene Mixtures: Orientation and Reactivity Studies Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Hogendoorn, Stephanie; Pearson, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The reactivity and orientation effects of a substituent are analyzed by using HPLC to determine the competitive nitration of the benzene-toluene and benzene-fluorobenzene mixtures. The results have shown that HPLC is an excellent instrumental method to use in analyzing these mixtures.

  14. A Quantum Monte Carlo Study of mono(benzene)TM and bis(benzene)TM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M Chandler; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene)TM and bis(benzene)TM systems, where TM={Mo,W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  15. A quantum Monte Carlo study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. Chandler; Kulahlioglu, A. H.; Mitas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems, where TM = {Mo, W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT functionals in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  16. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  17. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  18. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  19. New routes lead to benzene, propanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Haggin

    1993-05-10

    An ongoing research program at Oxford University in England has resulted in two new schemes for direct catalytic conversion of methane. One scheme produces aromatics, principally benzene, by oligomerization. The second scheme produces propanal in high yield by the judicious combination of three catalytic processes that have all been used before. One of the most active research areas is the catalytic conversion of methane to methanol, but so far the best yield has been about 8%, much too low for commercial interest. Likewise, the direct catalytic conversion of methane to ethane and/or ethylene has yet to produce either yields or selectivities high enough to compete with these products from crude oil. The paper describes these two new processes and their improved yields.

  20. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  1. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  2. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... million poison exposures reported each year, we must take every precaution to guard against...

  3. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  4. Benzene conversion by manganese dioxide assisted silent discharge plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Bin; JI Min; YU Xin; FENG Tao; YAO Shuiliang

    2007-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma technologies have shown their promising potential specially for the low concentration of volatile organic compound control in indoor air in recent years.But it is also high energy consuming.So,to improve the energy efficiency,adding catalysts which enhance the plasma chemical reactions to plasma reactors may be a good selection.Therefore,in this study the manganese dioxide assisted silent discharge plasma was developed for benzene conversion at a relatively high energy efficiency.The results show that MnO2 could promote complete oxidation of benzene with O2 and O3 produced in the plasma discharge zone.The energy efficiency of benzene conversion with MnO2 was two folds as much as that without catalysts.It was also found that the site of MnO2 in the reactor and the energy density had effects on benzene conversion.While the energy density was lower than 48 J/L,benzene conversion decreased with the increase in the distance between MnO2 bed and the plasma discharge zone.Whereas when the energy density was higher than 104 J/L,benzene conversion had an optimal value that was governed by the distance between MnO2 bed and the plasma discharge zone.The mechanism of benzene oxidation in plasma discharges and over MnO2 is discussed in detail.

  5. Benzene removal by a novel modification of enhanced anaerobic biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhui; Mathies, Chris; Bradshaw, Kris; Carlson, Trevor; Tang, Kimberley; Wang, Yi

    2012-10-01

    A novel modification of enhanced anaerobic bioremediation techniques was developed by using non-activated persulfate to accelerate the organic phosphorus breakdown and then stimulate benzene biodegradation by nitrate and sulfate reduction. Benzene concentrations in groundwater where nitrate, triethyl phosphate and persulfate were successfully injected were reduced at removal efficiencies greater than 77% to the levels below the applicable guideline. Soil benzene was removed effectively by the modification of the enhanced anaerobic bioremediation with removal efficiencies ranging between 75.9% and 92.8%. Geochemical analytical results indicated that persulfate effectively breaks down triethyl phosphate into orthophosphate, thereby promoting nitrate and sulfate utilization. Microbial analyses (quantitative polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that benzene was primarily biodegraded by nitrate reduction while sulfate reduction played an important role in benzene removal at some portions of the study site. Enrichment in the heavier carbon isotope ¹³C of residual benzene with the increased removal efficiency provided direct evidence for benzene biodegradation. Nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen isotope analyses indicated that both nitrate reduction and sulfate reduction were occurring as bioremediation mechanisms.

  6. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  7. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  8. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  9. Review of treatment and nursing of mercury poisoning%汞中毒治疗及护理综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芸

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the conventional treatment of acute and chronic mercury poisoning and daily care are reviewed, and puts forward measures on how to prevent.%本文就急性及慢性汞中毒的常规治疗及日常护理进行了综述,并就如何预防提出了措施.

  10. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  11. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2016-08-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Il; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Kodama, Yukio; Kaneko, Toyozo; Kanno, Jun; Kim, Dae-Yong; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Tohru

    2002-11-01

    Benzene can induce hematotoxicity and leukemia in humans and mice. Since a review of the literature shows that the CYP2E1 knockout mouse is not known to possess any benzene toxicity, the metabolism of benzene by CYP2E1 in the liver is regarded to be prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, although the mechanism is not fully understood yet. Because it was found some years ago that benzene was also a substrate for CYP1A1, we investigated the involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in benzene hematotoxicity using AhR wild-type (AhR(+/+)), heterozygous (AhR(+/-)), and homozygous (AhR(-/-)) male mice. Interestingly, following a 2-week inhalation of 300 ppm benzene (a potent dose for leukemogenicity), no hematotoxicity was induced in AhR(-/-) mice. Further, there were no changes in cellularity of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM), nor in levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units in BM. This lack of hematotoxicity was associated with the lack of p21 overexpression, which was regularly seen in the wild-type mice following benzene inhalation. Combined treatment with two major benzene metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, induced hemopoietic toxicity, although it was not known whether this happened due to a surprising lack of expression of CYP2E1 by AhR knockout, or due to a lack of other AhR-mediated CYP enzymes, including 1A1 (i.e., a possible alternative pathway of benzene metabolism). The former possibility, evaluated in the present study, failed to show a significant relationship between AhR and the expression of CYP2E1. Furthermore, a subsequent evaluation of AhR expression after benzene inhalation tended to show higher but less significant expression in the liver, and none in the BM, compared with sham control. Although this study failed to identify the more likely of the above-mentioned two possibilities, the study using AhR knockout mice on benzene inhalation presents the unique possibility that the benzene toxicity may be

  13. 磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病疗效观察%Curative effect observation of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 台立稳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the curative effect of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning(DEACMP).Methods:43 patients with DEACMP were selected. They were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group.Patients in the control group were given conventional treatment.Patients in the treatment group were given injection creatine phosphate sodium treatment on the basis of the control group.The curative effects of two groups were observed.Results:The cure rate and effective rate of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The creatine phosphate sodium can improve the cell energy supply of DEACMP patients,protect the brain function,improve the hypoxia tolerance of brain cells,improve the life quality of DEACMP patients.%目的:探讨磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的疗效。方法:收治DEACMP患者43例,随机分为治疗组和对照组。对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组则在对照组的基础上加注射用磷酸肌酸钠治疗。观察两组患者的疗效。结果:治疗组治愈率及有效率均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:磷酸肌酸钠可以改善DEACMP患者的细胞能量供应,保护脑功能,提高脑细胞对缺氧的耐受性,提高DEACMP患者的生活质量。

  14. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  15. GLC analysis of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components in vegetable oil preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, M A; Turner, C E

    1980-05-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of urushiol content of pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and poison oak (T. diversilobum) in vegetable oils. The procedure involves extraction of the urushiols from the oily solutions using 90% methanol in water followed by GLC analysis of the extracts. Recoveries of both poison ivy and poison oak urushiols from solutions in corn oil, olive oil, sesame seed oil, and cottonseed oil were calculated. Correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.97 to 1.00, and the coefficients of variations ranged from 3.08 to 7.90%.

  16. Visual evoked potentials in patients after methanol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Urban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. Material and Methods: The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012–2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. Results: The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%, 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04. The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. Conclusions: The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1–9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae.

  17. Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, J Y; Brown, A F

    2001-12-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and

  18. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism: a challenge for diagnosis and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning.

  19. An unusual case of reversible acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathina, Gangadhar; Yadla, Manjusha; Burri, Srikanth; Enganti, Rama; Prasad Ch, Rajendra; Deshpande, Pradeep; Ch, Ramesh; Prayaga, Aruna; Uppin, Megha

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine dioxide is a commonly used water disinfectant. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites is rare. In experimental studies, it was shown that acute and chronic toxicity were associated with insignificant hematological changes. Acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide was not reported. Two cases of renal toxicity due to its metabolites, chlorate and chlorite were reported. Herein, we report a case of chlorine dioxide poisoning presenting with acute kidney injury.

  20. Determinants of Arsenicosis Patients’ Perception and Social Implications of Arsenic Poisoning through Groundwater in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mizanur Rahman Sarker

    2010-01-01

    Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients’ perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were col...

  1. Association between genetic variants in VEGF, ERCC3 and occupational benzene haematotoxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosgood 3rd, H.D.; Zhang, L.; Shen, M.; Berndt, S.I.; Vermeulen, R.; Li, G.; Yin, S.; Yeager, M.; Yuenger, J.; Rothman, N.; Chanock, S.; Smith, M.; Lan, Q.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Benzene is an established human haematotoxin, with substantial interindividual variation in benzene-induced toxicity. METHODS: To further examine if genetic variation contributes to benzene haematotoxicity, we analysed 1023 tagSNPs in 121 gene regions important for benzene metabolism,

  2. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  3. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  4. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  5. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

  6. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  7. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  8. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  9. Colchicine Poisoning in Children: 7 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karacan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is a drug that has been used primarily in several diseases. Colchicine poisoning is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening problem characterized by multiorgan involvement. We present seven children with colchicine poisoning. Their ages ranged between 1 and 9 years. In six children, the amount of colchicine consumed was between 0.16 and 0.39 mg/kg; the most frequent findings were diarrhea and vomiting. In one patient, the ingested amount was unknown. One of the patients died and all others recovered without sequelae. The severity of colchicine poisoning tends to be related to the dosage of ingested drug and the time of admission to hospital. Symptomatic treatment should be started as soon as possible in colchicine poisoning. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 96-100

  10. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... alcohol abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute ... chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be a factor in some cases. ...

  11. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  12. Magnetically rotational reactor for absorbing benzene emissions by ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangyang; Jiang; Chen; Guo; Huizhou; Liu

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically rotational reactor (MRR) has been developed and used in absorbing benzene emissions. The MRR has a permanent magnet core and uses magnetic ionic liquid [bmim]FeCl4 as absorbent. Benzene emissions were carried by N2 into the MRR and were absorbed by the magnetic ionic liquid. The rotation of the permanent magnet core provided impetus for the agitation of the magnetic ionic liquid, enhancing mass transfer and making benzene better dispersed in the absorbent. 0.68 g benzene emissions could be absorbed by a gram of [bmim]FeCl4, 0.27 and 0.40 g/ghigher than that by [bmim]PF6 and [bmim]BF4, respectively. The absorption rate increased with increasing rotation rate of the permanent magnet.

  13. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  14. Non-Collinearity in Small Magnetic Cobalt-Benzene Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    González, J W; Delgado, F; Aguilera-Granja, F; Ayuela, A

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt clusters covered with benzene in the form of rice-ball structures have recently been synthesized using laser ablation. Here, we investigate the types of magnetic order such clusters have, and whether they retain any magnetic order at all. We use different density functional theory (DFT) methods to study the experimentally relevant three cobalt atoms surrounded by benzene rings. We found that the benzene rings induce a ground state with non-collinear magnetization, with the magnetic moments localized on the cobalt centers and lying on the plane formed by the three cobalt atoms. This is surprising because nanostructures and small clusters based on pure cobalt typically have a predominantly ferromagnetic order, and additional organic ligands such as benzene tend to remove the magnetization. We analyze the magnetism of such a cluster using an anisotropic Heisenberg model where the involved parameters are obtained by a comparison with the DFT results. Moreover, we propose electron paramagnetic resonance as ...

  15. Enhanced π-frustration in carbo-benzenic chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglai, Iaroslav; Maraval, Valérie; Bijani, Christian; Saffon-Merceron, Nathalie; Voitenko, Zoia; Volovenko, Yulian M; Chauvin, Remi

    2013-09-28

    The synthesis, structure, and absorption spectra of highly π-frustrated carbo-benzenes with indolic enamine substituents more or less directly conjugated to the C18 macro-aromatic core are described, and their peculiar reactivity is analyzed.

  16. Positronium quenching in liquid and solid octanol and benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Mogensen, O.E.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1970-01-01

    The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase....

  17. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  18. Causes of rhabdomyolysis in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Rhabdomyolysis (RM is potentially lethal syndrome, but there are no enough published data on its frequency and characteristics in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine the causes and severity of RM in acute poisonings. Methods. Patients hospital charts were retrospectively screened during a one-year period in order to identify patients with RM among 656 patients treated due to acute poisonings with different agents. All the patients with RM were selected. Entrance criterion was the value of creatine kinase (CK over 250 U/L. The severity of RM was assessed according to the Poison Severity Score. The patients were divided into three groups: the first one with mild RM (CK from 250 to 1,500 U/L, the second with moderate RM (CK from 1,500 to 10,000 U/L and the third with severe RM (CK greater than 10,000 U/L. Results. RM occurred in 125 (19% of the patients with acute poisonings. It was mainly mild (61%, or moderate (36%, and only in 3% of the patients was severe RM. The incidence of RM was the highest in poisonings with opiates (41%, pesticides (38%, neuroleptics (26%, anticonvulsants (26%, ethyl alcohol (20%, and gases (19%. Psychotropic agents were the most common causes of poisoning, and consequently of RM. Fatal outcomes were registered in 32 (25.60% of all RM patients. The incidence of fatal outcomes in poisonings with mild, moderate and severe RM was 19.73%, 31.11% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. RM syndrome occurs at a relatively high rate in acute poisonings. Although agent’s toxicity is crucial for the outcome, severe RM and its complications may significantly influence the clinical course and prognosis of poisoning. Routine analysis of CK, as a relevant marker for RM may indicate the development of RM in acute poisoning and initiate prompt therapeutic measures in preventing acute renal failure as the most frequent consequence of extensive rhabdomyolysis.

  19. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  20. Clinical Review: Emergency management of acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. van Hoving

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this commissioned review was to establish concise guidelines for the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient in the Emergency Centre. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists are the international leaders in the field of toxicology and the guidelines in their position papers were generally followed. Most of the dosage regimes are according to the South African Medicines Formulary.

  1. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  2. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full...

  4. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  5. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    A S Praveen Kumar; Deepak Amalnath; T K Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  6. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  7. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders.

  8. Organometallic chemistry using partially fluorinated benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Sebastian D; Crimmin, Mark R; Chaplin, Adrian B

    2017-03-28

    Fluorobenzenes, in particular fluorobenzene (FB) and 1,2-difluorobenzene (1,2-DiFB), are increasingly becoming recognised as versatile solvents for conducting organometallic chemistry and transition-metal-based catalysis. The presence of fluorine substituents reduces the ability to donate π-electron density from the arene and consequently fluorobenzenes generally bind weakly to metal centres, allowing them to be used as essentially non-coordinating solvents or as readily displaced ligands. In this context, examples of well-defined complexes of fluorobenzenes are discussed, including trends in binding strength with increasing fluorination and different substitution patterns. Compared to more highly fluorinated benzenes, FB and 1,2-DiFB typically demonstrate greater chemical inertness, however, C-H and C-F bond activation reactions can be induced using appropriately reactive transition metal complexes. Such reactions are surveyed, including catalytic examples, not only to provide perspective for the use of FB and 1,2-DiFB as innocent solvent media, but also to highlight opportunities for their exploitation in contemporary organic synthesis.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of cryogenic fluids: Benzene in argon and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.; Bernstein, E. R.

    1987-09-01

    Energy shifts and bandwidths of the 610 vibronic feature of the 1B2u←1A1g optical absorption spectrum of benzene dissolved in supercritical argon and helium, and in liquid argon are reported as a function of pressure, temperature, and density. Benzene/Ar solutions display red shifts of the 610 transition with increasing density but the dependence is found to be nonlinear at high densities. Benzene/He solutions evidence blue shifts of the 610 transition as a function of increasing density which also becomes nonlinear at high densities. Only small spectral shifts are recorded if the density is kept constant and pressure and temperature are varied simultaneously. In addition, a small density independent temperature effect on the transition energy shift is identified. Experimental results are compared to dielectric (Onsager-Böttcher and Wertheim) and quantum statistical mechanical (Schweizer-Chandler) theories of solvent effects on solute absorption energy. Reasonably good agreement between experiment and theory is found only for the benzene/Ar system at relatively low densities. The theory fails to predict energy shifts for both the benzene/He and high density benzene/Ar systems. This result is different from the findings for the benzene/N2 and benzene/C3H8 solutions and can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of competition between dispersive attractive and repulsive interactions as a function of density. The failure of the theory to describe these transition energy shifts is attributed to the omission of explicit repulsive interactions terms in the theoretical models employed.

  10. Can Cooper pairs in benzene lead to Efimov states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, R. H.; March, N. H.; Rubio, A.

    2015-02-01

    Cooper pairs have been experimentally verified in benzene at 38.3 eV. We have proposed previously that the six most loosely bound electrons in benzene form three equivalent Cooper pairs. We further propose in this manuscript that these three weakly interacting bosons (Cooper pairs) should form an infinite number of Efimov states (possibly Booromean rings) which is what a photon of high energy will then encounter.

  11. Chemical accuracy from quantum Monte Carlo for the Benzene Dimer

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Sam; Cohen, R. E

    2015-01-01

    We report an accurate study of interactions between Benzene molecules using variational quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. We compare these results with density functional theory (DFT) using different van der Waals (vdW) functionals. In our QMC calculations, we use accurate correlated trial wave functions including three-body Jastrow factors, and backflow transformations. We consider two benzene molecules in the parallel displaced (PD) geometry, and fin...

  12. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  13. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical, toxicological, histopathological, and forensic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournel, Gilles; Houssaye, Cédric; Humbert, Luc; Dhorne, Christine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Bécart-Robert, Anne; Nisse, Patrick; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier; Lhermitte, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a suicide case by acute arsenic intoxication via intravenous injection. A 30-year-old woman injected arsenic As (V) (sodium arseniate disodique: Disodium Hydrogena Arsenik RP) in a successful suicide attempt. Three hours following administration, the woman developed severe digestive symptoms. She was admitted to a hospital and transferred to the intensive care unit within 12 h of the massive administration of arsenic. Despite therapeutic efforts, over the next 2 h she developed multiorgan failure and died. A postmortem examination was performed. Pulmonary edema and congestion of liver were apparent. As (V) and As (III) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after mineralization of samples by concentrated nitric acid. Toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic in biological fluids as well as in organs. Histopathological examination showed a typical indication of myocarditis. These findings were in agreement with acute arsenic poisoning. The symptoms developed by this young woman (intoxication by intravenous administration) were comparable to oral intoxication. The clinical signs, survival time, and administration type are discussed in light of the literature on acute and chronic arsenic poisoning.

  14. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals. PMID:25902564

  15. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Clemente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.

  16. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  17. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available.

  18. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  19. Chronic cadmium poisoning in a pigment manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P.E.; Donnan, M.B.

    1981-02-01

    When the working environment in a small cadmium-pigment manufacturing plant was investigated, cadmium concentrations in respirable dust were found to be considerably above the hygiene standard recommended by the British Occupational Hygiene Society. Cadmium concentrations in blood and urine of exposed workers, both present and past employees, were determined. The six men who had worked in the production plant for seven years or more all showed signs of renal tubular damage. On the basis of the results of the investigations on individuals in this study, it is suggested that urinary cadmium concentrations should be kept below 15 microgram/day to avoid the possibility of renal damage, and that the insoluble respirable fraction of cadmium dust should not be regarded as merely nuisance dust.

  20. Cultivating microbial dark matter in benzene-degrading methanogenic consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Devine, Cheryl E; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    The microbes responsible for anaerobic benzene biodegradation remain poorly characterized. In this study, we identified and quantified microbial populations in a series of 16 distinct methanogenic, benzene-degrading enrichment cultures using a combination of traditional 16S rRNA clone libraries (four cultures), pyrotag 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (11 cultures), metagenome sequencing (1 culture) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; 12 cultures). An operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from the Deltaproteobacteria designated ORM2 that is only 84% to 86% similar to Syntrophus or Desulfobacterium spp. was consistently identified in all enrichment cultures, and typically comprised more than half of the bacterial sequences. In addition to ORM2, a sequence belonging to Parcubacteria (candidate division OD1) identified from the metagenome data was the only other OTU common to all the cultures surveyed. Culture transfers (1% and 0.1%) were made in the presence and absence of benzene, and the abundance of ORM2, OD1 and other OTUs was tracked over 415 days using qPCR. ORM2 sequence abundance increased only when benzene was present, while the abundance of OD1 and other OTUs increased even in the absence of benzene. Deltaproteobacterium ORM2 is unequivocally the benzene-metabolizing population. This study also hints at laboratory cultivation conditions for a member of the widely distributed yet uncultivated Parcubacteria (OD1).

  1. Analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in soils by headspace and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Pereira Pinto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of gasoline: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX are frequently found in soils due to leaks in fuel storage tanks and they present chronic toxicity. In this work it was developed and validated a methodology of BTEX analysis in soil by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector and static headspace. The recovery of BTEX in soil samples was evaluated using soils with different textures (sandy and loamy. The analysis method showed good resolution, in a low time of analysis (less than 30 minutes. Limits of quantification of 0.05 mg Kg¯¹ soil for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes are below the guiding values that range from 0.15 to 95 mg Kg¯¹ soil, established to determine soil quality. It was verified that the methodology enables the use of this method for BTEX analysis of soil samples for passive environmental identification of gas stations.

  2. Combined promoting effects of low-Pd-containing and Cu-doped LaCoO3 perovskite supported on cordierite for the catalytic combustion of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y W; Li, B; Niu, Q; Li, L; Kan, J W; Zhu, S M; Shen, S B

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic activities for benzene oxidation and resistance to SO2 poisoning were tested for a series of Pd/La-Cu-Co-O/cordierite catalysts, which were prepared using a multiple-step impregnation method. The XRD, SEM, and IR characterization techniques were performed to investigate the relationship between the catalytic performance and its physicochemical properties. When Pd/La-Cu-Co-O/cordierite catalysts with Pd loadings of 0.06 and 0.08 % were prepared at a calcination temperature of 500 °C for 5 h, they exhibited similar catalytic activity and sulfur resistance. When the concentration of benzene was 1500 ppm and the GHSV was 20000 h(-1), the benzene conversion was above 95 % at a reaction temperature of 350 °C in SO2 existing at 100 ppm. These results were mainly attributed to the cooperation between La-Cu-Co-O perovskite and the noble metal Pd. Specifically, the addition of copper can strengthen the catalytic activity of La-Co-O/cordierite catalysts by decreasing the crystalline size of the active ingredients. A moderate Pd addition can drastically improve the sulfur resistance and further improve the catalytic activity of the La-Cu-Co-O/cordierite catalyst.

  3. A 16-Year-Old Lady with Transformer Oil Poisoning in Intensive Care Unit of Enam Medical College Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easnem Khanum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transformer oil is one kind of highly refined oil which is used as coolant and heat exchanger in different electronic equipments. Poisoning with this oil is a rare type of chemical poisoning as it is not easily available for household purpose. The main constituent of transformer oil is polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB which is responsible for producing toxicity in humans. Chronic exposure with PCB may cause some toxicity such as hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Here we present a case of acute toxicity with transformer oil of a rural woman in Bangladesh who ingested this oil as suicidal attempt. She was managed efficiently through conservative treatment along with artificial ventilation.

  4. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  5. 76 FR 8942 - Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder Formulations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1700 Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder... 1. The Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and Implementing Regulations The Poison Prevention... children, Packaging and containers, Poison prevention, Toxic substances. For the reasons given above,...

  6. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  7. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  8. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  9. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  11. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  12. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  13. [Accreditation criteria and quality standards for Poisons centres: development of a quality management system within the Milan Poisons centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Tiziana; Manfrè, Sergio; Grezzi, Marinella

    2006-01-01

    Poisons centres throughout Italy and Europe vary considerably in terms of their institutions and organisation. The European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has laid down the activities that a poisons centre must carry out, specifying minimum and maximum standards required. These directions allow an evaluation of the service provided. In 2002 Milan Poisons Centre began a project aiming to introduce concepts and methodology proper of the quality systems within poisons centres' institutional activity. Concluded, the project resulted in the centre's certification and the documentation of its procedures: this may now contribute to help define the status and activity of poisons centres in Italy.

  14. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  15. 半胱氨酸蛋白酶-8和P53在慢性砷中毒大鼠肾近端小管表达的研究%Expression of cysteine caspase-8 and P53 in renal proximal tubular epithelial cell of chronic arsenic poisoning rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立全; 李远慧; 孔祥照; 金婷婷; 李娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the molecular mechanism of renal injury of chronic arsenic poisoning rats induced by the expression of cysteine caspase-8 and P53 in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.Methods Sixty healthy SD rats were divided into three groups,high-,low-dose group,and control group,n =20 in each group.The rats in high and low dose groups were treated with As203 through drinking water,10.0 and 0.4 mg/kg,respectively.The control rats were given distilled water.Four months later,serum and urinary arsenic level was determined,and kidney specimens were taken.The expression of cysteine caspase-8 and P53 in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells was detected by histological technique-HE staining and SABC immunohistochemistry.In addition,cell number counting and image analyses were used in the study.Results The number of caspase-8 positive cells of renal proximal tubule in control group,low-and high-dose group was 3.33±1.32,31.14±8.02 and 46.50±7.20 cell number/visual fields,respectively,which was increased with dose increasing(all P <0.05);the average gray value was 151.34±6.40,133.58±4.63 and 128.34±16.28,respectively,decreased with dose increasing(all P <0.05).The number of P53 positive cells was 3.17±1.59,26.29±4.23 and 47.00±6.22 cell number/visual fields,respectively,increased with dose increasing (all P < 0.05) ; the average gray value was 142.54±8.06,121.48±5.68 and 101.89±6.35,respectively,decreased with dose increasing (all P < 0.05).Conclusion The increase of caspase-8 and P53 positive cells is one of the molecular mechanisms of renal injury induced by arsenic poisoning.%目的 探讨慢性砷中毒大鼠肾近端小管细胞半胱氨酸蛋白酶-8(caspase-8)和P53表达致肾脏损伤的分子机制.方法 60只SD大鼠分为对照组,低、高剂量组,每组20只,高、低剂量组分别给予三氧化二砷(As2O3) 10.0、0.4 mg/kg水溶液自由饮用,对照组自由饮用蒸馏水.分笼4个月,测定血砷、尿砷,取肾脏

  16. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  17. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  18. Does organophosphate poisoning cause cardiac injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Morteza, Afsaneh

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphates are insecticides which are widely used as a suicidal agent in Iran. They are associated with different types of cardiac complications including cardiac arrest and arrhythmia, however their role in cardiac injury is not known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of myocardial damage in patients with cholinesterase poisoning.It was a prospective study conducted from January 2008 to March 2010. Cohorts of patients with cholinesterase poisoning due to suicidal attempt who have been referred to Loghman hospital were selected. Patients who have taken more than one poison or were used concomitant drugs were excluded. Physical examination was performed on admission to discover warning sign. Peripheral arterial blood gases, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin-T measurements were performed in all cases. There were 24 patients, 7 of them women, with the mean age of 41.2±15.05 who were included in this study. Non-survivors had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate Glasgow Coma Scale scoring and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Our findings showed that cardiac injury is an important cause of death in organophosphate poisoning. It could be hypothesized that cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in patients with organophosphate poisoning.

  19. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  20. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  1. Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164157.html Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child These pastries and candies pose serious ... to kids -- but eating even one treat might poison them, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns. ...

  2. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  3. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  4. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  5. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  6. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  7. ALOHA在苯泄漏事故中的模拟分析%Simulation Analysis of Benzene Leakage with ALOHA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵辉; 候丽娟; 段国宁; 朱岳清

    2012-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals leakage may cause poisoning, fire or explosion accident. The study is set in foreign object impact to Benzene storage tanks of a hazardous chemical storage tank area of Changzhou storage tanks. It analyzes the result induced by benzene tank leakage. Two possible accident scenes of both instantaneous leakage and continuous leakage were simulated respectively through the ALOHA simulation software. Corresponding simulated diagrams of diffusion area, combustible region of benzene and impact zone of benzene vapor cloud explosion overpressure were obtained through the selection of the attention level corresponding to an accident type under various accident scenes. Because the range of toxic effects is significantly greater than the impact of other types of accidents in the same accident scene, we should evacuate according to the range of toxic effects in emergency evacuation. It is worth mentioning that the simulation results were instable by ALOHA simulation analysis in the following four states: very low wind speed, very stable atmospheric conditions, greater changes in wind direction and terrain and local concentration unevenness. So we need to notice them in application.%危化品泄漏可能引发中毒、火灾或爆炸事故.以常州市某危险化学品储罐区苯储罐受外物撞击为背景,对苯罐泄漏进行后果分析,并利用ALOHA模拟软件对可能存在的瞬时泄漏和连续泄漏两种事故场景分别进行了计算模拟.通过选择各事故场景下某一事故类型对应的关注水平,得到相应的苯扩散区域、可燃区域和蒸气云爆炸超压影响区域的模拟图.对于同一事故场景,毒性影响范围都明显大于其他类型事故的影响范围,因此在应急疏散中应以毒性影响范围作为依据进行疏散.ALOHA在极低风速、稳定的大气条件、风向变化和地形变化较大以及局部浓度不均匀4种情况下的模拟结果不稳定,在实际应用时需要注意.

  8. Genotoxicity of intermittent co-exposure to benzene and toluene in male CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Barbara A; Struve, Melanie F; Gao, Pu; Sharma, Sheela; Allison, Neil; Roberts, Kay C; Letinski, Daniel J; Nicolich, Mark J; Bird, Michael G; Dorman, David C

    2008-06-17

    Benzene is an important industrial chemical. At certain levels, benzene has been found to produce aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, myeloblastic anemia and genotoxic effects in humans. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and myeloperoxidase to hydroquinone, phenol, and other metabolites contributes to benzene toxicity. Other xenobiotic substrates for cytochrome P450 can alter benzene metabolism. At high concentrations, toluene has been shown to inhibit benzene metabolism and benzene-induced toxicities. The present study investigated the genotoxicity of exposure to benzene and toluene at lower and intermittent co-exposures. Mice were exposed via whole-body inhalation for 6h/day for 8 days (over a 15-day time period) to air, 50 ppm benzene, 100 ppm toluene, 50 ppm benzene and 50 ppm toluene, or 50 ppm benzene and 100 ppm toluene. Mice exposed to 50 ppm benzene exhibited an increased frequency (2.4-fold) of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and increased levels of urinary metabolites (t,t-muconic acid, hydroquinone, and s-phenylmercapturic acid) vs. air-exposed controls. Benzene co-exposure with 100 ppm toluene resulted in similar urinary metabolite levels but a 3.7-fold increase in frequency of micronucleated PCE. Benzene co-exposure with 50 ppm toluene resulted in a similar elevation of micronuclei frequency as with 100 ppm toluene which did not differ significantly from 50 ppm benzene exposure alone. Both co-exposures - 50 ppm benzene with 50 or 100 ppm toluene - resulted in significantly elevated CYP2E1 activities that did not occur following benzene or toluene exposure alone. Whole blood glutathione (GSH) levels were similarly decreased following exposure to 50 ppm benzene and/or 100 ppm toluene, while co-exposure to 50 ppm benzene and 100 ppm toluene significantly decreased GSSG levels and increased the GSH/GSSG ratio. The higher frequency of micronucleated PCE following benzene and toluene co-exposure when compared with mice exposed to

  9. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark......%) continued, declining to 44% in 2002, 33% in 2007 and finally to 27% in 2012. Few deaths from central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) occurred. Multiple drug use was common and consisted mainly of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis, benzodiazepines and alcohol. Heroin/morphine use was most frequent...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...

  10. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  11. Toxicological criterion of the heroin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeev, S

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents toxicological characteristics of 198 cases of acute parenteral heroin intoxication, analyzes the clinically encountered range of blood and urinary concentrations of its metabolites. The principal causes of death are elucidated in victims of heroin poisoning at the hospital stage. Where there is a relationship of death probability to the detection of morphine in the victims' biological fluids is considered; its blood and urinary concentrations are determined, which undoubtedly suggests the occurrence of poisoning-related death. It has been established that death from poisoning by heroin may occur in the whole range of its detectable concentrations. There is no doubt that the blood morphine concentrations of at least 2.0 microg/ml should be considered to be fatal.

  12. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from nephro...... of recommendation. This approach will permit the production of the first important practice guidelines on this topic....... nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed...... to retrieve all original publications regardless of language. Data were extracted on a standardized instrument. Quality of the evidence was assessed by GRADE as: High = A, Moderate = B, Low = C, Very Low = D. For every poison, dialyzability was assessed and clinical effect of ECTR summarized. All pertinent...

  13. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  14. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  15. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  16. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  17. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013 National Poison..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison emergency....

  18. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  19. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  20. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012... Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... thousands of lives every year. On the 50th anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  1. Development of Optimized Guidelines for Therapeutic Strategies for Organophosphate Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    STRATEGIES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING THESIS Craig A. Holder, Captain, USAF AFIT/GIH/ENV/11-M02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management...STRATEGIES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING Craig A. Holder, BS Captain, USAF Approved: //signed

  2. 1-[(3-Benzyloxy-2-nitrophenoxymethyl]benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C20H17NO4, consists of two crystallographically independent molecules. In one of the molecules, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 2.26 (6 and 58.68 (6° with the terminal benzene rings and the dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 56.45 (6°. The corresponding values for the other molecule are 35.17 (6, 70.97 (6 and 69.62 (6°, respectively. In the crystal, an inversion dimer linked by a pair of C—H...O hydrogen bonds occurs for one of the unique molecules. C—H...π and π–π [centroid–centroid distances = 3.7113 (8 and 3.7216 (7 Å] interactions link the components into a three-dimensional network.

  3. [Acute toloxatone poisoning. Apropos of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoyan, P; Garnier, R; Baud, F J; Efthymiou, M L

    1990-01-01

    Toloxatone is a new monoamine oxidase inhibitor. One hundred and twenty two cases of poisoning with this drug are reported. In this series, the minimal toxic dose was 2 g. The first symptoms appeared about one hour after ingestion. In most cases, only drowsiness and mild adrenergic effects were observed. In a few cases of massive overdose, coma, pyramidal irritation, and myoclonic jerks occurred. In 3 cases of severe poisoning, toloxatone was associated with tricyclic antidepressants. Symptoms were similar to those reported in intoxications associating classical monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants: muscular rigidity, hyperthermia and cardiovascular collapse. Two of these patients died.

  4. Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

    1988-12-01

    A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters.

  5. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  6. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  7. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases.

  8. Ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning mimicking burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a condition in which the patient perceives a sensation of intraoral burning, typically of the anterior tongue. This article presents a case report of a patient presenting for orofacial pain evaluation in whom ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning is diagnosed. The clinician should be aware of neurotoxin poisoning as a possible cause of symptoms of burning mouth, especially among patients who have recently traveled to a tropical area. Recognition of this condition in this case highlights the need for a detailed and accurate patient history.

  9. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  10. Lead poisoning in a 16-year-old girl: a case report and a review of the literature (CARE compliant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Moldovan, Horaţiu; Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lead is a toxic element of the environment which leads to major complications once it enters the blood stream, affecting multiple organs and systems of the body. Methods: We present the case of a 16-year-old girl, diagnosed with lead poisoning after occupational exposure due to the fact that the girl was actively involved in the family's pottery business. History revealed that the girl participated in the process of pottery, her father was also diagnosed with lead poisoning 2 years before. The patient's personal history underlined that approximately 1 year ago she presented with severe abdominal pain, being diagnosed with acute appendicitis and she underwent appendectomy, but the pain persisted, thus due to family history of lead poisoning, the suspicion of saturnine colic rose, and she was diagnosed with lead poisoning. The main symptoms and signs were severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and arterial hypertension. The clinical evolution was favorable under symptomatic treatment and chelation therapy. Results: Lead toxicity is a life-threatening condition because of its severe acute and chronic complications. In children, there is no safe blood lead level, prevention methods are, therefore, very important in order to avoid toxic multiorganic effects of this metal. Conclusion: Even though the diagnosis of lead poisoning remains difficult in children, it must also be taken into consideration by the clinician facing a child with gastrointestinal or neurological involvement. PMID:27661040

  11. Retrospective exposure assessment for benzene in the Australian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, D.C. [Deakin Univ., Occupational Hygiene Unit, Geelong, VIC (Australia); Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Carlton, VIC (Australia); Adams, G.G.; Manuell, R.W.; Bisby, J.A. [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Carlton, VIC (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    An excess of lympho-haematopoietic (LH) cancers has been identified in the Australian petroleum industry through the Health Watch surveillance programme. A nested case-control study is being conducted to investigate this excess. This paper describes the methods used to provide quantitative estimates of benzene exposure for each of the subjects in the case-control study. Job histories were compiled for each subject from interviews and company employment records. Site visits and telephone interviews were used to identify the tasks included in each job title. Details about the tasks such as their frequency, the technology in use and about changes that had taken place over the years were also gathered. Exposure dated back to the late 1940s for a few subjects. Collaborating petroleum companies provided recent benzene exposure monitoring data. These were used to generate Base Estimates of exposure for each task, augmented with data from the literature where necessary. Past exposures were estimated from the Base Estimates by means of an exposure algorithm. The modifying effects of technological changes and changes to the product were used in the algorithm. The algorithm was then computed to give, for each job, for each subject, an estimate of average benzene exposure in ppm in the workplace atmosphere (Workplace Estimate). This value was multiplied by the years for which the job was held and these values summed to give an estimate of Cumulative Estimate of benzene in ppm-years. The occupational hygienists performing the exposure assessment did so without knowledge of the case or control status of subjects. Overall exposures to benzene in the Australian petroleum industry were low, and virtually all activities and jobs were below a time-weighted average of 5 ppm. Exposures in terminals were generally higher than at refineries. Exposures in upstream areas were extremely low. Estimates of Cumulative Estimate to benzene ranged from 0.005 to 50.9 ppm-years. (Author)

  12. Solubilization of benzene and cyclohexane by sodium deoxycholate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Smith, L.S.; Bushong, D.S.; Tucker, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    Vapor pressure-solubility data were obtained for the aqueous systems benzene-sodium deoxycholate and cyclohexane- sodium deoxycholate at 25/sup 0/C. The results are consistent with a mass action model similar to the BET equation. Equilibrium constants are inferred to characterize interactions of hydrocarbons with solubilization sites assumed to consist of units of four deoxycholate anions. Although addition of sodium chloride increases the middle aggregation number, solubilization results are affected very little by variation in salt concentration. When pure liquid hydrocarbon standard states are employed, solubilization results for benzene and cyclohexane (at varying salt concentrations) are quite similar. 26 references.

  13. Ice Hockey Lung – A Case of Mass Nitrogen Dioxide Poisoning in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Brat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas.

  14. Determinants of arsenicosis patients' perception and social implications of arsenic poisoning through groundwater in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, M Mizanur Rahman

    2010-10-01

    Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients' perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from the Matlab and Hajiganj Upzillas of Chandpur district which are known to be highly contaminated with arsenic in their underground water. Respondents informed that arsenic poisoning causes a wide range of social and psychological problems. Female respondents were less vulnerable in the case of social problems (p arsenic exposure for abating the health burden as well as social and psychological problems.

  15. Study of blood and brain lithium pharmacokinetics in the rat according to three different modalities of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Anne-Sophie; Chevillard, Lucie; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Risède, Patricia; Peoc'h, Katell; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-induced neurotoxicity may be life threatening. Three patterns have been described, including acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic poisoning, with unexplained discrepancies in the relationship between clinical features and plasma lithium concentrations. Our objective was to investigate differences in plasma, erythrocyte, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain lithium pharmacokinetics using a multicompartmental approach in rat models mimicking the three human intoxication patterns. We developed acute (intraperitoneal administration of 185 mg/kg Li₂CO₃ in naive rats), acute-on-chronic (intraperitoneal administration of 185 mg/kg Li₂CO₃ in rats receiving 800 mg/l Li₂CO₃ in water during 28 days), and chronic poisoning models (intraperitoneal administration of 74 mg/kg Li₂CO₃ during 5 days in rats with 15 mg/kg K₂Cr₂O₇-induced renal failure). Delayed absorption (4.03 vs 0.31 h), increased plasma elimination (0.65 vs 0.37 l/kg/h) and shorter half-life (1.75 vs 2.68 h) were observed in acute-on-chronically compared with acutely poisoned rats. Erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid kinetics paralleled plasma kinetics in both models. Brain lithium distribution was rapid (as early as 15 min), inhomogeneous and with delayed elimination (over 78 h). However, brain lithium accumulation was more marked in acute-on-chronically than acutely poisoned rats [area-under-the-curve of brain concentrations (379 ± 41 vs 295 ± 26, P < .05) and brain-to-plasma ratio (45 ± 10 vs 8 ± 2, P < .0001) at 54 h]. Moreover, brain lithium distribution was increased in chronically compared with acute-on-chronically poisoned rats (brain-to-plasma ratio: 9 ± 1 vs 3 ± 0, P < .01). In conclusion, prolonged rat exposure results in brain lithium accumulation, which is more marked in the presence of renal failure. Our data suggest that differences in plasma and brain kinetics may at least partially explain the observed

  16. Exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukkala Eero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of epidemiologic studies have provided estimates of the relation between exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia, but the results have been heterogeneous. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we synthesized the existing epidemiologic evidence on the relation between occupational exposure to benzene and the risk of leukemia, including all types combined and the four main subgroups acute myeloid leukemia (AML, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out using two databases 'Medline' and 'Embase' from 1950 through to July 2009. We selected articles which provided information that can be used to estimate the relation between benzene exposure and cancer risk (effect size. Results In total 15 studies were identified in the search, providing 16 effect estimates for the main analysis. The summary effect size for any leukemia from the fixed-effects model was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.23-1.57, but the study-specific estimates were strongly heterogeneous (I2 = 56.5%, Q stat = 34.47, p = 0.003. The random-effects model yielded a summary- effect size estimate of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.37-2.17. Effect estimates from 9 studies were based on cumulative exposures. In these studies the risk of leukemia increased with a dose-response pattern with a summary-effect estimate of 1.64 (95% CI, 1.13-2.39 for low ( 100 ppm-years. In a meta-regression, the trend was statistically significant (P = 0.015. Use of cumulative exposure eliminated heterogeneity. The risk of AML also increased from low (1.94, 95% CI, 0.95-3.95, medium (2.32, 95% CI, 0.91-5.94 to high exposure category (3.20, 95% CI, 1.09-9.45, but the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our study provides consistent evidence that exposure to benzene at work increases the risk of leukemia with a dose-response pattern. There was some evidence of an

  17. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Churi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

  18. Characterization of changes in gene expression and biochemical pathways at low levels of benzene exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Reuben; Hubbard, Alan E.; McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Jinot, Jennifer; Sonawane, Babasaheb R.; Smith, Martyn T.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, through transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we reported dose-dependent effects of benzene exposure on gene expression and biochemical pathways in 83 workers exposed across

  19. Metagenomic and proteomic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Laban, Nidal [Helmholtz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation using metagenomic and proteomic analyses. The objective of the study is to find out the microbes and biochemistry involved in benzene degradation. Hypotheses are proposed for the initial activation mechanism of benzene under anaerobic conditions. Two methods for degradation, molecular characterization and identification of benzene-degrading enzymes, are described. The physiological and molecular characteristics of iron-reducing enrichment culture are given and the process is detailed. Metagenome analysis of iron-reducing culture is presented using a pie chart. From the metagenome analysis of benzene-degrading culture, putative mobile element genes were identified in the aromatic-degrading configurations. Metaproteomic analysis of iron-reducing cultures and the anaerobic benzene degradation pathway are also elucidated. From the study, it can be concluded that gram-positive bacteria are involved in benzene degradation under iron-reducing conditions and that the catalysis mechanism of putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase needs further investigation.

  20. Toxic Agents Responsible for Acute Poisonings Treated at Four Medical Settings in Iran during 2012-2013: A Report from Iran's National Drug and Poison Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ghane

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Pharmaceutical products, substances of abuse and pesticides are the most common causes of poisoning-related admissions to referral Iranian poison treatment centers. Effective measures to reduce poisoning with these substances should be done.

  1. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  2. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  3. Poisonings by Cardiovascular Drugs in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Brusin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most common drugs causing hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias were clonidine, CCBs, drotaverine and the veterinary drug “veratrine”. Drotaverine, clonidine and CCBs were the most common drugs causing death. Poisonings with these agents are rare in other countries. Measures to reduce the availability of drotaverine and veratrine should be taken in Russia.

  4. Mercury poisoning: an unusual cause of polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, G K; Tosun, A K; Karacehennem, E; Sepici, V

    2002-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is widely used in everyday life. It has organic and inorganic forms that are both toxic. As acute mercury poisoning is uncommon, diagnosis is difficult if the exposure is not manifest. It has usually a slow onset and non-specific symptoms. In this paper we report a patient who developed polyarthritis after mercury exposure.

  5. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  6. Toxidrome-based Approach to Common Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mégarbane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning remains a major cause of hospital admission into the emergency department and intensive care unit. Proper diagnosis is the cornerstone for optimal management of poisoned patients. Since the definitive analytical confirmation of the nature of the toxicant involved in the poisoning cannot be rapidly obtained in the majority of healthcare facilities, diagnosis relies on the medical history and the rigorous clinical examination of the patients well as results of the routine biological tests and the electrocardiogram. Identification of the toxidromes addresses not only the correct diagnosis but also rules out other differential diagnoses. Despite no definitive predictive value, this clinical approach facilitates making decision on empirical treatments and emergent antidotes. Pharmacodynamic tests using specific antidotes including naloxone for opioids and flumazenil for benzodiazepines and its analogues are also helpful to assess the final diagnosis in comatose patients. The objective of this article is to review the toxidrome-based approach to common poisonings before toxicological analysis enables the confirmation of the initially suspected toxic etiology.

  7. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  9. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  10. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  11. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  12. [A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

    2006-01-01

    Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls.

  13. Are there Efimov trimers in hexafluorobenzene rather than in benzene vapor itself?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, R.H., E-mail: richard.squire@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, West Virginia University – Institute of Technology, Montgomery, WV 25136 (United States); March, N.H. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenborgerlaan 171, B-2020, Antwerp (Belgium); Oxford University, Oxford, England (United Kingdom); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2014-08-22

    Is there a spectroscopic method to detect an Efimov state? Following our proposal of an Efimov state arising from three pseudo bosons (generalized Cooper pairs) in benzene, our spectroscopic studies have found no evidence of Efimov trimers (ET) in h{sub 6}- or d{sub 6}-benzene. However, hexafluoro-benzene has shown peaks that we attributed to ET and the pseudo bosons. The experimental evidence suggests that benzene pseudo bosons and subsequently ET are quite sensitive to the surroundings.

  14. Theoretical study of the solvent effect on the aromaticity of benzene: a NICS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Georgia M A; Dos Santos, Hélio F

    2014-03-01

    Nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) quantities for benzene-benzene and benzene-water species were obtained and are discussed in gas phase and in solution. Besides standard polarizable continuum model (PCM) calculations, sequential Monte Carlo/quantum mechanics (S-MC/QM) were also performed. Benzene was shown to be slightly more aromatic in condensate phase when we considered the average solvent configuration (ASEC) approach with explicit molecules.

  15. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-11-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m-3 for benzene, 3 mg m-3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m-3 for benzene and 6 g m-3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of cryogenic fluids: Benzene in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, R.; Bernstein, E. R.

    1987-05-01

    Energy shifts and bandwidths for the 1B2u←1A1g optical absorption of benzene in supercritical nitrogen are presented as a function of pressure, temperature, and density. The pressure and density dependence of energy shifts of room temperature emission of benzene in nitrogen fluid is also reported. Both absorption and emission spectra exhibit shifts to lower energy as a function of density, whereas almost no spectral shifts are observed if the density is kept constant and temperature and pressure varied simultaneously. Thus, density is the fundamental microscopic parameter for energy shifts of optical transitions in supercritical nitrogen. This result is analogous to the findings for the liquid benzene/propane system and can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of changes occurring in the intermolecular potential; however, in the benzene/supercritical nitrogen system an additional small density independent temperature effect on the transition energy has been identified. Experimental results are compared to dielectric (Onsager-Böttcher and Wertheim) and microscopic quantum statistical mechanical (Schweizer-Chandler) theories of solvent effects on solute electronic spectra. Reasonably good agreement between experiment and theory is found. The results demonstrate that liquid state theory can be used to describe the supercritical nitrogen fluid.

  17. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soi

  18. 1,4-Bis[3-chloro-2-(chloromethylpropyl]benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H18Cl4, possesses a crystallographically imposed inversion centre, which coincides with the centre of benzene ring. In the absence of classical intermolecular interactions, van der Waals forces help the molecules to pack in the crystal.

  19. Effects of benzene inhalation on murine pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkite, E P; Inoue, T; Carsten, A L; Miller, M E; Bullis, J E; Drew, R T

    1982-03-01

    Effects of benzene inhalation on mouse pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells have been evaluated. Male mice 8--12 wk old were exposed to 400 ppm benzene for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for up to 9 1/2 wk. At various time intervals exposed and control animals were killed, and cardiac blood was evaluated for changes in white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) content. In addition, femora and tibiae were evaluated for total marrow cellularity, stem cell content (as measured by the spleen colony technique), and the percent of stem cells in DNA synthesis (as determined by the tritiated thymidine cytocide technique). Exogenous spleen colonies grown from marrow of exposed animals were counted, identified, and scored by histological type. Exposure to benzene caused significant depressions of RBCs and WBCs throughout the exposure period, which continued for at least 14 d after exposure. Bone marrow cellularity and stem cell content were also depressed in exposed animals throughout the study. Tritiated thymidine cytocide of spleen colony-forming cells was generally increased in exposed animals, perhaps indicating a compensatory response to the reduction of circulating cells. Spleen colonies of all types were depressed after exposure to benzene. The significance of the reduction in cellularity, stem cell content, and changes in morphology of spleen colonies is discussed in relation to cellular toxicity and residual injury.

  20. The ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Groot, J.C.M.J. de; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been shown to be ototoxic in animals and there is evidence that these solvents can induce hearing loss in humans. In this study, the effects of inhalation of the possibly ototoxic solvent ethyl benzene on the cochlear function and morphology were evaluated using thre