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Sample records for chronic benzene poisoning

  1. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  2. Genetic Polymorphisms in XRCC1, CD3EAP, PPP1R13L, XPB, XPC, and XPF and the Risk of Chronic Benzene Poisoning in a Chinese Occupational Population.

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    Ping Xue

    Full Text Available Individual variations in the capacity of DNA repair machinery to relieve benzene-induced DNA damage may be the key to developing chronic benzene poisoning (CBP, an increasingly prevalent occupational disease in China. ERCC1 (Excision repair cross complementation group 1 is located on chromosome 19q13.2-3 and participates in the crucial steps of Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER; moreover, we determined that one of its polymorphisms, ERCC1 rs11615, is a biomarker for CBP susceptibility in our previous report. Our aim is to further explore the deeper association between some genetic variations related to ERCC1 polymorphisms and CBP risk.Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1, CD3EAP (CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein, PPP1R13L (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like, XPB (Xeroderma pigmentosum group B, XPC (Xeroderma pigmentosum group C and XPF (Xeroderma pigmentosum group F were genotyped by the Snapshot and TaqMan-MGB® probe techniques, in a study involving 102 CBP patients and 204 controls. The potential interactions between these SNPs and lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking, were assessed using a stratified analysis.An XRCC1 allele, rs25487, was related to a higher risk of CBP (P<0.001 even after stratifying for potential confounders. Carriers of the TT genotype of XRCC1 rs1799782 who were alcohol drinkers (OR = 8.000; 95% CI: 1.316-48.645; P = 0.022, male (OR = 9.333; 95% CI: 1.593-54.672; P = 0.019, and had an exposure of ≤12 years (OR = 2.612; 95% CI: 1.048-6.510; P = 0.035 had an increased risk of CBP. However, the T allele in PPP1R13L rs1005165 (P<0.05 and the GA allele in CD3EAP rs967591 (OR = 0.162; 95% CI: 0039~0.666; P = 0.037 decreased the risk of CBP in men. The haplotype analysis of XRCC1 indicated that XRCC1 rs25487A, rs25489G and rs1799782T (OR = 15.469; 95% CI: 5.536-43.225; P<0.001 were associated with a high risk of CBP.The findings showed that

  3. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

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    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  4. 重组人甲状旁腺素对慢性苯中毒小鼠造血损伤的改善作用%Improving Effect of rhPTH on Hematopoietic Depression in Mice Caused by Chronic Benzene Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓飞; 冯晓青; 胡志勇; 刘华清; 靳宗达; 杜厚兵; 李冰燕; 张增利

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究重组人甲状旁腺素(rhPTH)对慢性苯中毒小鼠造血损伤的改善作用.[方法]皮下注射苯诱导小鼠造血系统损伤模型.将造模成功的30只慢性苯中毒小鼠随机分为3组:生理盐水治疗组、40μg/kg rhPTH治疗组、80μg/kg rhPTH治疗组.每周5次腹腔注射生理盐水或不同剂量rhPTH,治疗3周,间隔1周后取样,测定3组小鼠骨髓中的造血干细胞(外源性脾结节法)、造血祖细胞(集落培养)以及外周血细胞计数和脾脏系数.[结果]经rhPTH治疗的小鼠一般状况明显好于生理盐水治疗组;40 μg/kg rhPTH治疗组与80μg/kg rhPTH治疗组的造血干细胞数明显高于生理盐水治疗组(P<0.05),但两个剂量rhPTH治疗组间造血干细胞数差异无统计学意义;3组小鼠的造血祖细胞及外周血细胞计数均差异无统计学意义;两个rhPTH治疗组的脾脏系数均低于生理盐水治疗组(P<0.05).[结论]rhPTH可明显增加慢性苯中毒小鼠骨髓中造血干细胞数量.%[ Objective ] To explore the improving effect of recombinant human parathyroid hormone( rhPTH )on bone marrow hematopoietic depression in mice caused by chronic benzene poisoning. [ Methods ] The model mice of hematopoietic depression was established in a number of KM mice by subcutaneous administration of benzene. Established model mice were treated 5 times a week for 3 weeks intraperitoneally with normal saline( NS group ), 40 μg/kg rhPTH( 40PTH group ),and 80 μg/kg rhPTH ( 80PTH group ) separately. One week later, all mice in the three groups were sacrificed. The hematopoietic stem cell, hematopoietic progenitor cell, peripheral blood cell count, and spleen index were determined by routine methods.[ Results ] Mice in PTH-treated groups showed better general condition than mice in NS group. The hematopoietic stem cells in 40PTH group and 80PTH group were significantly increased than those in NS group ( P < 0.05 ). However, the hematopoietic progenitor cells

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of carbon monoxide poisoning in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated in three patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in chronic stage by comparison with serial X-ray computed tomography (CT). In Case 1 and 3, no pallidal lesions believed to be the most common lesion of the gray matter in CO poisoning were found in the serial X-ray CT scans. In the other case (Case 2), the typical initial bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the globus pallidus were found to have decreased markedly in size and finally disappeared in the latter X-ray CT scan. But MRI using inversion recovery (IR) or spin echo (SE) pulse sequence clearly showed bilateral symmetrical decreased or increased signal intensity areas in the globus pallidus in all three cases. In Case 3, chronic CO poisoning was confirmed by the bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions on MRI, although differential diagnosis was difficult. Furthermore, in Case 2, with pure alexia, MRI using IR or SE pulse sequence demonstrated a patchy decreased or increased signal intensity area in the subcortical white matter at the left angular gyrus, although X-ray CT scan showed no abnormal findings. MRI is useful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning, especially chronic CO poisoning, because necrosis, cavitation, demyelination, gliosis and so on due to hypoxia of CO poisoning were sensitively detected from changes in the proton density and the T1 or T2 relaxation time value on MRI. (J.P.N.)

  6. Recommended Diagnostic Criteria for Occupational Chronic Lead Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIN-BAI; WANGJIN-PING

    1995-01-01

    The present study aims to recommend the normal upper limit,the acceptable upper limit,the subclinical lead absorption and intoxication diagnostic criteria in an effort to re-evaluate the current national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning.The study was conducted on 330 lead exposed workers and 100 non-exposed controls based on the determination of blood and urinary lead,porphyrin metabolism indices,as well as other indices under a nationwide quality control program.The data were subsequently treated by the curve fitting,multi-step transformation to Gauss distribution,and discriminant analysis with the aid of a SAS software package.The relationships between the air lead and blood lead level with certain biological parameters indicative of excessive lead exposure and poisoning were well established.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,false positive and false negative results of these critical values were also fully evaluated.This study would be useful for the amendment of the new edition of the national diagnostic criteria for the occupational chronic lead poisoning in China and would provide new approaches for similar investigations.

  7. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  8. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  9. Industrial fluoride pollution. Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, L; Maylin, G A

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence river, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973; considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant has been designated as the "major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island." Chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall island cattle was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. Cows died at or were slaughtered after the third pregnancy. The deterioration of cows did not allow further pregnancies. Fluoride concentrations in ash of biopsied coccygeal vertebrae increased significantly with age and were dependent on distance from and direction to the aluminum plant. Fluoride in bone ash of a 7-month old-fetus exceeded 500 ppm; fluoride thus was passed transplacentally. Analyses of fluoride in ash of bones obtained at necropsy of cattle from 4 months of age to 4 to 5 years of age showed increased amounts with age. Cancellous bone retained far higher amounts than cortical bone, a reflection of the normally higher metabolic rate of cancellous bone. Concentrations exceeding 10,000 ppm fluoride were recorded in cancellous bone of a 4-to 5-year-old cow. The target cells for fluoride in chronic fluorosis were shown to be the ameloblasts, the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts and, in bone, primarily the resorbing osteocytes and also the osteoblasts. Atrophy and necrosis of the ameloblasts were responsible for enamel defects. The existing enamel showed brown discoloration from fluoride deposits. The pulp cells underwent fibrous and osseous metaplasia and necrosis of the ectopic bone occurred. The odontoblasts were atrophic and the dentin showed brown discoloration. The resorbing osteocytes were inactive and osteosclerosis resulted. This was especially pronounced in areas of normally great apposition, i.e. in the metaphyses. The epiphyseal

  10. MRI of the brain in chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 13 patients with CO poisoning by MRI; all of them had been in an explosion in a coal mine 25 years previously. Symmetrical globus pallidus lesions were observed in 12, as was degeneration of the white matter, with focal cortical atrophy. The temporal parietal and occipital lobes were usually affected, the parietooccipital region being the most frequently and extensively damaged. Of the 12 patients with white matter degeneration 7 had definitely asymmetrical cortical and subcortical lesions. There were 6 patients with dilated temporal horns, probably due to atrophy of the hippocampal gyri. (orig./MG)

  11. Chronic lead poisoning: a "forgotten" cause of renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Meryem; Tarrass, Faissal; Hachim, Khadija; Medkouri, Ghislaine; Benghanem, Mohamed Gharbi; Ramdani, Benyounes

    2007-03-01

    Chronic lead nephropathy occurs as a result of years of lead exposure. Nowadays, with the induction of high standards for industrial hygiene, symptomatic lead intoxication has become extremely rare. We report a case of chronic lead nephropathy in a 59-year-old man who worked in a battery-recycling unit and was diagnosed with plumbism during a regular health screening few years ago. The diagnosis was suggested by the following findings: serum creatinine 160 microg/L, creatinine clearance 46 ml/min, daily urine protein excretion 0.1 g, uric acid 9.7 mg/dl, blood lead 9.2 microg/dl, and a urinary excretion of 850 microg lead/72 h after a mobilisation test by a Na2-Ca-EDTA chelating agent. Renal ultrasound showed bilateral borderline small kidneys. The kidney biopsy revealed moderate focal atrophy, loss of proximal tubules, and prominent interstitial fibrosis. The patient was prescribed angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors to slow the progression of renal insufficiency and control the blood pressure. Hyperuricemia was also treated and controlled. During the regular follow-up, renal function remained stable with no proteinuria. A high index of suspicion for lead intoxication in chronic kidney disease patients should be practiced, especially in patients with hyperuricemia. Chelation of lead urinary excretion is helpful in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:17237897

  12. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners

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    Dhatrak Sarang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

  13. Extreme gastric dilation caused by chronic lead poisoning: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vesna Begovic; Darko Nozic; Srdjan Kupresanin; Dino Tarabar

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a toxic metal that affects many organ systems and functions in humans.In the majority of adults,chronic lead poisoning comes from exposures to work places and can occur in numerous work settings, such as manufacturing, lead smelting and refinement, or due to use of batteries, pigments, solder, ammunitions,paint, car radiators, cable and wires, certain cosmetics.In some countries, lead is added to petrol.We present a rare case of gastric dilation caused by long-term petrol ingestion.A 16-year-old young man was admitted to our hospital due to a 6-mo history of exhaustion, dizziness,nausea, abdominal cramps and constipation.X-ray examination revealed dilated stomach descending into the pelvis and small bowel distension.After a long clinical observation, we found that the reason for the chronic lead poisoning of the patient was due to a 3-year history of petrol ingestion.The patient spontaneously recovered and stomach returned to its normal position and size.Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration in all unexplained cases of gastric dilation.

  14. Chronic copper poisoning and copper retention in the liver of sheep of different types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueke, F.; Wiemann, H.

    1970-01-01

    During the first breeding tests research on sheep for fattening and value at slaughter in the Institute for Efficiency in Animal Breeding for North Rhine Westphalia at Eickelborn, signs of chronic copper poisoning were found and the copper contents of the liver in some of the slaughtered sheep were tested. Copper retention in the liver was found to depend on the type of sheep. Texel sheep retained more copper in the liver than sheep used for milk and blackheads. Within the different types, the copper retention differed from progeny group to progeny group.

  15. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

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    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  16. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  17. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

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    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  18. Development of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Predicting Chronic Toxicity of Substituted Benzenes to Daphnia Magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Deling; Liu, Jining; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xianhai; Zhang, Shenghu; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lili

    2016-05-01

    The chronic toxicity of anthropogenic molecules such as substituted benzenes to Daphnia magna is a basic eco-toxicity parameter employed to assess their environmental risk. As the experimental methods are laborious, costly, and time-consuming, development in silico models for predicting the chronic toxicity is vitally important. In this study, on the basis of five molecular descriptors and 48 compounds, a quantitative structure-property relationship model that can predict the chronic toxicity of substituted benzenes were developed by employing multiple linear regressions. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and root-mean square error (RMSE) for the training set were 0.836 and 0.390, respectively. The developed model was validated by employing 10 compounds tested in our lab. The R EXT (2) and RMSE EXT for the validation set were 0.736 and 0.490, respectively. To further characterizing the toxicity mechanism of anthropogenic molecules to Daphnia, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) models were developed. PMID:27016939

  19. Determination of as by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectional hair samples for forensic purposes. Chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of having committed suicide by ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated. As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy (measured with ICP-MS) indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, INAA with proven accuracy of sectional hair samples obtained from a hair-brush from the left estate of the deceased person was performed. Levels of As found in this work in the range of 0.06-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 hours after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. A brief review is also presented of As determination in hair for forensic purposes, including supposed, and until now frequently discussed, poisoning of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  20. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Tadashi [Yoron Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi [Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Is It Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Catalysis Derived from [RhCp*Cl2]2? In Operando-XAFS, Kinetic and Crucial Kinetic Poisoning Evidence for Subnanometer Rh4 Cluster-Based Benzene Hydrogenation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayram, Ercan; Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Roberts, John A.; Szymczak, Nathaniel; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Ozkar, Saim; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Finke, Richard G.

    2011-11-23

    Determining the true, kinetically dominant catalytically active species, in the classic benzene hydrogenation system pioneered by Maitlis and co-workers 34 years ago starting with [RhCp*Cl2]2 (Cp* = [{eta}5-C5(CH3)5]), has proven to be one of the most challenging case studies in the quest to distinguish single-metal-based 'homogeneous' from polymetallic, 'heterogeneous' catalysis. The reason, this study will show, is the previous failure to use the proper combination of (i) operando spectroscopy to determine the dominant form(s) of the precatalyst's mass under catalysis (i.e., operating) conditions, plus then and crucially also (ii) the previous lack of the necessary kinetic studies, catalysis being a 'wholly kinetic phenomenon' as J. Halpern long ago noted. An important contribution from this study will be to reveal the power of quantitiative kinetic poisoning experiments for distinguishing single-metal, or in this case subnanometer Rh4 cluster-based catalysis from larger, polymetallic Rh(0)n nanoparticle catalysis, at least under favorable conditions. The combined operando-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) spectroscopy and kinetic evidences provide a compelling case for Rh4-based, with average stoichiometry 'Rh4Cp*2.4Cl4Hc', benzene hydrogenation catalysis in 2-propanol with added Et3N and at 100 C and 50 atm initial H2 pressure. The results also reveal, however, that if even ca. 1.4% of the total soluble Rh(0)n had formed nanoparticles, then those Rh(0)n nanoparticles would have been able to account for all the observed benzene hydrogenation catalytic rate (using commercial, ca. 2 nm, polyethyleneglycol-dodecylether hydrosol stabilized Rh(0)n nanoparticles as a model system). The results 'especially the poisoning methodology developed and employed' are of significant, broader interest since determining the nature of the true catalyst continues to be a central, often vexing issue in any and all catalytic

  2. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  3. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  4. THE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LEAD POISONING ON THE VALUES OF HYPERTENSION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic Jovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the treatment of Roma children from Kosovska Mitrovica suffering from chronic lead poisoning (which began in the second half of the last decade, hypertension has also been observed. The examination and treatment were conducted under the patronage of World Health Organization, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia and local administration. Aim of this work is show correlation between lead levels in blood and hypertension in children. Materials and methods: Lead from capillary blood flow was measured by Lead care analyzer. Extracted blood from a vein measured lead level in the toxicological laboratory of the Institute „Karajovic“ Belgrade. The pressure was measured by standard devices with changeable cuffs and has been expressed in mmHg. Hypertension has been observed in 159 children. They were divided into four groups. First group: non-Roma children (n = 32 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Second group: Roma children (n = 31 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Third group: Roma children (n = 53 with blood lead levels of 10–45 mcg/dl. Fourth group: Roma children (n = 43 with blood lead levels more than 45 mcg/dl, with an average value of 61.6 mcg/dl. Results: There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of systolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 31,179; p < 0,001, the first (x = 107,2 mmHg and the fourth group (x =114,6 mmHg, the second (x = 104,5 mmHg and fourth group, third (x =106,4 mmHg and fourth group. There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of diastolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 32,028; p < 0,001, the first (x = 67,7 mmHg and the fourth group (x =73,4 mmHg, the second (x = 66 mmHg and third group (x = 69 mmHg, second and fourth group, third and fourth group of children. It is concluded that when the value of lead in the blood was higher its effect on blood pressure was more pronounced. Conclusion: Most children with

  5. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G;

    2016-01-01

    function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...... or the duration of toxicity in high-risk exposures. There is disagreement in the literature regarding factors that define patients most likely to benefit from treatments that enhance lithium elimination, including specific plasma lithium concentration thresholds. In the case of extracorporeal treatments...

  6. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

    1987-10-01

    Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

  8. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  9. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  10. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  11. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 μg/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R2 = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  12. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  13. 慢性汞中毒致神经系统损害的临床观察%The neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁岩; 宋冉; 李存江

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析慢性汞中毒对患者神经系统损害的表现,以提高对慢性汞中毒的临床认识.方法 总结分析2006--2010年首都医科大学宣武医院神经内科收治的8例慢性汞中毒患者的临床资料.结果 慢性汞中毒造成的神经系统损害包括周围神经病变以及感觉异常(6/8例)、思维缓慢及精神异常(3/8例)、肢体无力萎缩(3/8例)、震颤(4/8例)、睡眠障碍(3/8例)等.结论 慢性汞中毒可以有各种各样的神经系统损害的表现,在临床工作中要注意鉴别.尽早诊治会减少患者痛苦.%Objective To analyze the neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning for the improvement of clinical understanding of this disease.Methods The clinical data of 8 cases diagnosed as chronic mercury poisoning admitted in the department of neurology of Xuanwu hospital during the past 5 years were collected and analysed.Results Neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning involved psychological problems,sleep disorders,ataxia,extremities weakness and atrophy,tremor,peripheral neuropathy and paresthesia.Conclusions There are various kinds of neurological manifestations of chronic mercury poisoning.Identification of these manifestations in clinical practice and early diagnosis are beneficial for the relief of pains in the patients.

  14. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  4. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  9. The influence of chronic lead poisoning on the activity of some serum enzymes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Tatjana; Dožić I.; Vujanović Dragana; Pejović J.; Marjanović Marjan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of chronic lead intoxication on the activity of serum enzymes aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined. The experiment was performed on 130 adult female DA rats and 80 young rats. Rats were treated by lead-acetate 100 and 30 mg Pb per kg body weight for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days. Young rats (offspring of studied female rats) were treated with lead only through the placenta and mother's milk...

  10. The influence of chronic lead poisoning on the activity of some serum enzymes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of chronic lead intoxication on the activity of serum enzymes aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP was examined. The experiment was performed on 130 adult female DA rats and 80 young rats. Rats were treated by lead-acetate 100 and 30 mg Pb per kg body weight for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days. Young rats (offspring of studied female rats were treated with lead only through the placenta and mother's milk. The activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP were determined spectrophotomerically by IFCC method. The activity of examined serum enzymes was significantly increased in conditions of chronic lead intoxication in female rats and their offspring in relation to the control group. The activity of serum AST, ALT and ALP was in a positive correlation with the time of intoxication. There were no significant differences between the activities of enzymes AST and ALT in the serum and the amount of lead. The activity of ALP was significantly higher in serum of rats treated with higher amounts of lead. Increased AST, ALT and ALP activity in serum is most likely the consequence of lead hepatotoxicity.

  11. Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Chronic Arsenic Poisoning among Bangladeshi Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila N. Islam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.18g/L and 234.68g/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  13. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  14. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  15. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  16. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  17. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  18. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ...

  19. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  20. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  1. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containing mercury are poisonous. Methylmercury is a very poisonous form of mercury. It forms when bacteria react with mercury in water, soil, or plants. It has been used to preserve grain that ...

  2. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  3. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kofronova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 3 (2011), s. 769-772. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Instrumental neutron activation analysis * Hair * Arsenic poisoning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  4. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  5. Alterações hematológicas em pacientes expostos cronicamente ao benzeno Hematological abnormalities in patients chronically exposed to benzene. An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Artur Ruiz

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram apresentadas as alterações hematológicas do sangue periférico e da medula óssea em pacientes expostos cronicamente ao benzeno. Foram descritos a biotransformação metabólica e os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos neste tipo de toxicidade. Os dados hematológicos do sangue periférico são mostrados e avaliados em sua importância, sendo a macrocitose e a linfocitopenia sinais precoces de toxicidade ao benzeno. As alterações da medula óssea observadas são demonstradas pelos métodos complementares citológico e histológico. A anormalidade histológica de maior importância foi a hipocelularidade global devida principalmente ao setor granulocítico. Foi observado também aumento do percentual de eosinófilos, de mastócitos e de atipias no setor megacariocítico. Foram observadas alterações de caráter inflamatório e ressaltada a presença de sinais de dismielopoiese. Foram enfatizadas a necessidade da valorização das alterações hematológicas do sangue periférico e a visão critica e global desse importante problema de saúde pública.A study was carried out into the hematological abnormabilities of peripheral blood bone marrow in patients chronically exposed to benzene. The metabolic biotransformation and the mechanisms involved in toxicity are described. Hematological data are described and discussed. Macrocytosis and lymphopenia are the earlieste hematological signs of benzene toxicity. Bone marrow abnormabilities are demostrated by the complementary methods of cytology and histology. Global hypocellularity was mainly due to the granulocytic series. Mastocytosis, eosinophilia and magakariocytic abnormalities are also presented. Inflamatory abnormalities and signs of dismyelopoiese could also be observed. The importance of peripheral blood abnormalities and the need for a critical approach to this important public health problem are emphasized.

  6. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  8. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  9. Glaze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ...

  10. Lanolin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanolin is an oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product that contains lanolin. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or ...

  11. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  12. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee poisoning is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for ... Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called venom. Africanized bee colonies are very sensitive ...

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  14. Depilatory poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  15. Aftershave poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 185. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  16. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredient is: Calcium oxalate ... with a cold, wet cloth. Wash off any plant sap from the skin and eyes. ... weight, and condition Name and part of the plant swallowed, if known Time it was swallowed Amount ...

  17. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  18. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in an acute-on-chronic lithium poisoned patient:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chakroun-Walha Olfa; Ksibi Hichem; Rejeb Imen; Boujelben Mariem; Chaari Adel; Chtara Kamilia; Bouaziz Mounir; Rekik Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman with an acute-on-chronic lithium overdose received multiple oral doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate totaling 120 g over a 24-h period. During the 72 h after the institution of therapy, the serum lithium level decreased from 3.80 to 0.42 mEq/L. Multiple doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be useful in lowering the serum lithium level in severely ill patients with acute renal failure, and can substitute hemodialysis.

  19. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How ... poisoning is still one of the most important health issues in the United States ... in housing built before 1946 have elevated blood lead levels. These ...

  1. Benzene from Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Skov, H.;

    The measurements of benzene showed very clear decreasing trends in the air concentrations and the emissions since 1994. At the same time the measurements of CO and NOx also showed a decreasing trend, but not so strong as for benzene. The general decreasing trend is explained by the increasing...... number of petrol vehicles with three way catalysts, 60-70% in 1999. The very steep decreasing trend for benzene at the beginning of the period from 1994 was explained by the combination of more catalyst vehicles and reduced benzene content in Danish petrol. The total amount of aromatics in petrol......, including toluene, increased only weakly. The analyses of air concentrations were confirmed by analyses of petrol sold in Denmark. The concentration of benzene at Jagtvej in Copenhagen is still in 1998 above the expected new EU limit value, 5 µg/m3 as annual average. However, the reduced content of benzene...

  2. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ciguatera poisoning, the poisonous ingredient is ciguatoxin. This is a poison made in small amounts by certain algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae ...

  5. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  6. Differences in the pathways for metabolism of benzene in rats and mice simulated by a physiological model.

    OpenAIRE

    Medinsky, M A; Sabourin, P J; Henderson, R F; Lucier, G; Birnbaum, L S

    1989-01-01

    Studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program on the chronic toxicity of benzene indicated that B6C3F1 mice were more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of benzene than were F344 rats. A physiological model was developed to describe the uptake and metabolism of benzene in rats and mice. Our objective was to determine if differences in toxic effects could be explained by differences in pathways for benzene metabolism or by differences in total uptake of benzene. Compartments incorpor...

  7. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  8. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means...

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  10. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  11. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  12. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  13. Benzene release. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB 'DEMO' formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study

  14. Facts about Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab Info Chemical Emergencies A–Z Abrin Adamsite Ammonia Arsenic Arsine Barium Benzene Brevetoxin Bromine BZ Carbon ... used to make some types of lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. How you could be ...

  15. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  16. Benzene Monitor System report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R.R.

    1992-10-12

    Two systems for monitoring benzene in aqueous streams have been designed and assembled by the Savannah River Technology Center, Analytical Development Section (ADS). These systems were used at TNX to support sampling studies of the full-scale {open_quotes}SRAT/SME/PR{close_quotes} and to provide real-time measurements of benzene in Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) simulant. This report describes the two ADS Benzene Monitor System (BMS) configurations, provides data on system operation, and reviews the results of scoping tests conducted at TNX. These scoping tests will allow comparison with other benzene measurement options being considered for use in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) laboratory. A report detailing the preferred BMS configuration statistical performance during recent tests has been issued under separate title: Statistical Analyses of the At-line Benzene Monitor Study, SCS-ASG-92-066. The current BMS design, called the At-line Benzene Monitor (ALBM), allows remote measurement of benzene in PHA solutions. The authors have demonstrated the ability to calibrate and operate this system using peanut vials from a standard Hydragard{trademark} sampler. The equipment and materials used to construct the ALBM are similar to those already used in other applications by the DWPF lab. The precision of this system ({+-}0.5% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) at 1 sigma) is better than the purge & trap-gas chromatograpy reference method currently in use. Both BMSs provide a direct measurement of the benzene that can be purged from a solution with no sample pretreatment. Each analysis requires about five minutes per sample, and the system operation requires no special skills or training. The analyzer`s computer software can be tailored to provide desired outputs. Use of this system produces no waste stream other than the samples themselves (i.e. no organic extractants).

  17. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  18. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J T

    1987-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales was reviewed, based on the records of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture's Regional Veterinary Laboratories. The plant species causing significant mortalities were Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum. The syndrome of hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning was more frequently diagnosed than primary pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, particularly when grazing E. plantagineum. The data indicated that adult crossbred ewes were the most commonly affected class of sheep. PMID:3632498

  19. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  20. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  1. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  2. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  3. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vicinity. Keep your children informed, too. Remove any poisonous plants. Never eat wild plants, mushrooms, roots, or berries unless you very familiar with them. Teach children about the dangers ... substances are poisonous if taken in large doses. If you are ...

  4. [Poisoning in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritzi, K

    1986-01-01

    For clinical interests it is advisable to subdivide cases of swine poisoning in such as caused by food, drugs and environmental poisonings. This division gives pointers to aetiologic connections and special measures necessary for the clearing of the processes. With food poisoning mycotoxicoses play an evermore important role, whereas poisonings by trace elements are on the decrease. Sodium chloride poisoning often results primarily from insufficient water supply. With environmental poisonings carbon monoxide and cyanamide intoxication are presented. Poisonings caused by drugs are mainly the result of an overdose, of segregation in food or of non-licensed drugs. A relatively unknown swine poisoning by a drug against coccidiosis--licensed for poultry--is described. PMID:2943054

  5. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  6. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  7. Modulation of mast cell and basophil functions by benzene metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Massimo; Loffredo, Stefania; Granata, Francescopaolo; Staiano, Rosaria I; Marone, Gianni

    2011-11-01

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound used in industrial manufacturing and a common environmental pollutant mostly derived from vehicle emissions and cigarette smoke. Benzene exposure is associated with a variety of clinical conditions ranging from hematologic diseases to chronic lung disorders. Beside its direct toxicity, benzene exerts multiple effects after being converted to reactive metabolites such as hydroquinone and benzoquinone. Mast cells and basophils are primary effector cells involved in the development of respiratory allergies such as rhinitis and bronchial asthma and they play an important role in innate immunity. Benzene and its metabolites can influence mast cell and basophil responses either directly or by interfering with other cells, such as T cells, macrophages and monocytes, which are functionally connected to mast cells and basophils. Hydroquinone and benzoquinone inhibit the release of preformed mediators, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production in human basophils stimulated by IgE- and non IgE-mediated agonists. Furthermore, these metabolites reduce IgE-mediated degranulation of mast cells and the development of allergic lung inflammation in rats. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that benzene metabolites alter biochemical and functional activities of other immunocompetent cells and may impair immune responses in the lung. These inhibitory effects of benzene metabolites are primarily mediated by interference with early transduction signals such as PI3 kinase. Together, currently available studies indicate that benzene metabolites interfere by multiple mechanisms with the role of basophils and mast cells in innate immunity and in chronic inflammation in the lung. PMID:22103854

  8. Benzene exposure is associated with epigenetic changes (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Gangemi, Silvia; Costa, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Benzene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon solvent and is known as one of the predominant air pollutants in the environment. Chronic exposure to benzene is known to cause aplastic anemia and increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans. Although the mechanisms by which benzene causes toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, it is widely accepted that its metabolism is crucial to its toxicity, with involvement of one or more reactive metabolites. Novel approaches aimed at evaluating different mechanisms by which benzene can impact on human health by altering gene regulation have been developed. Among these novel approaches, epigenetics appears to be promising. The present review article summarizes the most important findings, reported from the literature, on epigenetic modifications correlated to benzene exposure. A computerized search in PubMed was performed in November 2014, using search terms, including 'benzene', 'epigenetic', 'histone modifications', 'DNA methylation' and 'microRNA'. Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the potential epigenetic effects of benzene exposure. Several of the epigenomic changes observed in response to environmental exposures may be mechanistically associated with susceptibility to diseases. However, further elucidation of the mechanisms by which benzene alters gene expression may improve prediction of the toxic potential of novel compounds introduced into the environment, and allow for more targeted and appropriate disease prevention strategies. PMID:26936331

  9. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  10. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  11. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  12. Phase II metabolism of benzene.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, D.; Orzechowski, A.; Schwarz, L R; Snyder, R.; Burchell, B; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; K. W. DE BOCK

    1996-01-01

    The hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bony marrow toxicity. However, the complete pattern of benzene metabolites formed in the liver and their role in bone marrow toxicity are not fully understood. Therefore, benzene metabolism was studied in isolated rodent hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes released benzene-1,2-dihydrodiol, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CT), phenol (PH), trans-trans-muconic acid, and a number of phase II metabolites such as PH sulfate and PH glu...

  13. Kinetic model of deactivation of a nickel catalyst in the reaction of hydrogenation of benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masagutov, R.M.; Spivak, S.I.; Kovaleva, L.V.; Morozov, B.V.; Yaropolova, E.A.

    1988-12-01

    The kinetics of hydrogenation of benzene on a nickel catalyst in conditions of poisoning with thiophene were investigated. A mechanism of deactivation of the catalyst was proposed. A kinetic model of the process was constructed. The numerical values of the constants of the deactivation stages which satisfactorily describe the experimental data were found.

  14. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  15. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  16. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  17. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  18. Benzene vapor recovery and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, or NESHAPs, have provided a powerful motivation for interest in, and attention to, benzene vapor emissions in recent times. Benzene and its related aromatics are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which marks them for surveillance as potential contributors to air pollution. In addition, benzene is a suspected carcinogen, which applies a special urgency to its control. The regulations governing the control of benzene emissions were issued as Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, subpart Y (Storage Vessels); subpart BB (Transfer Operations); and subpart FF (Waste Operations). These regulations specify very particular emission reduction guidelines for various generating sources. The problem in the hydrocarbon processing industry is to identify significant sources of benzene vapors in plants, and then to collect and process these vapors in an environmentally acceptable manner. This paper discusses various methods for collecting benzene fumes in these facilities

  19. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J.; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

    2000-01-01

    The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised.

  20. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  1. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m3, current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound

  2. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C; Yu, R; Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine d...

  3. Effect of chronic fluorine poisoning on fluorine content of hard tissue in rats%慢性氟中毒对大鼠硬组织氟含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱军; 刘盘龙; 梅予锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the change of fluorine content in different tissues and sex of Wistar rats with chronic fluorine poisoning, and to explore the relationship of fluorine content between the enamel and the dentin. Methods A total of 20 Wistar rats were divided into male and female groups according to the gender, each group had two subgroups. The one subgroup was Fluoride drinking group in each male and female groups, rats in this group were given water containing 100 mg/L F- sodium fluoride; and the rest rats were in control group drank only double distilled water. All the rats were killed after 7 weeks. Changes in the fluorine content of each group were analyzed with Fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The bone fluoride and dental fluoride content of fluoride drinking group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P 0.05); there were significant differences between dentin fluoride content and enamel fluoride content in dental fluorosis (P 0.05);氟牙症牙本质氟含量与釉质氟含量差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 氟对硬组织具有特殊亲和力,氟对牙本质亲和力高于釉质;相同氟暴露情况下,性别对大鼠氟牙症的氟含量无明显影响.

  4. Selected case histories and epidemiologic examples of human mercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstner, H.B.; Huff, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical aspects of mercury poisoning are described for elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. Critical targets of poisoning by elemental mercury are the lungs and the central nervous system. A case of acute pulmonary injury and a case of chronic brain injury are described. The effects of inorganic mercury compounds are chiefly injuries to the alimentary canal and kidneys. Two cases of acute intoxication from these compounds are described. An epidemiologic study on Africans suffering from the nephrotic syndrome showed that aminomercuric chloride was the causative agent. Organic mercury compounds are discussed with regard to the following: individual cases of the methylmercury syndrome in adults; individual cases of prenatal methylmercury intoxication; epidemic outbreaks of methylmercury poisoning; epidemiology of methylmercury poisoning through dressed seed grain; and epidemic outbreaks of poisonings by organomercurials other than methylmercury. (HLW)

  5. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  6. Progress of epidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian

    2006-09-01

    Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1. PMID:17119257

  7. Fuel oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related ...

  8. Lighter fluid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ...

  9. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  10. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause ... given through a vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous ...

  11. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  15. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  16. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  17. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  19. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Field R, Panter KE, et al. Selected poisonous plants affecting animal and human health. In: Haschek WAM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 40.

  20. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  1. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... King St., Suite 510 Alexandria, VA 22314 Online http://www.aapcc.org/ Email not for emergency use. ... Poison Center" in the memo line. Donate online: http://bit.ly/1HDxdHb Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http:// ...

  2. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or into their eyes. ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  3. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  4. Window cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 151. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  5. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 97. Harchelroad FP Jr, Rottinghaus ... Textbook of Critical Care . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  6. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 146. Freedman DO. Protection of ...

  7. Wart remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  8. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  9. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Hossein Davari; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Mohammad Reza Vahidi; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Maryam Bahaloo; Pedram Shokouh

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months...

  10. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  13. 慢性砷中毒对小鼠齿状回GFAP表达的影响%Effects of chronic arsenic poisoning on GFAP expression in the dentate gyms of adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康朝胜; 孙宝飞; 余资江; 李玉飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the dentate gyrus of adult mice after chronic arsenic poisoning. Methods 80 healthy adult Kunming mice, weighing 20-22g, were divided into four groups: the normal control group, the low-dose group, the medium-dose group and the high-dose group ( 10 males and 10 females in each group). Mice in the four groups were respectively fed with distilled water, 1/5 LD50, 1/10 LD50 and 1/40 LD50 AS2O3 for 3 months, and the dosage was adjusted according to changes of weight. Then ability of learning and memory was tested by a Y-maze, and expression of the GFAP protein in the dentate gyrus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Ability of learning and memory in the high-dose group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group ( P < 0.05 ). Immunohistochemical results showed that the number of GFAP-positive cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly more increased in the dose groups compared with the normal control group(P<0.01 ), and the average optical density was also increased (P <0.01 ). Western blot results showed the GFAP protein content increased with the dosage increasing (P <0.01 ). Conclusion Chronic arsenic poisoning might damage ability of learning and memory in mice, which may be related to proliferation of astroeytes and expression of GFAP in the dentate gyrus.%目的 研究砷中毒后小鼠齿状回胶质原纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)的变化.方法 选取健康成年昆明小鼠80只,雌雄各半,分为对照组及慢性砷中毒高、中、低剂量组,每组20只,分别以蒸馏水、1/5 LD50、1/10 LD50、1/40LD50 As2O3连续灌胃3个月,根据其体质量变化随时调整用药剂量,采用Y-电迷宫检测各组小鼠学习记忆行为,采用免疫组织化学和蛋白印迹技术检测不同浓度砷中毒对小鼠齿状回部位GFAP表达的影响.结果 与正常对照组比较,高剂量砷中毒组学习、记忆Y-迷

  14. Evaluation of Trans, Trans-Muconic Acid in Urine of Exposed Workers to Benzene in a Cokery Plant

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rahiminejad; S.Gh. Mirsattari; A. Bahrami; B. Akbari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Benzene is a light yellow liquid with aromatic odor and has effects to human body. The main and dangerous health effect of chronic exposure to benzene in workplace is hematopoetic system disease or blood cancer that it's primarily clinical figures are anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia. The objective of this study was evaluation of benzene exposure by analysis of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-ma) in post shift of workers.Materials & Methods: A case-contro...

  15. Lymphocyte chromosome breakage in low benzene exposure among Indonesian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi S. Soemarko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene has been used in industry since long time and its level in environment should be controled. Although environmental benzene level has been controlled to less than 1 ppm, negative effect of benzene exposure is still observed, such as chromosome breakage. This study aimed to know the prevalence of lymphocyte chromosome breakage and the influencing factors among workers in low level benzene exposure.Methods: This was a cross sectional study in oil & gas industry T, conducted between September 2007 and April 2010. The study subjects consisted of 115 workers from production section and head office. Data on type of work, duration of benzene exposure, and antioxidant consumption were collected by interview as well as observation of working process. Lymphocyte chromosome breakage was examined by banding method. Analysis of relationship between chromosome breakage and risk factors was performed by chi-square and odd ratio, whereas the role of determinant risk factors was analyzed by multivariate forward stepwise.Results: Overall lymphocyte chromosome breakage was experieced by 72 out of 115 subjects (62.61%. The prevalence among workers at production section was 68.9%, while among administration workers was 40% (p > 0.05. Low antioxidant intake increases the risk of chromosome breakage (p = 0.035; ORadjusted = 2.90; 95%CI 1.08-7.78. Other influencing factors are: type of work (p = 0,10; ORcrude = 3.32; 95% CI 1.33-8.3 and chronic benzene exposure at workplace (p = 0.014; ORcrude = 2.61; 95% CI 1.2-5.67, while the work practice-behavior decreases the lymphocyte chromosome breakage (p = 0.007; ORadjusted = 0.30; 95% CI 0.15-0.76.Conclusion: The prevalence of lymphocyte chromosome breakage in the environment with low benzene exposure is quite high especially in production workers. Chronic benzene exposure in the workplace, type of work, and low antioxidant consumption is related to lymphocyte chromosome breakage. Thus, benzene in the

  16. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  17. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  18. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  19. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  20. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly cause an allergic skin reaction. The result is most often ... oils most often enter the skin rapidly. POISON IVY This is one of the most frequent causes ...

  1. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  2. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  4. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

  5. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  6. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  7. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  8. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute carbon monoxide poisoning with 1-year computed tomographic follow-up is presented. The typical initial bilateral symmetrical low-density areas in the basal ganglia were found to have decreased markedly in size in the latter scan. These appearances coincided with the initial early oedematous phase of infarction ending in the late permanent necrotic stage

  9. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call ... forms that need to be diluted before use. Exposure to concentrated cold wave lotion will cause much more damage than over-the-counter lotion.

  10. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  12. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  13. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  14. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, R F

    1996-01-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of th...

  15. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  16. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  17. Severity rating scales for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, W R

    1993-06-01

    Severity of ciguatera fish poisoning is often quite variable. Two symptom check list rating scales were developed for quantifying illness severity and for selectively monitoring response to therapy in patients with chronic toxicity. Content validity was ascertained, and internal consistency reliability was demonstrated by means of the Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.9475). It was concluded that these instruments were valid and reliable, and that they conveniently and accurately recorded illness severity and treatment efficacy. They should prove useful in clinical settings and epidemiologic investigations. PMID:8342175

  18. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  19. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  1. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  2. Treatment of acetaminophen poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, E M; Freedman, F.

    1981-01-01

    Acetaminophen is an analgesic that is frequently used in Canada, and the occurrence of overdoses with this drug seems to be increasing. The most serious complication of acetaminophen overdose is hepatic failure. Because of pathophysiologic effects of acetaminophen poisoning and the mechanisms of its toxic effects are now better understood, a rational approach to treatment is possible. Several precursors of glutathione, acetylcysteine in particular, are effective in preventing liver damage if ...

  3. 27 CFR 21.97 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzene. 21.97 Section 21... TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.97 Benzene. (a..., Standard No. D 836-77; for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of benzene are...

  4. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of the benzene to hydroquinone metabolites than do rats or chimpanzees, especially at low doses. Nonhuman primates metabolize less of the benzene to muconic acid than do rodents or humans. In all species studied, a greater proportion of benzene is converted to hydroquinone and ring-breakage metabolites at low doses than at high doses. This finding should be considered in attempting to extrapolate the toxicity of benzene observed at high doses to predicted toxicity at low doses. Because ring-breakage metabolites and hydroquinone have both been implicated in the toxicity of benzene, the higher formation of those metabolites in the mouse may partially explain why mice are more sensitive to benzene than are rats. Metabolism of benzene in humans, the species of interest, does not exactly mimic that of any animal species studied. More information on the urinary and blood metabolites of occupationally exposed people is required to determine the fractional conversion of benzene to putative toxic metabolites and the degree of variability present in human subjects. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  6. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  7. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  8. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  9. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or...

  10. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  11. Double photoionization of halogenated benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have experimentally investigated the double-photoionization process in C6BrF5 using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. We compare our results with previously published data for partially deuterated benzene (C6H3D3) over a wide range of photon energies from threshold to 270 eV. A broad resonance in the ratio of doubly to singly charged parent ions at about 65 eV appears shifted in energy compared to benzene data. This shift is due to the difference in the bond lengths in two molecules. A simple model can explain the shape of this resonance. At higher photon energies, we observe another broad resonance that can be explained as a second harmonic of the first resonance

  12. Double photoionization of halogenated benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlKhaldi, Mashaal Q. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Wehlitz, Ralf, E-mail: rwehlitz@gmail.com [Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    We have experimentally investigated the double-photoionization process in C{sub 6}BrF{sub 5} using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. We compare our results with previously published data for partially deuterated benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 3}D{sub 3}) over a wide range of photon energies from threshold to 270 eV. A broad resonance in the ratio of doubly to singly charged parent ions at about 65 eV appears shifted in energy compared to benzene data. This shift is due to the difference in the bond lengths in two molecules. A simple model can explain the shape of this resonance. At higher photon energies, we observe another broad resonance that can be explained as a second harmonic of the first resonance.

  13. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  14. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common means of self-poisoning in Europe and North America, often taken as an impulsive act of self-harm in young people. Mortality from paracetamol overdose is now about 0.4%, although without treatment, severe liver damage occurs in at least half of people with blood paracetamol levels above the UK standard treatment line.In adults, ingestion of less than 125 mg/kg is unlikely to lead to hepatotoxicity; even higher doses may be tolerated by children witho...

  15. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  16. Slow Neutron Scattering by Benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the scattering of slow neutrons by the benzene molecule. The calculations are carried out within the framework of the time dependent formalism of Zemach and Glauber. Detailed account is taken of the effects of the molecular vibrations on the neutron scattering. Among the results explicitly calculated are the slow neutron total scattering cross-section as a function of energy and the energy angular distribution of singly scattered sections. (author)

  17. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5 % was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39 % of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99 %); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26 % (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46 %); products of daily use in about 14 % (of these, cosmetics in 40 %); and plants in about 10 %. More than 90 % of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5 %, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44 % of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30 %, moderate ones in 6 %, and severe manifestations in 2 % of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (industrial poisoning

  18. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  19. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  20. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  1. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of benzene on platinum electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Montilla Jiménez, Francisco; Huerta Arráez, Francisco; Morallón Núñez, Emilia; Vázquez Picó, José Luis

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption and oxidation of benzene in acidic media on platinum electrodes (polycrystalline and single-crystal electrodes) have been studied by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidation characteristics of benzene depend on the surface structure of the platinum electrode used. In all platinum electrodes studied, the main reduction product of benzene is cyclohexane, and the oxidation products detected by infrared spectroscopy have been CO2 and ben...

  3. Natural Biological Attenuation of Benzene in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Benzene has been found in subsurface unsaturated soil and groundwater beneath a petro-chemical plant. Although the groundwater contained several mg/L of benzene in the area immediately beneath the source, benzene was not detected in monitoring wells approximately 800m down stream. All kinds of physical processes such as adsorption and advection/dispersion are considered to account for the observed attenuation. The results indicated that the attenuation was primarily due to natural biological processes occurring within the aquifer. The evidence for the natural bioremediation of benzene from the groundwater included: (1) analysis of groundwater chemistry, (2) laboratory studies demonstrating benzene biodegradation in aquifer samples, and (3) computer simulations examining benzene transport. Laboratory experiments indicated that for conditions similar to those in the plume, the aerobic degradation of benzene by the naturally occurring microorganisms in the polluted groundwater samples was quite rapid with a half-life time of from 5 to 15 days. In situ analyses indicated the level of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater was over 2mg/L. Thus, oxygen should not limit the biodegradation. In fact, the benzene was also shown to degrade under anaerobic conditions. The results from the modeling simulations indicate that biodegradation is the dominant process influencing attenuation of the benzene.

  4. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  5. Albumin Adducts of Electrophilic Benzene Metabolites in Benzene-Exposed and Control Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tsai, Chin H.; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T.; Zhang, Luoping; Shen, Min; Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian; Kim, Sungkyoon; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Metabolism of benzene produces reactive electrophiles, including benzene oxide (BO), 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), and 1,2-benzoquinone (1,2-BQ), that are capable of reacting with blood proteins to produce adducts. Objectives The main purpose of this study was to characterize relationships between levels of albumin adducts of these electrophiles in blood and the corresponding benzene exposures in benzene-exposed and control workers, after adjusting for important covariates. Because se...

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in...

  7. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.;

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific noxious mechanisms. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical disturbances, yet only...... limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological effects of CO poisoning. To further examine the short-term and long-term effects of CO on the central nervous system, we have studied seven patients with CO poisoning assessed by gray and white matter MRS...

  8. Pneumonitis and lethal pulmonary fibrosis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) due to Parathione (E605) poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with chronic Parathione (E 605) poisoning was observed over a period of 55 days. During that time he developed progressive changes, which were identical to those of progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The rapid development of an alveolitis, followed by a lethal pulmonary fibrosis, differed in no way, macroscopically nor microscopically, from the lung changes in paraquat poisoning (paraquat lung). The radiologic course has been correlated with the clinical and post mortem findings. (orig.)

  9. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Kenyon, E.M.; Seaton, M.J.; Schlosser, P.M. [Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase 11 enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  11. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  12. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    Guidance for primary�care�on how to deal with�patients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  13. Diagnosing poisoning: Carbon monoxide (CO)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    Guidance for primarycareon how to deal withpatients presenting with possible symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Produced by the Health Protection Agency and adapted by the Public Health Agency.

  14. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  15. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method...

  16. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct ...

  18. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  19. 46 CFR 30.25-3 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benzene. 30.25-3 Section 30.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commodities Regulated § 30.25-3 Benzene. The provisions contained in 46 CFR part 197, subpart C, apply to liquid cargoes containing 0.5% or more...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-60 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benzene. 151.50-60 Section 151.50-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-60 Benzene. The person in charge of...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1128 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene. 1926.1128 Section 1926.1128 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1128 Benzene....

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1028 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene. 1915.1028 Section 1915.1028 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Benzene. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  3. Bio sensing Benzene in the refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biosensor based on Pseudomonas putida cells was utilized for Benzene analysis in air of an oil refinery. Biosensoristic approach was compared to gaschromatografic essay. We also developed bio sensing Benzene genetically modified Escherichia coli and tested them with refinery samples. Microbial biosensor were useful to determine air pollution.

  4. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  5. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  6. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P 1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice is not recommended. PMID:26717371

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpakaj, Zygmunt; Linde, Bogumił B. J.

    2016-03-01

    Intermolecular potentials and a few models of intermolecular interaction in liquid benzene are tested by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones 12-6 (LJ 12-6) potential is too hard, which yields incorrect results. The exp-6 potential with a too hard repulsive term is also often used. Therefore, we took an expa-6 potential with a small Gaussian correction plus electrostatic interactions. This allows to modify the curvature of the potential. The MD simulations are carried out in the temperature range 280-352 K under normal pressure and at experimental density. The Rayleigh scattering of depolarized light is used for comparison. The results of MD simulations are comparable with the experimental values.

  8. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Excited state of protonated benzene and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present photo-fragmentation electronic spectra of the simplest protonated aromatic molecules, protonated benzene and toluene, recorded under medium resolution conditions and compared with the photo-fragmentation spectrum of protonated pyridine. Despite the resolution and cold temperature achieved in the experiment, the electronic spectra of protonated benzene and toluene are structure-less, thus intrinsically broadened. This is in agreement with the large geometrical changes and the fast dynamic toward internal conversion predicted by ab initio calculations for protonated benzene [Rode et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 5865–5873 (2009)

  10. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...

  12. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... HealthDay News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  13. Four component catalysis for the hydroalkylation of benzene to cyclohexyl benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahy, J.; Trimm, D.L. [School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 Sydney (Australia); Cookson, D.J. [BHP Melbourne Research Laboratories, Vic. Melbourne (Australia)

    2001-04-13

    Patent claims that benzene can be hydroalkylated to form cyclohexyl benzene - a potential diesel fuel - over a four component catalyst have been verified, and the role of the individual components has been explored. The hydrogenation of benzene over nickel on zeolite 13X produced reasonably high (ca. 30%) yields of cyclohexane, but the product distribution favoured cyclohexyl benzene in the presence of rare earth ions. The addition of small (ca. 1%) of platinum produced good yields and selectivities to cyclohexyl benzene at ca. 450K, a performance which was matched only at ca. 670K in the absence of platinum. Temperature programmed studies showed that Pt promoted the low temperature reduction of the catalyst to produce better performance. The acidic 13X molecular sieve promoted alkylation, but acidity was not the only factor involved. Rare earth additions were suggested to induce electron transfer to the nickel, weakening adsorption of benzene and promoting hydroalkylation rather than hydrogenation.

  14. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  15. 46 CFR 197.565 - Notifying personnel of benzene hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appendices A and B of this subpart or a MSDS on benzene meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) is... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying personnel of benzene hazards. 197.565 Section... AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.565 Notifying personnel of benzene hazards....

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  18. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    Çapan Konca; Zelal Kahramaner; Mehmet Boşnak; Halil Kocamaz

    2014-01-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a poisonous plant for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of its poisoning is supportive care. A 6-year-old girl who admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock was presented wi...

  19. Metabolites of benzene are potent inhibitors of gap-junction intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivedal, Edgar [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Institute for Cancer Research, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Witz, Gisela [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/UMDNJ, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Chronic exposure to benzene has been shown to lead to bone marrow depression and the development of leukemia. The mechanism underlying the carcinogenicity of benzene is unknown, although a number of genetic changes including chromosomal aberrations have been associated with benzene toxicity. Metabolism of benzene is required for the induced toxicological effects. We have investigated the effect of trans,trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), hydroquinone (HQ), and four MUC metabolites on gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Inhibition of GJIC has been considered a possible predictor of tumor promoters and non-genotoxic carcinogens, and shown to result in perturbation of hematopoiesis. MUC was found to be a strong inhibitor of GJIC (EC50=12 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) in rat liver epithelial cells IAR20, with potency similar to that of chlordane (EC50=7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). HQ inhibited GJIC with an EC50 of 25 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, and the metabolite OH/CHO with an EC50 of 58 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The other MUC metabolites tested, CHO/COOH and OH/COOH were weak inhibitors of GJIC whereas COOH/COOH had no effect. Benzene itself had no effect on GJIC when tested in concentrations up to 20 mmol L{sup -1}. The relative potency observed for the metabolites on GJIC is similar to their hematotoxic effects. The effect of MUC on GJIC was observed to take place concordant with a dramatic loss of connexin 43 (Cx43) from the cells as visualized by Western blotting. Substances with the ability to inhibit Cx43-dependent GJIC have previously been observed to interfere with normal hematopoietic development. The ability of benzene metabolites to interfere with gap-junction functionality, and especially the dramatic loss of Cx43 induced by MUC, should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism for benzene-induced hematotoxicity and development of leukemia. (orig.)

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person. A......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...

  1. Recommended sublimation pressure and enthalpy of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sublimation pressures of benzene were measured. • Benzene thermodynamic properties in the state of ideal gas were calculated. • Recommended sublimation pressure and enthalpy of benzene were developed. -- Abstract: Recommended vapor pressures of solid benzene (CAS Registry Number: 71-43-2) which are consistent with thermodynamically related crystalline and ideal-gas heat capacities as well as with properties of the liquid phase at the triple point temperature (vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization) were established. The recommended data were developed by a multi-property simultaneous correlation of vapor pressures and related thermal data. Vapor pressures measured in this work using the static method in the temperature range from 233 K to 260 K, covering pressure range from 99 Pa to 1230 Pa, were included in the simultaneous correlation. The enthalpy of sublimation was established with uncertainty significantly lower than the previously recommended values

  2. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  3. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  4. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  5. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  6. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    cases of APAP poisoning. However, given that APAP is dialyzable, the workgroup agreed that ECTR is suggested in patients with excessively large overdoses who display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. This is reflected by early development of altered mental status and severe metabolic acidosis prior...

  8. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  9. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  10. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  11. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  12. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  13. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with 60Co γ-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H2) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H2O2) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e-aq + H2O2) >> k(H + H2O2). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C6H6OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. C6H7 · + C6H6OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H2O2) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C6H6)/k(H + O2) was 1.4x10-2. The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe2+ or Fe3+ to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed

  14. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  15. Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera pascuori was recently reported in horses in the state of Roraima. It causes chronic signs of sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, and progressive weight loss. Some animals are blind. Young horses are more affected than adults. After the end of plant consumption the anima...

  16. Cytogenetic Abnormalities of Hematopoietic Tissue in Retired Workers of the Ohkunojima Poison Gas Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil, Fouzia A.; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Yamakido, Michio; Nishimoto, Yukio; Kamada, Nanao

    1993-01-01

    A high incidence of cancer of the respiratory tract has been reported among former workers in a poison gas manufacturing plant which operated on Ohkunojima from 1927 to 1945. This report provides evidence of a high incidence of chromosome abnormality and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) rate among the former workers, as well as cytogenetic changes in two patients among the former workers with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). A chromosome study of seven former workers with chronic bronchitis ...

  17. Dehydrogenation of benzene on Pt(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Zheng, W. T.; Jiang, Q.

    2008-10-01

    The dehydrogenation of benzene on Pt(111) surface is studied by ab initio density functional theory. The minimum energy pathways for benzene dehydrogenation are found with the nudge elastic band method including several factors of the associated barriers, reactive energies, intermediates, and transient states. The results show that there are two possible parallel minimum energy pathways on the Pt(111) surface. Moreover, the tilting angle of the H atom in benzene can be taken as an index for the actual barrier of dehydrogenation. In addition, the properties of dehydrogenation radicals on the Pt(111) surface are explored through their adsorption energy, adsorption geometry, and electronic structure on the surface. The vibrational frequencies of the dehydrogenation radicals derived from the calculations are in agreement with literature data.

  18. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is < 15 mg/L (83 μmol/L) (1D). Following the cessation of ECTR, patients should be closely monitored. Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred method of ECTR (1C). If intermittent...

  20. Copper poisoning in the Kruger National Park: field investigation in wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, D G; Swan, G E

    1999-09-01

    Chronic copper poisoning was investigated in ruminants within the Phalaborwa area of the Kruger National Park (KNP). Exposure of ruminants to environmental copper pollution resulting form copper smelting operations of a mine in the area was examined by comparing impala faecal copper concentrations in dung heaps and tissue (liver, lung and kidney) copper concentrations of organs collected from impala and buffalo culled within three risk zones (high, moderate and low) of the study area in relation to the distance from the smelter over a period of 4 years. An additional area within the KNP not exposed to the environmental copper pollution from the mine served as control. Tissue copper accumulation was also determined in tracer impala placed in the highest risk zone. The results of this study confirmed the occurrence of chronic copper poisoning in impala and indicated an inverse relationship in extent of impala faecal copper elimination and in tissue copper accumulation in impala and buffalo with distance from the copper smelter. Impala liver copper concentrations were shown to be a reliable indicator of copper accumulation for these ruminants. The presence lung copper concentrations, indicating the exposure to airborne copper were the highest in impala culled in the zone closest to the smelter. Liver copper concentrations above the diagnostic limit of 150 ppm for chronic copper poisoning in domestic sheep were consistently found in impala within the highest risk zone. Clinical pathological measurements suggested that AST activity could possibly be used as an indicator for chronic copper poisoning in impala. It is concluded that, in addition to the environmental and geo-botanical evidence previously reported, the copper smelter of a nearby copper mine is the most likely source of copper pollution responsible for chronic copper poisoning in impala and the occurrence of high copper concentrations in buffalo in the Phalaborwa area of the KNP. PMID:10631705

  1. Drugs prescribed for self poisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, L F; Highley, M S

    1985-01-01

    Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs increased progressively with age and most patients took the same drugs in overdosage as they had been p...

  2. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  3. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  4. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  5. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  6. The pyrolysis of toluene and ethyl benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovskaya, V. G.; Samgin, V. F.; Kalinenko, R. A.; Nametkin, N. S.

    1987-01-01

    The pyrolysis of toluene at 850 to 950 C gave mainly H2, CH4, and benzene; PhEt at 650 to 750 C gave mainly H2, CH4, styrene, benzene, and toluene. The rate constants for PhEt pyrolysis were 1000 times higher than those for toluene pyrolysis; the chain initiation rate constants differed by the same factor. The activation energy differences were 46 kJ/mole for the total reaction and 54 kJ/mole for chain initiation. The chain length was evaluated for the PhEt case (10 + or - 2).

  7. Role of adrenocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of poisoning syndromes due to some industrial toxins (aromatic nitro compounds, lead)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makotcenko, V.M.

    1974-10-01

    Comparative study is presented of adrenocortical dysfunction in workers chronically exposed to aromatic nitro compounds and to lead. The chronic intoxications produced by aromatic nitro compounds and by lead are characterized by a slight reduction in adrenocortical activity, which plays an important part in the pathogenesis of certain syndromes such as asthenia, gastric secretion disorders, lead anemia and lead polyneuritis. It is desirable to take measures to normalize corticosteroid formation when chronic occupational poisoning is being treated. (CIS Abstr. Vol. 2)

  8. Emergency Poisoning and Toxic Effects Characteristic of Mortality Factors%急诊中毒特点与中毒死亡影响因素探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱日磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the emergency poisoning characteristics and influencing factors of poisoning.Method:The clinical data of 100 cases of poisoning patients in our hospital emergency department from Jan 2013 to Dec 2014 between diagnosis and treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Result:The average age of all patients was (34.01±2.16) years old.Female ratio was 1∶1.The occupational distribution of the main workers,agricultural workers,domestic workers, etc.Male cause of poisoning was usually accidental poisoning,women was suicide.The main types of chemical poisoning. Poisoning cause of death was mainly affected by the patient’s age,residence,organic poisoning,benzene and benzene poisoning,drug intoxication and other factors greatly.Conclusion:Characteristics and influencing factors of poisoning deaths grasp emergency poisoning emergency treatment to improve work efficiency has a crucial role.%目的:急诊中毒特点与中毒死亡影响因素探析。方法:回顾性分析2013年1月-2014年12月笔者所在医院诊治的100例急诊中毒患者的临床资料。结果:所有中毒患者的平均年龄为(34.01±2.16)岁;男女比例为1∶1;职业分布主要为工人、农业劳动者、家庭劳动者等;男性中毒原因一般为意外中毒,女性为服毒自杀;中毒类型主要为化学品中毒;中毒死亡原因主要受年龄、户籍、有机物中毒、苯及苯系物中毒、毒品中毒等因素影响较大。结论:及时掌握急诊中毒的特点与中毒死亡的影响因素对于提高急诊救治的工作效率具有至关重要的作用。

  9. Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    gaenglia has been reported in patients with the poisoning. Thus, increased signal intensities as a target site dose can be a more useful biomakers of the manganese than other biological indicies such as ambient manganese concentration or blood manganese concentration on individual basis. Manganese poisoning ultimately becomes chronic. However, if the disease is diagnosed while still at the early stages and the patient is removed from exposure, the course may be reversed. Once well established, it becomes progressive and irreversible, even when exposure is terminated. Levodopa therapy is not effective for the management of manganese poisoning. Levodopa unresponsiveness may be usefull to distinguish manganese-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson disease. (author)

  10. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  11. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  12. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  13. Influence of chronic aluminum poisoning on the glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in rat endbrain and hippocampi%慢性铝中毒对大鼠端脑和海马中糖原合成酶激酶3β的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付云; 石如玲; 赵长安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta( GSK-3β) in rat endbrain and hippocampi with chronic aluminum poisoning. Methods Sixty female SD rats,6 months old, were randomly divided into normal group,aluminum taking orally group and intraperitoneal injection aluminum group,20 rats in each group. Normal group was fed with general forage. Aluminum taking orally group was given forage containing AlCl3 · 6H2O 25 mg · g-1. Intraperitoneal injection aluminum group was injected sterilized 9 g · L-1 AlCl3 · 6H2O solution,3 times a week. Three months later,rats were sacrificed by femoral artery bleeding. The expression of GSK-3 p protein in hippocampus was detected by enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay and the expression of GSK-3β gene in endbrain and hippocampi was detected by reverse transcription polymer-ase chain reaction. Results Compared with the normal group, GSK-3β mRNA showed higher expression in the rat endbrain and hippocampi in both aluminum taking orally group and intraperitoneal injection aluminum group( P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion GSK-3β gene expression level in rat's endbrain and hippocampi obviously increase after chronic aluminum poisoning.%目的 探讨慢性铝中毒大鼠端脑和海马中糖原合成酶激酶3β (GSK-3β)的表达.方法 6月龄雌性SD大鼠60只随机分为正常组、口服铝组和腹腔注射铝组,每组20只.正常组饲喂正常饲料,口服铝组饲喂25 mg·g-1的含A1C13·6H2O饲料,腹腔注射铝组腹腔注射9g·L-1的灭菌A1C13·6H2O溶液,每周3次.3个月后,股动脉放血处死大鼠.酶联免疫吸附测定法检测海马细胞中GSK-3β蛋白的表达;反转录聚合酶链反应检测海马和端脑中GSK-3β基因的表达.结果 与正常组比较,GSK-3β mRNA在口服铝和腹腔注射铝组大鼠端脑和海马中均高表达(P<0.05);腹腔注射铝组海马中GSK-3β mRNA表达高于口服铝组(P<0.05).口服铝组和腹腔注射铝组大鼠海马中GSK-3β蛋白

  14. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  15. [Senecio jacobaea: deceiving beauty. Senecio jacobaea poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, J H; Geerts, A A J; Borgers, J W; Mars, M H; Muskens, J A M; van Wuijckhuise-Sjouke, L A

    2002-12-15

    In a cattle herd problems were noticed during 1.5 years, characterised by emaciation and loss of milk production with lower fat- and protein%, tenesmus, central nervous symptoms (aggression, circling and blindness), diarrhoea, eczema solare and death. Clinical, laboratory and post mortem examinations did not reveal a specific cause at first. An intoxication was suspected based on the clinical symptoms, the course of the disease in sick animals and severe liver cirrhosis found in a sudden death cow: The animals were fed grassilage derived from an air force base on which an overwhelming amount of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) was present. On subsequent microscopic examination of the livers of 11 slaughtered clinically healthy animals all of these showed fibrosis in varying extension. Cirrhosis and fibrosis of the liver and the clinical symptoms are all features of chronic pyrrolyzidine alkaloidosis. Tansy ragwort poisoning has not been diagnosed in the Netherlands for years. The rise in cases is due to more extensive use of land. PMID:12516386

  16. Chronic Copper Toxicity in a Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Blakley, B R; Berezowski, J. A.; Schiefer, H B; Armstrong, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A three year old Holstein dairy cow fed a ration containing a copper supplement died of chronic copper poisoning. The concentration of copper in the liver was 331 ppm (wet weight). The typical lesions of chronic copper toxicity including icterus, hepatic fibrosis and hemoglobinemic nephrosis were found at necropsy. The chronic copper toxicity was not considered to be a herd problem since the liver copper concentration in a slaughtered cull animal and blood samples taken from five animals in t...

  17. Recommended sublimation pressure and enthalpy of benzene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Červinka, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, Jan (2014), s. 40-47. ISSN 0021-9614 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : benzene * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal-gas thermodynamic properties * sublimation enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2014

  18. 46 CFR 153.1060 - Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benzene. 153.1060 Section 153.1060 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1060...

  19. Formation of Benzene in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brant M.; Zhang, Fangtong; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jamal, Adeel; Mebel, Alexander M.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Crim, F. Fleming (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related species have been suggested to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest building block-the aromatic benzene molecule-has remained elusive for decades. Here we demonstrate in crossed molecular beam experiments combined with electronic structure and statistical calculations that benzene (C6H6) can be synthesized via the barrierless, exoergic reaction of the ethynyl radical and 1,3- butadiene, C2H + H2CCHCHCH2 --> C6H6, + H, under single collision conditions. This reaction portrays the simplest representative of a reaction class in which aromatic molecules with a benzene core can be formed from acyclic precursors via barrierless reactions of ethynyl radicals with substituted 1,3-butadlene molecules. Unique gas-grain astrochemical models imply that this low-temperature route controls the synthesis of the very first aromatic ring from acyclic precursors in cold molecular clouds, such as in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Rapid, subsequent barrierless reactions of benzene with ethynyl radicals can lead to naphthalene-like structures thus effectively propagating the ethynyl-radical mediated formation of aromatic molecules in the interstellar medium.

  20. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  1. 40 CFR 721.1350 - Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl... Substances § 721.1350 Benzene, (1-methylethyl)(2-phenylethyl)-. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1210 - Benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)-. 721.1210... Substances § 721.1210 Benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, (2-chloroethoxy)- (PMN P-87-1471) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1187 - Bis(imidoethylene) benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(imidoethylene) benzene. 721.1187... Substances § 721.1187 Bis(imidoethylene) benzene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance bis(imidoethylene)benzene (PMN P-93-1447) is subject to...

  4. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful p...

  5. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  6. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  7. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  8. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  9. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia;

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  10. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  11. A survey of poison control centers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Maryann Mazer; Justin Wang; Ali Pourmand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  13. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  14. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  15. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  16. CYP2D6和UGT1A6基因多态性与慢性苯中毒的危险性%Association of Genetic Polymorphism of CYP2D6 and UGT1A6 with Risks of Chronic Benzene Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾寿永; 张忠彬; 曹多志; 万俊香; 高晓玲; 金锡鹏; 夏昭林

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨CYP2D6基因和UGT1A6基因多态性与慢性苯中毒易感性的关系.方法采用病例一对照研究,选择152名苯中毒工人为病例组,152名接触苯而无中毒表现的工人为对照组.采用PCR-RFLP技术检测CYP2D6第9外显子g.4268位点和UGT1A6第1外显子t.181位点的多态性.结果携带CYP2D6 g.4268 C/C基因型的个体较携带有CYP2D6 g.4268 G/G或G/C基因型的个体发生苯中毒的危险性高1.72倍(95%CI:1.8~2.78,P=0.03);在不吸烟的人群中,携带CYP2D6 g.4268 C/C基因型的个体比携带G/G或G/C基因型的个体发生苯中毒的风险性高1.75倍(95%CI:1.03~2.94,P=0.04);在不饮酒的人群中,携带CYP2D6 g.4268 C/C基因型个体比携带CYP2D6 g.4268 G/G和G/C基因型的个体发生苯中毒的危险性高1.82倍(95%CI:1.09~3.03,P=0.02).UGT1A6 t.181的各基因型在病例组和对照组的分布频率差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论携带CYP2D6 g.4268 C/C基因型的个体对苯中毒可能易感.

  17. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  18. PARAQUAT POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat {PQ}, a herbicide available as 20% solution can cause lethal effects due to production of free radicals formed by the cyclic oxidation - reduction reactions of the compound with tissues resulting in multiorgan failure. Symptoms of PQ ingestion are usually do se - dependent, and intoxication can be categorized to mild, moderate, and fulminant. Most common symptoms being vomiting (100% followed by oral ulceration (59%, dysphagia (53% and dyspnea (41%. Diagnosis of PQ poisoning is usually made based on circumst antial evidences. PQ levels can be estimated and is of prognostic significance. Almost always PQ causes morbidty and mortality except in few cases where dose is inadequate. Here we present a case of 25 year old patient with PQ poisoning which resulted in o ral mucosal and upper gastrointestinal ulcerations which subsequently healed with antioxidants, antibiotics and local ap p lications of povidine iodine. As there were no respiratory symptoms cyclophosphamide or steroids was not used. Patient was discharged a fter 1 month of hospital admission with all parameters within normal limits. . In spite of advances in medical care, prompt treatment, and supportive care, mortality still remains high mainly due to multiorgan failure .

  19. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  20. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well

  1. 32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides

  2. An expanded cohort study of cancer among benzene-exposed workers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song-Nian Yin; Gui-Lan Li; Zhi-Nan Zhang [Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Bejing (China)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    An expanded cohort study of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers were followed during 1972 to 1987, based on a previous study in 12 cities in China. A small increase was observed in total cancer mortality among benzene-exposed compared with unexposed Workers (relative risk [RR] = 1-2). Statistically significant excesses were noted for leukemia (RR = 2.3), malignant lymphoma (RR = 4.5), and lung cancer (RR = 1.4). When risks were evaluated by leukemia subtype, only acute myelogenous leukemia was significantly elevated (RR = 3.1), although nonsignificant excesses were also noted for chronic myelogenous leukemia (RR = 2.6) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 2.3). A significant excess was also found for aplastic anemia. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome. PMID:24592666

  4. Formation of reactive metabolites from benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat liver mitoplasts were incubated first with [3H]dGTP, to form DNA labeled in G, and then with [14C]benzene. The DNA was isolated and upon isopycnic density gradient centrifugation in CsCl yielded a single fraction of DNA labeled with both [3H] and [14C]. These data are consistent with the covalent binding of one or more metabolites of benzene to DNA. The DNA was enzymatically hydrolyzed to deoxynucleosides and chromatographed to reveal at least seven deoxyguanosine adducts. Further studies with labeled deoxyadenine revealed one adduct on deoxyadenine. [3H]Deoxyguanosine was reacted with [14C]hydroquinone or benzoquinone. The product was characterized using uv, fluorescence, mass and NMR spectroscopy. A proposed structure is described. (orig.)

  5. Nonlinear diffusion in Acetone-Benzene Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Obukhovsky, Vjacheslav V

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear diffusion in multicomponent liquids under chemical reactions influence has been studied. The theory is applied to the analysis of mass transfer in a solution of acetone-benzene. It has been shown, that the creation of molecular complexes should be taken into account for the explanation of the experimental data on concentration dependence of diffusion coefficients. The matrix of mutual diffusivities has been found and effective parameters of the system have been computed.

  6. PROCESS SIMULATION OF BENZENE SEPARATION COLUMN OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE (LABPLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. AbdelRahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       CHEMCAD process simulator was used for the analysis of existing benzene separation column in LAB plant(Arab Detergent Company/Beiji-Iraq.         Simulated column performance curves were constructed. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates compositions, were constructed. Four different thermodynamic models options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.            For Benzene Column (32 real stages, feed stage 14, the simulated results show that bottom temperature above 200 oC the weight fractions of top components, except benzene, increases sharply, where as benzene top weight fraction decreasing sharply. Also, feed temperature above 180 oC  shows same trends. The column profiles remain fairly constant from tray 3 (immediately below condenser to tray 10 (immediately above feed and from tray 15 (immediately below feed to tray 25 (immediately above reboiler. Simulation of the benzene separation column in LAB production plant using CHEMCAD simulator, confirms the real plant operation data. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD.

  7. Clinical observation on parathion poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 158 cases of parathion poisoning were clinically observed in Chonnam University Hospital from January, 1968 to June, 1972 with the following results. 1. The males were 133 and the females, 25 (radio, about 5:1) with 93 patients (58.9%) in the age group of 21 to 40 years old and the majority of the patients were farmers. 2. 158 cases could be divided into 38 cases of inhalation group (group I) and 120 cases of ingestion group (group II). The group I entirely occurred by accident during spraying the parathion, whereas the group II mostly developed by ingestion of the parathion for the suicide purpose. 3. During the period from 1968 to 1972, more frequent incidence of parathion poisoning showed up in 1971 and 1972. Inhalation group mostly occurred on July, August, and September, but several cases appeared sporadically in the rest of the months. 4. Most patients came to our Hospital within 4 hours after parathion poisoning and were discharged from the Hospital within one or two days after admission. Mortality was 2 cases (5.3%) out of 38 cases in inhalation group and was 26 cases (21.7%) out of 120 cases in ingestion group. 5. Clinical signs and symptoms showing high incidence were bronchorrhoea (incidence of 38.6%), dyspnea (57.6%), vomiting (62.0%), abdominal cramps (20.0%), sialorrhoea (53.8%), tachycardia (32.2%), miosis (67.7%), fasciculation (19.0%), hypertension (27.9%), drowsiness and confusion (50.0%), leukocytosis (58.3%), elevation of SGOT (23.0%), whereas mydriasis (5.7%), and proteinuria (4.0%) were low in incidence. All the ten cases (6.3%) showing involuntary defecation expired. 6. Roentgenographs of the chest were taken to 39 cases out of a total of 158 cases and revealed 21 cases (54.0%) of normal chest, 11 cases (28.0%) of bilateral pulmonary congestion, 7 cases (18.0%) of pulmonary edema or pneumonic consolidation

  8. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  9. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  10. 磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病疗效观察%Curative effect observation of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 台立稳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the curative effect of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning(DEACMP).Methods:43 patients with DEACMP were selected. They were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group.Patients in the control group were given conventional treatment.Patients in the treatment group were given injection creatine phosphate sodium treatment on the basis of the control group.The curative effects of two groups were observed.Results:The cure rate and effective rate of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The creatine phosphate sodium can improve the cell energy supply of DEACMP patients,protect the brain function,improve the hypoxia tolerance of brain cells,improve the life quality of DEACMP patients.%目的:探讨磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的疗效。方法:收治DEACMP患者43例,随机分为治疗组和对照组。对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组则在对照组的基础上加注射用磷酸肌酸钠治疗。观察两组患者的疗效。结果:治疗组治愈率及有效率均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:磷酸肌酸钠可以改善DEACMP患者的细胞能量供应,保护脑功能,提高脑细胞对缺氧的耐受性,提高DEACMP患者的生活质量。

  11. At-line benzene monitor for measuring benzene in precipitate hydrolysis aqueous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1992-10-14

    A highly accurate and repeatable at-line benzene monitor (ALBM) has been developed to measure the benzene concentration in precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) in the DWPF. This analyzer was conceived and jointly developed within SRTC by the Analytical Development and the Defense Waste Process Technology Sections with extensive support from the Applied Statistics Group and the TNX Operations Section. It is recommended that an ALBM specifically adapted to DWPF analytical requirements be used to measure benzene in PHA; calibrations be performed using a 10% methanol solution matrix (for standard stability); and based on experience gained in development at TNX, the services of ADS and ASG be employed to both adapt the ALBM to DWPF requirements and develop statistical control procedures.

  12. At-line benzene monitor for measuring benzene in precipitate hydrolysis aqueous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly accurate and repeatable at-line benzene monitor (ALBM) has been developed to measure the benzene concentration in precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) in the DWPF. This analyzer was conceived and jointly developed within SRTC by the Analytical Development and the Defense Waste Process Technology Sections with extensive support from the Applied Statistics Group and the TNX Operations Section. It is recommended that an ALBM specifically adapted to DWPF analytical requirements be used to measure benzene in PHA; calibrations be performed using a 10% methanol solution matrix (for standard stability); and based on experience gained in development at TNX, the services of ADS and ASG be employed to both adapt the ALBM to DWPF requirements and develop statistical control procedures

  13. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  14. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone was...... compared with 2007, indicating that a considerable number of drug addicts also have psychiatric illness....

  15. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  16. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  17. Review of treatment and nursing of mercury poisoning%汞中毒治疗及护理综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芸

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the conventional treatment of acute and chronic mercury poisoning and daily care are reviewed, and puts forward measures on how to prevent.%本文就急性及慢性汞中毒的常规治疗及日常护理进行了综述,并就如何预防提出了措施.

  18. Benzene exposure: An overview of monitoring methods and their findings

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, Clifford P.

    2010-01-01

    Benzene has been measured throughout the environment and is commonly emitted in several industrial and transportation settings leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposures. Inhalation is the most common exposure route but benzene rapidly penetrates the skin and can contaminant water and food resulting in dermal and ingestion exposures. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it still is a component of petroleum products, including gasoline, and is a trac...

  19. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  20. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  1. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the role of alcohol in injuries and deaths. Doctors, nurses, and other providers can Screen all adult patients ... lifethreatening signs of alcohol poisoning. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider if you think ...

  3. Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, I. K.; Kennedy, P. G.; Adams, J H; Cunningham, N. E.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

  4. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  5. More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158490.html More Kids Being Poisoned by Detergent Pods: Study Parents of young kids should not ... are getting their hands and mouths on colorful detergent pods, with serious and sometimes fatal consequences, a ...

  6. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning English 鉛毒 - 無形的禍害 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Hmong (Hmoob) Lead Exposure during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding English Raug Lead thaum Cev Xeeb ...

  7. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  8. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient with carbon dioxide retention: a therapeutic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Tristan RA; Williamson, Wilby J; Brostoff, Joshua M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 70 year-old man with carbon monoxide poisoning following a house fire. A significant smoking history and likely underlying chronic lung pathology complicated treatment, as due to symptomatic retention of carbon dioxide we were unable to use high-flow oxygen to facilitate the elimination of carbon monoxide. We suggest that patients with risk factors for obstructive lung disease be monitored extremely carefully during treatment for carbon monoxide toxicity.

  11. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DAMAGES DUE TO CHRONIC LEAD POISONING:A NEUROIMAGING STUDY WITH MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND PROTON MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY%职业性慢性铅中毒脑改变的磁共振成像和磁共振波谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 武柏林; 徐岳宗; 刘士鹏; 高天阳; 牛玉杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined typical changes in hippocampus volume and metabolite ratios in the workers chronically exposed to lead,and compared with those of control individuals, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS),then,investigated whether an abnormality in brain capacity or metabolism associated with memory changes.Methods The subj ects included 8 workers chronically exposed to lead (j ob years 6-37)and 8 gender age and matched healthy people,MRS was used in the related region of the brain to detect N-acetyl aspartate(NAA),lipid(Lip),choline(Cho),glutamate and glutamine (Glx),Lactate(Lac)and myoinositol(mI)levels,and each item was expressed respectively as a ratio to creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr).We also assessed the hippocampus volume on 3D T1-weighted MRI.Neurobehavioral tests were also performed to define memory status.Results NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe,basal ganglia and hippocampus,MI/Cr ratio in basal ganglia and hippocampus,and the hippocampal volume were significantly different to those of control subj ects (P < 0.05 ).For the workers conformed lead poisoned,the blood lead concentration was significantly correlated with MI/Cr ratio,NAA/Cr ratio in the hippocampus as well as hippocampus volume (P<0.05 ).Conclusion Occupational exposure to lead may cause subtle structural and functional alteration in human brains,which may be one reason of memory lost.%目的:应用磁共振成像(magnetic resonance imaging,MRI)和磁共振波谱(magnetic resonance spectroscopy,MRS)技术对职业性慢性铅中毒患者脑海马体积和脑代谢物含量进行检查,探讨职业性慢性铅中毒患者的海马容量和相关区域脑代谢物改变与记忆力改变的关系。方法以8例职业性铅中毒工人为研究对象(工龄6~37年),按性别、年龄因素匹配健康对照者8例,利用MRS技术检测其相关脑区N-乙酰天门冬氨酸(N-acetyl aspartate,NAA)、

  12. Chronic Salmonella eimsbuettel septicaemia presenting with intermittent sweats and haematuria.

    OpenAIRE

    Lowes, J A; Clark, A J; Britten, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    An unusual presentation is reported of salmonellosis, frank haematuria and chronic septicaemia arising during an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella eimsbuettel. The patient whose gut was colonized gave a history of chronic pyrexia and weight loss and suffered an intermittent urinary infection but had no gastroenteritis.

  13. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver sl...

  14. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  15. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  16. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen.

  18. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan; Atilla Çayır; Haşim Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific...

  19. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  20. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  1. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkova-Saeva J.; Atanasov P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves), Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley), Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides...

  2. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Ma; Ronghui Gu; Li Tang; Ze-E Chen; Rong Di; Chunlin Long

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constit...

  3. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  4. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Bavunoğlu; Musa Balta; Eda Tanrıkulu; Zeynep Türkmen; İbrahim İkizceli

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. To...

  5. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  6. An unusual presentation of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    TURMEN, Suha; ERYİĞİT, Umut; SAHİN, Aynur; MENTESE, Seda; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is a substance possessing high toxicity even in small quantities. It may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, blindness and death. Methanol poisoning generally takes place as result of oral ingestion, but may rarely occur through inhalation or transdermally. Persons may be exposed to methanol because of illegal alcohol beverage producers or alternative medicine providers. A 55-year-old male with methanol poisoning as a result of rubbing a self-prepared mixture of methylated spirit and a...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1238 - How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... average benzene concentration determined? 80.1238 Section 80.1238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene Gasoline Benzene Requirements § 80.1238 How is a refinery's or importer's average benzene concentration determined? (a) The average benzene concentration of gasoline produced at a refinery or...

  8. Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable benzene-degrading, chlorate-reducing microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20-1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradati

  9. A density functional study of inhibition of the HDS hydrogenation pathway by pyridine, benzene, and H2S on MoS2-based catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, A.; Moses, Poul Georg; Hinnemann, Berit; Topsøe, N.-Y.; Topsøe, H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    interaction of pyridine with the two types of edges of MoS2 catalyst nanoparticles, Particular attention is given to Studies of the hydrogenation (HYD) pathway in HDS since this is the favored pathway for refractory sulfur compounds and it is the pathway, which is most severely poisoned by basic nitrogen......The inhibition of catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) by basic nitrogen compounds is an important problem it) the production of ultra low sulfur transportation fuels and the origin of the inhibition effects is presently elucidated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the...... compounds. In order to understand the observed inhibitor trends. DFT studies oil (lie adsorption of benzene which is a weaker poison than pyridine, and H2S, which has no or only a very minor influence on the HYD pathway. have also been made, We find that the adsorption of pyridine is quite strong and...

  10. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  11. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  12. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  13. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  14. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  15. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food.

  16. The excited state antiaromatic benzene ring: a molecular Mr Hyde?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Ottosson, Henrik

    2015-09-21

    The antiaromatic character of benzene in its first ππ* excited triplet state (T1) was deduced more than four decades ago by Baird using perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) theory [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1972, 94, 4941], and since then it has been confirmed through a range of high-level quantum chemical calculations. With focus on benzene we now first review theoretical and computational studies that examine and confirm Baird's rule on reversal in the electron count for aromaticity and antiaromaticity of annulenes in their lowest triplet states as compared to Hückel's rule for the ground state (S0). We also note that the rule according to quantum chemical calculations can be extended to the lowest singlet excited state (S1) of benzene. Importantly, Baird, as well as Aihara [Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 1978, 51, 1788], early put forth that the destabilization and excited state antiaromaticity of the benzene ring should be reflected in its photochemical reactivity, yet, today these conclusions are often overlooked. Thus, in the second part of the article we review photochemical reactions of a series of benzene derivatives that to various extents should stem from the excited state antiaromatic character of the benzene ring. We argue that benzene can be viewed as a molecular "Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" with its largely unknown excited state antiaromaticity representing its "Mr Hyde" character. The recognition of the "Jekyll and Hyde" split personality feature of the benzene ring can likely be useful in a range of different areas. PMID:25960203

  17. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Peter C; WANG Dei-Haw; LU Kaitao; MANI Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis (dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis, The yields were significantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  18. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Peter; C; WANG; Der-Haw; MANI; Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis(dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid,followed by hydrolysis. The yields were signifi-cantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  19. 1,4-Bis[(2-pyridylethyliminomethyl]benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleden Chiririwa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H22N4, the centroid of the benzene ring is located on an inversion centre. The dihedral angle between the benzene and pyridine rings is 10.94 (5°. The crystal structure displays weak intermolecular C—H...N hydrogen bonding and C—H...π interactions.

  20. [Update on benzene: from industrial toxicant to environmental carcinogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Benzene, an industrial chemical myelotoxic at high doses in workers, is now an almost ubiquitous pollutant. It is also a no-threshold genotoxic carcinogen causing acute leukemia and other lymphoaematological tumours. Although its mechanism of action has not been fully clarified, benzene toxicity and carcinogenicity depend on metabolic activation. Polymorphism of activating and detoxifying enzymes (CYP, GST, NQO1) may be critical, therefore, in modulating individual susceptibility to benzene. Further uncertainty factors in assessing low level benzene exposure are the limited sensitivity and specificity of most exposure biomarkers, the frequent coexposure to other volatile organic chemicals (VOC), and the presence of non occupational sources of exposure, such as cigarette smoke and veicular traffic. The aim of this presentation is to introduce the main current critical issues in the risk assessment and the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to benzene at low doses. PMID:24303704

  1. Air pollution monitoring in Como urban areas. Benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of a physical - statistical analysis of concentrations of benzene, measured in the Como Center station from 1996 to 1999. The analysis, conducted by means of the development, by steps, of a multifactorial linear regression model, permitted to find an annual trend of benzene, independently from the influence of meteorologicals variables. It has been seen a decrease of concentrations of benzene, from 1997 to 1999, that may be correlate to a decrease of tenor of benzene in the petrol. At the same time, the results of the model permit to understand the role and the relative weight of different climatic factors on the concentrations of benzene. It has been investigated the presence of daily, weekly and seasonal trend, too

  2. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  3. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  4. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  5. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  6. Competitive Nitration of Benzene-Fluorobenzene and Benzene-Toluene Mixtures: Orientation and Reactivity Studies Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Hogendoorn, Stephanie; Pearson, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The reactivity and orientation effects of a substituent are analyzed by using HPLC to determine the competitive nitration of the benzene-toluene and benzene-fluorobenzene mixtures. The results have shown that HPLC is an excellent instrumental method to use in analyzing these mixtures.

  7. Association between occupational exposure to benzene and chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes of Brazilian petrochemical workers removed from exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rozana Oliveira; de Almeida Melo, Neli; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between chronic exposure to benzene and genotoxicity in the lymphocytes of workers removed from exposure. The study included 20 workers with hematological disorders who had previously worked in the petrochemical industry of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 16 workers without occupational exposure to benzene served as the control group. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocytes from peripheral blood, to assess chromosomal breaks and gaps and to identify aneuploidy. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean values between two groups, and Student's t test for comparison of two independent means. The frequency of gaps was statistically higher in and the exposed group than in the controls (2.13 ± 2.86 vs. 0.97 ± 1.27, p = 0.001). The frequency of chromosomal breaks was significantly higher among cases (0.21 ± 0.58) than among controls (0.12 ± 0.4) (p = 0.0002). An association was observed between chromosomal gaps and breaks and occupational exposure to benzene. Our study showed that even when removed from exposure for several years, workers still demonstrated genotoxic damage. Studies are still needed to clarify the long-term genotoxic potential of benzene after removal from exposure. PMID:27155858

  8. A Quantum Monte Carlo Study of mono(benzene)TM and bis(benzene)TM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M Chandler; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene)TM and bis(benzene)TM systems, where TM={Mo,W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  9. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  10. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, invisible gas produced when ... room and tell the physician you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning. If carbon monoxide poisoning has occurred, it often can be ...

  11. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin. PMID:24466710

  12. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  13. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  14. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  15. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  16. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  17. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied ...

  18. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Çiftçi; Murat Günday; Mustafa Çaliskan; Hakan Güllü; Rafi Dogan; Aytekin Güven; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Ec...

  19. Animal poisonings in Belgium: a review of the past decade

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Van Pelt, Henk; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on poisonings in companion animals, including horses, farm animals and wildlife, investigated and recorded during the past ten years at the Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University) and the National Poison Centre in Belgium. The causative agents of poisoning incidents vary among the different species. The Laboratory of Toxicology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine reports that the majority of poisoning incidents in companion anima...

  20. Acute poisoning in northern Vietnam: epidemiologic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Tran Hung

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning is a major health problem in northern Vietnam. The aims of these studies were to improve prevention, differential diagnosis and treatment of this threat to the public. A hospital-based retrospective study of poisoning emergencies admitted to the first Poison Control Center (PCC) in Vietnam during the years 1999 and 2003 (Paper I) revealed that a vast majority of the poisoning emergencies occurred at home. Pesticides, hypnotic pharmaceuticals and heroin were among t...

  1. The Profile of Acute Poisonings in South East of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Davut Akın; Yekta Tüzün; Timuçin Çil

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the rate characteristics of acute poisonning adults admitted to Departments emergency and hospitalized in Department of internal medicineAll cases of acute poisoning admitted to Dicle University Hospital, between, 2005 and 2006, were included in study. Clinical, laboratory, and demographic characteristics, type of poison and patient’s outcomes were recorded.Eighty poisoning cases included in the study. The mean age was 23±8 years and the majori...

  2. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Shruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS, heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning.

  3. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  4. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hurley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:378-381.

  5. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement......BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  6. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  7. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  8. Benzene conversion by manganese dioxide assisted silent discharge plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Bin; JI Min; YU Xin; FENG Tao; YAO Shuiliang

    2007-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma technologies have shown their promising potential specially for the low concentration of volatile organic compound control in indoor air in recent years.But it is also high energy consuming.So,to improve the energy efficiency,adding catalysts which enhance the plasma chemical reactions to plasma reactors may be a good selection.Therefore,in this study the manganese dioxide assisted silent discharge plasma was developed for benzene conversion at a relatively high energy efficiency.The results show that MnO2 could promote complete oxidation of benzene with O2 and O3 produced in the plasma discharge zone.The energy efficiency of benzene conversion with MnO2 was two folds as much as that without catalysts.It was also found that the site of MnO2 in the reactor and the energy density had effects on benzene conversion.While the energy density was lower than 48 J/L,benzene conversion decreased with the increase in the distance between MnO2 bed and the plasma discharge zone.Whereas when the energy density was higher than 104 J/L,benzene conversion had an optimal value that was governed by the distance between MnO2 bed and the plasma discharge zone.The mechanism of benzene oxidation in plasma discharges and over MnO2 is discussed in detail.

  9. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  10. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  11. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-6222 Filed 3-18-10...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings...

  12. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  13. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed...

  14. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  15. A Myoclonus Case Related to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Özışık, Handan Işın; Kızkın, Sibel; Cemal ÖZCAN; Bölük, Ayhan; Çalışkan, Özden

    2005-01-01

    Delayed neurological findings due to carbon monoxide poisoning are changes in cognition and personality, psychotic behavior and parkinsonism. Rarely, these patients have movement disorders such dystonia, chorea and myoclonus. In this case study, we reported a case in which myoclonus appeared in the late stage of CO poisoning. Key words: Carbon monoxide poisoning, Movement disorders, Myoclonus.

  16. Benzene exposure: an overview of monitoring methods and their findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Clifford P

    2010-03-19

    Benzene has been measured throughout the environment and is commonly emitted in several industrial and transportation settings leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposures. Inhalation is the most common exposure route but benzene rapidly penetrates the skin and can contaminant water and food resulting in dermal and ingestion exposures. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it still is a component of petroleum products, including gasoline, and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued sub to low ppm occupational exposures, though higher exposures exist in small, uncontrolled workshops in developing countries. Emissions from gasoline/petrochemical industry are its main sources to the ambient air, but a person's total inhalation exposure can be elevated from emissions from cigarettes, consumer products and gasoline powered engines/tools stored in garages attached to homes. Air samples are collected in canisters or on adsorbent with subsequent quantification by gas chromatography. Ambient air concentrations vary from sub-ppb range, low ppb, and tens of ppb in rural/suburban, urban, and source impacted areas, respectively. Short-term environmental exposures of ppm occur during vehicle fueling. Indoor air concentrations of tens of ppb occur in microenvironments containing indoor sources. Occupational and environmental exposures have declined where regulations limit benzene in gasoline (<1%) and cigarette smoking has been banned from public and work places. Similar controls should be implemented worldwide to reduce benzene exposure. Biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk include: benzene in breath, blood and urine; its urinary metabolites: phenol, t,t-muconic acid (t,tMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (sPMA); and blood protein adducts. The biomarker studies suggest benzene environmental exposures are in the sub to low ppb range though non-benzene sources for urinary metabolites, differences

  17. Ice Hockey Lung – A Case of Mass Nitrogen Dioxide Poisoning in The Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Brat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas.

  18. Ice hockey lung - a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Stanek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO₂ poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO₂ poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 - three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  19. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Churi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

  20. Potassium permanganate poisoning--a rare cause of fatal self poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    K L Ong; Tan, T H; Cheung, W L

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by self poisoning is common because of the ready availability of drugs, whether prescribed or bought over the counter. In some cases, the ingestion of seemingly innocuous household products or chemicals can result in death. Potassium permanganate is an example. Poisoning with potassium permanganate can be fatal when a significant amount is ingested, as shown by a patient who suffered both the corrosive and systemic toxic effects of this chemical.

  1. Evaluation of Trans, Trans-Muconic Acid in Urine of Exposed Workers to Benzene in a Cokery Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Benzene is a light yellow liquid with aromatic odor and has effects to human body. The main and dangerous health effect of chronic exposure to benzene in workplace is hematopoetic system disease or blood cancer that it's primarily clinical figures are anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia. The objective of this study was evaluation of benzene exposure by analysis of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-ma in post shift of workers.Materials & Methods: A case-control study was conducted. The urine samples were collected from 42 workers exposed to benzene at a cokery plant and it’s by –product refinery site and 40 non exposed villagers from rural areas without nearby factories. The t,t-ma was extracted from urine by solid phase extraction (SPE and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The urinary creatinine level was measured by Kone – Pro autoanalyzer . Results: The mean urinary t,t – ma level was 3.33 mg/g creatinine for exposed workers and 0.1007 mg/g creatinine for non exposed workers. The urinary levels in exposed group differed among workplaces, and were higher for subjects that worked in cokery plant ( cokery plant, 3.68 mg / g creatinine; its by product refinery site, 0.64 mg / g creatinine.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean level of urinary t,t-ma was about 6 to 7 times more than biological exposure index; thus, there is a high risk of hematopoetic damage and other adverse effects in these workers. We suggest that the company must decrease benzene exposure via engineering and management controls to lower than threshold limit value.

  2. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  3. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  4. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  5. Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Davous, P; Rondot, P; Marion, M H; Gueguen, B

    1986-01-01

    Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

  6. Intestinal infarction following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Balzan, M.; Cacciottolo, J. M.; Casha, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 65 year old patient admitted with carbon monoxide poisoning developed acute pulmonary oedema during treatment with hyperbaric oxygen. After initial recovery he developed extensive intestinal ischaemia which rapidly led to death. It is suggested that intestinal vasoconstriction due to left ventricular failure made the gut much more vulnerable to the hypoxic effects of carbon monoxide than the brain and heart.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  8. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  9. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  10. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto, A; M. Lotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients afte...

  11. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Díaz Mesa; Eddy Pereira Valdés; Alba Enseñat Álvarez; Carlos Alberto Rodríguez Armada

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning. Medical emergencies determined by the exposure to different substances (drugs, medicines, physical or chemical corrosive agents, etc). It includes the classification of toxic substances, clinical diagnosis (main syndromes), and description of therapeutic variations (vital support, antidotes, absorption measurements and increase of elimination and depuration of the toxic substance). It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most impo...

  12. Meningism following Salmonella virchow food poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six patients were admitted to hospital as a result of Salmonella virchow infection during an outbreak of food poisoning in Essex in 1984. Out of 12 patients with evidence of bloodstream invasion, one third presented primarily with meningism and attention is drawn to this unusual clinical picture.

  13. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  14. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  15. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  16. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  17. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  18. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  19. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  20. Unexpected Diagnosis in the Metropolis: Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Bavunoğlu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to point out that organophosphate poisoning is rarely seen in the metropolis and therefore diagnosis and treatment of these poisonings can be delayed. A 62 year old woman with a history of diabetes type II and ischemic cerebrovascular disease was admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine with diarrhea. During a 24-h follow-up, dysphagia, bronchorrhea and myosis were established. The patient was investigated for cholinergic symptoms due to intoxication. Toxicologic analysis was made and atropine treatment begun in the emergency room, and the patient was followed up for 10 days at the intensive care unit (ICU without intubation. After the muscarinic symptoms improved, atropine treatment was terminated. The patient was discharged from the ICU and followed up in the service because of continual hypoxia. At the service follow-up, intermediated syndrome manifested as paralysis and respiratory distress. Hence the patient was intubated and mechanical ventilation was begun at the ICU. After the treatment, she was discharged without any sequel. In unintentional organophosphate poisoning cases, diagnosis and the treatment can be delayed because it is rare in large cities, so that the patient and their relatives are not aware of the poisoning.

  1. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  2. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured b...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1285 - How does a refiner apply for a benzene baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a refiner apply for a benzene... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Averaging, Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1285 How does a refiner apply for a benzene baseline? (a) A benzene...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1220 - What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the gasoline benzene program? 80.1220 Section 80.1220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Benzene General Information § 80.1220 What are the implementation dates for the gasoline benzene program? (a) Benzene standard. (1) For the annual averaging period beginning January 1, 2011, and for...

  5. Analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in soils by headspace and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Pereira Pinto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of gasoline: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX are frequently found in soils due to leaks in fuel storage tanks and they present chronic toxicity. In this work it was developed and validated a methodology of BTEX analysis in soil by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector and static headspace. The recovery of BTEX in soil samples was evaluated using soils with different textures (sandy and loamy. The analysis method showed good resolution, in a low time of analysis (less than 30 minutes. Limits of quantification of 0.05 mg Kg¯¹ soil for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes are below the guiding values that range from 0.15 to 95 mg Kg¯¹ soil, established to determine soil quality. It was verified that the methodology enables the use of this method for BTEX analysis of soil samples for passive environmental identification of gas stations.

  6. Arrow poisons in south Asia. Part 1. Arrow poisons in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, N G; Mazars, G

    1984-10-01

    The use of arrow poisons in ancient India is discussed. While it is possible that Mesolithic hunting communities may have applied poison to their arrows, passages in the Rg Veda and Atharva Veda indicate its use in warfare. The meaning of the word -ala, used in the Rg Veda to denote the poison smeared on the arrowheads, is examined; but the available evidence, while almost certainly excluding a mineral (arsenical) source, does not allow a conclusion to be drawn between an animal and/or plant origin. Certain hymns in the Atharva Veda point to aconite tubers as one source. Later Sanskrit (and Buddhist) literature shows that poisoned arrows continued to be used and that a second source of poison was (putrefying) snakes--a source confirmed by an account in the classical literature of Alexander the Great's campaign in western India. Detailed descriptions of the symptoms and methods of treatment of wounds caused by poisoned arrows are to be found in the Sanskrit medical literature. PMID:6394907

  7. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  8. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  9. Exposure to benzene metabolites causes oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Abhishek; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2016-06-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ) are known benzene metabolites that form reactive intermediates such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study attempts to understand the effect of benzene metabolites (HQ and BQ) on the antioxidant status, cell morphology, ROS levels and lipid alterations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a reduction in the growth pattern of wild-type cells exposed to HQ/BQ. Exposure of yeast cells to benzene metabolites increased the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase but lead to a decrease in ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Increased triglyceride level and decreased phospholipid levels were observed with exposure to HQ and BQ. These results suggest that the enzymatic antioxidants were increased and are involved in the protection against macromolecular damage during oxidative stress; presumptively, these enzymes are essential for scavenging the pro-oxidant effects of benzene metabolites. PMID:27016252

  10. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  11. Magnetically rotational reactor for absorbing benzene emissions by ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangyang; Jiang; Chen; Guo; Huizhou; Liu

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically rotational reactor (MRR) has been developed and used in absorbing benzene emissions. The MRR has a permanent magnet core and uses magnetic ionic liquid [bmim]FeCl4 as absorbent. Benzene emissions were carried by N2 into the MRR and were absorbed by the magnetic ionic liquid. The rotation of the permanent magnet core provided impetus for the agitation of the magnetic ionic liquid, enhancing mass transfer and making benzene better dispersed in the absorbent. 0.68 g benzene emissions could be absorbed by a gram of [bmim]FeCl4, 0.27 and 0.40 g/ghigher than that by [bmim]PF6 and [bmim]BF4, respectively. The absorption rate increased with increasing rotation rate of the permanent magnet.

  12. Positronium quenching in liquid and solid octanol and benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Mogensen, O.E.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1970-01-01

    The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase.......The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase....

  13. EEG spectral analysis and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupationalchronic mercury poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-bin SUN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the features of EEG spectrum and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning.  Methods Eighteen patients with chronic mercury poisoning were collected continuously as poisoning group at Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences from March 2012 to September 2013. At the same time, 12 age- and sex-matched healthy people were selected as control group. All patients underwent video EEG, and EEGLAB in Matlab 2013 software was used to analyze their EEG data. Relevant spectrum data of the 2 groups were compared and analyzed.  Results The frequency-energy curves of 12 normal subjects were similar to sine curve, with obvious energy peak at α band. The frequency-energy curves of 18 patients showed as follows: 5 cases had the peak at slow δ wave, and the energy curve decreased since δ band appeared, with α band peak disappearing. The curve of 10 cases had 2 peaks respectively at α and δ band, and δ peak was higher than α peak. The spectrum in other 3 cases was normal. The quantitative analysis of EEG revealed the proportion of δ band for the total energy. The proportion of δ band for total energy of the poisoning group in right middle temporal (P = 0.018 and left posterior temporal (P = 0.039 channel was significantly higher than that of the normal group, while the proportion of δ band in middle frontal (P = 0.003, right frontal (P = 0.016 and right anterior temporal (P = 0.024, left middle temporal (P = 0.036 and right posterior temporal (P = 0.031 was lower than that of the normal group. Conclusions EEG examination plays an important role in assessing the severity of brain injury for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning. Spectrum analysis is an intuitive and simple method, and can provide some help for clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.013

  14. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A. S.; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the co...

  15. 2H NMR study of dynamics of benzene-d6 interacting with humic and fulvic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Margaret A; Brothers, Lucinda A; Nanny, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    Samples of three humic acids and one fulvic acid with 1% loading of benzene-d(6) in sealed glass tubes have been studied with solid-state deuterium quadrupole-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Calculated spectra combining three motional models, two isotropic models and a third more restricted small-angle wobble (SAW) motional model, are fit to the experimental spectra. One isotropic motion (ISO(v)) is assigned to vaporous benzene-d(6) due to the small line width, short T(1), and the loss of this component by about -25 °C when the temperature is lowered. The remaining two motional components, ISO(s) and SAW, are sorbed by the humic or fulvic acid. Benzene-d(6) slowly interacts with the humic substances, progressively filling SAW sites as ISO(s) motion diminishes. Both the sorption and increase in percentage of SAW motion are for the most part complete within 200 days but continue to a lesser extent over a period of a few years. For the SAW motion there are at least two and most likely a series of T(1) values, indicating more than one adsorption environment. Enthalpies of sorption, obtained from application of the van't Hoff equation to the percentages of the different motional models derived from a series of variable temperature spectra, are comparable in magnitude to the enthalpy of vaporization of benzene. In Leonardite humic acid, ΔH and ΔS for the ISO(s) to SAW transition change from positive to negative values with age, implying a transition in the driving force from an entropic effect associated with expansion and deformation in the molecular structure of the humic substance to accommodate benzene-d(6) to an enthalpic effect of strong benzene-d(6)-humic substance interactions. In contrast, at advanced ages, Suwannee River humic and fulvic acids have small positive or near zero ΔH and positive ΔS for the ISO(s) to SAW transition. PMID:21456559

  16. Exposition by inhalation to the benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX) in the air. Sources, measures and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  17. An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiu-mei

    2001-01-01

    Bongkrekic acid(BA) is a fatal bacterial toxin which was found in poisonous fermented cocnut product in indonesia in 1934 and the molecular structure was identified as C28H33O7 in 1960,In the 1950s,food poisoning outbreak of undnown cause occurred cause in the northeast part of China.A new toxin-producing bacterium,pseudomonas cocovenans subsp.Farinofermentans.was identified as the causal pathioge,and its metabolite BA was isolated.purfied and identified in 1979 and 1984.After that ,deteriorated tremella poisoning and viegar jelly poisoning were identified as being caused by the consumption of BA-contaminated foods.About 103 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in 16 provinces in China from 1985 to 1994,A total of 301 (out of 667) patients died.The overall fatality rate(45.13%) was the highest among all microbiological food poisonings in China.Various fermented cereal foods,deteriorated fresh tremella,potato products,sticky rice flur,polished glutious rice,sweet potato starch,noodles and vinegar jelly were in volved in the outbreaks,BA Was detected form leftover fermented corn flour,deteriorated tremella and the P.Cocovenenans subsp.farinofermentans was identifed as the source bascteria.The toxigenic strains have been found not only from the leftover food samples collected from the outbreaks.but also from normal fresh cultivated tremella in Henan and corn flour products from supermarkets in Beijing,TLC,HPLC,and MaAb-ELISA were used to detect BA in the food samples,The minimum detected levels were 0.25,0.1 and 0.2mg/kg,respectively,Further studies showed that Ba could be producted at 26 C for 5 days in potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium.Exposure to ultravioled ligh significantly reduced the level of BA in fresh tremella(96.7%-97.3%) as well as the toxin-producing ability of toxigenic stains in culture medium.

  18. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances. PMID:27365999

  19. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  20. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  2. A Clinical Study of aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Gupta,Annil Mahajan,Ajay Gupta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thc present prospectiYe study 01'56 cases ofAlwniniwn Phosphide (ALP poisoning in Gov!. MedicalCollcge Hospital Jammu. found out the prevalence of Deliberate self-poisoning self (DSP andaccidental ingestion in young population in age group of 16-30 years. Male-female ratio ",as 1.03: 1.00;ha' ing marital discord and family quarrels as prominent predisposing factors. The majority of patientshad gastrointestinal (GIT symptoms (73.2%, cardiac arrthymias (62.5% and shock (53.3%. Thccommoncst clectrocardiographic (ECG abnormalities were tachycardia (96%, atrial fibrillation(58% and venticular-ectopic (VE beats (59%. The management was supportive in the fonn ofstomach wash, intra"enous (IN fluids. dopamine, hydrocortisone, sodabicarbonate and assisted"entilation in intensiYe care unit (lCU setting

  3. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  4. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  5. A literature study on lacquer poison

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Min, Lee; Ki-Rok, Kwon; Sung-Mo, Choi; Tae-Hee, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It will be examined in this research whether Lacquer poison can be used as an distinguished treatment to cure incurable diseases by considering literature existing and various papers. Method: I studies origin, alias, species, toxicity, effect, treatment, component, medical action and contraindication of Rhus vemiciflua stokes through various kinds literatures. Results: Sap of Rhus vemiciflua stokes that is used for medical purposes, has an effect on anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, ...

  6. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  7. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Shruti; Gupta Rahul; Paul Barinder; Puri Sandeep; Garg Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign...

  8. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  9. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  10. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi GA; Astaraki P; Mohtashami AZ; Ahadi M

    2015-01-01

    Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and des...

  11. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Čanović Predrag; Nešić Ljiljana; Gajović Olgica; Mijailović Željko

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes). Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30) patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent v...

  12. Grayanotoxin (Mad Honey) - Ongoing Consumption After Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    EROĞLU, Serkan Emre; Urgan, Oğuz; Onur, Özge Ecmel; Denizbaşı, Arzu; Akoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as “mad honey” in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Aims: Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Stud...

  13. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION POISONING PATIENTS IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Yeşil; Haldun Akoğlu; Özge Onur; Özlem Güneysel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Purpose of this study was to determine the clinical properties and demographics of the patients admitting to the emergency department with intoxication.Patient and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with poisoning patients admitted to our ED 1st of June 2005 and 31st of December 2006. Data regarding the age, sex, reason for the intoxication, and presence of psychiatric evaluation were obtained from the patient files.Results: 147 intoxication was admitted to ED. Mean time...

  14. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  15. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance

  16. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  17. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  18. [Poisoning by spiders of Loxosceles genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Lloveras, Susana C; Orduna, Tomás A

    2002-01-01

    Despite the great number of spiders in the world, only a small group of them is capable of producing death in humans. In Argentina, there are only three of the four genera of spiders considered of high risk to humans: Latrodectus is present in rural areas, Phoneutria is restricted to small regions while Loxosceles is distributed throughout the country. Accidents by Loxosceles represent around 4% of the total number produced by venomous animals in Argentina. The bite is accidental and may produce considerable local necrosis with scar formation and ulcers of slow and difficult healing that may require surgical repair. Some bitten people may suffer from intravascular hemolysis, disseminated coagulation and acute renal insufficiency leading to death. Despite the great number of studies performed on Loxosceles venoms, at present, the physiopathological course of poisoning is not clear and there is not common criteria for its treatment. In this review, biological and epidemiological data of this spider are described as well as the venom composition and the possible participation of its components in the poisoning. These data provide biological and biochemical tools to understand the course of poisoning and to have better criteria for the treatment and prevention of these accidents and their complications. PMID:11965857

  19. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  20. Agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathelrahman Ahmed I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between questionnaire and medical records on some health and socioeconomic problems among poisoning cases. Methods Cross-sectional sample of 100 poisoning cases consecutively admitted to the Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia during the period from September 2003 to February 2004 were studied. Data on health and socioeconomic problems were collected both by self-administered questionnaire and from medical records. Agreement between the two sets of data was assessed by calculating the concordance rate, Kappa (k and PABAK. McNemar statistic was used to test differences between categories. Results Data collected by questionnaire and medical records showed excellent agreement on the "marital status"; good agreements on "chronic illness", "psychiatric illness", and "previous history of poisoning"; and fair agreements on "at least one health problem", and "boy-girl friends problem". PABAK values suggest better agreements' measures. Conclusion There were excellent to good agreements between questionnaire and medical records on the marital status and most of the health problems and fair to poor agreements on the majority of socioeconomic problems. The implications of those findings were discussed.

  1. Metal mercury poisoning in two boys initially treated for brucellosis in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, M S; Hadavi, N; Afshari, R; Mousavi, S R; Alizadeh, A; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-02-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg) is the only metal which evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause toxicity. Hg poisoning may occur by mishandling the metal, particularly in children who play with it. Wide-spectrum of the clinical presentations of chronic Hg poisoning may cause misdiagnosis, particularly when history of exposure is unknown. We report two cases of accidental Hg poisoning, which initially had been diagnosed and treated for brucellosis. The patients were two brothers (7 and 14 years old) who presented with pain in their lower extremities, sweating, salivation, weight loss, anorexia and mood changes on admission. Meticulous history taking revealed that they had played with a ball of Hg since 3 months before admission. The level of urinary Hg was 125.9 and 54.2 9 g/L in the younger and older brother, respectively (normal ≤25 g/L). The patients were successfully treated by dimercaprol and discharged in good condition 24 days after admission. These cases are being reported to emphasize the importance of acrodynia as a differential diagnosis for brucellosis in endemic areas. PMID:21803782

  2. Human benzene metabolism following occupational and environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Stephen M; Kim, Sungkyoon; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zhang, Luoping; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2010-03-19

    We previously reported evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two enzymes, including a hitherto unrecognized high-affinity enzyme that was responsible for an estimated 73% of total urinary metabolites [sum of phenol (PH), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CA), E,E-muconic acid (MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA)] in nonsmoking females exposed to benzene at sub-saturating (ppb) air concentrations. Here, we used the same Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic models to individually analyze urinary levels of PH, HQ, CA and MA from 263 nonsmoking Chinese women (179 benzene-exposed workers and 84 control workers) with estimated benzene air concentrations ranging from less than 0.001-299 ppm. One model depicted benzene metabolism as a single enzymatic process (1-enzyme model) and the other as two enzymatic processes which competed for access to benzene (2-enzyme model). We evaluated model fits based upon the difference in values of Akaike's Information Criterion (DeltaAIC), and we gauged the weights of evidence favoring the two models based upon the associated Akaike weights and Evidence Ratios. For each metabolite, the 2-enzyme model provided a better fit than the 1-enzyme model with DeltaAIC values decreasing in the order 9.511 for MA, 7.379 for PH, 1.417 for CA, and 0.193 for HQ. The corresponding weights of evidence favoring the 2-enzyme model (Evidence Ratios) were: 116.2:1 for MA, 40.0:1 for PH, 2.0:1 for CA and 1.1:1 for HQ. These results indicate that our earlier findings from models of total metabolites were driven largely by MA, representing the ring-opening pathway, and by PH, representing the ring-hydroxylation pathway. The predicted percentage of benzene metabolized by the putative high-affinity enzyme at an air concentration of 0.001 ppm was 88% based upon urinary MA and was 80% based upon urinary PH. As benzene concentrations increased, the respective percentages of benzene metabolized to MA and PH by the high-affinity enzyme decreased successively to 66 and

  3. Human Benzene Metabolism Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Stephen M.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Lan, Qing; Li, Guilan; Vermeulen, Roel; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Zhang, Luoping; Yin, Songnian; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two enzymes, including a hitherto unrecognized high-affinity enzyme that was responsible for an estimated 73 percent of total urinary metabolites [sum of phenol (PH), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CA), E,E-muconic acid (MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA)] in nonsmoking females exposed to benzene at sub-saturating (ppb) air concentrations. Here, we used the same Michaelis-Menten-like kinetic models to individually analyze urinary levels of PH, HQ, CA and MA from 263 nonsmoking Chinese women (179 benzene-exposed workers and 84 control workers) with estimated benzene air concentrations ranging from less than 0.001 ppm to 299 ppm. One model depicted benzene metabolism as a single enzymatic process (1-enzyme model) and the other as two enzymatic processes which competed for access to benzene (2-enzyme model). We evaluated model fits based upon the difference in values of Akaike’s Information Criterion (ΔAIC), and we gauged the weights of evidence favoring the two models based upon the associated Akaike weights and Evidence Ratios. For each metabolite, the 2-enzyme model provided a better fit than the 1-enzyme model with ΔAIC values decreasing in the order 9.511 for MA, 7.379 for PH, 1.417 for CA, and 0.193 for HQ. The corresponding weights of evidence favoring the 2-enzyme model (Evidence Ratios) were: 116.2:1 for MA, 40.0:1 for PH, 2.0:1 for CA and 1.1:1 for HQ. These results indicate that our earlier findings from models of total metabolites were driven largely by MA, representing the ring-opening pathway, and by PH, representing the ring-hydroxylation pathway. The predicted percentage of benzene metabolized by the putative high-affinity enzyme at an air concentration of 0.001 ppm was 88% based upon urinary MA and was 80% based upon urinary PH. As benzene concentrations increased, the respective percentages of benzene metabolized to MA and PH by the high-affinity enzyme decreased successively

  4. Canada-wide standard for benzene phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of available data, benzene is classified as carcinogenic to humans, and it led to the establishment, pursuant to the 1998 Canada-wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and its Canada-wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement, of the Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) for benzene. It is generally considered that any level of exposure carries some probability of harmful effects. A balancing act between achieving the best health and environmental protection possible and feasibility and costs associated with the reduction of emissions contributing to elevated levels of benzene in the air was performed for the development of this CWS. In June 2000, the Ministers of the Environment agreed to a phased approach to benzene reduction. To this effect, the Canada-Wide Standard for Benzene Phase 1 was ratified. By the end of 2000, a 30 per cent reduction in total benzene emissions form 1995 emission inventory levels was expected, according to Phase 1. The measures initiated during Phase 1 will continue beyond the time frame, and Phase 2 calls for a follow-through on those measures. Best management practices and jurisdictional regulations that will minimize emissions are recognized as part of Phase 2. Joint action in conjunction with other air issue programs should lead to additional reductions. Specifically, Phase 2 calls for an additional reduction of 6 kilotonnes in benzene emissions for existing facilities by the end of 2010. The minimization of benzene emissions through the application of best available pollution prevention and control techniques is contained for new and expanding facilities. The implementation of the CWS comprises the follow-up of existing initiatives resulting from the application of Phase 1 and the promotion and application of best management practices for new and expanding facilities, the determination and tracking of ancillary emission reductions of benzene realized as a result of

  5. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  6. Benzene oxygenation and oxidation by the peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karich, Alexander; Kluge, Martin; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic peroxygenase (APO) is an extracellular enzyme produced by the agaric basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita that catalyzes diverse peroxide-dependent oxyfunctionalization reactions. Here we describe the oxygenation of the unactivated aromatic ring of benzene with hydrogen peroxide as co-substrate. The optimum pH of the reaction was around 7 and it proceeded via an initial epoxide intermediate that re-aromatized in aqueous solution to form phenol. Identity of the epoxide intermediate as benzene oxide was proved by a freshly prepared authentic standard using GC-MS and LC-MS analyses. Second and third [per]oxygenation was also observed and resulted in the formation of further hydroxylation and following [per]oxidation products: hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone, catechol and o-benzoquinone as well as 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene and hydroxy-p-benzoquinone, respectively. Using H218O2 as co-substrate and ascorbic acid as radical scavenger, inhibiting the formation of peroxidation products (e.g., p-benzoquinone), the origin of the oxygen atom incorporated into benzene or phenol was proved to be the peroxide. Apparent enzyme kinetic constants (kcat, Km) for the peroxygenation of benzene were estimated to be around 8 s-1 and 3.6 mM. These results raise the possibility that peroxygenases may be useful for enzymatic syntheses of hydroxylated benzene derivatives under mild conditions. PMID:23327645

  7. HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY INDUCED BY MERCURY POISONING; A REPORT OF 3 CASES (IN AN IRANIAN FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifian MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMercury poisoning is one of the important recent causes of mortality and mortality in children worldwide, particularly in industrial environments; mercury is a poisonous metal, especially harmful to the nervous and immune systems and the kidneys and can even be fatal. Elemental mercury is present in thermometers, barometer batteries, sphygmomanometers and latex paints.Inorganic mercury salts are found in antiseptics, pesticides, pigments and explosives and are used as preservatives in medicine. Mercury was once used to stop fever, and this worked because the immune system was so weakened that it could no longer sustain the attack for which the fever was created. Some medical drugs still contain mercury chloride and mercurous chloride and certain forms of mercury are still used in some laxatives. Mercury toxicity of the nervous system causes anorexia, ataxia, lack of ability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, dementia, depression, dizziness, emotional instability, erethism (abnormal irritability in response to stimulation, incoordination, insomnia, irritability, loss of ability to speak, memory impairment, numbness, saresthesias (sensation of prickling, tingling or creeping on the skin, psychosis, tremors, drowsiness, fatigue and weakness.Other organ damages include kidney failure, headaches, hearing impairment, visual impairment, hypertension, dermatitis, digestive tract problems, colitis, diarrhea, stomatitis and excessive salivation, loss of teeth, metallic taste, chromosomal damage, birth defects and ensuing organ failure. Chronic mercury poisoning can cause Acrodynia (Pink disease. Mercury poisoning is a rare cause of hypertension in children. Herein we report 3 cases, the first a child with hypertensive encephalopathy due to severe mercury poisoning and his two siblings with moderate symptoms.Case reportA 10 year old boy was admitted in psychiatric ward of Imam Hossein Hospital with behavioral disorder, irritability, mood

  8. Aspectos clínico-hematológicos e lesões vesicais na intoxicação crônica espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Clinical and hematological aspects and urinary bladder lesions in chronic spontaneous poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane L. Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    ão-neoplásicas (6/17, alterações gerais na lâmina própria (6/22 e alterações inflamatórias (5/17. Os achados histológicos das bexigas dos casos de HEB foram classificados da mesma forma, resultando em 19 tipos diferentes de alterações morfológicas. Dessas, 5/19 eram alterações neoplásicas e 14/20, alterações não-neoplásicas (9/14 alterações epiteliais não neoplásicas, 3/14 alterações gerais na lâmina própria e 2/14 alterações inflamatórias. Na HEB, os neoplasmas mesenquimais foram mais freqüentemente observados que os epiteliais, e a maior parte era maligna. A técnica de imuno-histoquímica foi utilizada para caracterizar os aspectos morfológicos, principalmente dos neoplasmas. Através do estudo morfológico concluiu-se que é muito freqüente a ocorrência de lesões vesicais em bovinos com a forma crônica de CCEs no TAS e que essas lesões são idênticas às encontradas nos bovinos com HEB.Spontaneous cases of chronic poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle were studied. The clinical forms of the disease were squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs of the upper digestive tract (UDT and bovine enzootic hematuria (BEH. The cases were from the midland Region of the Midwest of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and were submitted to the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Clinical signs and blood work were evaluated at terminal phase of disease. Cattle with UDT SCCs had progressive weigth loss, ruminal atony, cough, dysphagia, bloating, and regurgitation. In cattle with BEH, hematuria was observed in all cases, followed by progressive weight loss. Non-regenerative anemia was detected in 33.33% of the cattle with UDT SCCs form and in 66.66% of the cattle with BEH form. Changes in white blood count occurred in some cases but drop in lymphocyte numbers was uncommon in both forms of disease. For the morphological study, urinary bladders from 46 cattle with UDT SCCs and 11 cattle with BEH were analyzed. Grossly, 16

  9. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Dalhoff, Kim Peder;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was to classify...... all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts....

  10. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  11. Use of erbium as burnable poison for VVER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems related to use of Erbium as burnable poison for VVER are discussed. Comparison is made between neutronics characteristics of Uranium-Gadolinium and Uranium-Erbium fuel cycles. The study shows that use of Erbium as burnable poison allows decreasing the peaking factor in the core. Meanwhile residual Erbium at the end of the fuel cycle makes it necessary to increase fuel enrichment. There is made the conclusion of prospects of using Erbium as burnable poison for VVER. (orig.)

  12. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  13. Ivory poachers and poison : drivers of Africa's declining vulture populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ogada, Darcy; Botha, André; Shaw, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Four species of African vultures have been recategorized as Critically Endangered, and two as Endangered, on the IUCN Red List. Their declining status is attributed partly to the impacts of widespread poisoning. Prior to 2012 poisoning of vultures was mostly associated with illegal predator control by livestock farmers, in which vultures were typically unintended victims. More recently, ivory poachers have been using poisons to kill elephants Loxodonta africana or to contaminate their carcass...

  14. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  15. Successful treatment of polymedicamentous poisoning with metoprolol, diltiazem and cilazapril

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Milan R.; Miletić Goran M.; Radovanović Mirjana S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive effects is an urgent condition in medicine which is associated with high mortality rate regardless of modern therapeutic methods. Accidental or intentional poisoning whit these drugs produces heart activity depression and cardiovascular collapse as consequences. Current therapy for severe poisoning caused by beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers includes both unspecific and specific antidote therapy whit glucagon, as well as a...

  16. Poison Pills : A management-shareholder benefits comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xin; Alija, Teuta; Ochoche, Owoicho

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem: The problem of this thesis involves the controversy that the implementation of poison pills generates. The conflict amongst various stakeholders that are affected directly or indirectly by the implementation of the poison pill also contributes significantly to the problem of this thesis. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and compare the benefits of the poison pill adoption on shareholder and management interests. We also seek to evaluate arguments for and...

  17. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Nore Anne K; Bjornaas Mari A; Hovda Knut E; Heyerdahl Fridtjof; Figueiredo Jose CP; Ekeberg Oivind; Jacobsen Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. ...

  18. ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gonullu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

  19. Aggregation of deuterodichlormethane molecules with benzene molecules. Quantum-chemical calculations and spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-D vibration band of deuterodichlormethane CD2Cl2 at its low concentration in benzene is slitted into components with frequency 2198 and 2193 cm-1 that is related to formation of weak benzene+deuterodichlormethane complexes. Quantum-chemical calculations confirm a formation of deuterodichlormethane+benzene dimer with participation of benzene's π -electron. Steric factors lead to a difference in orientation of one of deuterium atoms from the central orientation with respect to benzene ring. According to calculations the energy of deuterodichlormethane+benzene dimer is 1.2 kcal/mole. (author)

  20. Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Stephen R.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Han, Shih-Tsung; Clark, James M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet–neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neurologic sequelae.

  1. Accidental plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncić, N; Visković, I; Perić, R; Dirlić, A; Vitezić, D; Cuculić, D

    2001-12-01

    Colchicine poisoning is a rare but serious and potentially fatal event, which results from food poisoning or overdose with drugs containing colchicine, with no currently available antidote. We report two cases of plant poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, in which the patients had identical initial symptoms but developed extremely different clinical courses. One patient recovered after only moderate gastroenteritis and liver injury, whereas the other died of rapid progressive multiple organ failure 52 h after the plant ingestion. We recommend that all patients suspected of colchicine intoxication due to its unpredictable outcome should be managed according to the principles of intensive care, irrespective of the actual degree of poisoning. PMID:11740853

  2. Development of poison injection code-COPJET for high pressure liquid poison injection in pressure tube type heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shut Down System-2 (SDS-2) in advanced vertical pressure tube type reactor, provides rapid reactor shutdown by high pressure injection of a neutron absorbing liquid called poison, into the moderator in the calandria. Poison inside the calandria is distributed by poison jets issued from holes provided in the injection tubes. Effectiveness of the system depends on the rate and spread of the poison in the moderator. In this study, a transient one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic code, COPJET is developed, to predict the performance of system by predicting poison jet length with time. Validation of the COPJET is done with the data available in literature. Thereafter, it is applied for poison jet length prediction of advanced vertical pressure type reactor. (author)

  3. [Secondary hyperoxaluria and nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, C; Richard, E; Missonnier, S; Rebouissoux, L; Llanas, B; Harambat, J

    2013-08-01

    We report the case of a 3-year-old boy admitted to the pediatric emergency department for ethylene glycol poisoning. During hospitalization, he presented dysuria associated with crystalluria. Blood tests showed metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap. A renal ultrasound performed a few weeks later revealed bilateral medullary hyperechogenicity. Urine microscopic analysis showed the presence of weddellite crystals. Secondary nephrocalcinosis due to ethylene glycol intoxication was diagnosed. Hyperhydration and crystallization inhibition by magnesium citrate were initiated. Despite this treatment, persistent weddellite crystals and nephrocalcinosis were seen more than 2years after the intoxication. Ethylene glycol is metabolized in the liver by successive oxidations leading to its final metabolite, oxalic acid. Therefore, metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap is usually found following ethylene glycol intoxication. Calcium oxalate crystal deposition may occur in several organs, including the kidneys. The precipitation of calcium oxalate in renal tubules can lead to nephrocalcinosis and acute kidney injury. The long-term renal prognosis is related to chronic tubulointerstitial injury caused by nephrocalcinosis. Treatment of ethylene glycol intoxication is based on specific inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase and hemodialysis in the most severe forms, and should be started promptly. PMID:23827374

  4. Successful Treatment of Acute Lethal Dose of Acrylamide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylamide (C3H5NO is a vinyl monomer. This water-soluble crystalline solid is a colorless, odorless agent which is used in scientific laboratories and some industries. Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects. Acute or chronic poisoning with this agent happens as a result of skin, respiratory, or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on the dose, duration, and frequency of contact. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies to reduce the oxidative effects. Case: The case was a 29-year-old girl with a Master of Sciences degree in genetics who worked in a university research center with previous history of depression. She had ingested 100cc of 30% Acrylamide solution for intentional suicide attempt. The patient was successfully managed using N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, and melatonin. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with recommended agents together with supportive therapies can save the life of patients exposed to potentially lethal doses of acrylamide, although intentional or accidental.

  5. Decomposition of benzene in a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kohki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Centre of Environmental Science and Disaster Mitigation for Advanced Research, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Toshiharu; Itoh, Hidenori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the decomposition characteristics of benzene in a positive DC corona discharge between multineedle and plane electrodes with a background gas of nitrogen-oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure. We obtained C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, HCOOH, CO and CO{sub 2} as benzene fragments and by-products, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN as minor intermediate products. Benzene was primarily converted into CO{sub 2} via CO at low oxygen concentrations (0.2%) and via CO and HCOOH at the atmospheric oxygen concentration (20%). Further, 57% and 24% of carbon atoms were deposited on the plane electrode and the discharge chamber at oxygen concentrations of 0.2% and 20%, respectively.

  6. Exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukkala Eero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of epidemiologic studies have provided estimates of the relation between exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia, but the results have been heterogeneous. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we synthesized the existing epidemiologic evidence on the relation between occupational exposure to benzene and the risk of leukemia, including all types combined and the four main subgroups acute myeloid leukemia (AML, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out using two databases 'Medline' and 'Embase' from 1950 through to July 2009. We selected articles which provided information that can be used to estimate the relation between benzene exposure and cancer risk (effect size. Results In total 15 studies were identified in the search, providing 16 effect estimates for the main analysis. The summary effect size for any leukemia from the fixed-effects model was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.23-1.57, but the study-specific estimates were strongly heterogeneous (I2 = 56.5%, Q stat = 34.47, p = 0.003. The random-effects model yielded a summary- effect size estimate of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.37-2.17. Effect estimates from 9 studies were based on cumulative exposures. In these studies the risk of leukemia increased with a dose-response pattern with a summary-effect estimate of 1.64 (95% CI, 1.13-2.39 for low ( 100 ppm-years. In a meta-regression, the trend was statistically significant (P = 0.015. Use of cumulative exposure eliminated heterogeneity. The risk of AML also increased from low (1.94, 95% CI, 0.95-3.95, medium (2.32, 95% CI, 0.91-5.94 to high exposure category (3.20, 95% CI, 1.09-9.45, but the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our study provides consistent evidence that exposure to benzene at work increases the risk of leukemia with a dose-response pattern. There was some evidence of an

  7. Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L.; Orimoloye, Helen T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P). OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels. METHODS Ambient air sampling was conducted in six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex with passive samples collected in evacuated 6-L Summa canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with sampling performed at variable distances from the facility fence line. RESULTS Elevated concentrations of benzene[s] in the atmosphere were identified when compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. The 24-hour benzene concentrations ranged from 0.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 592 ppbv, with 1-hour concentrations from 2.94 ppbv to 2,900.20 ppbv. CONCLUSION Benzene is a known human carcinogen capable of multisystem health effects. Exposure to benzene is correlated with bone marrow and blood-forming organ damage and immune system depression. Sensitive populations (children, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised) and occupational workers are at increased risk for adverse health effects from elevated atmospheric levels of benzene[s] in residential areas with unconventional shale E&P. PMID:27199565

  8. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Skinner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs. After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998-2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973-1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. CONCLUSIONS: This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions.

  10. SERUM ANTIOXIDANT PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS POISONED BY DIFFERENT XENOBIOTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydzik, Piotr; Krośniak, Mirosław; Francik, Renata; Gomółka, Ewa; Ebru, Ebru Derici; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    There is a great diversity of the acute drugs overdose cases in clinical toxicology. Clinical situation is complicated by the coexistence of factors predisposing to the development of adverse drug reactions (chronic use of drugs, polypharmacy, alcohol or drugs dependence, nutritional disorders) and by the presence of chronic organ damage, especially the liver and the kidney. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there are sensitive plasma markers belonging to the antioxidant system in patients exposed to various xenobiotics. We measured the activity of antioxidant parameters: catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX3), glutathione (GSH), sulfhydryl groups (-SH), carbonyl groups (=CO) and free radicals (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH, assay) in serum of 49 patients with acute intoxication caused by carbamazepine (CBZ, n = 9), mixed drug intoxication (MDI) (n = 9), alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS, n = 9), acetaminophen (APAP, n = 7), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (n = 5), valproic acids (VA, n = 4), narcotics (N, n = 3), and three others (benzodiazepines, BZD, n = 2; barbiturates, n = 1). The results were compared with the parameters of not intoxicated patients (n = 39). All patients had lower catalase activity in comparison to the control group (41.9 ± 16.5 vs. 196.0 ± 82.2 U/mg protein, p = 0.000), while the increase of GSH level was particularly apparent only in patients with AWS (391.3 ± 257.9 μmol/mg protein) compared to the control group (171.4 ± 88.4 μmol/mg protein, p = 0.034) and to patients intoxicated with carbamazepine (152.8 ± 102.5 μmol/mg protein, p = 0.027). Some differences, but without statistical significance, were also observed in GPX3 activity between different groups of poisoned patients. PMID:27180426

  11. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

  12. The Good and the Bad of Poisonous Plants: an Introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin D. Welch; Panter, Kip E.; Gardner, Dale R.; Stegelmeier, Bryan L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, ...

  13. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R A [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.

    1989-09-18

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.

  14. Oxidation of benzene by radiolytically produced OH radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolysis of N2O saturated-aqueous solutions of benzene-14C has been examined using radio-liquid chromatographic methods to follow the quantitative aspects of the reactions of hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals. In the absence of a radical oxidant, at least five important products are produced. The total yield of 5.8 observed for the incorporation of benzene into products accounts for essentially all of the radicals initially produced from the water. Dimeric products predominate with a total yield of 4.1. Phenol is produced with a yield of only 0.8 indicating a disproportionation/ combination ratio for hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals of 2O saturated aqueous solutions. (author)

  15. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom;

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...... dodecyl isomers (with the benzene group at positions 1, 2 and 6). The conductivity was measured both by van der Pauw measurements on PPy-DBS in the oxidized, dry state as function of temperature, and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as function of potential in 0.1 M NaCl aqueous electrolyte...

  16. A tale of two systems: poisoning management in Iran and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Mehrpour; Nasim Zamani; Jeffrey Brent; Mohammad Abdollahi

    2013-01-01

    Poisoning morbidity and mortality is high in the developing world. Systems for care of poisoned patients differ markedly between countries. In this paper a comparison of two very different systems for the care of poisoned patients, is presented. Specifically, the role of poison centers and poison treatment centers in the US and Iran are contrasted. A systematic literature search was undertaken utilizing the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar and the keywords “poison centers”, “treatment” “Ira...

  17. An updated checklist of poisonous ifshes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Bayhan; Murat Kaya

    2015-01-01

    The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species), the Marmara Sea (257 species) and the Black Sea (154species). On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i) Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii) Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii) Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eelAnguilla anguillaand European congerConger congermight also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  18. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant. PMID:25925815

  19. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings. PMID:24661202

  20. Of Poisons and Antidotes in Polypropylene Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Busico, Vincenzo; Budzelaar, Peter H M; Vittoria, Antonio; Cipullo, Roberta

    2016-07-18

    Quenched-flow studies of MgCl2 -supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts were combined for the first time with (13) C NMR fingerprinting of the nascent polymer and conclusively proved that, depending on the catalyst formulation, propene polymerization can be slowed down significantly by the occurrence of the few regiodefects (2,1 monomer insertions), changing active sites into dormant sites. Catalysts modified with ethylbenzoate show little dormancy. The more industrially relevant phthalate based catalysts, instead, are highly dormant and require the presence of H2 to counteract the deleterious effect of this self-poisoning on productivity and stereoselectivity. PMID:27243600