WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic aquatic releases

  1. Two dose-estimation models CSA-N288.1 and Nureg 1.109, 1.113 - compared for chronic aquatic releases from nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Sheppard, S C; Peterson, S R

    2000-01-01

    Both the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) have published guidelines for the calculation of doses to the public due to emissions from nuclear facilities. In the sale of CANDU reactors overseas, either of these guidelines may be used as part of the approval process in the recipient country. This study compares the aquatic exposure pathways described in the guidelines. These include direct consumption of contaminated water and food, and exposure to contaminated sediments. The CSA and US-NRC guidelines for estimating dilution of aquatic emissions are of a general nature and the choice of model used to quantify dilution is left to the user. The models prescribed for the different exposure pathways by these two regulatory guides are similar in many attributes. Many of the recommended parameter values are identical and many of the formulations are either identical, or become identical under general conditions. However, despite these similarities, there...

  2. Two dose-estimation models CSA-N288.1 and Nureg 1.109, 1.113 - compared for chronic aquatic releases from nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C. [ECOMatters Inc., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Klukas, M.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Peterson, S.-R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Both the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) have published guidelines for the calculation of doses to the public due to emissions from nuclear facilities. In the sale of CANDU reactors overseas, either of these guidelines may be used as part of the approval process in the recipient country. This study compares the aquatic exposure pathways described in the guidelines. These include direct consumption of contaminated water and food, and exposure to contaminated sediments. The CSA and US-NRC guidelines for estimating dilution of aquatic emissions are of a general nature and the choice of model used to quantify dilution is left to the user. The models prescribed for the different exposure pathways by these two regulatory guides are similar in many attributes. Many of the recommended parameter values are identical and many of the formulations are either identical, or become identical under general conditions. However, despite these similarities, there is substantial variation between dose estimates for a common case. These differences are limited to certain nuclides and exposure pathways and are primarily due to differences in parameter values prescribed by the guidelines. The total dose from all pathways and from all nuclides for the case considered is within a factor of 1.3 for the two models. The convergence in results for the total dose for all radionuclides largely reflects the similarity in the way the models deal with the dominant dose contributor, tritium. Considering the results for each radionuclide, however, the models differ more and on average the CSA model estimates a 20-fold higher dose. (author)

  3. Dose estimation and prediction of radiation effects on aquatic biota resulting from radioactive releases from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to radionuclides released to the environment during various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. Routine releases from these processes are limited in compliance with technical specifications and requirements of federal regulations. These regulations reflect I.C.R.P. recommendations which are designed to provide an environment considered safe for man. It is generally accepted that aquatic organisms will not receive damaging external radiation doses in such environments; however, because of possible bioaccumulation of radionuclides there is concern that aquatic organisms might be adversely affected by internal doses. The objectives of this paper are: to estimate the radiation dose received by aquatic biota from the different processes and determine the major dose-contributing radionuclides, and to assess the impact of estimated doses on aquatic biota. Dose estimates are made by using radionuclide concentration measured in the liquid effluents of representative facilities. This evaluation indicates the potential for the greatest radiation dose to aquatic biota from the nuclear fuel supply facilities (i.e., uranium mining and milling). The effects of chronic low-level radiation on aquatic organisms are discussed from somatic and genetic viewpoints. Based on the body of radiobiological evidence accumulated up to the present time, no significant deleterious effects are predicted for populations of aquatic organisms exposed to the estimated dose rates resulting from routine releases from conversion, enrichment, fabrication, reactors and reprocessing facilities. At the doses estimated for milling and mining operations it would be difficult to detect radiation effects on aquatic populations; however, the significance of such radiation exposures to aquatic populations cannot be fully evaluated without further research on effects of chronic low-level radiation. (U.S.)

  4. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  5. Protecting marine parks and sanctuaries from aquatic nuisance species releases from ballast during emergency response events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A. Green

    2011-01-01

    Commercial shipping activities that release aquatic invasive species are recognized globally as a dominant transport vector for marine invasions. Aquatic nuisance species (ANS) introductions have resulted in billions of dollars of damages and immeasurable biological devastation within the Great Lakes. National Park Service managers are working with United States...

  6. Disability predictors in chronic low back pain after aquatic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Artero, Enrique G; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy.

  7. Consequences of the release of chemical pollutants on the transfers of radiioactive products in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing rate of industrial activities, aquatic systems undergo, more and more frequently, the accumulation of chemical and radioactive wastes released separatly or associated in the same discharge. An attempt is made to evaluate the consequence of the association of pollutants on the transfers of neutron activation radionuclides. Emphasis is given to heavy metal pollution and complexing agents [fr

  8. Effects of aquatic walking exercise using a walker in a chronic stroke patient

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of aquatic walking exercise using a walker for chronic stroke patients. We also examined the psychological effects on the study subject and the primary caregiver before and after aquatic walking exercise. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 60-year-old male with bilateral paralysis after a cerebrovascular accident. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) total score was 116 on the right and 115 on the left. The intervention combined aq...

  9. Effects of aquatic walking exercise using a walker in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tadashi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of aquatic walking exercise using a walker for chronic stroke patients. We also examined the psychological effects on the study subject and the primary caregiver before and after aquatic walking exercise. [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 60-year-old male with bilateral paralysis after a cerebrovascular accident. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) total score was 116 on the right and 115 on the left. The intervention combined aquatic and land walking exercise. A U-shaped walker was used for both water and land exercise. Continuous walking distance was the measure used to evaluate land walking ability. The psychological effects on the study subject and the primary caregiver were examined with the questionnaire. [Results] In aquatic walking, the mean time to walk 5 m showed an increase from the intervention after two months. After the aquatic walking and land walking combination, continuous walking distance also showed a prolonged trend. In the survey given to the main caregivers, improvements were observed. [Conclusion] Aquatic walking practice using a walker improved motivation in a chronic stroke patient, leading to improved walking ability, with a positive psychological influence on the participant and family caregiver.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of bisphenol A with aquatic invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Friederich, Urs; Caspers, Norbert; Hall, A Tilghman; Klecka, Gary M; Dimond, Stephen S; Staples, Charles A; Ortego, Lisa S; Hentges, Steven G

    2009-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol) is a commercially important chemical used primarily as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Extensive effect data are currently available, including long-term studies with BPA on fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and mollusks. The aim of this study was to perform additional tests with a number of aquatic invertebrates and an aquatic plant. These studies include acute tests with the midge (Chironomus tentans) and the snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and chronic studies with rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and plants (Lemna gibba). The effect data on different aquatic invertebrate and plant species presented in this paper correspond well with the effect and no-effect concentrations (NOECs) available from invertebrate studies in the published literature and are within the range found for other aquatic species tested with BPA.

  11. Meta-analysis of aquatic chronic chemical toxicity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic toxicity data from the open literature and from tests submitted for pesticide registration were extracted and assembled into a database, AquaChronTox, with a flexible search interface. Data were captured at a treatment and, when available, replicate level to support conc...

  12. Chronic aquatic effect assessment for the fungicide azoxystrobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Zafar, M.I.; Matser, A.M.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ecological effects of a range of chronic exposure concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin in freshwater experimental systems (1270 L outdoor microcosms). Intended and environmentally relevant test concentrations of azoxystrobin were 0, 0.33, 1, 3.3, 10, 33 µg ai/L, kept at

  13. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Jacqueline L; Miranda, Nelson A F; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  14. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  15. Development of a strontium chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Cathy A; Lawrence, Gary S; Elphick, James R; Chapman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    There are no national water-quality guidelines for strontium for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in North America or elsewhere. Available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of strontium to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 75 mg/L to 15 000 mg/L. The majority of chronic effects occurred at concentrations above 11 mg/L; however, calculation of a representative benchmark was confounded by results from 4 studies indicating that chronic effects occurred at lower concentrations than all other studies, in 2 cases below background concentrations reported for US and European streams. Two of these studies, including 1 reporting effects below background concentrations, were repeated and found not to be reproducible; chronic effects occurred at considerably higher strontium concentrations than in the original studies. Studies with narrow-mouthed toad and goldfish were not repeated; both studies reported chronic effects below background concentrations, and both studies had been conducted by the authors of 1 of the 2 studies that were repeated and shown to be nonreproducible. Studies by these authors (3 of the 4 confounding studies), conducted over 30 yr ago, lacked detail in reporting of methods and results. It is thus likely that repeating the toad and goldfish studies would also have resulted in a higher strontium effects concentration. A strontium chronic effects benchmark of 10.7 mg/L that incorporates the results of additional testing summarized in the present study is proposed for freshwater environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Tramadol extended-release in the management of chronic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarberg, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Chronic, noncancer pain such as that associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee is typically managed according to American College of Rheumatology guidelines. Patients unresponsive to first-line treatment with acetaminophen receive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. However, many patients may have chronic pain that is refractory to these agents, or they may be at risk for the gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular complications associated with their use. Tramadol, a mild opioid agonist and norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is recommended by current guidelines for the treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain in patients who have not responded to previous oral therapy, or in patients who have contraindications to COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective NSAIDs. An extended-release (ER) formulation of tramadol was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2005. In contrast with immediate-release (IR) tramadol, this ER formulation allows once-daily dosing, providing around-the-clock analgesia. In clinical studies, tramadol ER has demonstrated a lower incidence of adverse events than that reported for IR tramadol. Unlike nonselective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, tramadol ER is not associated with gastrointestinal, renal, or cardiovascular complications. Although tramadol is an opioid agonist, significant abuse has not been demonstrated after long-term therapy. It is concluded that tramadol ER has an efficacy and safety profile that warrants its early use for the management of chronic pain, either alone or in conjunction with nonselective NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:18488071

  17. Is litter decomposition 'primed' by primary producer-release of labile carbon in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    It is possible that recalcitrant organic matter (ROM) can be 'activated' by inputs of labile organic matter (LOM) through the priming effect (PE). Investigating the PE is of major importance to fully understand the microbial use of ROM and its role on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In aquatic ecosystems it is thought that the PE is triggered by periphytic algae release of LOM. Analogously, in terrestrial systems it is hypothesized that the LOM released in plant rhizospheres, or from the green crusts on the surface of agricultural soils, stimulate the activity and growth of ROM decomposers. Most previous studies on PE have utilised pulse additions of single substrates at high concentrations. However, to achieve an assessment of the true importance of the PE, it is important to simulate a realistic delivery of LOM. We investigated, in a series of 2-week laboratory experiments, how primary producer (PP)-release of LOM influence litter degradation in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems. We used soil (terrestrial) and pond water (aquatic) microbial communities to which litter was added under light and dark conditions. In addition, glucose was added at PP delivery rates in dark treatments to test if the putative PE in light systems could be reproduced. We observed an initial peak of bacterial growth rate followed by an overall decrease over time with no treatment differences. In light treatments, periphytic algae growth and increased fungal production was stimulated when bacterial growth declined. In contrast, both fungal growth and algal production were negligible in dark treatments. This reveals a direct positive influence of photosynthesis on fungal growth. To investigate if PP LOM supplements, and the associated fungal growth, translate into a modulated litter decomposition, we are using stable isotopes to track the use of litter and algal-derived carbon by determining the δ13C in produced CO2. Fungi and bacteria

  18. Dose Assessment Model for Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Yao Rentai

    2010-01-01

    An improved dose assessment model for chronic atmospheric releases of tritium was proposed. The proposed model explicitly considered two chemical forms of tritium.It was based on conservative assumption of transfer of tritiated water (HTO) from air to concentration of HTO and organic beam tritium (OBT) in vegetable and animal products.The concentration of tritium in plant products was calculated based on considering dividedly leafy plant and not leafy plant, meanwhile the concentration contribution of tritium in the different plants from the tritium in soil was taken into account.Calculating the concentration of HTO in animal products, average water fraction of animal products and the average weighted tritium concentration of ingested water based on the fraction of water supplied by each source were considered,including skin absorption, inhalation, drinking water and food.Calculating the annual doses, the ingestion doses were considered, at the same time the contribution of inhalation and skin absorption to the dose was considered. Concentrations in foodstuffs and dose of annual adult calculated with the specific activity model, NEWTRI model and the model proposed by the paper were compared. The results indicate that the model proposed by the paper can predict accurately tritium doses through the food chain from chronic atmospheric releases. (authors)

  19. Modeling of radiation doses from chronic aqueous releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A general model and corresponding computer code were developed to calculate personnel dose estimates from chronic releases via aqueous pathways. Potential internal dose pathways are consumption of water, fish, crustacean, and mollusk. Dose prediction from consumption of fish, crustacean, or mollusk is based on the calculated radionuclide content of the water and applicable bioaccumulation factor. 70-year dose commitments are calculated for whole body, bone, lower large intestine of the gastrointestinal tract, and six internal organs. In addition, the code identifies the largest dose contributor and the dose percentages for each organ-radionuclide combination in the source term. The 1974 radionuclide release data from the Savannah River Plant were used to evaluate the dose models. The dose predicted from the model was compared to the dose calculated from radiometric analysis of water and fish samples. The whole body dose from water consumption was 0.45 mrem calculated from monitoring data and 0.61 mrem predicted from the model. Tritium contributed 99 percent of this dose. The whole body dose from fish consumption was 0.20 mrem calculated from monitoring data and 0.14 mrem from the model. Cesium-134,137 was the principal contributor to the 70-year whole body dose from fish consumption

  20. Modelling population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Emilie [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Alonzo, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr [Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie des radionucleides (LECO) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent [Laboratoire de biogeochimie, biodisponibilite et transferts des radionucleides (L2BT) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de modelisation pour l' expertise environnementale (LM2E) Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV, SERIS, Cadarache (France)

    2012-07-01

    We modelled population-level consequences of chronic external gamma irradiation in aquatic invertebrates under laboratory conditions. We used Leslie matrices to combine life-history characteristics (duration of life stages, survival and fecundity rates) and dose rate-response curves for hatching, survival and reproduction fitted on effect data from the FREDERICA database. Changes in net reproductive rate R{sub 0} (offspring per individual) and asymptotic population growth rate {lambda} (dimensionless) were calculated over a range of dose rates in two marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata and Ophryotrocha diadema) and a freshwater gastropod (Physa heterostropha). Sensitivities in R{sub 0} and {lambda} to changes in life-history traits were analysed in each species. Results showed that fecundity has the strongest influence on R{sub 0}. A delay in age at first reproduction is most critical for {lambda} independent of the species. Fast growing species were proportionally more sensitive to changes in individual endpoints than slow growing species. Reduction of 10% in population {lambda} were predicted at dose rates of 6918, 5012 and 74,131 {mu}Gy{center_dot}h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, O. diadema and P. heterostropha respectively, resulting from a combination of strong effects on several individual endpoints in each species. These observations made 10%-reduction in {lambda} a poor criterion for population protection. The lowest significant changes in R{sub 0} and {lambda} were respectively predicted at a same dose rate of 1412 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in N. arenaceodentata, at 760 and 716 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in O. diadema and at 12,767 and 13,759 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} in P. heterostropha. These values resulted from a combination of slight but significant changes in several measured endpoints and were lower than effective dose rates calculated for the individual level in O. diadema and P. heterostropha. The relevance of the experimental dataset (external irradiation rather

  1. Tapentadol extended release for the management of chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billeci D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Billeci,1 Flaminia Coluzzi2 1Division of Neurosurgery, Ca’Foncello Hospital, University of Padova, Treviso, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Unit of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine, and Pain Therapy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy Background: The role of opioids in the management of chronic neck pain is still poorly investigated. No data are available on tapentadol extended release (ER. In this article, we present 54 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain treated with tapentadol ER. Patients and methods: Patients received tapentadol ER 100 mg/day; dosage was then adjusted according to clinical needs. The following parameters were recorded: pain; Douleur Neuropathique 4 score; Neck Disability Index score; range of motion; pain-associated sleep interference; quality of life (Short Form [36] Health Survey; Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC; Clinician GIC; opioid-related adverse effects; and need for other analgesics. Results: A total of 44 of 54 patients completed the 12-week observation. Tapentadol ER daily doses increased from 100 mg/day to a mean (standard deviation dosage of 204.5 (102.8 mg/day at the final evaluation. Mean pain intensity at movement significantly decreased from baseline (8.1 [1.1] to all time points (P<0.01. At baseline, 70% of patients presented a positive neuropathic component. This percentage dropped to 23% after 12 weeks. Tapentadol improved Neck Disability Index scores from 55.6 (18.6 at baseline to 19.7 (20.9 at the final evaluation (P<0.01. Tapentadol significantly improved neck range of motion in all three planes of motion, particularly in lateral flexion. Quality of life significantly improved in all Short Form (36 Health Survey subscales (P<0.01 and in both physical and mental status (P<0.01. Based on PGIC results, approximately 90% of patients rated their overall condition as much/very much

  2. Insect herbivory on native and exotic aquatic plants: phosphorus and nitrogen drive insect growth and nutrient release

    OpenAIRE

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, E.M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication and globalisation facilitate the dominance of exotic plants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic omnivores can provide biotic resistance to plant invasions, but little is known about whether obligate aquatic herbivores can do the same. Herbivores such as insects can decimate aquatic vegetation, but may not be able to consume exotic plants due to their more or less specialised nature of feeding. We experimentally tested the larval feeding of an aquatic insect, the moth Parap...

  3. Disturbance caused by freshwater releases of different magnitude on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of two coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The response of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities to freshwater releases of different magnitude and persistence was investigated in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons (Ca l'Arana and Ricarda). The study was carried out during 14 months (June 2004-July 2005) in which different environmental variables and the macroinvertebrate communities associated with two different habitats, the Phragmites australis belt and the deep area of the lagoons, were sampled monthly. Additionally, potential colonizing sources were identified through the analysis of Chironomidae pupal exuviae. The initial response of the communities to the freshwater releases was similar, being characterized by a peak of opportunistic taxa (mainly Naididae), but the late response was different for each lagoon. In the Ca l'Arana, the magnitude of the freshwater release was higher (salinity dropped below five, which is the limit commonly established for most freshwater species) and its persistence was also higher, allowing the colonization of the lagoon by new insect taxa, which replaced the brackish water species. In the Ricarda, the salinity never dropped beyond five and pre-disturbance conditions were rapidly re-established. This, together with the acclimatizing mechanisms showed by the species Chironomus riparius and Hediste diversicolor, permitted the recovery of the pre-disturbance macroinvertebrate community.

  4. Methodology to estimating aquatic dispersion of effluents from accidental and routine releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Diogo da S.; Lava, Deise Diana; Guimarães, Antônio C.F.; Moreira, Maria L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to analysis of dispersion of radioactive materials in an aquatic environment, specifically for estuaries, based on the Regulatory Guide 1.113. The objective is to present an adaptation of methodology for computational user, that it is possible by means of the use of numerical approximations techniques. The methodology to be present consist in a numerical approximation of the Navier-Stokes Equation applied in a finite medium with known transport mechanisms, such as Coriolis Effect, floor drag, diffusion, salinity, temperature difference and adhesion per water molecule. The basis of methodology is substantiated in a transport diffusive-convection equation, which has similarity with the Partial Differential Burgues' Equation for one dimension and with the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation for multidimensional cases. (author)

  5. Transplants of aquatic mosses as biomonitors of metals released by a mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rui; Ribeiro, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Transplants of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were used to assess the contamination of an industrial effluent discharge on a river located in south Portugal. The sampling program was run for 2 years, using a newly developed transplant device in ten stations, and the elements analysed were Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ca, K, and Mg. An increase of water contamination by Cu, Zn was detected, and to a lesser extent, Pb. The increase was verified in the extra and intracellular moss fraction, especially for soluble Cu in the first 4 km after the discharge point, and also for particulate metal at the first station after the discharge. The effects of metal contamination could be related to changes in the intracellular concentrations of Mg, indicating possible stress effects. - Effects of metal contamination could be related to changes in intracellular concentrations of Mg

  6. Methodology to estimating aquatic dispersion of effluents from accidental and routine releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Diogo da S.; Lava, Deise Diana; Guimarães, Antônio C.F.; Moreira, Maria L., E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology to analysis of dispersion of radioactive materials in an aquatic environment, specifically for estuaries, based on the Regulatory Guide 1.113. The objective is to present an adaptation of methodology for computational user, that it is possible by means of the use of numerical approximations techniques. The methodology to be present consist in a numerical approximation of the Navier-Stokes Equation applied in a finite medium with known transport mechanisms, such as Coriolis Effect, floor drag, diffusion, salinity, temperature difference and adhesion per water molecule. The basis of methodology is substantiated in a transport diffusive-convection equation, which has similarity with the Partial Differential Burgues' Equation for one dimension and with the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equation for multidimensional cases. (author)

  7. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  8. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Sanchez, Brian C.; Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (μg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl 2 ) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 μg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 μg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 μg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 μg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  9. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Sanchez, Brian C; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl(2)) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 microg/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 microg/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 microg/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 microg/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  10. Radiological impacts of releases from nuclear facilities into aquatic environments - USA views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    We may be entering an age which will see a rapid proliferation of nuclear power plants. Since we learn from past experience, the author looks back at two major events that led to large-scale releases of radionuclides to the environment. While these two events did not lead to major exposure doses to man, they would have been precluded in peacetime by the many environmental protection laws now in existence in the United States. Although during the peak, the Hanford Laboratories released about 1000 curies a day of neutron-induced radionuclides to the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, no harmful effects have been observed. Studies of worldwide fallout show a larger dose to man than from nuclear power, but food chains in the ocean seem to filter out much of the radioactivity from fission products so that they only appear minimally in the diet of man. These past events appear encouraging for the future of nuclear power. (author)

  11. The radiological consequences of releases from nuclear facilities to the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1975-01-01

    The release of radioactive materials to the environment is an inescapable consequence of the utilization of nuclear energy. The objective therefore is to decide on what basis and against what criteria regulatory action should be taken to protect the environment against the impact of radioactive substances. In properly regulated situations releases of such material will be minor in character and their radiological implications will rest largely in the field of public health. There are now some three decades of experience in respect of the environmental impact of radioactive materials, and certain major conclusions can be drawn. This paper reviews this experience in broad terms, and draws conclusions relevant to the regulatory problem. Future problems, especially in the context of an expanding use of nuclear power, are considered and priority research needs and opportunities indicated. (author)

  12. Insect herbivory on native and exotic aquatic plants: phosphorus and nitrogen drive insect growth and nutrient release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, E.M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication and globalisation facilitate the dominance of exotic plants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic omnivores can provide biotic resistance to plant invasions, but little is known about whether obligate aquatic herbivores can do the same. Herbivores such as insects can decimate

  13. A site study of the multiple effects of thermal releases on the aquatic life in an estuarine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgese, D.; Dinelli, G.; Guzzi, L.; Smedile, E.

    1975-01-01

    The estuarine area of a river represents a typical site where different factors have to be considered when trying to assess the actual impact on the aquatic life of industrial thermal releases. These factors may be physical (river flow, sea currents, tides, residence time of waters in marshes and lagoons), biological (bio-mass production, mutual organic matter exchange between fresh and sea waters) and economic such as the commercial importance of fishing. In this respect the siting of a large power station in the Po river delta may cause serious problems for the conservation of the existing ecosystem. Thus a multidisciplinary approach with a view to predicting the final thermal impact of a power station on the environment seems fully justified despite its complexity. Therefore a detailed research programme has been established in order to study the following main points: (a) structure of the plant and animal populations; (b) primary production and bacterial activity; (c) physical and chemical characteristics of estuarine waters; (d) coastal characterization; (e) thermal effects on the biocenosis entering the condenser of existing plants operating under similar conditions. Together with conventional experimental techniques, airborne infra-red (IR) and multi-spectra (MS) surveys are planned as, according to preliminary investigations, they provide essential information for the recognition of water flow patterns and aquatic plant growth. The behaviour of the particular ecosystem will be simulated using mathematical models defined on a system theory approach, where the descriptive functions and rate constants come from experimental studies conducted in situ and with laboratory tests. In fact results of preliminary airborne scanning IR and MS surveys combined with biological studies confirm the need for systematic research on the Po river delta. (author)

  14. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumblad, Linda [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment.

  15. Models for transport and fate of carbon, nutrients and point source released radionuclides to an aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, Linda

    2004-09-01

    In this report three ecosystem models are described in terms of structure, initial data, and results. All models are dynamic, mass-balanced and describe the transport and fate of elements in an open aquatic ecosystem. The models are based on ecologically sound principles, provide model results with high resolution and transparency, and are constrained by the nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem itself. The processes driving the transport in all the models are both the biological processes such as primary production, consumption, respiration and excretion, and abiotic e.g. water exchange and air-sea exchange. The first model, the CNP-model, describes the distribution and fluxes of carbon and nutrients for the coastal ecosystem off Forsmark. The second model, the C-14 model, is an extension of the CNP-model and describes the transport and distribution of hypothetically released C-14 from the underground repository SFR-1 to the ecosystem above. The third model, the RN-model, is a generic radionuclide flow model that models the transport and distribution of radionuclides other than C-14 hypothetically discharged to the ecosystem. The model also analyses the importance of some radionuclide specific mechanisms for the radionuclide flow. The generic radionuclide model is also based on the CNP-model, but has radionuclide specific mechanisms connected to each compartment

  16. Uptake and release kinetics of 134Cs by goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137Cs by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in controlled aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Reddy, S.J.; Kelber, O.; Urich, K.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and release kinetics of 134 Cs by Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137 Cs by Zebra Fish (Brachydanio rerio) from aquatic media of different ionic compositions and temperature was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of radiocesium in the case of Brachydanio rerio is observed to be strongly dependent on the potassium ion concentration of the aquatic medium, but in the case of Carassius auratus this dependence is quite weak. The biological half-lives of the cesium isotopes incorporated into the fish investigated in the present work vary from 19 to 80 days and are influenced by the temperature and the ionic composition of the aquatic medium. (author) 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  17. Design and Analysis of Chronic Aquatic Tests of Toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    surface waters. From that need evolved numerous standard toxicity tests. Aquatic toxicologists and biologists developed, refine,, and standard- ized many...experimental categorization summary sheets prepared by Dr. William van der Schalie, which is shown in Table I.I. 7 j-. " .’?, i...partial solution to this dilema can be obtained by studying the effects of the solvent alone. If the solvent by itself produces no toxic responses at

  18. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J; Riediker, Michael

    2015-07-24

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  19. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  20. Does chronic smoking affect induced-exercise catecholamine release?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan İpekoğlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the acute effect of the submaximal aerobic exercise upon epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels in chronic smokers and non-smoker.  The study was carried out upon 10 regular (15> cigarettes/day smoker untrained male along five years and 10 never smoker untrained male. Subjects performed an endurance exercise that continues 40 minutes at 70% maximal heart rate. There were 15cc venous blood samples extracted from the forearm pre-exercise (PRE, post-exercise (POST, post-exercise 2 hours (2h, post-exercise 24 hours (24h to measure of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels. The plasma level of each hormone increased after exercise and the tendency of rise was similar between groups as it seen in which 55,6% and 54,68% for epinephrine and 27,1% and 35,7% for norepinephrine. In this respect no group-time relationship has been found (p>0,05.  But in between-group analyses, basal and after exercise levels were different (p<0,05. The study revealed the fact that, smokers have higher plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine before and after exercise. The results demonstrate that long-term smoking induces elevate baseline and post-aerobic submaximal exercise plasma epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels.  The sympatho-adrenal activity appears to be disrupt with long-term smoking which effect the glycolytic and fat metabolism during exercise.

  1. Database construction for assessment of chronic radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a comprehensive dose/risk assessment methodology, CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System), for assessment of atmospheric radionuclide releases (e.g., during decontamination and decommissioning). Radiological effects are calculated for direct atmospheric and ground exposure and for consumption of contaminated agricultural products. Previously, population and agricultural data for CRRIS were tabulated on 1/2-degree square grid cells. This coarse resolution resulted in anomalies such as population in water bodies, agricultural production in city centers, and nonconservation of population over the assessment grid. An even finer mesh (2-minute square grid) is inadequate in densely populated cities where 20,000 or more people live in a square block. These difficulties are overcome by a higher resolution technique using US Census Bureau population data at the most detailed [enumeration district (ED)] level available and by excluding population from unpopulated areas (e.g., water bodies). Agricultural data are available at only the county level and are apportioned to the ED grid according to farm population, conserving the original data. This paper discusses the database construction using Tennessee as an illustration. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  3. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  4. Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols. Structure-activity Relationship for Chronic Aquatic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefers, Christoph; Sanderson, Hans; Boshof, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Daphnia magna reproduction tests were performed with C10, C12, C14 and C15 alcohols to establish a structure-activity relationship of chronic effects of long-chain alcohols. The data generation involved substantial methodological efforts due to the exceptionally rapid biodegradability of the test...

  5. ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF FIPRONIL AND ITS ENANTIOMERS TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide used in agriculture and domestic settings for controlling various insect pests in crops, lawns and residential structures. Fipronil is chiral; however, it is released into the environment as a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. In this st...

  6. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  7. Tapentadol extended-release for treatment of chronic pain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelu N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nalini Vadivelu1, Alexander Timchenko1, Yili Huang2, Raymond Sinatra11Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; 2Internal Medicine, North Shore-LIJ Plainview Hospital, Plainview, NY, USAAbstract: Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic with a dual mechanism of action of mu receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. Tapentadol immediate-release is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate-to-severe acute pain. It was developed to decrease the intolerability issue associated with opioids. Tapentadol extended-release has a 12-hour duration of effect, and has recently been evaluated for pain in patients with chronic osteoarthritis, low back pain, and pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Tapentadol extended-release was found to provide safe and highly effective analgesia for the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including moderate-to-severe chronic osteoarthritis pain and low back pain. Initial trials demonstrating efficacy in neuropathic pain suggest that tapentadol has comparable analgesic effectiveness and better gastrointestinal tolerability than opioid comparators, and demonstrates effectiveness in settings of inflammatory, somatic, and neuropathic pain. Gastrointestinal intolerance and central nervous system effects were the major adverse events noted. Tapentadol will need to be rigorously tested in chronic neuropathic pain, cancer-related pain, and cancer-related neuropathic pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, analgesic, opioids, norepinephrine

  8. The optimal frequency of aquatic physiotherapy for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; White, Melanie; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-01-01

    To establish whether there was a difference in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with chronic musculoskeletal disorders (PwCMSKD) after participating in a multimodal physiotherapy program (MPP) either two or three sessions a week. Total of 114 PwCMSKD participated in this prospective randomised controlled trial. An individualised MPP, consisting of exercises for mobility, motor-control, muscle strengthening, cardiovascular training, and health education, was implemented either twice a week (G2: n = 58) or three times a week) (G3: n = 56) for 1 year. HRQoL physical and mental health state (PHS/MHS), Roland Morris disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Neck-Disability-Index (NDI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities' Arthritis Index (WOMAC) were used to measure outcomes of MPP for people with chronic low back pain, chronic neck pain and osteoarthritis, respectively. Measures were taken at baseline, 8 weeks (8 w), 6 months (6 m), and 1 year (1 y) after starting the programme. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (G2 and G3), except in NDI at 8 w (-3.34, (CI 95%: -6.94/0.84, p = 0.025 (scale 0-50)). All variables showed improvement reaching the following values (from baseline to 1 y) G2: PHS: 57.72 (baseline: 41.17; (improvement: 16.55%), MHS: 74.51 (baseline: 47.46, 27.05%), HRQoL 0.90 (baseline: 0.72, 18%)), HRQoL-VAS 84.29 (baseline: 58.04, 26.25%), RMQ 4.15 (baseline: 7.85, 15.42%), NDI 3.96 (baseline: 21.87, 35.82%), WOMAC 7.17 (baseline: 25.51, 19.10%). G3: PHS: 58.64 (baseline: 39.75, 18.89%), MHS: 75.50 (baseline: 45.45, (30.05%), HRQoL 0.67 (baseline: 0.88, 21%), HRQoL-VAS 86.91 (baseline: 52.64, 34.27%), RMQ 4.83 (baseline: 8.93, 17.08%), NDI 4.91 (baseline: 23.82, 37.82%), WOMAC 6.35 (baseline: 15.30, 9.32%). No significant differences between the two groups were found in the outcomes of a MPP except in the NDI at 8 weeks, but both groups improved in all variables during the course of 1

  9. Critical appraisal of extended-release hydrocodone for chronic pain: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould HJ III

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Harry J Gould III,1,3–7 Dennis Paul1–8 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4Department of Anesthesiology, 5Neuroscience Center of Excellence, 6Center of Excellence for Oral and Craniofacial Biology, 7Pain Mastery Center of Louisiana, 8Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Opioid analgesics are currently the most effective pharmacologic option for the management of both acute and chronic forms of moderate-to-severe pain. Although the “as-needed” use of immediate-release formulations is considered optimum for treating acute, painful episodes of limited duration, the scheduled dosing of extended-release formulations with immediate-release supplementation for breakthrough pain is regarded to be most effective for managing chronic conditions requiring around-the-clock treatment. The recent introduction of extended-release formulations of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone potentially broadened the possibility of providing pain relief for individuals for whom current formulations are either ineffective or not tolerated. However, reaction to the approval of the new formulations has fueled controversy over the general safety and need for opioid medications, in light of their potential for misuse, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Here, we discuss how the approval of extended-release formulations of hydrocodone and the emotionally charged controversy over their release may affect physician prescribing and the care available to patients in need of chronic opioid therapy for the management of pain. Keywords: opioid analgesics, patient risks, patient benefits, misuse, addiction

  10. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  11. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk.

  12. Release of copper from sintered tungsten-bronze shot under different pH conditions and its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Santore, Robert C.; McGill, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Sintered tungsten-bronze is a new substitute for lead shot, and is about to be deposited in and around the wetlands of North America. This material contains copper in the alloyed form of bronze. This in vitro study was performed according to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria to determine the dissolution rate of copper from the shot, and to assess the toxic risk that it may present to aquatic organisms. The dissolution of copper from tungsten-bronze shot, pure copper shot, and glass beads was measured in a buffered, moderately hard, synthetic water of pH 5.5, 6.6, and 7.8 over a 28-day period. The dissolution of copper from both the control copper shot and the tungsten-bronze shot was affected significantly by the pH of the water and the duration of dissolution (all p values < 0.000). The rate of copper release from tungsten bronze shot was 30 to 50 times lower than that from the copper shot, depending on pH (p < 0.0000). The observed expected environmental concentration of copper released from tungsten-bronze shot after 28 days was 0.02 μg/L at pH 7.8, and 0.4 μg/L at pH 5.6, using a loading and exposure scenario specific in a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protocol. Ratio Quotient values derived from the highest EEC observed in this study (0.4 μg/L), and the copper toxic effect levels for all aquatic species listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria database, were all far less than the 0.1 criterion value. Given the conditions stipulated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, heavy loading from discharged tungsten-bronze shot would not pose a toxic risk to potable water, or to soil. Consequently, it would appear that no toxic risks to aquatic organisms will attend the use of tungsten-bronze shot of the approved composition. Given the likelihood that sintered tungsten-bronze of the same formula will be used for fishing weights, bullets, and wheel balance weights, it is

  13. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary-adrenal hormones in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W B; Gurewitsch, E D; Goland, R S

    1995-02-01

    We hypothesized that maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in chronic hypertension and that elevations modulate maternal and fetal pituitary-adrenal function. Venous blood samples and 24-hour urine specimens were obtained in normal and hypertensive pregnancies at 21 to 40 weeks of gestation. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and total estriol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean hormone levels were compared by unpaired t test or two-way analysis of variance. Plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone levels were elevated early in hypertensive pregnancies but did not increase after 36 weeks. Levels of pituitary and adrenal hormones were not different in normal and hypertensive women. However, maternal plasma estriol levels were lower in hypertensive pregnancies compared with normal pregnancies. Fetal 16-hydroxy dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, the major precursor to placental estriol production, has been reported to be lower than normal in hypertensive pregnancies, possibly explaining the decreased plasma estriol levels reported here. Early stimulation of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone production or secretion may be related to accelerated maturation of placental endocrine function in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension.

  14. Impact of treated effluents released from processing of radioactive mineral on the aquatic environment of Periyar river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishna Pillai, K.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical processing of monazite/ thorium concentrate for the separation of thorium, uranium and rare earths results in the generation of effluents, both acidic and alkaline. Indian Rare Earths Ltd (IREL), Udyogamandal was carrying out processing of monazite for nearly 50 years. Presently (since 2004) Indian Rare Earths Ltd, Udyogamandal is processing earlier stocked thorium hydroxide concentrate retrieved from Silos to produce Thorium Oxalate (along with a small percentage of Rare Earth elements), Nuclear Grade Ammonium Di-Uranate (NGADU), and small quantities of Nuclear Grade Thorium Oxide ('THRUST' Project). The treated effluents after monitoring are discharged to river Periyar. River Periyar is the recipient water body for treated effluents from IREL as well as a host of other chemical industries. Indian Rare Earths Ltd, Udyogamandal had been carrying out chemical processing of monazite for the past 50 years. Recently, from 2004, the plant has shifted from monazite processing to processing of thorium concentrate (THRUST Project). The present paper discusses the characteristics of the effluents generated as per this project, their treatment, monitoring methodology, discharge and impact on the aquatic environment of river Periyar. It has been noted that the impact on the aquatic environment by way of enhancing the natural background radioactivity in the river had been insignificant. (author)

  15. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Biochemical and growth performance of the aquatic macrophyte Azolla filiculoides to sub-chronic exposure to cylindrospermopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Catarina; Azevedo, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Pereira, Ana L

    2015-11-01

    Physiological and biochemical effects of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a cyanobacterial toxin that inhibits protein synthesis and released during a harmful cyanobacterial bloom, has been overlooked in plants. Therefore, at the present research, the toxic effects (physiological and biochemical) of a crude extract containing CYN were assessed in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides exposed to three concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5 μg CYN mL(-1)). At 5 μg CYN mL(-1), fern growth rate has showed a drastic decrease (0.001 g g(-1) day(-1)) corresponding to a 99.8% inhibition, but at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 μg CYN mL(-1) the growth rate was similar to the control plants. Growth rate also indicated a IC50 of 2.9 μg CYN mL(-1). Those data point to the presence of other compounds in the crude extract may stimulate the fern growth and/or the fern is tolerant to CYN. Chlorophyll (a and b), carotenoids and protein content as well as the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) has increased at 5 μg CYN mL(-1) which may indicate that photosynthesis and protein synthesis are not affected by CYN and the probable activation of defense and detoxifying mechanisms to overcome the effects induced by the presence of CYN. Low uptake of cylindrospermopsin (1.314 μg CYN g(-1) FW) and low bioconcentration factor (0.401) point towards to a safe use of A. filiculoides as biofertilizer and as food source, but also indicate that the fern is not suitable for CYN phytoremediation.

  17. Alveolar macrophage release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic alcoholics without liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; Casey, R; Nelson, S; Olariu, R; Shellito, J E

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol is an immunosuppressive drug, and chronic abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of infections, including bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophages are the resident phagocytes of the lung and play a central role in lung host defenses against infection ranging from direct antibacterial activity to the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). TNFalpha, in particular, plays a key role in the development of the early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on alveolar macrophage release of TNFalpha in vitro. We prospectively studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of TNFalpha from alveolar macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in 22 alcoholic (18 smokers, 4 nonsmokers) and 7 nondrinking healthy volunteers (3 smokers, 4 nonsmokers). The total number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their differential distribution were not significantly different in alcoholics versus controls (43 +/- 8 x 10(6) and 39 +/- 13 x 10(6), respectively). However, the total number of cells recovered from BALF was significantly higher in smokers (51 +/- 8 x 10(6)) than in nonsmokers (19 +/- 5 x 10(6)). Spontaneous (basal) release of TNFalpha by alveolar macrophages was the same in alcoholics and controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated release of TNFalpha was significantly suppressed in alcoholics compared with that of controls (1343 +/- 271 vs. 3806 +/- 926 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells, respectively, p < 0.015). When controlled for smoking, LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was suppressed in alcoholic nonsmokers (563 +/- 413 U TNF/ml/10(6)) compared with control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6)). LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was also less in control smokers (2063 +/- 386 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells) than in control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells). There was no difference

  18. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    the correlations between HR test results and demographic features, quality of life, disease activity, clinical course, and autologous serum and plasma skin tests (ASST and APST). Results. All patients with positive HR test (9/9, 100%) had a more severe disease activity at onset (urticaria activity score, UAS > 2......Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...... with a positive HR test had a significant reduction of disease activity (p = 0.003) whereas patients with a negative HR test did not (p > 0.05), leading to disease remission and antihistamine treatment withdrawal in 67% (6/9) of positive HR test patients versus 18% (2/11) of negative HR test patients (p = 0...

  20. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl

    BACKGROUND Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that IgE-mediated basophil activation leads to release of TNFα that in turn can induce matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) release from monocytes. We wished to investigate if serum from chronic spontaneous urticaria-patients with auto-a...

  1. Developments in managing severe chronic pain: role of oxycodone–naloxone extended release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli G

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Guido Fanelli,1 Andrea Fanelli2 1Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, University of Parma, Parma, 2Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Policlinico S Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Chronic pain is a highly disabling condition, which can significantly reduce patients’ quality of life. Prevalence of moderate and severe chronic pain is high in the general population, and it increases significantly in patients with advanced cancer and older than 65 years. Guidelines for the management of chronic pain recommend opioids for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain in patients whose pain is not responsive to initial therapies with paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite their analgesic efficacy being well recognized, adverse events can affect daily functioning and patient quality of life. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC occurs in 40% of opioid-treated patients. Laxatives are the most common drugs used to prevent and treat OIC. Laxatives do not address the underlying mechanisms of OIC; for this reason, they are not really effective in OIC treatment. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist with low systemic bioavailability. When administered orally, naloxone antagonizes the opioid receptors in the gut wall, while its extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism ensures the lack of antagonist influence on the central-mediated analgesic effect of the opioids. A prolonged-release formulation consisting of oxycodone and naloxone in a 2:1 ratio was developed trying to reduce the incidence of OIC maintaining the analgesic effect compared with use of the sole oxycodone. This review includes evidence related to use of oxycodone and naloxone in the long-term management of chronic non-cancer pain and OIC. Keywords: chronic pain, opioid-induced constipation, opioids, oxycodone–naloxone

  2. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, P.; Guétat, Ph.; Vichot, L.; Leconte, N.; Badot, P.M.; Gaucheron, F.; Fromm, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. - Highlights: • Tritium can be incorporated in all the hydrogenated components of milk. • Components' isotopic ratios T/H of chronically exposed milk remain in the same range. • In environmental conditions, distribution of tritium in milk components varies. • Metabolism plays a role in the distribution of tritium in the components of milk. • In environmental conditions, dilution of hydrogen dims possible isotopic effects.

  3. Chronic Pain Treatment: The Influence of Tricyclic Antidepressants on Serotonin Release and Uptake in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilonka Ferjan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of serotonin (5-HT in chronic pain mechanisms is established. 5-HT inhibits central painful stimuli, but recent data suggests that 5-HT could also enhance pain stimulus from the periphery, where mast cells play an important role. We aimed in our study to clarify the influence of selected tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs on mast cell function: secretion, uptake, and reuptake of 5-HT, that could interfere with 5-HT levels and in this way contribute to the generation of pain. As an experimental model, we used isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and incubated them with selected TCAs (clomipramine, amitriptyline, doxepin, and imipramine under different experimental conditions. 5-HT release, uptake, and reuptake were determined spectrofluorometrically. We showed that TCAs were able to inhibit 5-HT secretion from mast cells, as well as uptake of exogenous 5-HT and reuptake of secreted 5-HT back into mast cells. The effects of TCAs were concentration dependent; higher concentrations of TCAs inhibited the secretion of 5-HT induced by compound 48/80, whereas lower concentrations of TCAs inhibited 5-HT uptake. The most effective TCA was halogenated clomipramine. As TCAs are well introduced in chronic pain treatment, the insight into mechanisms of action is important for an understanding of their effect in various pain conditions.

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture on corticotropin-releasing hormone in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Rong; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Huan-Gan; Wu, Lu-Yi; Li, Jing; Weng, Zhi-Jun; Guo, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu-Guang

    2015-06-21

    To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the colon, spinal cord, and hypothalamus of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. A rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity was generated according to the internationally accepted method of colorectal balloon dilatation. In the 7(th) week after the procedure, rats were randomly divided into a model group (MG), electroacupuncture group (EA), and sham electroacupuncture group (S-EA). After treatment, the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess the behavioral response of visceral hyperalgesia. Immunohistochemistry (EnVision method), ELISA, and fluorescence quantitative PCR methods were applied to detect the expression of CRH protein and mRNA in the colon, spinal cord, and hypothalamus. The sensitivity of the rats to the colorectal distension stimulus applied at different strengths (20-80 mmHg) increased with increasing stimulus strength, resulting in increasing AWR scores in each group. Compared with NG, the AWR score of MG was significantly increased (P 0.05) compared with normal rats (NG). However, the decrease in EA compared with MG rats was statistically significant (P 0.05). Electroacupuncture at the Shangjuxu acupoint was able to significantly reduce the visceral hypersensitivity in rats, and regulated the expression of CRH protein and mRNA in the colon, spinal cord and hypothalamus at different levels, playing a therapeutic role in this model of irritable bowel syndrome.

  5. Tritium behavior on a cultivated plot in the 1994 chronic HT release experiment at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Kinouchi, N.; Murata, M.; Amano, H.; Atarashi, M.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of HT and HTO in air and surface soil has been studied extensively in the chronic HT release experiment carried out at Chalk River during the summer of 1994. HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water collected in a cultivated plot showed similar time-variations, increasing rapidly during the first and second days and becoming gradual after the first 3-4 days. The air HTO concentration decreased during and following rainfall but recovered within a day. The rainfall reduced the HTO concentrations in ridge soil water but little in furrows. Time histories of HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water suggest that the system was near steady-state within a continuous HT release period of 12 days, in spite of the presence of rain during the period. The air HTO concentrations on clear days showed diurnal cycles that were higher during daytime than at night. The experimental field had a very complex soil regime with respect to HT deposits. The deposits to soil surface varied depending on soil conditions. 12 refs., 5 figs

  6. Obesity-induced DNA released from adipocytes stimulates chronic adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Sachiko; Fukuda, Daiju; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Hirata, Yoichiro; Murata, Chie; Kim-Kaneyama, Joo-Ri; Sato, Fukiko; Bando, Masahiro; Yagi, Shusuke; Soeki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Imoto, Issei; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    Obesity stimulates chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, which is associated with insulin resistance, although the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we showed that obesity-related adipocyte degeneration causes release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which promotes macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), originally known as a sensor of exogenous DNA fragments. Fat-fed obese wild-type mice showed increased release of cfDNA, as determined by the concentrations of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in plasma. cfDNA released from degenerated adipocytes promoted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in wild-type macrophages, but not in TLR9-deficient (Tlr9 (-/-) ) macrophages. Fat-fed Tlr9 (-/-) mice demonstrated reduced macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue and better insulin sensitivity compared with wild-type mice, whereas bone marrow reconstitution with wild-type bone marrow restored the attenuation of insulin resistance observed in fat-fed Tlr9 (-/-) mice. Administration of a TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide to fat-fed wild-type mice reduced the accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue and improved insulin resistance. Furthermore, in humans, plasma ssDNA level was significantly higher in patients with computed tomography-determined visceral obesity and was associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which is the index of insulin resistance. Our study may provide a novel mechanism for the development of sterile inflammation in adipose tissue and a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance.

  7. Methodologies for evaluation of environmental capacity and impact due to radioactive releases by critical path analysis and their application to the IPEN's aquatic environment as a typical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    A brief description of the tested concepts, for determination of environmental capacity and impact by critical path analysis technique and of dose limitation/optmization for radioactive releases is made. These concepts/methodologies are being applied in the environment of IPEN. The aquatic environment of IPEN is dealt with in detal with a view to evaluate the possible critical paths, its capacity, and present and future radiological impacts. (Author) [pt

  8. Aquatic Life Criteria - Tributyltin (TBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. These documents include the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Miniscalpel-Needle Release versus Dry Needling for Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare ultrasound-guided miniscalpel-needle (UG-MSN release versus ultrasound-guided dry needling (UG-DN for chronic neck pain. Methods. A total of 169 patients with chronic neck pain were randomized to receive either UG-MSN release or UG-DN. Before treatment and at 3 and 6 months posttreatment, pain was measured using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS. Neck function was examined using the neck disability index. Health-related quality of life was examined using the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS of the SF-36 health status scale. Results. Patients in the UG-MSN release had greater improvement on the VAS (by 2 points at 3 months and 0.9 points at 6 months versus in the UG-DN arm; (both P<0.0001. Patients receiving UG-MSN release also showed significantly lower scores on the adjusted neck disability index, as well as significantly lower PCS. No severe complications were observed. Conclusion. UG-MSN release was superior to UG-DN in reducing pain intensity and neck disability in patients with chronic neck pain and was not associated with severe complications. The procedural aspects in the two arms were identical; however, we did not verify the blinding success. As such, the results need to be interpreted with caution.

  10. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  11. Radioecology of the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.; Amiard, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    This book is divided into nine parts as follows: origin of radionuclides in the aquatic environment; assessment of radioactive contamination of the aquatic environment; evolution of radionuclides in waters; behaviour of radionuclides in sediments; quantitative data on accumulation, distribution and biological release of radioactive pollutants; mechanisms of the biological accumulation; influence of ecological factors on radioactive contamination of ecosystems; effects of irradiation on aquatic organisms. The last part is devoted to general conclusions on sanitary and ecological consequences of radioactive pollution of the aquatic environment [fr

  12. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems, effects of low-level chronic irradiation on embryonic development, effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems, and teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Roesijadi, G.; Emery, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is conceivable, and possible, that with increasing applications of nuclear energy, greater quantities of potentially harmful radionuclides will be released to the environment. This may be particularly true for advanced reactor designs such as the fusion reactor where radionuclides, principally tritium, may be expected to escape from the plant both in gaseous and liquid effluents in quantities significantly greater than for present PWR or BWR designs. Foreseeing such contingencies, the research programs described herein are in response to the need to measure the potential radiation effects of tritium releases on individuals, and ultimately populations and biotic communities. As a first approach, our efforts are directed to determine effects of low-level chronic exposures on developing embryo and larval stages, clearly the most radiosensitive. The anticipated increase in the release of beryllium and lithium from mining, refining, and fabrication of materials used during construction of fusion reactors has also caused concern as to potential adverse effects on the environment. Accordingly, FY-78 fusion related research will include efforts to study the metabolism of each metal in the living organism, and to determine at what levels toxicity may be expected. Fusion related research will also include preliminary experiments on the effects of low-level magnetic fields. It is conceivable that magnetic fields of 70 to 450 gauss will be encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. Also, those personnel assigned to the areas immediately surrounding the reactor may be exposed

  13. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  14. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain. PMID:23243428

  15. Chronic traumatic stress impairs memory in mice: Potential roles of acetylcholine, neuroinflammation and corticotropin releasing factor expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Ami; Gavini, Kartheek; Yang, Euitaek; Lyman-Henley, Lani; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran

    2017-09-29

    Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus. Results show that stressed mice developed memory deficits when assayed with radial arm maze tasks. However, chronic traumatic stress did not induce anxiety, locomotor hyperactivity or anhedonia. In the hippocampus of stressed mice interleukin-1β protein expression was increased along with decreased corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression. Furthermore, there was a reduction in acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. There were no changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. Gene expression of immediate early genes (Zif268, Arc, C-Fos) as well as glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were also not affected by chronic stress. These data demonstrate that chronic traumatic stress followed by a recovery period might lead to development of resilience resulting in the development of selected, most vulnerable behavioral alterations and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin’s technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale, pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer, and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P<0.01 immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  17. PROVANN: Model System for Chronic Exposure of Larval and Adult Fish to Releases from Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Rye, H.; Melbye, A.; Johnsen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Produced water from offshore oil and gas production platforms contains a variety of hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and production chemicals. Vertical and horizontal mixing generally brings concentrations in discharge plumes below level associated with acute effects within 500 or 1000 m of the source. Chronic effects outside this region remain a potential problem. The purpose of PROVANN, the system of models described in this paper, is to assess the potential for chronic effects from produced water. The preliminary focus is on potential bioaccumulation and boimagnification of produced water constituents in the marine food web. Other possible types of chronic effects, such as reduced fecundity, or pheromone response interference, can also be assessed to the extent that such effects may be correlated with exposure. PROVANN simulates 3-dimensional transport, dilution, and degradation of chemicals released into the water, from one or more simultaneous sources. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Comprehensive characterization of the acute and chronic toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam to a suite of aquatic primary producers, invertebrates, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Meaghean C; Baxter, Leilan R; Maul, Jonathan D; Hanson, Mark L; Hoekstra, Paul F

    2017-10-01

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. We report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices for more than 30 freshwater species (insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, and fish) and 4 marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish). As would be anticipated for a neonicotinoid, aquatic primary producers and fish were the least sensitive organisms tested, with acute median lethal and effect concentrations (LC50/EC50) observed to be ≥80 mg/L in all cases, which far exceeds surface water exposure concentrations. Tested molluscs, worms, and rotifers were similarly insensitive (EC50 ≥ 100 mg/L), except for Lumbriculus sp., with an EC50 of 7.7 mg/L. In general, insects were the most sensitive group in the study, with most acute EC50 values insects (acute EC50 insects (EC50 > 5.5 mg/L). The most sensitive chronic response was for Chironomus riparius, with a 30-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC; emergence) of 0.01 mg/L. Observed toxicity to the tested marine organisms was comparable to that of freshwater species. We used the reported data to construct species sensitivity distributions for thiamethoxam, to calculate 5% hazard concentrations (HC5s) for acute data (freshwater invertebrates), and compared these with measured concentrations from relevant North American surface waters. Overall, based on acute toxicity endpoints, the potential acute risk to freshwater organisms was found to be minimal (likelihood of exceeding HC5s < 1%). Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2838-2848. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental

  19. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Charlotte; Janssen, Colin R; Van Sprang, Patrick; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-05-01

    The environmental quality standard for Ni in the European Commission's Water Framework Directive is bioavailability based. Although some of the available chronic Ni bioavailability models are validated only for pH ≤ 8.2, a considerable fraction of European surface waters has a pH > 8.2. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of a change in pH from 8.2 to 8.7 on chronic Ni toxicity in 3 invertebrate (Daphnia magna, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Brachionus calyciflorus) and 2 plant species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna minor). Nickel toxicity was almost always significantly higher at pH 8.7 than at pH 8.2. To test whether the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2 can be used at higher pH levels, Ni toxicity at pH 8.7 was predicted based on Ni toxicity observed at pH 8.2. This resulted in a consistent underestimation of toxicity. The results suggest that the effect of pH on Ni(2+) toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: the slope of the pH effect is steeper above than below pH 8.2 for species for which a species-specific bioavailability model exists. Therefore, the existing chronic Ni bioavailability models were modified to allow predictions of chronic Ni toxicity to invertebrates and plants in the pH range of 8.2 to 8.7 by applying a pH slope (SpH ) dependent on the pH of the target water. These modified Ni bioavailability models resulted in more accurate predictions of Ni toxicity to all 5 species (within 2-fold error), without the bias observed using the bioavailability models developed for pH ≤ 8.2. The results of the present study can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based environmental quality standard under the Water Framework Directive for high-pH regions in Europe. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. A Bioinspired Alginate-Gum Arabic Hydrogel with Micro-/Nanoscale Structures for Controlled Drug Release in Chronic Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Li, Haichang; Li, Xiangguang; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Zihui; Liu, Lianqing; Ma, Jianjie; Zhang, Mingjun

    2017-07-12

    Biopolymeric hydrogels have drawn increasing research interest in biomaterials due to their tunable physical and chemical properties for both creating bioactive cellular microenvironment and serving as sustainable therapeutic reagents. Inspired by a naturally occurring hydrogel secreted from the carnivorous Sundew plant for trapping insects, here we have developed a bioinspired hydrogel to deliver mitsugumin 53 (MG53), an important protein in cell membrane repair, for chronic wound healing. Both chemical compositions and micro-/nanomorphological properties inherent from the natural Sundew hydrogel were mimicked using sodium alginate and gum arabic with calcium ion-mediated cross-linking. On the basis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements, an optimal sticky hydrogel scaffold was obtained through orthogonal experimental design. Imaging and mechanical analysis showed the distinct correlation between structural morphology, adhesion characteristics, and mechanical properties of the Sundew-inspired hydrogel. Combined characterization and biochemistry techniques were utilized to uncover the underlying molecular composition involved in the interactions between hydrogel and protein. In vitro drug release experiments confirmed that the Sundew-inspired hydrogel had a biphasic-kinetics release, which can facilitate both fast delivery of MG53 for improving the reepithelization process of the wounds and sustained release of the protein for treating chronic wounds. In vivo experiments showed that the Sundew-inspired hydrogel encapsulating with rhMG53 could facilitate dermal wound healing in mouse model. Together, these studies confirmed that the Sundew-inspired hydrogel has both tunable micro-/nanostructures and physicochemical properties, which enable it as a delivery vehicle for chronic wounding healing. The research may provide a new way to develop biocompatible and tunable biomaterials for sustainable drug release to meet the needs of biological activities.

  1. Chronic cigarette smoking enhances spontaneous release of tumour necrosis factor-α from alveolar macrophages of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pessina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological effects of chronic cigarette smoking (two cigarettes for 2 h, daily for 4 months in rats were evaluated. During the smoking period, body weight of smoker rats was always significantly lower than that of control rats. Immediately after the last smoking session the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration in the blood was about 8.5% and the polymorphonuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid increased significantly. At the same time, enzymatic analyses on the supernatants of bronchoalveolar fluid revealed a significant increase of β-glucuronidase in the smoker group. Alveolar macrophages, collected 0, 8 and 24 h after the last smoking session, significantly increased the generation of superoxide anion and, after incubation for 24 h at 37° C in a humidified atmosphere, released significantly high amounts of TNF-α. When challenged with lipopolysaccharide, alveolar macrophages of smoker rats released much more TNF-α but, in such a case, TNF-α release was about one half of that observed in the control group. Peritoneal macrophages of both control and smoker rats were unable either to generate high levels of superoxide anion or to release significant amounts of TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated the activated state of alveolar macrophages and the resting state of peritoneal macrophages.

  2. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  3. Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, an accidental release of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSA). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

  4. Application of a unique test design to determine the chronic toxicity of boron to the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus and fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott; Lockwood, Rick; Harrass, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    The chronic (21- and 28-day) toxicity of boron was determined for two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates: the fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea and the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. The rapid depletion of boric acid from spiked sediments in tests using flow-through overlying waters was addressed by constant addition of boric acid to overlying water at concentrations matching those of the targeted porewater exposures. This proved highly successful in maintaining constant whole-sediment and sediment porewater boron concentrations. Boron sublethal 25 % inhibition concentration values based on porewater concentrations were 25.9 mg B/L (L. variegatus) and 38.5 mg B/L (L. siliquoidea), indicating similar test organism sensitivity. Expressed as dry whole-sediment values, the respective L. variegatus and L. siliquoidea sublethal (growth) IC25 values for whole-sediment exposures were 235.5 mg B/kg sediment dry weight (dw) and 310.6 mg B/kg dw. The worm lethality-based end points indicated greater sensitivity than the sublethal end points, bringing into question the validity of a "lethality" end point for L. variegatus given its fragmentation mode of reproduction. For comparison, water-only mussel exposures were tested resulting in an IC25 value of 34.6 mg B/L, which was within 20 % of the porewater value. This suggests that the primary route of boron exposure was through the aqueous phase. The results of this study indicated that for test materials that are readily water soluble, standard sediment test designs may be unsuitable, but water-only exposures can provide toxicological data representative of sediment tests.

  5. Percutaneous Fascia Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Gluteal Myofascial Pain—A Pilot Study of a New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Shui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of percutaneous fascia release to treat chronic recurrent gluteal myofascial pain related to recurrent tendonitis or bursitis at the attachment sites. Methods Five patients (three males, two females; aged 48.6 ± 8.9 years with myofascial trigger points in the gluteus medius muscle were treated. Outcome measures, including pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and the relative strength of hip abduction, were assessed before, immediately after, and six months after the treatment. The data measured before and after treatment (different times on visual analog scale, pressure pain threshold, and relative hip abduction strength were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t -test, respectively, for the comparisons between time points. Results Reduction in pain intensity and increase in the pressure pain threshold and the relative hip abduction strength were found in all five patients after treatment when compared with those of before treatment ( P 0.05. Conclusions Percutaneous fascia release of gluteal muscle insertion sites can be used to treat chronic gluteal pain related to subtrochanteric bursitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment cannot control the recurrence, although this was demonstrated only on a small sample size without control and blind assessment in the pilot study.

  6. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  7. Distinct Dasatinib-Induced Mechanisms of Apoptotic Response and Exosome Release in Imatinib-Resistant Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although dasatinib is effective in most imatinib mesylate (IMT-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients, the underlying mechanism of its effectiveness in eliminating imatinib-resistant cells is only partially understood. This study investigated the effects of dasatinib on signaling mechanisms driving-resistance in imatinib-resistant CML cell line K562 (K562RIMT. Compared with K562 control cells, exsomal release, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and autophagic activity were increased significantly in K562RIMT cells and mTOR-independent beclin-1/Vps34 signaling was shown to be involved in exosomal release in these cells. We found that Notch1 activation-mediated reduction of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN was responsible for the increased Akt/mTOR activities in K562RIMT cells and treatment with Notch1 γ-secretase inhibitor prevented activation of Akt/mTOR. In addition, suppression of mTOR activity by rapamycin decreased the level of activity of p70S6K, induced upregulation of p53 and caspase 3, and led to increase of apoptosis in K562RIMT cells. Inhibition of autophagy by spautin-1 or beclin-1 knockdown decreased exosomal release, but did not affect apoptosis in K562RIMT cells. In summary, in K562RIMT cells dasatinib promoted apoptosis through downregulation of Akt/mTOR activities, while preventing exosomal release and inhibiting autophagy by downregulating expression of beclin-1 and Vps34. Our findings reveal distinct dasatinib-induced mechanisms of apoptotic response and exosomal release in imatinib-resistant CML cells.

  8. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137 Cs and 60 Co to fish; 137 Cs and 60 Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  9. Aquatic pathway 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This third part of the investigation discusses the preliminary results of sub-investigations concerning problems of the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the water pathway. On the basis of papers on the emission into the draining ditch and the exchange processes there, investigations of a possible incorporation via different exposure pathways are reported. Special regard is paid to drinking water supply aquatic foodstuffs, the river sediment, the utilisation of the agricultural surfaces and the draining ditch including its pre-pollution. The dynamics of contamination processes is reported on with regard to the problem of accidents. The colloquium will give an outline of the progress made so far and admit participants' suggestions for further work on the sub-investigations. The following colloquia will report further findings, in particular effects on aquatic ecosystems. (orig.) [de

  10. Maxine: A spreadsheet for estimating dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bell, Evaleigh [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-24

    MAXINE is an EXCEL© spreadsheet, which is used to estimate dose to individuals for routine and accidental atmospheric releases of radioactive materials. MAXINE does not contain an atmospheric dispersion model, but rather doses are estimated using air and ground concentrations as input. Minimal input is required to run the program and site specific parameters are used when possible. Complete code description, verification of models, and user’s manual have been included.

  11. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  12. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  13. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  14. Delayed release pancrelipase for treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency associated with chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Mukkai Krishnamurty

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Devi Mukkai Krishnamurty,1 Atoosa Rabiee,2 Sanjay B Jagannath,1 Dana K Andersen2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; 1Department of Medicine; 2Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Pancreatic enzyme supplements (PES are used in chronic pancreatitis (CP for correction of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI as well as pain and malnutrition. The use of porcine pancreatic enzymes for the correction of exocrine insufficiency is governed by the pathophysiology of the disease as well as pharmacologic properties of PES. Variability in bioequivalence of PES has been noted on in vitro and in vivo testing and has been attributed to the differences in enteric coating and the degree of micro-encapsulation. As a step towards standardizing pancreatic enzyme preparations, the Food and Drug Administration now requires the manufacturers of PES to obtain approval of marketed formulations by April 2010. In patients with treatment failure, apart from evaluating drug and dietary interactions and compliance, physicians should keep in mind that patients may benefit from switching to a different formulation. The choice of PES (enteric coated versus non-enteric coated and the need for acid suppression should be individualized. There is no current standard test for evaluating adequacy of therapy in CP patients and studies have shown that optimization of therapy based on symptoms may be inadequate. Goals of therapy based on overall patient presentation and specific laboratory tests rather than mere correction of steatorrhea are needed.Keywords: pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic enzyme supplement

  15. Framework for Optimizing Selection of Interspecies Correlation Estimation Models to Address Species Diversity and Toxicity Gaps in an Aquatic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a tool that facilitates assessments of accidental chemical releases into aquatic environments. CAFE contains aquatic toxicity data used in the development of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and the estimation of ha...

  16. Does a Better Perfusion of Deconditioned Muscle Tissue Release Chronic Low Back Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Valdivieso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP is a multifactorial condition of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Physical and genetic factors may influence the predisposition of individuals to CLBP, which in many instances share a musculoskeletal origin. A reduced pain level in low back pain patients that participate in exercise therapy highlights that disuse-related muscle deconditioning may predispose individuals to nsCLBP. In this context, musculoskeletal pain may be the consequence of capillary rarefaction in inactive muscle as this would lower local tissue drainage and washing out of toxic waste. Muscle activity is translated into an angio-adaptative process, which implicates angiogenic-gene expression and individual response differences due to heritable modifications of such genes (gene polymorphisms. The pathophysiologic mechanism underlying nsCLBP is still largely unaddressed. We hypothesize that capillary rarefaction due to a deconditioning of dorsal muscle groups exacerbates nsCLBP by increasing noxious sensation, reducing muscle strength and fatigue resistance by initiating a downward spiral of local deconditioning of back muscles which diminishes their load-bearing capacity. We address the idea that specific factors such as angiotensin-converting enzyme and Tenascin-C might play an important role in altering susceptibility to nsCLBP via their effects on microvascular perfusion and vascular remodeling of skeletal muscle, inflammation, and pain sensation. The genetic profile may help to explain the individual predisposition to nsCLBP, thus identifying subgroups of patients, which could benefit from ad hoc treatment types. Future therapeutic approaches aimed at relieving the pain associated with nsCLBP should be based on the verification of mechanistic processes of activity-induced angio-adaptation and muscle-perfusion.

  17. Clinical and hormonal effects of chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingold, K; De Ziegler, D; Cedars, M; Meldrum, D R; Lu, J K; Judd, H L; Chang, R J

    1987-10-01

    Previously, we reported that short term administration of a highly potent GnRH agonist (GnRHa) for 1 month to patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) resulted in complete suppression of ovarian steroidogenesis without measurable effects on adrenal steroid production. This new study was designed to evaluate the effects of long term GnRHa administration in PCO patients with respect to their hormone secretion patterns and clinical responses. Eight PCO patients and 10 ovulatory women with endometriosis were treated daily with sc injections of [D-His6-(imBzl]),Pro9-NEt]GnRH (GnRHa; 100 micrograms) for 6 months. Their results were compared to hormone values in 8 women who had undergone bilateral oophorectomies. In response to GnRHa, PCO and ovulatory women had rises of serum LH at 1 month, after which it gradually declined to baseline. In both groups FSH secretion was suppressed throughout treatment. Serum estradiol, estrone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone levels markedly decreased to values found in oophorectomized women by 1 month and remained low thereafter. In contrast, serum pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were partially suppressed, and dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol levels did not change. Clinically, hyperplastic endometrial histology in three PCO patients reverted to an inactive pattern, and proliferative endometrium in two other PCO patients became inactive in one and did not change in the other. Regression of proliferative endometrial histology occurred in all ovulatory women. Vaginal bleeding occurred in all women studied during the first month of GnRHa administration, after which all but one PCO patient became amenorrheic. Hot flashes were noted by all ovulatory women and by four of eight PCO patients. All PCO patients noted subjective reduction of skin oiliness, and five had decreased hair growth. We conclude that in premenopausal women: 1) chronic Gn

  18. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  19. Chronic stress induces sex-specific alterations in methylation and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sterrenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. METHODS: Male and female rats were exposed to chronic variable mild stress (CVMS after which immediate early gene products, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF mRNA and peptide, various epigenetic-associated enzymes and DNA methylation of the Crf gene were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, oval (BSTov and fusiform (BSTfu parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and central amygdala (CeA. RESULTS: CVMS induced site-specific changes in Crf gene methylation in all brain centers studied in female rats and in the male BST and CeA, whereas the histone acetyltransferase, CREB-binding protein was increased in the female BST and the histone-deacetylase-5 decreased in the male CeA. These changes were accompanied by an increased amount of c-Fos in the PVN, BSTfu and CeA in males, and of FosB in the PVN of both sexes and in the male BSTov and BSTfu. In the PVN, CVMS increased CRF mRNA in males and CRF peptide decreased in females. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm our hypothesis that chronic stress affects gene expression and CRF transcriptional, translational and secretory activities in the PVN, BSTov, BSTfu and CeA, in a brain center-specific and sex-specific manner. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression.

  20. Direct conversion from tramadol to tapentadol prolonged release for moderate to severe, chronic malignant tumour-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H G; Koch, E D; Kosturski, H; Steup, A; Karcher, K; Dogan, C; Etropolski, M; Eerdekens, M

    2016-10-01

    A recent randomized-withdrawal, active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study showed that tapentadol prolonged release (PR) was effective and well tolerated for managing moderate to severe, chronic malignant tumour-related pain in patients who were opioid naive or dissatisfied with current treatment (Pain Physician, 2014, 17, 329-343). This post hoc, subgroup analysis evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol PR in patients who previously received and were dissatisfied with tramadol for any reason and who had a pain intensity ≥5 (11-point numerical rating scale) before converting directly to tapentadol PR. In the original study, eligible patients had been randomized (2:1) and titrated to their optimal dose of tapentadol PR (100-250 mg bid) or morphine sulphate-controlled release (40-100 mg bid) over 2 weeks. The present report focuses on results during the titration period for a subgroup of patients randomized to tapentadol PR after having been on tramadol treatment prior to randomization in the study (n = 129). Results for this subgroup are compared with results for all 338 patients who received tapentadol PR during titration (overall tapentadol PR group). Responder rates (responders: completed titration, mean pain intensity pain could safely switch from prior treatment with the weak centrally acting analgesic tramadol directly to the strong centrally acting analgesic tapentadol PR, for an improved analgesic therapy for severe pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Results of this post hoc analysis show that patients who had received prior tramadol therapy could switch directly to tapentadol PR, with the majority (˜70%) experiencing improved efficacy. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  1. Intraoperative Ultrasonography during Drainage for Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Technique to Release Isolated Deep-seated Hematomas—Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIMIZU, Satoru; MOCHIZUKI, Takahiro; OSAWA, Shigeyuki; KUMABE, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    After the drainage of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), residual isolated deep-seated hematomas (IDHs) may recur. We introduce intraoperative ultrasonography to detect and remove such IDHs. Intra-operative ultrasonography is performed with fine transducers introduced via burr holes. Images obtained before dural opening show the CSDHs, hyper- and/or hypoechoic content, and mono- or multilayers. Images are also acquired after irrigation of the hematoma under the dura. Floating hyperechoic spots (cavitations) on the brain cortex created by irrigation confirm the release of all hematoma layers; areas without spots represent IDHs. Their overlying thin membranes are fenestrated with a dural hook for irrigation. Ultrasonographs were evaluated in 43 CSDHs (37 patients); 9 (21%) required IDH fenestration. On computed tomography scans, 17 were homogeneous-, 6 were laminar-, 16 were separated-, and 4 were trabecular type lesions. Of these, 2 (11.8%), 3 (50%), 4 (25%), and 0, respectively, manifested IDHs requiring fenestration. There were no technique-related complications. Patients subjected to IDH fenestration had lower recurrence rates (11.1% vs. 50%, p = 0.095) and required significantly less time for brain re-expansion (mean 3.78 ± 1.62 vs. 18 ± 5.54 weeks, p = 0.0009) than did 6 patients whose IDHs remained after 48 conventional irrigation and drainage procedures. Intraoperative ultrasonography in patients with CSDHs facilitates the safe release of hidden IDHs. It can be expected to reduce the risk of postoperative hematoma recurrence and to shorten the brain re-expansion time. PMID:26345671

  2. Postural Responses to a Suddenly Released Pulling Force in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lee

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP, one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in older adults, might affect balance and functional independence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postural responses to a suddenly released pulling force in older adults with and without CLBP. Thirty community-dwelling older adults with CLBP and 26 voluntary controls without CLBP were enrolled. Participants were required to stand on a force platform while, with one hand, they pulled a string that was fastened at the other end to a 2-kg or to a 4-kg force in the opposite direction at a random order. The number of times the participants lost their balance and motions of center of pressure (COP when the string was suddenly released were recorded. The results demonstrated that although the loss of balance rates for each pulling force condition did not differ between groups, older adults with CLBP had poorer postural responses: delayed reaction, larger displacement, higher velocity, longer path length, and greater COP sway area compared to the older controls. Furthermore, both groups showed larger postural responses in the 4-kg pulling force condition. Although aging is generally believed to be associated with declining balance and postural control, these findings highlight the effect of CLBP on reactive balance when responding to an externally generated force in an older population. This study also suggests that, for older adults with CLBP, in addition to treating them for pain and disability, reactive balance evaluation and training, such as reaction and movement strategy training should be included in their interventions. Clinicians and older patients with CLBP need to be made aware of the significance of impaired reactive balance and the increased risk of falls when encountering unexpected perturbations.

  3. Chronic moderate alcohol drinking alters insulin release without affecting cognitive and emotion-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nnamdi G; Suhaidi, Faten A; Law, Wen Xuan; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-12-16

    of insulin release for proper glucose clearance. Such an effect was not observed in females. This landmark study shows that chronic moderate alcohol consumption can have negative metabolic consequences in the absence of overt behavioral deficits, especially in males. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-10-15

    The rapid increase in technological development and the broad societal benefit it has brought has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in environmental and societal problems. This has established a need to asses the impacts of new technologies, including nuclear industries. We are now entering an age which will see a rapid proliferation of nuclear power plants all over the world. As long as man continues to utilize nuclear energy, some releases of radioactive materials to the environment seem to be inescapable consequences. The problem therefore is to limit and control such releases, so that adverse effects on man and his environment can be reduced to acceptable levels. We can now draw on three decades of experience of the environmental impact of radioactive materials. To review this experience and to survey recent results of studies related to the safety of releases of nuclear facilities into fresh water, estuaries and sea water, the International Symposium on 'Radiological Impacts of Releases from Nuclear Facilities into Aquatic Environments' was held at Otaniemi, near Helsinki, Finland. (author)

  5. A Comparison of Robotic, Body Weight-Supported Locomotor Training and Aquatic Therapy in Chronic Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Initiate screening of potential individuals for the research study (General medical and ASIA examination, blood tests, EKG , Standing frame challenge...session with no significant changes noted. BP readings were also unchanged during peak VO2 arm ergometry testing, a study outcome measure, and during...strenuous aerobic exercise in an upright position in an aquatic environment without observed adverse BP changes. However, midpoint BP readings were only

  6. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute copper and nickel, and chronic endrin and...., Washington, DC 20460 or Francine Norling, Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality...

  7. Aquatic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal stress to microorganisms was measured by the production of dissolved organic matter by algal communities and the mineralization of glucose by heterotrophic populations. Mutagenic activity as measured by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome assay indicate that such activity does not occur in Par Pond, although limited mutagenic activity does occur in a nearby canal system due to chlorination of cooling water. Sodium hypochlorite, used as an algicide in the reactor fuel storage basins, caused increased pitting corrosion to reactor fuel targets. Five other compounds selected for testing proved to be superior to sodium hypochlorite. Legionella pneumophila, the pathogen which causes Legionnaire's disease, was found to be a natural part of aquatic ecosystems. It occurs over a wide range of environments and is able to utilize nutrients provided by primary producers. Phytoplankton size classes of less than 3 μm (less than 5% of the total phytoplankton biomass) accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary productivity in Par Pond, Pond C, and Clark Hill Reservoir. Three major biological data sets were compiled and are available in the SRL computer system for analysis: the SRP deer herd data; 20 years of Par Pond data; and 25 years of biological data on the Savannah River. Results of marine studies indicated that nearly all plutonium in the Savannah River and its estuary resulted from nuclear weapons fallout. The plutonium concentration in the Savannah River is about one fourth the concentration in the Newport River which has no nuclear operations associated with it

  8. Clinical efficacy of subgingivally delivered 0.5% controlled release azithromycin gel in the management of chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Prashant; Vaish, Shubhra; Dodwad, Vidya

    2011-06-01

    Recent developments suggest that the local delivery of antimicrobials into periodontal pockets can improve periodontal health. Azithromycin (AZM) has a wide antimicrobial spectrum of action toward anaerobic bacteria as well as Gram-negative bacilli. It is effective against periodontal pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the clinical effectiveness of AZM at 0.5% concentration in an indigenously prepared bioabsorbable controlled release gel as an adjunct to non-surgical mechanical therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Thirty sites in patients with chronic periodontitis and probing depth (PD) 4-6 mm were categorized randomly into two treatment groups: Scaling and root planing (SRP) plus 0.5% AZM gel (group 1) and SRP only (group 2). Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the Gingival Index (GI) of Loe and Silness and plaque was assessed using the Turesky et al. modification of Quigley Hein Index at baseline and 21 days. Pocket PD and clinical attachment level (CAL) were also measured. Results were expressed as mean±standard deviation and percentages and the data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL) software. Both therapies resulted in significant improvements. Mean reduction in GI from baseline to 21 days was 1.20±0.41 and 0.73±0.45 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Plaque Index also improved through the study period in both groups, i.e., 0.86±0.51 in group 1 and 1.6±0.97 in group 2. Mean PD reduced significantly with SRP plus AZM gel application in group 1, i.e., 2.1±0.91 mm as compared to 1.0±1.06 mm achieved with SRP alone. A significant gain in mean CAL gain was observed in the test group (1.8±0.63 mm) as compared to control group (1.0±1.06 mm). Although both treatment strategies seem to benefit patients, the adjunctive use of 0.5% of AZM showed significant results.

  9. Extended-Release Guanfacine Does Not Show a Large Effect on Tic Severity in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tanya K; Fernandez, Thomas V; Coffey, Barbara J; Rahman, Omar; Gavaletz, Allison; Hanks, Camille E; Tillberg, Caitlin S; Gomez, Laura Ibanez; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Katsovich, Lily; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of extended-release guanfacine in children with chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's disorder (collectively referred to as CTD). This was a multisite, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. Key secondary outcomes included the Improvement item of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale and the Tic Symptom Self-report (TSSR). Adverse events were monitored at each visit. Thirty-four subjects (23 boys and 11 girls) of ages 6 to 17 years (mean = 11.1 ± 3.1) with CTD were randomly assigned to extended-release guanfacine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 18). At baseline, the mean YGTSS total score was 26.3 ± 6.6 for the guanfacine group versus 27.7 ± 8.7 for the placebo group. Within the guanfacine group (mean final daily dose of 2.6 ± 1.1 mg, n = 14), the mean YGTSS total score declined to 23.6 ± 6.42 [t(15) = 1.84, p = 0.08; effect size = 0.35]. The results were similar in the placebo group with a score of 24.7 ± 10.54 at week 8 [t(17) = 1.83, p = 0.08; effect size = 0.38]. There was no significant difference in the rate of positive response on the CGI-I between the guanfacine group and placebo (19% [3/16] vs. 22% [4/18], p = 1.0). The most common adverse events were fatigue, drowsiness, dry mouth, headache, and irritability. Two subjects in the guanfacine group discontinued early-one because of an adverse event (depressed mood) and one because of lack of efficacy; two subjects in the placebo group discontinued because of lack of efficacy. This pilot study did not confirm a clinically meaningful effect size within the guanfacine group. These results do not support the launch of a larger efficacy trial for tics in children and adolescents with CTD.

  10. Use of Extended-Release Calcifediol to Treat Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Stages 3 and 4 Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Stuart M; Crawford, Paul W; Melnick, Joel Z; Strugnell, Stephen A; Ali, Shaukat; Mangoo-Karim, Roberto; Lee, Sungchun; Petkovich, P Martin; Bishop, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are poorly addressed by current treatments. The present clinical studies evaluated extended-release (ER) calcifediol, a novel vitamin D prohormone repletion therapy designed to gradually correct low serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, improve SHPT control and minimize the induction of CYP24A1 and FGF23. Two identical multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies enrolled subjects from 89 US sites. A total of 429 subjects, balanced between studies, with stage 3 or 4 CKD, SHPT and vitamin D insufficiency were randomized 2:1 to receive oral ER calcifediol (30 or 60 µg) or placebo once daily at bedtime for 26 weeks. Most subjects (354 or 83%) completed dosing, and 298 (69%) entered a subsequent open-label extension study wherein ER calcifediol was administered without interruption for another 26 weeks. ER calcifediol normalized serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>30 ng/ml) in >95% of per-protocol subjects and reduced plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) by at least 10% in 72%. The proportion of subjects receiving ER calcifediol who achieved iPTH reductions of ≥30% increased progressively with treatment duration, reaching 22, 40 and 50% at 12, 26 and 52 weeks, respectively. iPTH lowering with ER calcifediol was independent of CKD stage and significantly greater than with placebo. ER calcifediol had inconsequential impact on serum calcium, phosphorus, FGF23 and adverse events. Oral ER calcifediol is safe and effective in treating SHPT and vitamin D insufficiency in CKD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Sustained Local Release of Methylprednisolone From a Thiol-Acrylate Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel for Treating Chronic Compressive Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Ness, Jennifer K; Snyder, Kristin M; Skiles, Amanda A; Woodard, Eric J; OʼShea, Timothy; Layer, Rick T; Aimetti, Alex A; Toms, Steven A; Langer, Robert; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    A preclinical animal model of chronic ligation of the sciatic nerve was used to compare the effectiveness of a slow-release hydrogel carrying methylprednisolone to methylprednisolone injection alone, which simulates the current standard of care for chronic compressive radiculopathy (CR). To extend the short-term benefits of steroid injections by using a nonswelling, biodegradable hydrogel as carrier to locally release methylprednisolone in a regulated and sustained way at the site of nerve compression. CR affects millions worldwide annually, and is a cause of costly disability with significant societal impact. Currently, a leading nonsurgical therapy involves epidural injection of steroids to temporarily alleviate the pain associated with CR. However, an effective way to extend the short-term effect of steroid treatment to address the chronic component of CR does not exist. We induced chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerves of rats by permanent ligation. Forty-eight hours later we injected our methylprednisolone infused hydrogel and assessed the effectiveness of our treatment for 4 weeks. We quantified mechanical hyperalgesia using a Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer (Ugo Basile, Stoelting Co., IL, USA), whereas gait analysis was conducted using the Catwalk automated gait analysis platform (Noldus, Leesburg, VA, USA). Macrophage staining was performed with immunohistochemistry and quantification of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in sciatic nerve lysates was performed with multiplex immunoassay using a SECTOR Imager 2400A (Meso Scale Discovery, Rockville, MA, USA). We demonstrate that using the hydrogel to deliver methylprednisolone results in significant (P pain in an animal model of chronic CR. Our steroid-infused hydrogel could be an effective extender of the short-term benefits of epidural steroid injections for patients with chronic compression-induced radicular pain. N/A.

  12. Journal of Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Aquatic Sciences publishes articles on problems and issues in Aquatic Sciences from all ... The journal accepts for publication manuscripts of very high international standard containing reports of original scientific research.

  13. Development of Alternatives to Chronic Ecotoxicity Tests: Predicting Early-life Stage and Endocrine-mediated Toxicity in Aquatic Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2010, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) with support from sanofi-aventis, NC3Rs, the Humane Society, L’Oreal, and ECVAM, held a workshop aimed at examining critical science needs related to the development of alternatives to chronic fish toxicity...

  14. Acute and chronic effects of aquatic treadmill training on land treadmill running kinematics: A cross-over and single-subject design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Louder, Talin J; Hoover, James P; Roberts, Luke C; Dolny, Dennis G

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if selected kinematic measures (foot strike index [SI], knee contact angle and overstride angle) were different between aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) running, and to determine if these measures were altered during LTM running as a result of 6 weeks of ATM training. Acute effects were tested using 15 competitive distance runners who completed 1 session of running on each treadmill type at 5 different running speeds. Subsequently, three recreational runners completed 6 weeks of ATM training following a single-subject baseline, intervention and withdrawal experiment. Kinematic measures were quantified from digitisation of video. Regardless of speed, SI values during ATM running (61.3 ± 17%) were significantly greater (P = 0.002) than LTM running (42.7 ± 23%). Training on the ATM did not change (pre/post) the SI (26 ± 3.2/27 ± 3.1), knee contact angle (165 ± 0.3/164 ± 0.8) or overstride angle (89 ± 0.4/89 ± 0.1) during LTM running. Although SI values were different between acute ATM and LTM running, 6 weeks of ATM training did not appear to alter LTM running kinematics as evidenced by no change in kinematic values from baseline to post intervention assessments.

  15. Effects of Chronic Alcohol Exposure on the Modulation of Ischemia-Induced Glutamate Release via Cannabinoid Receptors in the Dorsal Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Wu, Xiaoda; Dong, Xiao; Ding, Xinli; Song, Cunfeng

    2015-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a critical contributing factor to ischemic stroke, as it enhances ischemia-induced glutamate release, leading to more severe excitotoxicity and brain damage. But the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the modulation of ischemia-induced glutamate release via CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors during middle cerebral artery occlusion, using in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, in alcohol-naïve rats or rats after 1 or 30 days of withdrawal from chronic ethanol intake (6% v/v for 14 days). Intra-dorsal hippocampus (DH) infusions of ACEA or JWH133, selective CB1 or CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, decreased glutamate release in the DH in alcohol-naïve rats in a dose-dependent manner. Such an effect was reversed by co-infusions of SR141716A or AM630, selective CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists, respectively. After 30 days, but not 1 day of withdrawal, ischemia induced an enhancement in glutamate release in the DH, as compared with non-alcohol-treated control group. Intra-DH infusions of JWH133, but not ACEA, inhibited ischemia-induced glutamate release in the DH after 30 days of withdrawal. Finally, 1 day of withdrawal did not alter the protein level of CB1 or CB2 receptors in the DH, as compared to non-alcohol-treated control rats. Whereas 30 days of withdrawal robustly decreased the protein level of CB1 receptors, but failed to alter the protein level of CB2 receptors, in the DH, as compared to non-alcohol-treated control rats. Together, these findings suggest that loss of expression/function of CB1 receptors, but not CB2 receptors in the DH, is correlated with the enhancement of ischemia-induced glutamate release after prolonged alcohol withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Review of extended-release formulations of Tramadol for the management of chronic non-cancer pain: focus on marketed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilbash, Arshi; Ngô-Minh, Cường

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic non-malignant pain report impairments of physical, social, and psychological well-being. The goal of pain management should include reducing pain and improving quality of life. Patients with chronic pain require medications that are able to provide adequate pain relief, have minimum dosing intervals to maintain efficacy, and avoid breakthrough pain. Tramadol has proven efficacy and a favourable safety profile. The positive efficacy and safety profile has been demonstrated historically in numerous published clinical studies as well as from post-marketing experience. It is a World Health Organization “Step 2” opioid analgesic that has been shown to be effective, well-tolerated, and valuable, where treatment with strong opioids is not required. A number of extended release formulations of Tramadol are available in Canada and the United States. An optimal extended release Tramadol formulation would be expected to provide consistent pain control with once daily dosing, few sleep interruptions, flexible dosing schedules, and no limitation on taking with meals. Appropriate treatment options should be based on the above proposed attributes. A comparative review of available extended release Tramadol formulations shows that these medications are not equivalent in their pharmacokinetic profile and this may have implications for selecting the optimal therapy for patients with pain syndromes where Tramadol is an appropriate analgesic agent. Differences in pharmacokinetics amongst the formulations may also translate into varied clinical responses in patients. Selection of the appropriate formulation by the health care provider should therefore be based on the patient’s chronic pain condition, needs, and lifestyle. PMID:24711710

  17. A database on tritium behavior in the chronic HT release experiment. 1. Meteorological data and tritium concentrations in air and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Murata, Mikio; Amano, Hikaru; Ando, Mariko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fukutani, Satoshi

    1999-03-01

    This report comprises a database that can be used to develop and validate tritium models to assess doses to the general public due to HT continuously released from fusion facilities into the atmosphere. The data was collected in the 1994 chronic HT release experiment carried out at the Chalk River Laboratories in Canada. The data set include meteorological conditions such as solar radiation, net solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil temperature and soil heat flux; soil conditions such as bulk density, water content and free pore volume fraction; HT and HTO concentrations in air, HTO concentrations in soil moisture and HTO deposition to water surface. Evapo-transpiration rates and turbulent diffusivity are estimated and tabulated. The report also contains experimental methods to observe meteorological conditions and take air and soil samples. (author)

  18. A randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial on the efficacy of arthroscopic tennis elbow release for the management of chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, Bogdan A; Berdusco, Randa; Momoli, Franco; Lapner, Peter L C; Pollock, J W

    2016-06-01

    Tennis elbow is a common elbow pathology typically affecting middle-aged individuals that can lead to significant disability. Most cases resolve within 2 years of symptom onset, but a subset of patients will develop persistent symptoms despite appropriate conservative management. There are several surgical approaches used to treat chronic tennis elbow, with arthroscopic surgery becoming an increasingly popular approach to address this pathology in North America. This procedure involves the arthroscopic release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon (ECRB) origin at the elbow. The potential benefit of arthroscopic treatment of this condition is improved patient outcomes and shorter recovery time following surgery. The results of this technique have been reported only in the context of case series, which have shown positive results. However, in order to justify its widespread use and growing popularity, a high level of evidence study is required. The purpose of this prospective, randomized sham-controlled trial is to determine whether arthroscopic tennis elbow release is effective at treating chronic lateral epicondylitis. We will conduct a prospective single center, double-blind, randomized sham-controlled parallel arm trial evaluating the efficacy of arthroscopic tennis elbow release in adult patients with symptoms for at least 6 months. Patients will undergo intraoperative randomization after diagnostic arthroscopy of the elbow to receive either ECRB release (through the creation of a lateral portal) or a sham lateral portal and no ECRB release. The primary outcome will be the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) at 1 year follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be the abbreviated Disability of the Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow (ASES-e) score and grip strength at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months as well as return-to-work time, ability to return to full duty and adverse outcomes. Results of this study will provide empirical

  19. Cycle of radionuclides released into waters by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the main radionuclides released by nuclear industry into the aquatic environment. The water-sediment interactions, the uptake of radionuclides by aquatic organisms and the problem of irrigation water are considered [fr

  20. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kevin Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic pain, or sometimes referred to as persistent pain, reduces the life quality of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer and diabetes. Hence, herbal medicines draw many attentions and have been shown effective in the treatment or relief of pain. Methods and Results: Here in this study, we used the CFA-injected rats as a sustainable pain model to test the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of nutmeg oil, a spice flavor additive to beverages and baked goods produced from the seed of Myristica fragrans tree. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that nutmeg oil could potentially alleviate the CFA-injection induced joint swelling, mechanical allodynia and heat hyperanalgesia of rats through inhibition of COX-2 expression and blood substance P level, which made it possible for nutmeg oil to be a potential chronic pain reliever.

  1. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...

  2. Chronic Diseases Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Templates All Chronic Surveillance Systems Communications Center Social Media Press Room Press Release Archives Multimedia Communication Campaigns Publications Chronic Disease Overview 2016–2017 At A ...

  3. 76 FR 10892 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...: EPA is announcing the release of the draft report titled, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and... relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential... mailing address, and the document title, ``Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change...

  4. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  5. A long-term, open-label safety study of single-entity hydrocodone bitartrate extended release for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamachu S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Srinivas Nalamachu,1,2 Richard L Rauck,3 Martin E Hale,4 Orlando G Florete Jr,5 Cynthia Y Robinson,6 Stephen J Farr,6 1International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, USA; 2Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3Carolinas Pain Institute, Center for Clinical Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Gold Coast Research, LLC, Weston, FL, USA; 5Institute of Pain Management, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 6Zogenix, Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of single-entity extended-release hydrocodone in opioid-experienced subjects with moderate to severe chronic pain not receiving adequate pain relief or experiencing intolerable side effects from their current opioid. Methods: This multicenter, open-label study started with a conversion/titration phase (≤6 weeks where subjects (n=638 were converted to individualized doses (range 20–300 mg of extended-release hydrocodone dosed every 12 hours, followed by a 48-week maintenance phase (n=424. The primary objective (safety and tolerability and the secondary objective (long-term efficacy as measured by change in average pain score; 0= no pain, 10= worst imaginable pain were monitored throughout the study. Results: Subjects were treated for a range of chronic pain etiologies, including osteoarthritis, low back pain, and neuropathic and musculoskeletal conditions. The mean hydrocodone equivalent dose at screening was 68.9±62.2 mg/day and increased to 139.5±81.7 mg/day at the start of the maintenance phase. Unlimited dose adjustments were permitted at the investigator's discretion during the maintenance phase, reflecting typical clinical practice. No unexpected safety issues were reported. Common adverse events during the conversion/titration and maintenance phases, respectively, were constipation (11.3% and 12.5%, nausea (10.7% and 9.9%, vomiting (4.1% and 9.7%, and somnolence (7

  6. Effect of a controlled release device containing minocycline microspheres on the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Emmadi, Pamela; Ambalavanan, N.; Mammen, Biju; Vijayalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Adjunctive therapy with locally delivered antimicrobials has resulted in improved clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of locally administered minocycline microspheres (Arestin™) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sites from 15 patients in the age group of 35-50 years, who had periodontal pockets measuring 5-8 mm and had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, were selected for the study. The selected groups were randomly assigned to either the control group (group A) or the treatment/test group (group B). Only scaling and root planing were done at the base line visit for the control sites followed by local application of Arestin™ (1 mg). Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were recorded at baseline, day 30, day 90, and day 180 in the selected sites of both the groups. Probing pocket depth also was recorded at baseline, day 90, and day 180 for both the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction was observed in both groups. Group B showed better results than Group A and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study clearly indicate that treatment with scaling and root planing plus minocycline microspheres (Arestin™) is more effective and safer than scaling and root planing alone in reducing the signs of chronic periodontitis. PMID:20407655

  7. Effect of a controlled release device containing minocycline microspheres on the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adjunctive therapy with locally delivered antimicrobials has resulted in improved clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of locally administered minocycline microspheres (Arestin TM in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sites from 15 patients in the age group of 35-50 years, who had periodontal pockets measuring 5-8mm and had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, were selected for the study. The selected groups were randomly assigned to either the control group (group A or the treatment/test group (group B. Only scaling and root planing were done at the base line visit for the control sites followed by local application of Arestin™ (1mg. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were recorded at baseline, day 30, day 90, and day 180 in the selected sites of both the groups. Probing pocket depth also was recorded at baseline, day 90, and day 180 for both the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction was observed in both groups. Group B showed better results than Group A and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study clearly indicate that treatment with scaling and root planing plus minocycline microspheres (Arestin™ is more effective and safer than scaling and root planing alone in reducing the signs of chronic periodontitis.

  8. Sustained Local Release of NGF from a Chitosan-Sericin Composite Scaffold for Treating Chronic Nerve Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wen; Tao, Kaixiong; Song, Yu; Xie, Hongjian; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaolin; Shuai, Xiaoming; Gao, Jinbo; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Chronic nerve compression (CNC), a common form of peripheral nerve injury, always leads to chronic peripheral nerve pain and dysfunction. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability toward restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated. This scaffold combines the advantages of both chitosan and sericin, such as high porosity, adjustable mechanical properties and swelling ratios, the ability of supporting Schwann cells growth, and improving nerve regeneration. The degradation products of the composite scaffold upregulate the mRNA levels of the genes important for facilitating nerve function recovery, including glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), early growth response 2 (EGR2), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in Schwann cells, while down-regulating two inflammatory genes' mRNA levels in macrophages, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Importantly, our tissue-engineered strategy achieves significant nerve functional recovery in a preclinical CNC animal model by decreasing neuralgia, improving nerve conduction velocity (NCV), accelerating microstructure restoration, and attenuating gastrocnemius muscles dystrophy. Together, this work suggests a promising clinical alternative for treating chronic peripheral nerve compression injury.

  9. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  10. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Derived Circulating Cells Release IL-18 and IL-33 under Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in a Caspase-1/8-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi De Falco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is considered the fourth-leading causes of death worldwide; COPD is caused by inhalation of noxious indoor and outdoor particles, especially cigarette smoke that represents the first risk factor for this respiratory disorder. To mimic the effects of particulate matter on COPD, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and treated them with combustion-generated ultrafine particles (UFPs obtained from two different fuel mixtures, namely, pure ethylene and a mixture of ethylene and dimethylfuran (the latter mimicking the combustion of biofuels. UFPs were separated in two fractions: (1 sub-10 nm particles, named nano organic carbon (NOC particles and (2 primarily soot particles of 20–40 nm and their agglomerates (200 nm. We found that both NOC and soot UFPs induced the release of IL-18 and IL-33 from unstable/exacerbated COPD-derived PBMCs. This effect was associated with higher levels of mitochondrial dysfunction and derived reactive oxygen species, which were higher in PBMCs from unstable COPD patients after combustion-generated UFP exposure. Moreover, lower mRNA expression of the repairing enzyme OGG1 was associated with the higher levels of 8-OH-dG compared with non-smoker and smokers. It was interesting that IL-18 and IL-33 release from PBMCs of unstable COPD patients was not NOD-like receptor 3/caspase-1 or caspase-8-dependent, but rather correlated to caspase-4 release. This effect was not evident in stable COPD-derived PBMCs. Our data suggest that combustion-generated UFPs induce the release of caspase-4-dependent inflammasome from PBMCs of COPD patients compared with healthy subjects, shedding new light into the biology of this key complex in COPD.

  12. Neural glycoprotein M6a is released in extracellular vesicles and modulated by chronic stressors in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Melisa C.; Billi, Silvia C.; Brocco, Marcela A.; Frasch, Alberto C.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane neuronal glycoprotein M6a is highly expressed in the brain and contributes to neural plasticity promoting neurite growth and spine and synapse formation. We have previously showed that chronic stressors alter hippocampal M6a mRNA levels in rodents and tree shrews. We now show that M6a glycoprotein can be detected in mouse blood. M6a is a transmembrane glycoprotein and, as such, unlikely to be free in blood. Here we demonstrate that, in blood, M6a is transported in extracellular vesic...

  13. Chronic ethanol consumption modulates growth factor release, mucosal cytokine production, and microRNA expression in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Mark; Pasala, Sumana; Engelmann, Flora; Haberthur, Kristen; Meyer, Christine; Park, Byung; Grant, Kathleen A; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2014-04-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption has been associated with enhanced susceptibility to both systemic and mucosal infections. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this enhanced susceptibility remain incompletely understood. Using a nonhuman primate model of ethanol (EtOH) self-administration, we examined the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on immune homeostasis, cytokine, and growth factor production in peripheral blood, lung, and intestinal mucosa following 12 months of chronic EtOH exposure. EtOH exposure inhibited activation-induced production of growth factors hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Moreover, EtOH significantly reduced the frequency of colonic Th1 and Th17 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, we did not observe differences in lymphocyte frequency or soluble factor production in the lung of EtOH-consuming animals. To uncover mechanisms underlying reduced growth factor and Th1/Th17 cytokine production, we compared expression levels of microRNAs in PBMC and intestinal mucosa. Our analysis revealed EtOH-dependent up-regulation of distinct microRNAs in affected tissues (miR-181a and miR-221 in PBMC; miR-155 in colon). Moreover, we were able to detect reduced expression of the transcription factors STAT3 and ARNT, which regulate expression of VEGF, G-CSF, and HGF and contain targets for these microRNAs. To confirm and extend these observations, PBMC were transfected with either mimics or antagomirs of miR-181 and miR-221, and protein levels of the transcription factors and growth factors were determined. Transfection of microRNA mimics led to a reduction in both STAT3/ARNT as well as VEGF/HGF/G-CSF levels. The opposite outcome was observed when microRNA antagomirs were transfected. Chronic EtOH consumption significantly disrupts both peripheral and mucosal immune homeostasis, and this dysregulation may be

  14. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of controlled-release PeriochipTM on clinical and microbiological parameters in patients of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and microbiological effectiveness of Periochip TM as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP with SRP alone in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This randomized, split mouth, 3-month clinical and microbiological trial included 30 sites in 15 patients aged 30-50 years diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. In each patient, two bilateral pockets probing 5-7 mm were randomly assigned to test and control groups. The test group received SRP plus Periochip TM , whereas the control group received SRP alone. Clinical indices and anaerobic culture analysis was done at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months interval. Total bacterial count and analysis of four major periodontopathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn was done. Results: Significant improvement was obtained in all clinical variables in the test group as compared to the control group over the study period. Total colony counts were significantly reduced in the test group as compared to control over the period of time. At baseline Aa was recovered from 4 test group sites and 5 control group sites, Pg from 15 test group and 14 control group sites, Pi from 5 test group and 2 control group sites, Fn from 7 test and 7 control group sites. At 3 months, Aa was recovered from 1 test group and 4 control group sites, Pg from 4 test group and 8 control group sites, Pi from 1 test group and 1 control group site, Fn from 3 test and 4 control group sites. Conclusion: Periochip TM placement as an adjunct to SRP, showed promising results, when compared to SRP alone. Healthy microflora can be maintained for a longer period of time and delay in the repopulation by periodontopathic microorganisms was observed.

  16. In vivo evaluation of the potential neurotoxicity of aerosols released from mechanical stress of nano-TiO2 additived paints in mice chronically exposed by inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manixay, S.; Delaby, S.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Wiart, M.; Motzkus, C.; Bencsik, A.

    2017-06-01

    Engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) provide technical and specific benefits due to their physical-chemical properties at the nanometer scale. For instance, many ENM are used to improve products in the building industry. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most used ENM in this industry. Incorporated in different matrix, cement, glass, paints… TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) provide the final product with anti-UV, air purification and self-cleaning properties, thanks to their photocatalytic activity. However, ageing processes of such products, as photocatalytic paints, during a mechanical stress have been shown to release TiO2 NPs from this matrix associated with sanding dust. Thus, workers who sand painted walls could be exposed to TiO2 NPs through inhalation. As inhalation may lead to a translocation of particulate matter to the brain via olfactory or trigeminal nerves, there is an urgent need for evaluating a potential neurotoxicity. In order to provide new knowledge on this topic, we developed a dedicated experimental set-up using a rodent model exposed via inhalation. The aerosol released from a mechanical stress of photocatalytic paints containing TiO2 NPs was characterized and coupled to an exposition chamber containing group of mice free to move and chronically exposed (2 hours per day for 5 days a week during 8 weeks).

  17. In vivo evaluation of the potential neurotoxicity of aerosols released from mechanical stress of nano-TiO2 additived paints in mice chronically exposed by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manixay, S; Bencsik, A; Delaby, S; Gaie-Levrel, F; Wiart, M; Motzkus, C

    2017-01-01

    Engineered Nanomaterials (ENM) provide technical and specific benefits due to their physical-chemical properties at the nanometer scale. For instance, many ENM are used to improve products in the building industry. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is one of the most used ENM in this industry. Incorporated in different matrix, cement, glass, paints… TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) provide the final product with anti-UV, air purification and self-cleaning properties, thanks to their photocatalytic activity. However, ageing processes of such products, as photocatalytic paints, during a mechanical stress have been shown to release TiO 2 NPs from this matrix associated with sanding dust. Thus, workers who sand painted walls could be exposed to TiO 2 NPs through inhalation. As inhalation may lead to a translocation of particulate matter to the brain via olfactory or trigeminal nerves, there is an urgent need for evaluating a potential neurotoxicity. In order to provide new knowledge on this topic, we developed a dedicated experimental set-up using a rodent model exposed via inhalation. The aerosol released from a mechanical stress of photocatalytic paints containing TiO 2 NPs was characterized and coupled to an exposition chamber containing group of mice free to move and chronically exposed (2 hours per day for 5 days a week during 8 weeks). (paper)

  18. Adjunctive Effects of A Piscean Collagen-Based Controlled-Release Chlorhexidine Chip in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Priya; Lazarus, Flemingson; Selvam, Arul; Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction PerioChip a bovine origin gelatine based CHX chip has shown beneficial effects in the management of Chronic Periodontitis. A new fish collagen based CHX chip similar to PerioChip is currently available; however this product has not been thoroughly researched. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new Piscean collagen-based controlled-release chlorhexidine chip (CHX chip) as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP). Settings and Design The study was conducted as a randomised, split-mouth, controlled clinical trial at Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods In a split–mouth study involving 20 sites in 10 patients with chronic periodontitis, control sites received scaling and root planing and test sites received scaling and root planing (SRP) and the intrapocket CHX chip placement as an adjunct. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from both control and test sites at baseline, 11 days and 11 weeks and the anaerobic colony count were assessed. Clinical parameters that were recorded at baseline and 11 weeks were gingival index, Plaque index, Probing pocket depth (PPD), and Clinical attachment level (CAL). Plaque index was recorded additionally at 11 days. Results In the test group there was a statistically significant reduction in the total anaerobic colony count, gingival index and plaque scores from baseline as compared to control sites at all time intervals. An additional 0.8mm reduction in mean probing pocket depth was noted in the test group. Gain in Clinical attachment level was comparable in both groups. Conclusion The adjunctive use of the new collagen-based CHX chip yielded significant antimicrobial benefit accompanied by a reduction in probing depth and a clinical attachment level gain as compared to SRP alone. This suggests that it may be a useful treatment option of nonsurgical periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26155567

  19. Chronic treatment with extended release methylphenidate does not alter dopamine systems or increase vulnerability for cocaine self-administration: a study in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathryn E; Pierre, Peter J; Daunais, James; Bennett, Allyson J; Martelle, Susan; Gage, H Donald; Swanson, James M; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of stimulant medications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, few studies have addressed their long-term effects on the developing brain or susceptibility to drug use in adolescence. Here, we determined the effects of chronic methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on brain dopamine (DA) systems, developmental milestones, and later vulnerability to substance abuse in juvenile nonhuman primates. Male rhesus monkeys (approximately 30 months old) were treated daily with either a sustained release formulation of MPH or placebo (N=8 per group). Doses were titrated to achieve initial drug blood serum levels within the therapeutic range in children and adjusted throughout the study to maintain target levels. Growth, including measures of crown-rump length and weight, was assessed before and after 1 year of treatment and after 3-5 months washout. In addition, positron emission tomography scans were performed to quantify binding availability of D2/D3 receptors and dopamine transporters (DATs). Distribution volume ratios were calculated to quantify binding of [¹⁸F]fluoroclebopride (DA D2/D3) and [¹⁸F]-(+)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2β-propanoyl-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (DAT). Chronic MPH did not differentially alter the course of weight gain or other measures of growth, nor did it influence DAT or D2/D3 receptor availability after 1 year of treatment. However, after washout, the D2/D3 receptor availability of MPH-treated animals did not continue to decline at the same rate as control animals. Acquisition of intravenous cocaine self-administration was examined by first substituting saline for food reinforcement and then cocaine doses (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per injection) in ascending order. Each dose was available for at least five consecutive sessions. The lowest dose of cocaine that maintained response rates significantly higher than saline-contingent rates was operationally defined as acquisition of cocaine reinforcement. There

  20. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  1. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  2. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  3. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  4. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  5. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  6. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  7. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin–positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  8. Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise.

  9. A novel approach to the use of subgingival controlled-release chlorhexidine delivery in chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Jose R; Harnack, Lutz; Schmitt-Corsitto, Gabriella; Boedeker, Rolf H; Chakraborty, Trinad; Domann, Eugen; Meyle, Joerg

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to analyze clinical, microbiologic, and serologic effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) chips used as a subgingival controlled-release delivery device before and immediately after scaling and root planing (SRP). Twenty-four patients presenting with ≥12 teeth with probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm and bleeding on probing were assigned in test or control groups. After prophylaxis, CHX chips (test) or placebo chips (control) were placed in pockets with PD ≥5 mm. Ten days later, SRP was performed in all teeth with PD ≥4 mm in a single appointment. Immediately after SRP, new chips were inserted in all pockets with PD ≥5 mm. Parameters were assessed at baseline; beginning of SRP; and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Subgingival samples were obtained at baseline; beginning of SRP; and at 1 month after treatment. Periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were analyzed. Serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive and lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins were measured. The changes of the parameters between and within the groups were tested by Mann-Whitney U test (P periodontitis.

  10. Oral contraceptive therapy for polycystic ovary disease after chronic gonadotropin-releasing agonist administration. Predictors of continued ovarian suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind-Hirsch, K E; Anania, C; Malinak, R

    1996-09-01

    To study the beneficial effects of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twenty-three hyperandrogenic women (aged 15-39) were randomized into two groups; GnRH-a (depot every 28 days) for six months or combination therapy (GnRH-a plus OC "addback") for six months. Following six months of treatment with either therapy, all patients received OC therapy for at least six months. The hormonal state was evaluated at three-month intervals. Hormone levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and free T remained suppressed within the normal range in 11 of 17 patients (65%) during the six months of OC only therapy, while the other six patients showed "escape" from suppression, with the LH, T and free T concentrations rising to pre-GnRH-a treatment levels. Use of OC addback therapy did not potentiate the long-acting therapeutic effect of GnRH-a pretreatment; three of six patients in the escape group were pretreated with combination therapy and three with GnRH-a only. In the majority of women with PCOD, OC therapy following GnRH-a administration was effective in maintaining ovarian androgen suppression. Failure to maintain ovarian suppression in this patient population was associated with higher elevations of baseline free T concentrations.

  11. Development of aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenguang; Zhang Zhisheng; Wang Hong; Liang Feng; Li Ji; Liu Hongling; Sun Cheng; Liang Lijun; Liu Zhengtao

    2012-01-01

    Nitrobenzene is a toxic pollutant and was the main compound involved in the Songhuajiang accident in 2007, one of the largest water pollution accidents in China in the last decade. No aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene have previously been proposed. In this study, published toxicity data of nitrobenzene to Chinese aquatic species were gathered, and six resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for nitrobenzene. Seventeen genuses mean acute values, three genuses mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, and six genus toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected in total. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.018 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.001 mg/L were developed based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in the determination of water quality standard of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: ► China is embarking on development of national water quality criteria system. ► Nitrobenzene is a valuable case in development of water quality criteria in China. ► Several Chinese resident aquatic organisms were chosen to be tested. ► The aquatic life criteria for nitrobenzene were developed. - An acute criterion of 0.018 mg/L and a chronic criterion of 0.001 mg/L for nitrobenzene in China were developed according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines.

  12. [The changes of ghrelin, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone and their clinical significances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-song; Bao, Zi-yu; Wang, Zhi-ying; Yang, Guo-jun; Zhu, Dong-fang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Rong-mei

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the changes of plasma ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and gastric ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore their clinical significances. Plasma ghrelin, GH, GHRH, TNFα, IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 40 COPD patients and 20 controls with chronic bronchitis. Correlated factors of plasma ghrelin, TNFα, IL-6, CRP were analyzed. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. The expression of gastric ghrelin in patients with COPD was detected. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(1.78 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.39 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.36 ± 0.39) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma GH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(4.12 ± 0.83) µg/L, (5.17 ± 0.72)µg/L, (6.49 ± 1.13) µg/L, respectively]. Plasma GHRH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(20.43 ± 4.41) ng/L, (23.47 ± 3.97) ng/L, (27.48 ± 10.06) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the controls (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin was positively correlated with TNFα and IL-6 in the underweight patients. The gastric expression of ghrelin showed no evident difference between the patients with COPD and the controls. The plasma GH in COPD patients may not be correlated with ghrelin. The plasma ghrelin level may be a useful indicator for malnutrition in COPD patients. Plasma ghrelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CODP by affecting the body energy metabolism.

  13. Neurobehavioral impairments, generation of oxidative stress and release of pro-apoptotic factors after chronic exposure to sulphur mustard in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Bal, Amanjit; Bhutia, Yangchen D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Flora, S.J.S.; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2009-01-01

    Recent global events have focused attention on the potential threat of international and domestic chemical terrorism, as well as the possibility of chemical warfare proliferation. Sulphur mustard (SM) is one of the potent chemical warfare agents (CWA), which initiates a cascade of events that converge on the redox mechanisms common to brain injury. The present study was designed to examine the effects of chronic SM exposure on neurobehavioral impairments, mitochondrial oxidative stress in male Swiss Albino mice and its role in inducing apoptotic neuronal cell death. The animals were divided into four groups (control, low, medium and high dose) of 5 animals each. Exposure to SM was given percutaneously daily for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests in a dose dependent manner. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content whereas, decrease in the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase suggesting impaired antioxidant defense system. Immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax and activation of caspase-3 suggest induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Finally, increased p53 expression suggests that it may target the mitochondrial pathway for inducing apoptosis in response to DNA damage signals. In conclusion, chronic SM exposure may have the potential to generate oxidative stress which may trigger the release of cytochrome c as well as caspase-3 activation in neurons leading to cell death by apoptosis in a dose dependent manner which may in the end be responsible for the disruption of cognitive functions in mice.

  14. Effectiveness and gastrointestinal tolerability during conversion and titration with once-daily OROS® hydromorphone extended release in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale ME

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin E Hale,1 Srinivas R Nalamachu,2 Arif Khan,3 Michael Kutch4,* 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Weston, FL, USA; 2International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, USA; 3MedNorthwest Clinical Research Center, Bellevue, WA, USA; Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Applied Clinical Intelligence, LLC, Bala Cynwyd, PA, USA *Affiliation at the time this work was completed. Michael Kutch is currently affiliated with Cytel Inc, Chesterbrook, PA, USA Purpose: To describe the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets (OROS hydromorphone ER during dose conversion and titration. Patients and methods: A total of 459 opioid-tolerant adults with chronic moderate to severe low back pain participated in an open-label, 2- to 4-week conversion/titration phase of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial, conducted at 70 centers in the United States. Patients were converted to once-daily OROS hydromorphone ER at 75% of the equianalgesic dose of their prior total daily opioid dose (5:1 conversion ratio, and titrated as frequently as every 3 days to a maximum dose of 64 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was change in pain intensity numeric rating scale; additional assessments included the Patient Global Assessment and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. Safety assessments were performed at each visit and consisted of recording and monitoring all adverse events (AEs and serious AEs. Results: Mean (standard deviation final daily dose of OROS hydromorphone ER was 37.5 (17.8 mg. Mean (standard error of the mean [SEM] numeric rating scale scores decreased from 6.6 (0.1 at screening to 4.3 (0.1 at the final titration visit (mean [SEM] change, -2.3 [0.1], representing a 34.8% reduction. Mean (SEM change in Patient Global Assessment was -0.6 (0.1, and mean change (SEM in the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire was -2.8 (0.3. Patients achieving a stable dose showed greater improvement

  15. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... papers and short articles in all the aquatic science fields including limnology, ...

  16. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  17. Antimony in aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Filella, Montserrat; Belzile, Nelson; Chen, Yuwei; Elleouet, C.; May, P. M.; Mavrocordatos, D.; Nirel, P.; Porquet, A.; Quentel, F.; Silver, S.

    2003-01-01

    Antimony is ubiquitous in the environment. In spite of its proven toxicity, it has received scant attention so far. This communication presents an overview of current knowledge as well as the early results of a concerted, multidisciplinary effort to unveil antimony behaviour and fate in natural aquatic systems.

  18. Energy from aquatic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic biomass is considered as a second (or third) generation option for the production of bio fuels. The best utilization for energy purposes is not its direct combustion. Several technologies are available for the extraction of compounds that may find application for the production of gaseous fuels (biogas, dihydrogen) or liquid fuels (ethanol, bio oil, biodiesel). [it

  19. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  20. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  1. Effectiveness and gastrointestinal tolerability during conversion and titration with once-daily OROS® hydromorphone extended release in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin E; Nalamachu, Srinivas R; Khan, Arif; Kutch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets (OROS hydromorphone ER) during dose conversion and titration. Patients and methods A total of 459 opioid-tolerant adults with chronic moderate to severe low back pain participated in an open-label, 2- to 4-week conversion/titration phase of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial, conducted at 70 centers in the United States. Patients were converted to once-daily OROS hydromorphone ER at 75% of the equianalgesic dose of their prior total daily opioid dose (5:1 conversion ratio), and titrated as frequently as every 3 days to a maximum dose of 64 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was change in pain intensity numeric rating scale; additional assessments included the Patient Global Assessment and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. Safety assessments were performed at each visit and consisted of recording and monitoring all adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Mean (standard deviation) final daily dose of OROS hydromorphone ER was 37.5 (17.8) mg. Mean (standard error of the mean [SEM]) numeric rating scale scores decreased from 6.6 (0.1) at screening to 4.3 (0.1) at the final titration visit (mean [SEM] change, −2.3 [0.1], representing a 34.8% reduction). Mean (SEM) change in Patient Global Assessment was −0.6 (0.1), and mean change (SEM) in the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire was −2.8 (0.3). Patients achieving a stable dose showed greater improvement than patients who discontinued during titration for each of these measures (P < 0.001). Almost 80% of patients achieving a stable dose (213/268) had a ≥30% reduction in pain. Commonly reported AEs were constipation (15.4%), nausea (11.9%), somnolence (8.7%), headache (7.8%), and vomiting (6.5%); 13.0% discontinued from the study due to AEs. Conclusion The majority of opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain were successfully converted to effective doses of

  2. Development of freshwater aquatic life criteria for Tetrabromobisphenol A in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Suwen; Yan Zhenguang; Xu Fanfan; Wang Shengrui; Wu Fengchang

    2012-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant. It has been detected in the environment and has shown to high toxicity to aquatic organisms. To date no aquatic life criteria for TBBPA have been proposed. This work compiled all literature toxicity data of TBBPA on Chinese aquatic species. Eight resident Chinese aquatic organisms were used in toxicity tests to supplement the existing toxicity data for TBBPA. Ten genera mean acute values and three genera mean chronic values to freshwater aquatic animals, as well as two genera toxicity values to aquatic plants were collected. A criterion maximum concentration of 0.1475 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.0126 mg/L were derived based on these data, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. These criteria may be useful in risk assessment of TBBPA in the ambient water environment. - Highlights: ► We collected all the published toxicity data of TBBPA to aquatic organisms. ► We performed acute and chronic toxicity testes with eight Chinese resident aquatic species. ► The acute and chronic water quality criteria of TBBPA were developed and validated. ► This work is valuable to predict the risks posed by TBBPA in ambient water environment. - An acute water quality criterion of 0.1475 mg/L and a chronic water quality criterion of 0.0126 mg/L for TBBPA in China were developed according to USEPA guidelines.

  3. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandreau, Elizabeth I.; Bourke, Chase H.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Vale, Wylie W.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Owens, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We have previously demonstrated that viral-mediated overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) reproduces many of the behavioral and endocrine consequences of chronic stress. The present experiment sought to determine whether administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram reverses the adverse effects of CeA CRF overexpression. In a 2 × 2 design, adult male rats received bilateral infusions of a control lentivirus or a lentivirus in which a portion of the CRF promoter is used to drive increased expression of CRF peptide. Four weeks later, rats were then implanted with an Alzet minipump to deliver vehicle or 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram for a 4-week period of time. The defensive withdrawal (DW) test of anxiety and the sucrose-preference test (SPT) of anhedonia were performed both before and after pump implantation. Additional post-implant behavioral tests included the elevated plus maze (EPM) and social interaction (SI) test. Following completion of behavioral testing, the dexamethasone/CRF test was performed to assess HPA axis reactivity. Brains were collected and expression of HPA axis-relevant transcripts were measured using in situ hybridization. Amygdalar CRF overexpression increased anxiety-like behavior in the DW test at week eight, which was only partially prevented by escitalopram. In both CRF-overexpressing and control groups, escitalopram decreased hippocampal CRF expression while increasing hypothalamic and hippocampal expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These gene expression changes were associated with a significant decrease in HPA axis reactivity in rats treated with escitalopram. Interestingly, escitalopram increased the rate of weight gain only in rats overexpressing CRF. Overall these data support our hypothesis that amygdalar CRF is critical in anxiety-like behavior; because the antidepressant was unable to reverse behavioral

  4. Energetic tradeoffs control the size distribution of aquatic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearty, William; McClain, Craig R.; Payne, Jonathan L.

    2018-04-01

    Four extant lineages of mammals have invaded and diversified in the water: Sirenia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia, and Lutrinae. Most of these aquatic clades are larger bodied, on average, than their closest land-dwelling relatives, but the extent to which potential ecological, biomechanical, and physiological controls contributed to this pattern remains untested quantitatively. Here, we use previously published data on the body masses of 3,859 living and 2,999 fossil mammal species to examine the evolutionary trajectories of body size in aquatic mammals through both comparative phylogenetic analysis and examination of the fossil record. Both methods indicate that the evolution of an aquatic lifestyle is driving three of the four extant aquatic mammal clades toward a size attractor at ˜500 kg. The existence of this body size attractor and the relatively rapid selection toward, and limited deviation from, this attractor rule out most hypothesized drivers of size increase. These three independent body size increases and a shared aquatic optimum size are consistent with control by differences in the scaling of energetic intake and cost functions with body size between the terrestrial and aquatic realms. Under this energetic model, thermoregulatory costs constrain minimum size, whereas limitations on feeding efficiency constrain maximum size. The optimum size occurs at an intermediate value where thermoregulatory costs are low but feeding efficiency remains high. Rather than being released from size pressures, water-dwelling mammals are driven and confined to larger body sizes by the strict energetic demands of the aquatic medium.

  5. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  6. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: annotated bibliography of the 1974 literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Talmage, S.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Collier, B.N.

    1975-06-01

    The annotated bibliography covers the 1974 literature concerning thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the release of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems. Indexes are provided for: author, keywords, subject category, geographic location, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keyword-in-context of the nontrivial words in the title). (CH)

  7. Sunlight-induced Transformations of Graphene-based Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphene-based nanomaterials and other related carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) can be released from products during their life cycles. Upon entry into aquatic environments, they are potentially transformed by photochemical reactions, oxidation reactions and biological processes, all ...

  8. Avaliação da decomposição de plantas aquáticas no solo através da liberação de CO2 Evaluation of aquatic plant decomposition on soil through CO2 release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Corrêa

    2005-06-01

    and incorporated into soil, degradation of the three aquatic macrophyte weed species could be verified through released CO2. To quantify released CO2, a flask with NaOH solution was placed into each vase, sealed and incubated for 24 hours, followed by HCl titration. For data adjustment and interpolation, Mitscherlich model modified was used. CO2 released into wet soil was 1,294 and 1,582 kg ha-1, being 6.2 and 5.6 times than that released into dry soil, for 50 and 100 t FM ha-1, respectively. It was observed that about 55% of the released CO2 occurred at day 30. It can be concluded that dry soil is the best condition for biomass discard and incorporation. However, degradation is accelerated under irrigation.

  9. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Voshell, J. Reese

    2005-01-01

    Provides a description of the structure and appearance of aquatic insects, how they live and reproduce, the habitats they live in, how to collect them, why they are of importance, and threats to their survival; document also includes a brief illustrated summary of the eight major groups of aquatic insects and web links to more information. Part of a 12 part series on sustaining aquatic biodiversity in America.

  10. Oxygen penetration around burrows and roots in aquatic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meysman, Filip J.R.; Galaktionov, O.S.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is the dominant physical mechanism for the transfer of oxygen into fine-grained aquatic sediments. This diffusive uptake occurs at the sediment-water interface, but also at internal interfaces, such as along ventilated burrows or O2 releasing plant roots. Here, we present a systematic...

  11. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Bogle, M.A.; Brantley, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239 Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  12. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Viola, Thiago W; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2017-01-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume) for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1) or type 2 (CRFR2) receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2 . Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates alcohol

  13. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  14. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    the immunoglobulin E (IgE) or the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) and serum-induced histamine release (HR) from basophils and mast cells. We have examined the correlation between the ASST and a new basophil histamine-releasing assay (the HR-Urtikaria test) in a group of well-characterized CU patients...... and subsequently determined the frequency of HR-Urticaria-positive sera from a larger population of CU patients....

  15. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  16. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  17. Contribution o the assessment of the environmental risk associated with uranium releases in the Ritord drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Della-Vedova, C.

    2008-01-01

    This document reports the application to aquatic environments and more particularly to the case of a drainage basin of methods of assessment of the environmental risk presented in another report. The objective is to determine the environmental risk related to releases of uranium from ancient mining sites. The method is applied to available data to diagnose a possible chemical and/or radiological risk due to these releases. Should the occasion occurs, probabilistic approaches are used to refine the assessment of the possible risk identified by the screening. After a presentation of the context, the different screening steps are reported: methodology (exposure analysis, effect analysis, and risk characterization), deterministic characterization of the chronic radiological risk, deterministic characterization of the chronic chemical risk. The next part reports the probabilistic assessment of the chemical or radiological risk. In conclusion, the authors indicate actions to be performed to better analyse exposures, and desirable actions to better analyse effects

  18. Two standards - CSA-N288.1 and USNRC regulatory guides 1.109, 1.111 for chronic atmospheric releases from nuclear facilities - compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S-R.

    1997-05-01

    Although the Canadian Standards Association's 'Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities', CSA-N288.1-M87 (CSA 1987) can be used to license CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors sold off-shore, in practice purchasers may wish to use the United States Regulatory Guides (RG) 1.109 (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1977a) and 1.111 (USNRC 1977b) to calculate doses from routine atmospheric releases to members of a critical group. When differences in dose predictions are found between the two standards, CSA-N288.1 comes under attack. This paper explains the differences between the two models. The two atmospheric dispersion models were compared for a ground level release and an elevated release such as from CANDU 6. For a ground level release, CSA's dilution factors were slightly more than half of RG's. For the elevated release, following recommendations in each guide, CSA's dilution coefficient is higher than RG's within 1000 m of the stack and only slightly lower farther away. All differences can be accounted for by different mathematical formulations and assumptions about height at which wind speed is measured. Ingestion, inhalation, immersion and external doses predicted by the two models were compared for unit release (Bq s -1 ) and for realistic source terms of a suite of 33 radionuclides commonly released from both CANDUs and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). To demonstrate real differences in the models, ingestion doses for the two models were compared using the CSA diet in both models and CSA predictions were recalculated to account for decay which occurs between harvest and ingestion in RG. Once all assumptions are equalized, there is very little difference in dose predictions of the two models that cannot be explained by different parameter values. Both models have outdated dose conversion factors, and the use of improved numbers will

  19. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, V.; Voitsekhovitch, O.; Nasvit, O.; Zhelezniak, M.; Sansone, U.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90 Sr and 137 Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90 Sr and ' C s, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90 Sr and 137 Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10 -5 Sv and 2.7*10 -5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10 -4 Sv and 5*10 -3 Sv from 90 Sr and 137 Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED 70 ) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED 70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED 70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  20. INSAR OF AQUATIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tarikhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  1. Effect of acute and chronic MK-801 administration on extracellular glutamate and ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice on line with open-field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Chun-Fu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2006-04-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist on extracellular glutamate (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving mice using in vivo microdialysis with open-field behavior. In line with earlier studies, acute administration of MK-801 induced an increase of Glu in the PFC. We also observed single MK-801 treatment increased AA release in the PFC. In addition, our results indicated that the basal AA levels in the PFC after MK-801 administration for 7 consecutive days were significantly decreased, and basal Glu levels also had a decreased tendency. After chronic administration (0.6 mg/kg, 7 days), MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg) challenge significantly decreased dialysate levels of AA and Glu. Our study also found that both acute and chronic administration of MK-801 induced hyperactivity in mice, but the intensity of acute administration was more than that of chronic administration. Furthermore, in all acute treatment mice, individual changes in Glu dialysate concentrations and the numbers of locomotion were positively correlated. In conclusion, this study may provide new evidence that a single MK-801 administration induces increases of dialysate AA and Glu concentrations in the PFC of freely moving mice, which are opposite to those induced by repeated MK-801 administration, with an unknown mechanism. Our results suggested that redox-response might play an important role in the model of schizophrenic symptoms induced by MK-801.

  2. Iodine-129 in aquatic organisms near nuclear fuels processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.G.

    1975-04-01

    Concentrations of 129 I in two aquatic habitats near nuclear fuel processing plants were highest in algae and crustaceans. These two forms may be useful in future monitoring of 129 I. There is some indication of an increase in atom ratios and specific activity in aquatic organisms over that in water and sediments. Additional measurements should be made to verify this conclusion. Efforts should continue to measure the possible long term build-up of 129 I in aquatic environments receiving effluents from fuels reprocessing plants. Even at very low rates of release to the environment, the long physical half-life of 129 I creates the potential for build-up of this nuclide to significant levels. (U.S.)

  3. Aquatic weeds: their implications in Indian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.; Anup Kumar, B.; Aruna Jyothi, K.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    The aquatic weed infestation of KAPS cooling water system, MAPS open reservoir, and the growth of filamentous algae and bacteria in the feed water unit of HWP (Kota), was investigated. The aquatic weeds identified were: Ceratophyllum, Elodea, Hydrilla verticillata, Najas and Vallisneria species. However, at HWP (Kota) filamentous alga (Nostoc punchiformis) and bacteria (Sphaerotilus natans) were found in plenty. The metabolic products when assayed in the form of total carbohydrate content released by weeds was 3.7 mg gm -1 biomass. The metabolic products adsorb on to the resin matrix and impaired its performance at HWP (K), enhanced bacterial growth on the resin beads and furthered resin deterioration. Besides, the growth of aquatic weeds also influenced the pH of the cooling water, thereby vitiating the water treatment programme. (author)

  4. Impact of Boron pollution to Biota Marine aquatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto-SBS; Imam Hamzah; Fepriadi

    2003-01-01

    Power plants and industrial facilities can release potentially harmful chemicals, like boron through direct aqueous discharges or cycling of cooling water to aquatic ecosystems environmental at plant surrounding. Boron is an essential trace element for the growth of marine biota, but can be toxic in excessive amount. Therefore will adversely affect of growth, reproduction or survival. Toxicity to aquatic organism, including vertebrates, invertebrates and plants can vary depending on the organism's life stage and environment. It is recommended that the maximum concentration of total boron for the protection of marine aquatic life should not exceed 1,2 mg B/L. Early stages of life cycle are more sensitive to boron than later ones, and the use of reconstituted water shows higher toxicity in lower boron concentrations than natural waters. (author)

  5. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of aquatic therapy for multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvillo, Iluminada; Varela, Enrique; Armijo, Francisco; Alvarez-Badillo, Antonio; Armijo, Onica; Maraver, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, progressive, disabling autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. Symptoms and signs of MS vary widely and patients may lose their ability to walk. To date the benefits of aquatic therapy often used for rehabilitation in MS patients have not been reviewed. The aim of this study was to systematically review the current state of aquatic treatment for persons with MS (hydrotherapy, aquatic therapy, aquatic exercises, spa therapy) and to evaluate the scientific evidence supporting the benefits of this therapeutic option. The databases PubMed, Scopus, WoS and PEDro were searched to identify relevant reports published from January 1, 2011 to April 30, 2016. Of 306 articles identified, only 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 5 randomized controlled, 2 simple randomized quasi-experimental, 1 semi-experimental, 1 blind controlled pilot and 1 pilot. Evidence that aquatic treatment improves quality of life in affected patients was very good in two studies, good in four, fair in two and weak in two.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A panel of experts in November 1971 specifically considered the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms and ecosystems and formulated detailed suggestions for research in the area. A further panel meeting took place in April 1974. The results of the work are presented in this report which is divided into 3 chapters in the first chapter the concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in aquatic environments and the radiation dose rates received by aquatic organisms are discussed. In particular, simple dosimetry models for phytoplankton, zooplankton, mollusca, crustacea and fish are presented which permit the estimation of the dose rates from incorporated radionuclides and from radionuclides in the external environment. In the second chapter the somatic and genetic effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms are reviewed. Somatic effects are discussed separately as effects due to short-term (acute) exposure to near-lethal doses of radiation. Great attention is paid to the effects due to long-term (chronic) exposure at lower doses rates. Consideration is given to behaviour, repair mechanisms and metabolic stimulation after exposure, and also the influence of environmental factors on radiation effects. In the third chapter the potential effects of low-level irradiation on aquatic populations are considered. First, the possible consequences of somatic effects on egg and larval mortality, stock-recruitment, fecundity and ecosystem stability are discussed. Subsequently, the assessment of genetic effects as they relate to population genetics and increased mutation rates are considered

  8. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  9. African Journals Online: Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... relevant social science and governance, or new techniques, are all ... ideas and findings on techniques, methodology and research findings ...

  10. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  11. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    ... (Mydophyllum spice turn) and hydrilla (Hyddlla verticfflata). These species, which account for more that two thirds of all noxious aquatic weed acreage in the United States, have similar characteristics...

  12. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we......Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  13. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  14. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  15. Impact of nuclear releases into the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.

    1983-05-01

    Selected effluents from a nuclear power plant were found to contain 3 H, 131 I, 124 Sb, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn and traces of 57 Co, 110 Ag and 154 Eu. The effluents were used as radionuclide sources for uptake studies with marine organisms. Experiments with several marine algae have shown that the radionuclides most concentrated are 131 I, 58 Co, 60 Co and 54 Mn. Moreover, some radionuclides present in the effluents only in traces ( 57 Co, 110 Ag and 154 Eu) may be concentrated by the algae to measurable amounts. 131 I, 58 Co and 60 Co are strongly retained by the algae

  16. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Presented are the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the significance of synthetic musk compounds in the aquatic environment. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than p

  17. Modelling techniques for predicting the long term consequences of radiation on natural aquatic populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, I.G.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to describe modelling techniques for predicting the long term consequences of radiation on natural aquatic populations. Ideally, it would be possible to use aquatic population models: (1) to predict changes in the health and well-being of all aquatic populations as a result of changing the composition, amount and location of radionuclide discharges; (2) to compare the effects of steady, fluctuating and accidental releases of radionuclides; and (3) to evaluate the combined impact of the discharge of radionuclides and other wastes, and natural environmental stresses on aquatic populations. At the onset it should be stated that there is no existing model which can achieve this ideal performance. However, modelling skills and techniques are available to develop useful aquatic population models. This paper discusses the considerations involved in developing these models and briefly describes the various types of population models which have been developed to date

  18. A Systematic Review of Aquatic Exercise Programs on Balance Measures in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Shayla Diane

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of studies performed using aquatic exercise programs to evaluate balance measures using a case-control or pretest-posttest method on healthy young populations (Geytenbeek, 2002). Balance can be defined as either static; maintenance of an upright posture and stance or dynamic; posture adaption and maintenance control of movements and stability (Rose & Clark, 2000). An aquatic exercise program will henceforth be defined as any acute or chronic exercises performed in water wi...

  19. Effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the improvement of balance and corporal symmetry in stroke survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Montagna, Jéssica Cristine; Santos, Bárbara C; Battistuzzo, Camila R; Loureiro, Ana Paula C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main problems associate with hemiparesis after stroke is the decrease in balance during static and dynamic postures which can highly affect daily life activities. Objective: To assess the effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the balance and quality of life (SS-QoL) of people with pos stroke. Methods: Chronic stroke participants received at total 18 individual sessions of aquatic physiotherapy using the principle of Halliwick (2x of 40 minutes per week). The outcomes me...

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC ACTIVITY IN HYDROTHERAPY PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Elena Stan

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the hydrotherapy programs are the recovery and relaxation of the patient. Traditional methods of on land, like Yoga, Pilates, Watsu and Tai Chi, include exercises that simultaneously stretch and strengthen muscles, helping to build a total fitness quickly and efficiently. The research method was the bibliographic study. All information gathered about relaxation techniques in water had a single result - the relaxation techniques through aquatic therapy lead to a release of da...

  1. Ecological Effects of Exotic and Native Aquatic Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    related problem for fish. Normally, carbon dioxide released during respiration is utilized in photosynthesis or escapes into the atmo- sphere...with algae for nutrients and light (Boyd 1979). Phytoplankton populations are often suppressed in well-established stands of ERDC/EL TR-09-10 8...aquatic plants, and primary productivity is either dependent upon macrophytes and/or periphyton associated with them. Generally, the presence of

  2. Initial Impacts of the Mount Polley Tailings Pond Breach on Adjacent Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Gantner, Nikolaus; Albers, Sam; Owens, Philip

    2015-04-01

    On August 4th 2014, the Mount Polley Tailings pond breach near Likely, B.C., released approximately 24 million cubic metres of tailings material into Polley Lake, Hazeltine Creek and Quesnel Lake. The discharge scoured and eroded a swath of soil and sediment delivering an unknown amount of metals and sediment into this tributary ecosystem of the Fraser River. Subsequent efforts by the mine operator to remediate by pumping tailings water from Polley Lake into Hazeltine Creek, which flows into Quesnel Lake, resulted in additional and continuous release of unknown volumes of contaminated water and sediments into the watershed. Heavy metals (e.g., selenium, copper, or mercury) reported as stored in the tailings pond entered the downstream aquatic environment and have been monitored in the water column of Quesnel Lake since August. These contaminants are likely particle-bound and thus subject to transport over long distances without appreciable degradation, resulting in the potential for chronic exposures and associated toxicological effects in exposed biota. While significant dilution is expected during aquatic transport, and the resulting concentrations in the water will likely be low, concentrations in exposed biota may become of concern over time. Metals such as mercury and selenium undergo bioaccumulation and biomagnification, once incorporated into the food chain/web. Thus, even small concentrations of such contaminants in water can lead to greater concentrations (~100 fold) in top predators. Over time, our predictions are that food web transfer will lead to an increase in concentrations from water (1-2 years)->invertebrates (1-2 yrs) ->fishes (2-5 yrs). Pacific salmon travel great distances in this watershed and may be exposed to contaminated water during their migrations. Resident species will be exposed to the contaminated waters and sediments in the study lakes year round. Little or no background/baseline data for metals in biota from Quesnel Lake exists

  3. A pragmatic, phase III, multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, dose increment randomised trial of regular, low-dose extended-release morphine for chronic breathlessness: Breathlessness, Exertion And Morphine Sulfate (BEAMS) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David; Watts, Gareth John; Johnson, Miriam; McDonald, Christine F; Miners, John O; Somogyi, Andrew A; Denehy, Linda; McCaffrey, Nicola; Eckert, Danny J; McCloud, Philip; Louw, Sandra; Lam, Lawrence; Greene, Aine; Fazekas, Belinda; Clark, Katherine C; Fong, Kwun; Agar, Meera R; Joshi, Rohit; Kilbreath, Sharon; Ferreira, Diana; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-07-17

    Chronic breathlessness is highly prevalent and distressing to patients and families. No medication is registered for its symptomatic reduction. The strongest evidence is for regular, low-dose, extended- release (ER) oral morphine. A recent large phase III study suggests the subgroup most likely to benefit have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scores of 3 or 4. This protocol is for an adequately powered, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, multisite, factorial, block-randomised study evaluating regular ER morphine for chronic breathlessness in people with COPD. The primary question is what effect regular ER morphine has on worst breathlessness, measured daily on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Uniquely, the coprimary outcome will use a FitBit to measure habitual physical activity. Secondary questions include safety and, whether upward titration after initial benefit delivers greater net symptom reduction. Substudies include longitudinal driving simulation, sleep, caregiver, health economic and pharmacogenetic studies. Seventeen centres will recruit 171 participants from respiratory and palliative care. The study has five phases including three randomisation phases to increasing doses of ER morphine. All participants will receive placebo or active laxatives as appropriate. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used. Ethics approval has been obtained. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, findings presented at relevant conferences and potentially used to inform registration of ER morphine for chronic breathlessness. NCT02720822; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: Physiochemical behavior and antimicrobial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chiqian; Hu, Zhiqiang; Deng, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    Nanosilver (silver nanoparticles or AgNPs) has unique physiochemical properties and strong antimicrobial activities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the physicochemical behavior (e.g., dissolution and aggregation) and antimicrobial mechanisms of nanosilver in aquatic environments. The inconsistency in calculating the Gibbs free energy of formation of nanosilver [ΔGf(AgNPs)] in aquatic environments highlights the research needed to carefully determine the thermodynamic stability of nanosilver. The dissolutive release of silver ion (Ag(+)) in the literature is often described using a pseudo-first-order kinetics, but the fit is generally poor. This paper proposes a two-stage model that could better predict silver ion release kinetics. The theoretical analysis suggests that nanosilver dissolution could occur under anoxic conditions and that nanosilver may be sulfidized to form silver sulfide (Ag2S) under strict anaerobic conditions, but more investigation with carefully-designed experiments is required to confirm the analysis. Although silver ion release is likely the main antimicrobial mechanism of nanosilver, the contributions of (ion-free) AgNPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to the overall toxicity of nanosilver must not be neglected. Several research directions are proposed to better understand the dissolution kinetics of nanosilver and its antimicrobial mechanisms under various aquatic environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the extended-release tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablet for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2013-11-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol hydrochloride 75-mg/acetaminophen 650-mg fixed-dose combination tablets (TA-ER) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled 245 patients with moderate to severe (≥4 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale) chronic (≥3 months') low back pain insufficiently controlled by previous NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors and randomly assigned them to receive 4 weeks of either TA-ER or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% from baseline to final evaluation. Secondary end points included quality of life (Korean Short Form-36), functionality (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), and adverse events. The percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% was significantly higher (P Pain relief success rate from baseline was significantly higher with TA-ER versus placebo at days 8 and 15 but not at the final visit. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form-36 and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index. Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the most common adverse events reported were nausea, dizziness, constipation, and vomiting. TA-ER was significantly more

  6. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  7. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  8. Saponins in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xiaogang

    -like structure, saponins have a lot of applications, e.g. as foaming agents in consumer products, as adjuvants in the vaccine, as biosurfactants in soil washing and as biopesticides in crop protection. Hence, they may leach into the aquatic environment due to their low octanol/water partition coefficient......This PhD thesis consists of three parts to illustrate the goal of getting a better understanding of the fate and toxicity of saponins in the aquatic environment. It includes an introduction to the general aspects of saponins, their chemistry and the ecotoxicology concepts, and a second part...... and poor binding to organic matter. They may therefore also pose a risk to the aquatic organisms. Since saponins are efficient against pests, they are most likely also toxic to the non-target organisms. However, their fate and toxicity in the environment are not fully understood. There are two main...

  9. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  10. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Surg Capt Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. "Suit squeeze" due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  11. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  12. Chronic restraint stress causes anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, downregulates glucocorticoid receptor expression, and attenuates glutamate release induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shuichi; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Ninomiya, Midori; Richards, Misty C; Wakabayashi, Chisato; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Stress and the resulting increase in glucocorticoid levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 6 hours × 28 days) on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats and on the possible changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent neural function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We observed significant reductions in body weight gain, food intake and sucrose preference from 1 week after the onset of CRS. In the 5th week of CRS, we conducted open-field (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FST). We observed a decrease in the number of entries into open arms during the EPM (anxiety-like behavior) and increased immobility during the FST (depression-like behavior). When the PFC was removed after CRS and subject to western blot analysis, the GR expression reduced compared with control, while the levels of BDNF and its receptors remained unchanged. Basal glutamate concentrations in PFC acute slice which were measured by high performance liquid chromatography were not influenced by CRS. However, BDNF-induced glutamate release was attenuated after CRS. These results suggest that reduced GR expression and altered BDNF function may be involved in chronic stress-induced anxiety--and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. Volume 36

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) is the Nation's only federally authorized research program directed to develop technology for the management of non-indigenous aquatic plant species...

  14. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  15. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of

  16. Checklist of the Aquatic Macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor, Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. 3. Professor, Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. (Received: October, 2010; Accepted: May, 2011). The occurrence and diversity of aquatic macrophytes on Jebba Lake were documented during the ...

  17. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  18. Expanding Aquatic Observations through Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. W. Brewin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities and argue, based on current technological developments and recent research, that the time is right to employ recreational citizens to improve large-scale aquatic sampling efforts. We discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for this strategy to be successful (e.g., sensor integration, data quality, and citizen motivation, the steps needed to realize its potential, and additional societal benefits that arise when engaging citizens in scientific sampling.

  19. Trophic transfer of metal-based nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Selck, Henriette; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (Me-ENPs) are used in a wide range of products including inks, plastics, personal care products, clothing and electronic devices. The release of Me-ENPs has been demonstrated from some products, and thus, particles are likely to enter the aquatic environm......Metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (Me-ENPs) are used in a wide range of products including inks, plastics, personal care products, clothing and electronic devices. The release of Me-ENPs has been demonstrated from some products, and thus, particles are likely to enter the aquatic...... environment where they have been shown to be taken up by a variety of species. Therefore, there is a possibility that Me-ENPs will enter and pass through aquatic food webs, but research on this topic is limited. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors contributing to trophic transfer of Me......-ENPs, and where this information is scarce, we utilize the existing literature on aqueous metal trophic transfer as a potential starting point for greater mechanistic insight and for setting directions for future studies. We identify four key factors affecting trophic transfer of Me-ENPs: (1) environmental...

  20. Chronic suppression of testicular function by constant infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and testosterone supplementation in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, N; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Rao, A J; Moudgal, R N

    1992-03-01

    To study the efficacy of long-term buserelin acetate infusion to desensitize pituitary and block testicular function in adult male monkeys (Macaca radiata). Proven fertile male monkeys exhibiting normal testicular function. Each of the control (n = 5) and experimental monkeys (n = 10) received a fresh miniosmotic pump every 21 days, whereas pumps in controls delivered vehicle of experimentals released 50 micrograms buserelin acetate every 24 hours. On day 170 (renewed every 60 days) a silastic capsule containing crystalline testosterone (T) was implanted in the experimental monkeys. At the end of 3 years, treatment was stopped, and recovery of testicular function and fertility monitored. (1) Treatment resulted in marked reduction of nocturnal but not basal serum T; (2) the pituitary remained desensitized to buserelin acetate throughout the 3-year period; (3) animals were largely azoospermic with occasional oligospermia exhibited by two monkeys; and (4) withdrawal of treatment restored testicular function, with 70% of animals regaining fertility. Long-term infertility (but restorable) can be induced in male monkeys by constant infusion of buserelin acetate and T.

  1. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  2. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  3. Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCorno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of antibiotics (AB into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of ABresistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5-6 fold.These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of

  4. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    1978. " Ecotoxicology of aquatic plant communi- ties," Principles of Ecotoxicology , SCOPE Report 12, Chapter 11, pp 239-255. [Heavy metals, Pollutants...Phragmites communis and Equisetum limosum were cultivated . They found plant-plant influences depend on soil type. Typha latifolia, S. A2 lacustris, and

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation in bats reflects dietary connectivity to aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel J; Chumchal, Matthew M; Broders, Hugh G; Korstian, Jennifer M; Clare, Elizabeth L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Simmons, Nancy B; Fenton, M Brock

    2018-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and widespread heavy metal with neurotoxic effects in wildlife. While bioaccumulation of Hg has historically been studied in aquatic food webs, terrestrial consumers can become contaminated with Hg when they feed on aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, fish, and amphibians). However, the extent to which dietary connectivity to aquatic ecosystems can explain patterns of Hg bioaccumulation in terrestrial consumers has not been well studied. Bats (Order: Chiroptera) can serve as a model system for illuminating the trophic transfer of Hg given their high dietary diversity and foraging links to both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Here we quantitatively characterize the dietary correlates of long-term exposure to Hg across a diverse local assemblage of bats in Belize and more globally across bat species from around the world with a comparative analysis of hair samples. Our data demonstrate considerable interspecific variation in hair total Hg concentrations in bats that span three orders of magnitude across species, ranging from 0.04 mg/kg in frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) to 145.27 mg/kg in the piscivorous Noctilio leporinus. Hg concentrations showed strong phylogenetic signal and were best explained by dietary connectivity of bat species to aquatic food webs. Our results highlight that phylogeny can be predictive of Hg concentrations through similarity in diet and how interspecific variation in feeding strategies influences chronic exposure to Hg and enables movement of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contamination of the Aquatic Environment with Neonicotinoids and its Implication for Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sánchez-Bayo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides in agriculture results first in contamination of the soil of the treated crops, and secondly in the transfer of residues to the aquatic environment. The high toxicity of these insecticides to aquatic insects and other arthropods has been recognized, but there is little awareness of the impacts these chemicals have on aquatic environments and the ecosystem at large. Recent monitoring studies in several countries, however, have revealed a world-wide contamination of creeks, rivers and lakes with these insecticides, with residue levels in the low μg/L (ppb range. The current extent of aquatic contamination by neonicotinoids is reviewed first, and the findings contrasted with the known acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to various aquatic organisms. Impacts on populations and aquatic communities, mostly using mesocosms, are reviewed next to identify the communities most at risk from those that undergo little or no impact. Finally, the ecological links between aquatic and terrestrial organisms are considered. The consequences for terrestrial vertebrate species that depend mainly on this food source are discussed together with impacts on ecosystem function. Gaps in knowledge stem from difficulties in obtaining long-term experimental data that relates the effects on individual organisms to impacts on populations and ecosystems. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and the implications they have for the larger ecosystem.

  8. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  9. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including 241 Am). 241 Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of 241 Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of 241 Am from the biomass. The content of 241 Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of 241 Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of 241 Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial 241 Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of 241 Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  10. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  11. Biological assessment of aquatic pollution: a review, with emphasis on plants as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, J L; Schmidt, M; Doust, L L

    1994-05-01

    In a number of disciplines including ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality management, water resource management, fishery biology etc., there is significant interest in the testing of new materials, environmental samples (of water or sediments) and specific sites, in terms of their effects on biota. In the first instance, we consider various sources of aquatic pollution, sources typically associated with developed areas of the world. Historically, much water quality assessment has been performed by researchers with a background in chemistry or engineering, thus chemical analysis was a dominant form of assessment. However, chemical analyses, particularly of such materials as organochlorines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons can be expensive, and local environmental factors may cause the actual exposure of an organism to be little correlated with chemical concentrations in the surrounding water or sediments. To a large extent toxicity testing has proceeded independently of environmental quality assessment in situ, and the work has been done by different, and differently-trained researchers. Here we attempt to bring together the various forms of biological assessment of aquatic pollution, because in our opinion it is worth developing a coherent framework for the application of this powerful tool. Biotic assessment in its most primitive form involves the simple tracking of mortality in exposed organisms. However, in most natural environments it is extended, chronic exposure to contaminants that has the most wide-ranging and irreversible repercussions--thus measures of sub-lethal impairment are favoured. From an ecological standpoint, it is most valuable to assess ecological effects by direct study of in situ contaminant body burdens and impairment of growth and reproduction compared with 'clean' sites. A distinction is made here between bioindication and biomonitoring, and a case is made for including aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms) in studies of contaminant levels and

  12. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...... ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs...... on bioaccumulation focusing on the effect of nanoparticle coating, uptake, and depuration in aquatic invertebrates....

  13. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  14. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  15. Radionuclide distribution and transport in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A critical review of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    These volumes present the results of a study undertaken for the Commission of the European Communities. The aim was to review available data concerning the movement of radionuclides through the environment and to recommend values of parameters for use in environmental transport models. The elements reviewed all have radioactive isotopes which could contribute significantly to the radiological impact of chronic releases of radioactivity from nuclear installations within the countries of the European community, i.e. the major activation and fission products. In dividing these elements between volumes an effort has been made to take account of the method of production of their major radioisotopes, together with their chemical similarities and environmental interactions. This volume covers the radionuclide distribution of americium and curium. The main areas which are covered include the deposition of radionuclides on plants and soils, transport in soils, uptake and translocation in plants via the roots and foliage, metabolism in domestic animals and radionuclide transfers through the main physical and biotic components of the aquatic environment. In reviewing these subject areas, account has been taken not only of the literature relating to specific radionuclides, but also of the literature relating to the stable element of which they are radioisotopes. (Auth.)

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of a hydrocodone extended-release tablet formulated with abuse-deterrence technology for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale ME

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin E Hale,1 Charles Laudadio,2 Ronghua Yang,2 Arvind Narayana,2 Richard Malamut2 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL, 2Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R & D, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA Abstract: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of hydrocodone extended release (ER developed with abuse-deterrence technology to provide sustained pain relief and limit effects of alcohol and tablet manipulation on drug release. Eligible patients with chronic moderate-to-severe low back or osteoarthritis pain were titrated to an analgesic dose of hydrocodone ER (15–90 mg and randomized to placebo or hydrocodone ER every 12 hours. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 12 in weekly average pain intensity (API; 0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable. Secondary measures included percentage of patients with >33% and >50% increases from baseline in weekly API, change from baseline in weekly worst pain intensity, supplemental opioid usage, aberrant drug-use behaviors, and adverse events. Overall, 294 patients were randomized and received ≥1 dose of placebo (n=148 or hydrocodone ER (n=146. Weekly API did not differ significantly between hydrocodone ER and placebo at week 12 (P=0.134; although, in post hoc analyses, the change in weekly API was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER when excluding the lowest dose (15 mg; least squares mean, –0.20 vs 0.40; P=0.032. Significantly more patients had .33% and .50% increase in weekly API with placebo (P<0.05, and mean weekly worst pain intensity was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER at week 12 (P=0.026. Supplemental medication usage was higher with placebo (86% than hydrocodone ER (79%. Incidence of aberrant drug-use behaviors was low, and adverse events were similar between groups. This study did not meet the primary endpoint, although results support the effectiveness of this hydrocodone ER formulation in managing chronic low back or

  17. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids.

  18. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, P.

    2013-01-01

    (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release...... enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide...... of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna...

  19. Genotoxic and reprotoxic effects of tritium and external gamma irradiation on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Pereira, Sandrine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Hinton, Tom; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are chronically exposed to natural radioactivity or to artificial radionuclides released by human activities (e.g., nuclear medicine and biology,nuclear industry, military applications). Should the nuclear industry expand in the future, radioactive environmental releases, under normal operating conditions or accidental ones, are expected to increase, which raises public concerns about possible consequences on the environment and human health. Radionuclide exposures may drive macromolecule alterations, and among macromolecules DNA is the major target for ionizing radiations. DNA damage, if not correctly repaired, may induce mutations, teratogenesis, and reproductive effects. As such, damage at the molecular level may have consequences at the population level. In this review, we present an overview of the literature dealing with the effects of radionuclides on DNA, development, and reproduction of aquatic organisms. The review focuses on the main radionuclides that are released by nuclear power plants under normal operating conditions, γ emitters and tritium. Additionally, we fitted nonlinear curves to the dose-response data provided in the reviewed publications and manuscripts, and thus obtained endpoints commonly associated with ecotoxicological studies, such as the EDR(10). These were then used as a common metric for comparing the values and data published in the literature.The effects of tritium on aquatic organisms were reviewed for dose rates that ranged from 29 nGy/day to 29 Gy/day. Although beta emission from tritium decay presents a rather special risk of damage to DNA, genotoxicity-induced by tritium has been scarcely studied. Most of the effects studied have related to reproduction and development. Species sensitivity and the form of tritium present are important factors that drive the ecotoxicity of tritium. We have concluded from this review that invertebrates are more sensitive to the effects of tritium than are vertebrates

  20. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  1. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis, chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity, biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases, and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  2. Cyanotoxins: bioaccumulation and effects on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina

    2011-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis), chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity), biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases), and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.

  3. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  4. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  5. Dynamic model for tritium transfer in an aquatic food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melintescu, A; Galeriu, D

    2011-08-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is released from some nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities. It is a ubiquitous isotope because it enters straight into organisms, behaving essentially identically to its stable analogue (hydrogen). Tritium is a key radionuclide in the aquatic environment, in some cases, contributing significantly to the doses received by aquatic, non-human biota and by humans. The updated model presented here is based on more standardized, comprehensive assessments than previously used for the aquatic food chain, including the benthic flora and fauna, with an explicit application to the Danube ecosystem, as well as an extension to the special case of dissolved organic tritium (DOT). The model predicts the organically bound tritium (OBT) in the primary producers (the autotrophs, such as phytoplankton and algae) and in the consumers (the heterotrophs) using their bioenergetics, which involves the investigation of energy expenditure, losses, gains and efficiencies of transformations in the body. The model described in the present study intends to be more specific than a screening-level model, by including a metabolic approach and a description of the direct uptake of DOT in marine phytoplankton and invertebrates. For a better control of tritium transfer into the environment, not only tritiated water must be monitored, but also the other chemical forms and most importantly OBT, in the food chain.

  6. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  7. Aquatic toxicology: past, present, and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, J B

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic organisms have played important roles as early warning and monitoring systems for pollutant burdens in our environment. However, they have significant potential to do even more, just as they have in basic biology where preparations like the squid axon have been essential tools in establishing physiological and biochemical mechanisms. This review provides a brief summary of the history of aquatic toxicology, focusing on the nature of aquatic contaminants, the levels of contamination in...

  8. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  9. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  10. Chronic Condition Public Use File (PUF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Chronic Conditions Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare claims. The CMS Chronic Conditions PUF is an aggregated file in...

  11. Nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadasan, K.; Mukundan, M.K.; Antony, P.D.; Viswanathan Nair, P.G.; Perigreen, P.A.; Joseph, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The International Symposium on Nutrients and Bioactive Substances in Aquatic Organisms, was held during 16-17 September 1993 by the Society of Fisheries Technologists (India) to review the progress of research in this area in India and elsewhere. The papers presented indicate that scientific productivity in this field is substantial and that some of the bioactive materials isolated from aquatic organisms have potential application in human health, nutrition and therapy. The symposium focussed attention on toxicants, nutrients and bioactive substances in aquatic organisms in general, and also on pollution of aquatic systems due to thermal effluents. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  12. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason

    2005-01-01

    .... Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed...

  13. ARRRG/FOOD, Doses from Radioactive Release to Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of

  14. Bioavailability and distribution and of ceria nanoparticles in simulated aquatic ecosystems, quantification with a radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Zhang Peng; He Xiao; Ma Yuhui; Lu Kai; Zhao Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    Although the presence of manufactured nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is still largely undocumented, their release could certainly occur in the future, particularly via municipal treatment plant effluents of cities supporting nano-industries. To get an initial estimate of the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, we investigated the distribution and accumulation of ceria nanoparticles in simulated aquatic ecosystems which included aquatic plant, shellfish, fish, water, and sediment using a radiotracer technique. Radioactive ceria ( 141 CeO 2 ) nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 7 nm were synthesized by a precipitation method and added to the simulated aquatic ecosystems. The results indicate that the concentration of ceria nanoparticles in water decreased to a steady-state value after 3 days; meanwhile, the concentrations of ceria nanoparticles in the aquatic plant and sediment increased to their highest values. The distribution and accumulation characteristics of ceria nanoparticles in various aquatic organisms were different. Ceratophyllum demersum showed a high ability of accumulation of ceria nanoparticles from water. (authors)

  15. Long-term safety and effectiveness of once-daily, single-entity, extended-release hydrocodone over 76 weeks of an open-label study in patients with chronic noncancer and nonneuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Louise; Lynch, Shau Yu; He, Ellie; Ripa, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate long-term use of Hysingla(®) ER (HYD), a single-entity, extended-release, once-daily hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer and nonneuropathic pain. This open-label study consisted of a dose-titration period (up to 45 days), a 52-week maintenance period and a 24-week extension period. Opioid-naïve or opioid-experienced patients with controlled or uncontrolled chronic pain conditions were treated with HYD 20-120 mg daily. Supplemental nonopioid and short-acting opioid analgesics were permitted. This paper presents the results of 106 patients who continued HYD treatment for up to 76 weeks. Primary safety measures included the incidence of adverse events, as well as audiologic, clinical laboratory and electrocardiogram measurements. Effectiveness was measured by the change between baseline and the overall 76-week treatment period in "average pain over the last 24 h" (0 = no pain, 10 = pain as bad as you can imagine), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form survey, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale-Revised and concomitant nonstudy opioid analgesic use. Among 410 patients who completed the maintenance period, 106 continued into the extension. Of these, 83 (78%) completed the entire 76-week treatment period. Treatment-emergent adverse events were typical of those observed with μ-opioid agonists. No study drug abuse or diversion was reported. Clinically important analgesia and functional improvement were achieved during the dose-titration period and were maintained in most patients throughout 76 weeks without the need for continued HYD dose increases or changes in concomitant nonstudy opioid analgesics. The mean pain score was 6.1 at baseline, 3.8 at the end of the dose titration period and 3.8 through 76 weeks. HYD was generally well tolerated. No unexpected safety concerns emerged. Pain control was sustained throughout 76 weeks of

  16. Minimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Thain, J.E., M.J. Waldock, and M.E. Wait, Toxicity and degradation studies of Tributyltin ( TBT ) and Dibutyltin (DBT) in the aquatic environment, in...MATERIALS AND METHODS The test system used was designed to pump a known volume of a tributyltin ( TBT ) solution of known concentration through a porous...ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) nimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofoulinq 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  17. Evaluation of Quality of Life, Functioning, Disability, and Work/School Productivity Following Treatment with an Extended-Release Hydrocodone Tablet Formulated with Abuse-Deterrence Technology: A 12-month Open-label Study in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin E; Zimmerman, Thomas R; Ma, Yuju; Malamut, Richard

    2017-02-01

    This phase 3 study evaluated quality of life, functioning, and productivity after treatment with extended-release (ER) hydrocodone formulated with CIMA ® Abuse-Deterrence Technology platform. Patients with chronic pain were rolled over from a 12-week placebo-controlled hydrocodone ER study or were newly enrolled. Hydrocodone ER doses were titrated (15 to 90 mg every 12 hours) to an analgesic dose, and patients received up to 52 weeks of open-label treatment. Assessments included Clinician Assessment of Patient Function (CAPF), Patient Assessment of Function (PAF), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-Short Form (HPQ-SF). Of 330 enrolled patients, 291 composed the full analysis population. By week 4, ≥ 50% of patients showed improvement from baseline in all 5 CAPF domains (general activities, walking, work/daily living, relationships, and enjoyment of life) and 6 of 7 PAF domains (work attendance, work performance, walking, exercise, socializing, and enjoying life). Mean decreases from baseline of 2 to 3 points were noted for BPI-SF pain interference questions from week 4 through endpoint. Mean improvements from baseline to endpoint in SF-36 subscales ranged from 3.3 to 22.3, and SDS scores improved from moderate (4.8 to 5.1) to mild (2.5 to 2.8) disruptions in work/school, social life, and family life. At endpoint, mean HPQ-SF absolute absenteeism scores decreased from 13.6 to 10.0 hours lost/month and absolute presenteeism scores improved from 67.0 to 77.1. Patients receiving hydrocodone ER showed early numeric improvements in functioning that continued throughout this 12-month study. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  18. Effectiveness of a controlled release chlorhexidine chip (PerioColTM‑CG as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing when compared to scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameswari Kondreddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled-release chlorhexidine chip as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing when compared with scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with a total number of 40 posterior sites were selected. These sites were divided into two groups in a split mouth design,: Group A (control site had 20 sites treated with scaling and root planing alone and Group B (test site had 20 sites treated with scaling and root planing and PerioCol TM -CG. The clinical parameters (Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline, 90 th and 180 th day for both the groups. Results: When both groups were compared the change in Plaque index was significantly higher in Group B when compared to Group A on the 90 th day and 180 th day. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean percentage of gingival bleeding sites between the two groups on the 90 th day, though Group B showed a statistically higher reduction in the mean percentage of gingival bleeding sites at the end of 180 th day. There was no statistically significant difference in probing pocket depth between the two groups on both 90 th and 180 th day. Gain in clinical attachment level was significantly higher in Group B when compared to Group A on the 90 th and 180 th day. Conclusion: From the results observed in this study, it can be concluded that the adjunctive use of PerioCol TM -CG was safe and provided significant improvement in both Plaque index and gingival bleeding index. It was also more favorable than scaling and root planing alone for gain in clinical attachment level.

  19. The behaviour of chromium in aquatic and terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Chromium has been considered both as potential radioactive and conventional pollutant. Chromium-51 is produced by the activation of 50 Cr, which may be present either as a component of steel alloys used in reactors, or in Na 2 CrO 4 added as an anticorrosion agent to the cooling water. Only small amounts of 51 Cr are normally found in the liquid waste of nuclear power plants before discharge into rivers. In exceptional situations, however, as a result of the direct release of cooling waters, the aquatic environments may receive relatively large quantities of 51 Cr. Part of this 51 Cr is adsorbed e.g. to the sediments, but a fraction remains in solution in the river water. Somme accumulation of the radionuclide is observed in fresh water and marine organisms. Therefore, although 51 Cr has a relatively short physical half life (27.8d), it is of interest to acquire better information on its accumulation by different species of fresh water organisms and plants, as well as on its behaviour in soils, in order to evaluate the relative importance of this nuclide in the radioactive contamination of the aquatic and terrestrial food chains. As a related and sometimes associated pollutant, stable chromium is also taken into consideration. This element occurs fairly frequently as an environmental pollutant in many countries, either because of its abundance in soils derived from serpentine or because of its release to the environment from industrial wastes. The sequence of presentation of the experiment data is based on the consecutive steps of the contamination process: aquatic environment, soils, plant link of the food chain. Special attention is paid, in the different chapters, to the behaviour of various chemical forms of chromium and to their distribution in different fractions: soluble in water, adsorbed, precipitated on particles or complexed with organic material

  20. Aquatic Ecotoxicity of Microplastics and Nanoplastics: Lessons Learned from Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of microplastics in the aquatic environment is well documented through international surveys and scientific studies. Further degradation and fragmentation, resulting in the formation of nanosized plastic particles – nanoplastics – has been highlighted as a potentially...... important issue. In the environment, both microplastics and nanoplastics may have direct ecotoxicological effects, as well as vector effects through the adsorption of co-contaminants. Plastic additives and monomers may also be released from the polymer matrix and cause adverse effects on aquatic organisms...

  1. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  2. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  3. New tools for aquatic habitat modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Tonina; J. A. McKean; C. Tang; P. Goodwin

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of aquatic microhabitat in streams has been typically done over short channel reaches using one-dimensional simulations, partly because of a lack of high resolution. subaqueous topographic data to better define model boundary conditions. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an airborne aquatic-terrestrial sensor that allows simultaneous...

  4. Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic oil pollution impact indicators such as oil-grease, low dissolved oxygen concentration, increased biochemical oxygen demand, increased water temperature and acidity of the water are associated with aquatic habitat degradation, reduced productivity and or loss of biodiversity. These impact indicators are ...

  5. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  6. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  7. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  8. Application of nano-packaging in aquatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Jafarpour

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: With regard to aquatics high nutritional value and their important presence in diet one should think of a way to increase it's survivability and maintaining quality. For this, nano technology can help packaging aquatics. Nano can be applied considerably in food health and environment protection.

  9. Nutrition, Illness, and Injury in Aquatic Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of

  10. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  11. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  12. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation.

  13. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS

  14. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  15. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  16. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  17. Stimulation of microbial nitrogen cycling in aquatic ecosystems by benthic macrofauna: mechanisms and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, P.

    2013-12-01

    Invertebrate animals that live at the bottom of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., benthic macrofauna) are important mediators between nutrients in the water column and microbes in the benthos. The presence of benthic macrofauna stimulates microbial nutrient dynamics through different types of animal-microbe interactions, which potentially affect the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. This review contrasts three types of animal-microbe interactions in the benthos of aquatic ecosystems: (i) ecosystem engineering, (ii) grazing, and (iii) symbiosis. Their specific contributions to the turnover of fixed nitrogen (mainly nitrate and ammonium) and the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide are evaluated. Published data indicate that ecosystem engineering by sediment-burrowing macrofauna stimulates benthic nitrification and denitrification, which together allows fixed nitrogen removal. However, the release of ammonium from sediments is enhanced more strongly than the sedimentary uptake of nitrate. Ecosystem engineering by reef-building macrofauna increases nitrogen retention and ammonium concentrations in shallow aquatic ecosystems, but allows organic nitrogen removal through harvesting. Grazing by macrofauna on benthic microbes apparently has small or neutral effects on nitrogen cycling. Animal-microbe symbioses provide abundant and distinct benthic compartments for a multitude of nitrogen-cycle pathways. Recent studies reveal that ecosystem engineering, grazing, and symbioses of benthic macrofauna significantly enhance nitrous oxide emission from shallow aquatic ecosystems. The beneficial effect of benthic macrofauna on fixed nitrogen removal through coupled nitrification-denitrification can thus be offset by the concurrent release of (i) ammonium that stimulates aquatic primary production and (ii) nitrous oxide that contributes to global warming. Overall, benthic macrofauna intensifies the coupling between benthos, pelagial, and atmosphere through enhanced turnover and

  18. Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Mukti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment. Materials and Methods: Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as "evil eye", this refers to their belief in black-magic. Conclusions: This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.

  19. Inorganic nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: behavior, toxicity, and interaction with environmental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżewska Iwona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present characteristics, toxicity and environmental behavior of nanoparticles (NPs (silver, copper, gold, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, iron oxide that most frequently occur in consumer products. In addition, NPs are addressed as the new aquatic environmental pollutant of the 21st century. NPs are adsorbed onto particles in the aquatic systems (clay minerals, fulvic and humic acids, or they can adsorb environmental pollutants (heavy metal ions, organic compounds. Nanosilver (nAg is released from consumer products into the aquatic environment. It can threaten aquatic organisms with high toxicity. Interestingly, copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs demonstrate higher toxicity to bacteria and aquatic microorganisms than those of nanosilver nAg. Their small size and reactivity can cause penetration into the tissues and interfere with the metabolic systems of living organisms and bacterial biogeochemical cycles. The behavior of NPs is not fully recognized. Nevertheless, it is known that NPs can agglomerate, bind with ions (chlorides, sulphates, phosphates or organic compounds. They can also be bound or immobilized by slurry. The NPs behavior depends on process conditions, i.e. pH, ionic strength, temperature and presence of other chemical compounds. It is unknown how NPs behave in the aquatic environment. Therefore, the research on this problem should be carried out under different process conditions. As for the toxicity, it is important to understand where the differences in the research results come from. As NPs have an impact on not only aquatic organisms but also human health and life, it is necessary to recognize their toxic doses and know standards/regulations that determine the permissible concentrations of NPs in the environment.

  20. Proceedings 16th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review Held at St. Paul, Minnesota on 17-19 November 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Overview, by Howard E. Westerdahl ............................. 51 Evaluating Controlled Release Herbicides for Aquatic Weed Control, by Thai K. Van...Evaluation of Controlled-Release 2,4-D Formulations in Lake Seminole, Georgia, by Ronald E. Hoeppel and Howard E. Westerdahl ...78 2,4-D Residue Dissipation Studies to Support Expansion of the Federal Label, by Howard E. Westerdahl and Ronald E. Hoeppel

  1. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  3. VT Biodiversity Project - Aquatic Sites boundary polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Exemplary aquatic sites in Vermont, both standing water and running water, are represented in this dataset. It is the result of an analysis by the...

  4. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Aquatic Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic Buffers serve as natural boundaries between local waterways and existing development. The model and example ordinaces below provide suggested language or technical guidance designed to create the most effective stream buffer zones possible.

  5. VT Biodiversity Project - Aquatic Sites boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Exemplary aquatic sites in Vermont, both standing water and running water, are represented in this dataset. It is the result of an analysis by the...

  6. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2009-01-01

      A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested...... delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic...... animals is quantitatively important in nitraterich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability...

  7. Plants in aquatic ecosystems: current trends and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O’Hare, Matthew T.; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Asaeda, Takashi; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Chambers, Patricia A.; Clayton, John S.; Elger, Arnaud; Ferreira, Teresa M.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Gunn, Iain D.M.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Hellsten, Seppo; Hofstra, Deborah E.; Li, Wei; Mohr, Silvia; Puijalon, Sara; Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Willby, Nigel J.; Wood, Kevin A.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic plants fulfil a wide range of ecological roles, and make a substantial contribution to the structure, function and service provision of aquatic ecosystems. Given their well-documented importance in aquatic ecosystems, research into aquatic plants continues to blossom. The 14th International

  8. Bisphenol A in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Asai, Daisuke; Aasi, Daisuke; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane], which is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, is a known endocrine disruptor and is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Due to intensified usage of these products, exposure of organisms to BPA via several routes, such as the environment and food, has increased. The aquatic environment is an important area for the study of BPA. This report reviews the literature concerning contamination routes and degradation of BPA in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms.

  9. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  10. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  11. Methods of dosimetry for aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The importance is emphasized of accurate estimates of radiation doses or dose rates that must be made for experiments to investigate the effects of irradiation on aquatic organisms. Computational methods are described which provide the best estimate of radiation dose or dose rates received by aquatic organisms when living in contaminated water. Also, techniques appropriate to the determination of radiation doses from external sources are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Uranium in Aquatic Sediments; Where are the Guidelines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iles, M., E-mail: michelle.iles@ewlsciences.com.au [Earth, Water and Life Sciences Pty Ltd, Darwin (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Sediment data has been collected on and around the Ranger uranium mine for over 20 years. This included studies such as annual routine monitoring of metal concentrations, adsorption-desorption conditions, phase associations, transport mechanism, release potential, bioaccumulation and bioconcentration etc. Building on this, performance-based monitoring of the sediments from on-site water bodies was undertaken to ascertain the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants as a basis to determine ecological risks associated with the sediments which in turn underpins closure planning. Highlights of these studies are interpreted using an ecological risk assessment approach. Ideally interpretation of aquatic sediment contamination in Australia is guided by the national guidelines for water quality and a weighted multiple lines of evidence approach whereby the chemistry of sediments is compared with reference and guideline values and predictions of bio-availability, and biological effects data allows cause and effect relationships to be derived. However, where uranium in aquatic sediments is concerned there is a lack of national (Australian) and international guidelines that are applicable to tropical sediments and the biological effects data available are limited or confounded by other variables. In the absence of clear uranium guidelines for sediments an internationally reported “Predicted No Effect Concentration” (PNEC) for uranium in temperate sediments was used as a “pseudo-guideline” value to identify sites with concentrations that might present an environmental risk and that should be further investigated. The applicability of the PNEC to the tropical Ranger site was understandably questioned by stakeholders and peers. The issues raised highlighted the need for international guidelines for uranium in aquatic sediments for tropical and temperate climates and an internationally accepted approach for deriving same. (author)

  13. Nutrition and training adaptations in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.

  14. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Metal-Based Engineered Nanomaterials in Aquatic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luoma, Samuel; Khan, Farhan R.; Croteau, Marie-Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Bioavailability of Me-ENMs to aquatic organisms links their release into the environment to ecological implications. Close examination shows some important differences in the conceptual models that define bioavailability for metals and Me-ENMs. Metals are delivered to aquatic animals from Me......-ENMs via water, ingestion, and incidental surface exposure. Both metal released from the Me-ENM and uptake of the nanoparticle itself contribute to bioaccumulation. Some mechanisms of toxicity and some of the metrics describing exposure may differ from metals alone. Bioavailability is driven by complex...... interaction of particle attributes, environmental transformations, and biological traits. Characterization of Me-ENMs is an essential part of understanding bioavailability and requires novel methodologies. The relative importance of the array of processes that could affect Me-ENM bioavailability remains...

  16. Experiences of simulated tracer dispersal studies using effluent discharges at Tarapur aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Sawane, Pratibha; Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear complex in Tarapur, Maharashtra is a multi facility nuclear site comprising of power reactors and research facilities. Each facility has independent liquid effluent discharge line to Arabian Sea. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate dilution factors in the aquatic environment using liquid effluent releases as tracer from one of the facilities. 3 H and 137 Cs radioisotopes present in the routine releases were used as simulated tracer nuclides. The dilution factors(D.F) observed for tritium were in the range of 20-20000 in a distance range of 10 m to 1500 m respectively and for 137 Cs the D.F. were in the range of 50 to 900 over a distance range of 10-200 m. The paper describes the analytical methodology and sampling scenarios and the results of dilution factors obtained for Tarapur aquatic environment. (author)

  17. Unifying Rules for Aquatic Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Domel, August; di Santo, Valentina; Lauder, George; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Strouhal number, St (=fA/U) , a scaling parameter that relates speed, U, to the tail-beat frequency, f, and tail-beat amplitude, A, has been used many times to describe animal locomotion. It has been observed that swimming animals cruise at 0.2 fish-like swimmer, we show that when cruising at minimum hydrodynamic input power, St is predetermined, and is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area. The narrow range for St, 0.2-0.4, has been previously associated with optimal propulsive efficiency. However, St alone is insufficient for deciding optimal motion. We show that hydrodynamic input power (energy usage to propel over a unit distance) in fish locomotion is minimized at all cruising speeds when A* (= A/L), a scaling parameter that relates tail-beat amplitude, A, to the length of the swimmer, L, is constrained to a narrow range of 0.15-0.25. Our analysis proposes a constraint on A*, in addition to the previously found constraint on St, to fully describe the optimal swimming gait for fast swimmers. A survey of kinematics for dolphin, as well as new data for trout, show that the range of St and A* for fast swimmers indeed are constrained to 0.2-0.4 and 0.15-0.25, respectively. Our findings provide physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with relatively constant tail-beat amplitude at approximately 20 percent of body length, while their swimming speed is linearly correlated with their tail-beat frequency.

  18. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  19. Plutonium in the aquatic environment around the Rocky Flats facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has been fabricating and chemically recovering plutonium for over 20 years. During that time, small amounts of plutonium have been released with liquid process and sanitary waste discharges. The liquid waste flows through a series of holding ponds from which it is discharged into a creek that is part of a municipal drinking water supply. The water flows for about 1.5 km between the last holding pond and the municipal drinking water reservoir. In addition, liquid wastes containing high levels of chemical contaminants and plutonium concentrations less than allowable drinking water standards have been discharged to large evaporation ponds. The fate of the plutonium in both the surface and subsurface aquatic environment has been extensively monitored and studied. It has been found that plutonium does not move very far or very rapidly through subsurface water. The majority of the plutonium released through surface water has been contained in the sediments of the plant holding ponds. Small amounts of plutonium have also been found in the sediments of the draining creek and in the sediments of the receiving reservoir. Higher than normal amounts of plutonium were released from the waste treatment plants during times when suspended solids were high. Various biological species have been examined and plutonium concentration factors determined. Considerably less than 1% of the 210 mCi of plutonium released has been detected in biological systems including man. After more than 20 years of large scale operations, no health or environmental hazard has been identified due to the release of small amounts of plutonium. (author)

  20. TENORM wastes and the potential alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the years seventies release-rates and derived limits for releasing radionuclides into the environment were adopted for each particular radionuclide and for a number of pathways. The release-rate limit adopted for alpha emitters was 10 15 Bq.y -1 for a single site, but limited to 10 14 Bq.y -1 for 226 Ra and supported 210 Po. In addition, to meet the requirements of the London Convention, a derived limit should be expressed in terms of concentration, which for alpha emitters was 10 10 Bq.t -1 , but limited to 10 14 Bq.t -1 for 226 Ra and supported 210 Po, assuming an upper limit to the mass dumping rate of 10 5 t per year at a single dumping site. New data on the radioactivity in the marine environment and biota, including plankton, indicated a potential alpha radiation dose to these aquatic organisms due to the release of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes. At the highest accumulation of 239 Pu in the zooplankton Gammarus in Thule, Greenland, due to an accidental release associated with military activities, the dose rate reached about 0.14 μGy.h -1 . Such dose rate was similar to that received by the phytoplankton Chaetoceros and Rhizosolenia from Agulhas current, Africa, due to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) supposedly enhanced for almost one century of gold mining at first, and subsequently because of heap-leaching uranium extraction from the tailings left behind by earlier gold miners. The paper will discuss the alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota, in general, and to plankton, in particular, due to potential releases of TENORM wastes in the aquatic environment. (author)

  1. Tropical dermatology: marine and aquatic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Lupi, Omar; Lonza, Juan Pedro; Tyring, Stephen K

    2009-11-01

    Dermatoses caused by marine organisms are frequently seen in dermatology clinics worldwide. Cutaneous injuries after exposure to marine environments include bacterial and fungal infections and lesions caused by aquatic plants and protists. Some of these diseases are well known by dermatologists, such as Vibrio vulnificus septicemia and erysipeloid, but others are uncommon, such as envenomation caused by ingestion or contact with certain dinoflagellates or cyanobacteria, which are associated with rashes that can begin within minutes after exposure. Many marine/aquatic invertebrates, such as sponges, cnidarians, echinoderms, crustaceans, and mollusks, are associated with different kinds of dermatologic lesions that can vary from irritant or allergic contact dermatitis to physical trauma and envenomations. These cutaneous lesions may result in mild local reactions or can be associated with severe systemic reactions. Invertebrate animals, such as cnidarians, sea urchins, and worms, and aquatic vertebrates, such as venomous fishes and stingrays, are commonly associated with skin lesions in many countries, where they can constitute occupational dermatoses among fishermen and scuba divers, but they can also be observed among persons who contact these animals in kitchens or beaches. The presence of unusual lesions, a recent travel history, and/or a report of contact with an aquatic environment (including ownership of a marine or freshwater aquarium) should alert the dermatologist to the etiology of the cutaneous problems. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to recognize the cutaneous manifestations of marine/aquatic infections, bites, stings, and wounds, etc., treat the cutaneous manifestations of marine/aquatic injuries, and help prevent marine/aquatic injuries.

  2. Effect of 8-Week Aquatic, Land- based and Combined (Aquatic-Land Training Programs On Walking Capacity in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS: A Burdenko Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghaffari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic disease affecting all aspects of life in patients with this disease and causes a wide range of functional problems, including reduced walking capacity. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks aquatic, land-based and combined (aquatic-land (exercise programs according to Burdenko method on the walking capacity measured by 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT. This was a pre- post design study. Thirty one women diagnosed with MS, age range 30-50 years, EDSS0.05. According to the results of this study, the combined and land-based exercises can be suggested for people with MS in order to improve their walking capacity. These methods can be suggested as appropriate non-pharmacologic complementary therapies in the rehabilitation centers.

  3. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  4. Impact of long-term radiation exposure on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 30 years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Pomortseva, N.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Dzyubenko, E.V.; Nazarov, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-purification of closed water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) is an extremely slow process. Therefore, ecosystems of the majority of lakes, dead channels and crawls possess high levels of radionuclide contamination of all components. Along with natural decontamination processes in aquatic ecosystems such as physical decay of radionuclides and their water transport outside the EZ, there is a change of physical and chemical forms of radioactive substances in soils of catchment areas, their transformation and transition in the mobile and bioavailable state, washout to the closed aquatic ecosystems and accumulation by hydrobionts. This essentially deteriorates the radiation situation in closed aquatic ecosystems, which are some kind of 'storage system' of radioactive substances in the EZ and results in increase of radiation dose to aquatic species and manifests in a variety of radiation effects at different levels of biological systems. We established dose-related effects in hydrobionts of lakes within the EZ which indicates a damage of biological systems at subcellular, cellular, tissue, organ, organism and population levels as a result of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in cells of aquatic species, many-a-times exceeds the level of spontaneous mutagenesis level to aquatic biota. Increased levels of chromosome damages may be a manifestation of radiation-induced genetic instability, which is one of the main mechanisms for the protection of living organisms from exposure to stressors with subsequent implementation at higher levels of organization of biological systems. (author)

  5. Can aquatic macrophytes be biofilters for gadolinium based contrasting agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Mihály; Zavanyi, Györgyi; Laczovics, Attila; Berényi, Ervin; Szabó, Sándor

    2018-05-15

    The use of gadolinium-based contrasting agents (GBCA) is increasing because of the intensive usage of these agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Waste-water treatment does not reduce anthropogenic Gd-concentration significantly. Anomalous Gd-concentration in surface waters have been reported worldwide. However, removal of GBCA-s by aquatic macrophytes has still hardly been investigated. Four aquatic plant species (Lemna gibba, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii, E. canadensis) were investigated as potential biological filters for removal of commonly used but structurally different GBCA-s (Omniscan, Dotarem) from water. These plant species are known to accumulate heavy metals and are used for removing pollutants in constructed wetlands. The Gd uptake and release of the plants was examined under laboratory conditions. Concentration-dependent infiltration of Gd into the body of the macrophytes was measured, however significant bioaccumulation was not observed. The tissue concentration of Gd reached its maximum value between day one and four in L. gibba and C. demersum, respectively, and its volume was significantly higher in C. demersum than in L. gibba. In C. demersum, the open-chain ligand Omniscan causes two-times higher tissue Gd concentration than the macrocyclic ligand Dotarem. Gadolinium was released from Gd-treated duckweeds into the water as they were grown further in Gd-free nutrient solution. Tissue Gd concentration dropped by 50% in duckweed treated by Omniscan and by Dotarem within 1.9 and 2.9 days respectively. None of the macrophytes had a significant impact on the Gd concentration of water in low and medium concentration levels (1-256 μg L -1 ). Biofiltration of GBCA-s by common macrophytes could not be detected in our experiments. Therefore it seems that in constructed wetlands, aquatic plants are not able to reduce the concentration of GBCA-s in the water. Furthermore there is a low risk that these plants cause the

  6. Decomposition characteristics of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes and their potential application as carbon resource in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; He, Shengbing; Zhou, Weili; Gu, Jianya; Huang, Jungchen; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. The influence of decomposition on water quality and the concentrations of the released chemical materials both followed the order of water hyacinth > hydrilla > cattail. Greater influence was obtained with higher dosage of plant litter addition. The influence also varied with sediment addition. Moreover, nitrogen released from the decomposition of water hyacinth and hydrilla were mainly NH 3 -N and organic nitrogen while those from cattail litter included organic nitrogen and NO 3 - -N. After the decomposition, the average carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in the receiving water was about 2.6 (water hyacinth), 5.3 (hydrilla) and 20.3 (cattail). Therefore, cattail litter might be a potential plant carbon source for denitrification in ecological system of a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tire wear particles in the aquatic environment - A review on generation, analysis, occurrence, fate and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephan; Hüffer, Thorsten; Klöckner, Philipp; Wehrhahn, Maren; Hofmann, Thilo; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2018-08-01

    Tire wear particles (TWP), generated from tire material during use on roads have gained increasing attention as part of organic particulate contaminants, such as microplastic, in aquatic environments. The available information on properties and generation of TWP, analytical techniques to determine TWP, emissions, occurrence and behavior and ecotoxicological effects of TWP are reviewed with a focus on surface water as a potential receptor. TWP emissions are traffic related and contribute 5-30% to non-exhaust emissions from traffic. The mass of TWP generated is estimated at 1,327,000 t/a for the European Union, 1,120,000 t/a for the United States and 133,000 t/a for Germany. For Germany, this is equivalent to four times the amount of pesticides used. The mass of TWP ultimately entering the aquatic environment strongly depends on the extent of collection and treatment of road runoff, which is highly variable. For the German highways it is estimated that up to 11,000 t/a of TWP reach surface waters. Data on TWP concentrations in the environment, including surface waters are fragmentary, which is also due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for their determination. Information on TWP properties such as density and size distribution are missing; this hampers assessing the fate of TWP in the aquatic environment. Effects in the aquatic environment may stem from TWP itself or from compounds released from TWP. It is concluded that reliable knowledge on transport mechanism to surface waters, concentrations in surface waters and sediments, effects of aging, environmental half-lives of TWP as well as effects on aquatic organisms are missing. These aspects need to be addressed to allow for the assessment of risk of TWP in an aquatic environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2016-01-01

    when assessing NM hazards (e.g., uptake routes, bioaccumulation, toxicity, test protocols, and model organisms). The authors' recommendation is to place particular importance on studying the ecological effects of aged/weathered NMs, as-manufactured NMs, and NMs released from consumer products...... in addressing the following overarching research topics: 1) NM characterization and quantification in environmental and biological matrices; 2) NM transformation in the environment and consequences for bioavailability and toxicity; 3) alternative methods to assess exposure; 4) influence of exposure scenarios......The European Union–United States Communities of Research were established in 2012 to provide a platform for scientists to develop a “shared repertoire of protocols and methods to overcome nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) research gaps and barriers” (www.us-eu.org/). Based...

  9. Aquatic exercise & balneotherapy in musculoskeletal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2012-06-01

    This is a best-evidence synthesis providing an evidence-based summary on the effectiveness of aquatic exercises and balneotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions addressed in this review include: low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Over 30 years of research demonstrates that exercises in general, and specifically aquatic exercises, are beneficial for reducing pain and disability in many musculoskeletal conditions demonstrating small to moderate effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.32. Balneotherapy might be beneficial, but the evidence is yet insufficient to make a definitive statement about its use. High-quality trials are needed on balneotherapy and aquatic exercises research especially in specific patient categories that might benefit most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  11. Investigation of tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior, cycling and distribution of tritium in an aquatic ecosystem was studied in the field and in the laboratory from 1969 through 1971. Field studies were conducted in the Hudson River Estuary, encompassing a 30 mile region centered about the Indian Point Nuclear Plant. Samples of water, bottom sediment, rooted emergent aquatic plants, fish, and precipitation were collected over a year and a half period from more than 15 locations. Specialized equipment and systems were built to combust and freeze-dry aquatic media to remove and recover the loose water and convert the bound tritium into an aqueous form. An electrolysis system was set up to enrich the tritium concentrations in the aqueous samples to improve the analytical sensitivity. Liquid scintillation techniques were refined to measure the tritium activity in the samples. Over 300 samples were analyzed during the course of the study

  12. Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Suffern, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Radioactive contamination of aquatic media and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Y.

    1960-01-01

    After a brief account of the radioactive wastes produced by peaceful or military uses of Atomic Industry, the author first describes a series of observations carried out 'in the field' on the extent of contamination in aquatic organisms with respect to that of the medium. The experimental studies are then analysed, with reference both to the radioisotope metabolism and to the factors and types of contamination of aquatic organisms by wastes from atomic industry. A precise experimental project is presented at the end of the paper, including almost 300 references. (author) [fr

  15. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  16. E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Anim, Desmond Ofosu; Mensah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The volume of e-waste is growing around the world, and, increasingly, it is being disposed of by export from developed to developing countries. This is the situation in Ghana, and, in this paper we address the potential consequences of such e-waste disposal. Herein, we describe how e-waste is processed in Ghana, and what the fate is of e-waste-chemical contaminants during recycling and storage. Finally, to the extent it is known, we address the prospective adverse effects of e-waste-related contaminants on health and aquatic life downstream from a large e-waste disposal facility in Accra, Ghana.In developing countries, including Ghana, e-waste is routinely disassembled by unprotected workers that utilize rudimentary methods and tools. Once disassembled,e-waste components are often stored in large piles outdoors. These processing and storage methods expose workers and local residents to several heavy metals and organic chemicals that exist in e-waste components. The amount of e-waste dumped in Ghana is increasing annually by about 20,000 t. The local aquatic environment is at a potential high risk, because the piles of e-waste components stored outside are routinely drenched or flooded by rainfall, producing run-off from storage sites to local waterways. Both water and sediment samples show that e-waste-related contaminant shave entered Ghana's water ways.The extent of pollution produced in key water bodies of Ghana (Odaw River and the Korle Lagoon) underscores the need for aquatic risk assessments of the many contaminants released during e-waste processing. Notwithstanding the fact that pollutants from other sources reach the water bodies, it is clear that these water bodies are also heavily impacted by contaminants that are found in e-waste. Our concern is that such exposures have limited and will continue to limit the diversity of aquatic organisms.There have also been changes in the abundance and biomass of surviving species and changes in food chains. Therefore

  17. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L -1 and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L -1 . In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L -1 and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L -1 respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  18. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  19. PABLM, Doses from Radioactive Releases to Atmosphere and Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release, after deposition, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider exposure to radionuclides deposited on the ground or crops from contaminated air or irrigation water, radionuclides in contaminated drinking water, aquatic foods raised in contaminated water, and radionuclides in bodies of water and sediments where people might fish, boat, or swim. For vegetation, the radiation dose model considers both direct deposition and uptake through roots. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The program is designed to calculate accumulated radiation doses from the chronic ingestion of food products that contain radionuclides and doses from the external exposure to radionuclides in the environment. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. 2 - Method of solution: A chain decay scheme including branching for transitions to and from isomeric states is used for radioactive decay. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radio- logical Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and the maximum possible concentration (MPC) for each radionuclide. These doses are calculated as a function of radionuclide concentration in food products, ingestion rates, and a radionuclide-specific dose- commitment factor. Radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption

  20. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik, E-mail: ket@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Nizzetto, Luca [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Huggett, Duane B. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda Registered-Sign , has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 {mu}g/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations > 9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be

  1. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Nizzetto, Luca; Huggett, Duane B.

    2012-01-01

    Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda®, has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 μg/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations > 9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be well below 1 (PEC

  2. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  3. The uptake of radiationless by some fresh water aquatic biota review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this paper reviews many studies carried out by the authors along the last thirty years. The behaviour of the radionuclides in the aquatic ecology of Ismailia Canal stream is of great interest for the evaluation of the possible hazards that may occur to man through the movement of such radionuclides via food chain. Laboratory investigations have been carried out in order to understand the accumulation and release of some radionuclide by some aquatic biota (aquatic macrophyte aquatic plants, some snails species and some fish species) inhabiting this fresh water stream. Different parameters such as water ph, contact time, water salinity, etc. were used in these investigations. The kinetic analysis of the uptake process of some radio nuclides by certain biota was performed. From this analysis, it was possible (through the statistical methods) to investigate that the uptake process proceeded through different steps with different rates depending on the radionuclide and the biota species. It was possible to conclude that some of the selected biota can be used as biological indicators for certain radionuclides

  4. Potential applications of SIMS technique for environmental monitoring based on exposure of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The kinds of environmental monitoring applications for which SIMS may be applicable, particularly with aquatic organisms, fall into 2 main categories: a) Undertaking controlled dose experiments with aquatic organisms where the nature of exposure is known together with water concentration, soft tissue and shell concentrations; and b) Using aquatic organisms from historically or currently impacted sites where other data or information may or may not be available to give some insight into the exposure pattern, generally from existing water monitoring data, sediment concentrations and other data such as water release or flow data. The advantage of experiments undertaken under controlled conditions is that they enable modelling to be developed and be applied. Usually the controlled studies with aquatic organisms are undertaken following cases of historical exposure. The usefulness of historical studies is therefore questionable unless a clear link with the organism exposure can be established. Some examples will be given to show how historical data could be used to bridge the information gap

  5. A Worldwide Web-portal for Aquatic Mesocosm Facilities: WWW.MESOCOSM.EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, S. A.; Nejstgaard, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Experimental mesocosms are valuable tools to fill the gap between highly controlled/replicated lab experiments and uncontrolled/non-replicated natural environments such as rivers, lakes and oceans. WWW.MESOCOSM.EU is an open web-portal for leading aquatic mesocosm facilities around the world. It was created within the FP7 EU-project MESOAQUA (A network of leading MESOcosm facilities to advance the studies of future AQUAtic ecosystems from the Arctic to the Mediterranean). The goal of the portal is to increase international knowledge about existing mesocosm facilities, including information on locations, environment, equipment, contacts, research opportunities and mesocosm-based publications. MESOCOSM.EU specifically aims to be a tool to enhance the quality of research by facilitating international cooperative network building, announcement of new research initiatives, transfer of best practice, and dissemination of knowledge, public information and press releases. As an open platform for all aquatic ecosystem scale science (marine and freshwater), MESOCOSM.EU aims to fill the lack of a centralized, coordinating virtual infrastructure for international aquatic mesocosm research, from the mountains to the ocean and from polar to tropical regions.

  6. Flow management for hydropower extirpates aquatic insects, undermining river food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Lytle, D.A.; Miller, S.A.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Kortenhoeven, Eric W.; Metcalfe, Anya; Baxter, Colden V.

    2016-01-01

    Dams impound the majority of rivers and provide important societal benefits, especially daily water releases that enable on-peak hydroelectricity generation. Such “hydropeaking” is common worldwide, but its downstream impacts remain unclear. We evaluated the response of aquatic insects, a cornerstone of river food webs, to hydropeaking using a life history–hydrodynamic model. Our model predicts that aquatic-insect abundance will depend on a basic life-history trait—adult egg-laying behavior—such that open-water layers will be unaffected by hydropeaking, whereas ecologically important and widespread river-edge layers, such as mayflies, will be extirpated. These predictions are supported by a more-than-2500-sample, citizen-science data set of aquatic insects from the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon and by a survey of insect diversity and hydropeaking intensity across dammed rivers of the Western United States. Our study reveals a hydropeaking-related life history bottleneck that precludes viable populations of many aquatic insects from inhabiting regulated rivers.

  7. Are endocrine disruptors among the causes of the deterioration of aquatic biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Shan

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) is now taken into account to explain partially the biodiversity decline of aquatic ecosystems. Much research has demonstrated that EDCs can adversely affect the endocrine system, reproductive health, and immune function in aquatic species. These toxicological effects include 1) interference with normal hormonal synthesis, release, and transport, 2) impairment of growth, development, and gonadal maturation, and 3) increased sensitivity to environmental stressors. Recent studies also have confirmed that EDCs have carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. In essence, these changes in physiological and biochemical parameters reflect, to some extent, some phenotypic characteristics of the deterioration of aquatic biodiversity. At present, evidence at the molecular level shows that exposure to EDCs can trigger genotoxicity, such as DNA damage, and can reduce genetic diversity. Field studies have also provided more direct evidence that EDCs contribute to the population decrease and biodiversity decline. Evolutionary toxicology and multigenerational toxicity tests have further demonstrated that EDCs can damage an organism's offspring and eventually likely lead to loss of evolutionary potential. Taken together, these results provide some basis for understanding the relationship between variety deterioration and EDC exposure. It is conceivable that there is a causal association between EDC exposure and variety deterioration of aquatic organisms. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  8. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC 50 and 96-h LC 50 values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China

  9. Reviewing the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) footprint in the aquatic biota: Uptake, bioaccumulation and ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Silva, Liliana J.G.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Pereira, André a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >M.P.T.; Meisel, Leonor M.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Lino, Celeste M.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants are amongst the most prescribed pharmaceutical active substances throughout the world. Their presence, already described in different environmental compartments such as wastewaters, surface, ground and drinking waters, and sediments, and their remarkable effects on non-target organisms justify the growing concern about these emerging environmental pollutants. A comprehensive review of the literature data with focus on their footprint in the aquatic biota, namely their uptake, bioaccumulation and both acute and chronic ecotoxicology is presented. Long-term multigenerational exposure studies, at environmental relevant concentrations and in mixtures of related compounds, such as oestrogenic endocrine disruptors, continue to be sparse and are imperative to better know their environmental impact. - Highlights: • Current knowledge of uptake and bioaccumulation of SSRIs. • Ecotoxicology and effects of SSRIs in the aquatic biota. • Identification of existing knowledge gaps. - A comprehensive review focussing SSRIs antidepressants footprint in the aquatic biota, namely their uptake, bioaccumulation, and both acute and chronic ecotoxicology is presented

  10. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  11. Community effects of carbon nanotubes in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzeboer, I.; Kupryianchyk, D.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic sediments form an important sink for manufactured nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes (CNT) and fullerenes, thus potentially causing adverse effects to the aquatic environment, especially to benthic organisms. To date, most nanoparticle effect studies used single species tests in the

  12. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  13. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  14. Effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harbhajan; Lata, Poonam; Sharma, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    With the onset of nuclear age, nuclear fuel cycle products, nuclear medicine techniques, disposal of radio active wastes on land or in water, fall out of testing nuclear weapons has contributed large amount of radio nuclides to the water bodies. Radio nuclides can imbalance aquatic ecosystem resulting in danger to natural life. The biological effects of radiation on aquatic life are mortality, pathophysiological, reproductive, developmental and genetic changes. A broad review of the results obtained about the aquatic organisms related to different phyla indicates that the lower or less developed or more primitive organisms are more resistant than the higher or more advanced, developed and complex organisms to ionizing radiation. The algae, protozoa are more resistant than the insects, crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. The changes in sensitivity between different stages of development have also been noted. A review of the results of exposing salmonoid gametes, eggs, fingerlings and adults to X-rays supports the concepts that radio sensitivity decreases with age. This paper presents a selective review on effects of radiation and radio nuclides on the aquatic life. It include uses and sources of radiation, effective quantity of radiation, lethal and sub lethal effect, effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behaviour, metabolism, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (author)

  15. Toxicokinetic modeling challenges for aquatic nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicity has become of increasing concern since the rapid development of metal nanoparticles (NPs. Aquatic nanotoxicity depends on crucial qualitative and quantitative properties of nanomaterials that induce adverse effects on subcellular, tissue, and organ level. The dose-response effects of size-dependent metal NPs, however, are not well investigated in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the uptake and elimination rate constants for metal NPs in the metabolically active/ detoxified pool of tissues, a one-compartmental toxicokinetic model can be applied when subcellular partitioning of metal NPs data would be available. The present review is an attempt to describe the nano-characteristics of toxicokinetics and subcellular partitioning on aquatic organisms with the help of the mechanistic modeling for NP size-dependent physiochemical properties and parameters. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can provide an effective tool to estimate the time course of NP accumulation in target organs and is useful in quantitative risk assessments. NP accumulation in fish should take into account different effects of different NP sizes to better understand tissue accumulative capacities and dynamics. The size-dependent NP partition coefficient is a crucial parameter that influences tissue accumulation levels in PBPK modeling. Further research is needed to construct the effective systems-level oriented toxicokinetic model that can provide a useful tool to develop quantitatively the robustly approximate relations that convey a better insight into the impacts of environmental metal NPs on subcellular and tissue/organ responses in aquatic organisms.

  16. Recommendations for Implementing an Aquatic Plyometric Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael G.; Berry, David C.; Gilders, Roger; Bullard, Sue

    2001-01-01

    Describes the advantages of using plyometric programs in the water, explaining that they may provide athletes with several benefits (e.g., added resistance, which increases muscle strength, and getting a break from more monotonous drills on land). The paper discusses: the physical properties of water, aquatic rehabilitation that incorporates…

  17. Corrigendum | Schramm | African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is editorial policy of the African Journal of Aquatic Science to follow the revised Acacia nomenclature, based on the retypification of the genus ratified by the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in 2011 and subsequently published in Appendix III of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi ...

  18. Collaborative Governance Models for Managing Aquatic Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Collaborative Governance Models for Managing Aquatic Resources and Fisheries in the Peruvian ... The idea is to consolidate this knowledge in a model for the participatory ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018 ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  19. The neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is a major water quality issue and in many aquatic systems, it leads to the proliferation of toxic phytoplankton species. The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is one of the compounds that can be present in phytoplankton. BMAA has been suggested to play a role in

  20. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  1. Sustainable Aquatic Resource Management Initiative | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increasing numbers of stakeholders are recognizing the need for changes in the way aquatic ecosystems are governed. ... for Resource Management and Environmental Studies (CERMES), University of the West Indies, on the application of new thinking (resilience, Complex Adaptive Systems theory) to coastal practices.

  2. Cornelis den Hartog: an outstanding aquatic ecologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.; Brock, T.C.M.; Kempers, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    A survey is given of the work and life of Cornelis den Hartog up to the date in 1996 on which he retired from his position as a professor at the University of Nijmegen. Cornelis (Kees) den Hartog made important contributions to aquatic ecology in the widest sense, e.G. On brackish water typology,

  3. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  4. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  5. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  6. Aquatic arsenic: Phytoremediation using floating macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur Rahman, Mohammad; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated ...

  7. Aquatic Habitats, Level 4-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Margaret

    Designed to acquaint students in grades 4-9 with aquatic plants and animals, this guide provides materials which can be used in preparation for field trips or laboratory work, for individual projects, as supplemental activities for a unit, or for learning center projects. Teacher background notes and an answer key for the student activites are…

  8. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  9. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  10. Aquatic Habitat Bottom Classification Using ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein we examine...

  11. Book review: Aquatic insect ecology: 1. Biology and habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, Ross H.

    2010-01-01

    Book Review: A comprehensive treatment of the ecology of aquatic insects in one place is needed for both students and researchers. Professor Ward is doing this in two volumes. The first volume covers the biology and habitats, as indicated in the subtitle, of the 13 insect orders that are either entirely aquatic at some stage, or those with some members aquatic at some stage. The second volume will be devoted entirely to the feeding ecology of these aquatic species.

  12. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  13. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 500 Cities: Local Data for Better Health, 2016 release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is the complete dataset for the 500 Cities project 2016 release. This dataset includes 2013, 2014 model-based small area estimates for 27 measures of chronic...

  15. 500 Cities: Local Data for Better Health, 2017 release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is the complete dataset for the 500 Cities project 2017 release. This dataset includes 2015, 2014 model-based small area estimates for 27 measures of chronic...

  16. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  17. Data Basin Aquatic Center: expanding access to aquatic conservation data, analysis tools, people and practical answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne-Gowey, J.; Strittholt, J.; Bergquist, J.; Ward, B. C.; Sheehan, T.; Comendant, T.; Bachelet, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The world’s aquatic resources are experiencing anthropogenic pressures on an unprecedented scale and aquatic organisms are experiencing widespread population changes and ecosystem-scale habitat alterations. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these threats, in some cases reducing the range of native North American fishes by 20-100% (depending on the location of the population and the model assumptions). Scientists around the globe are generating large volumes of data that vary in quality, format, supporting documentation, and accessibility. Moreover, diverse models are being run at various temporal and spatial scales as scientists attempt to understand previous (and project future) human impacts to aquatic species and their habitats. Conservation scientists often struggle to synthesize this wealth of information for developing practical on-the-ground management strategies. As a result, the best available science is often not utilized in the decision-making and adaptive management processes. As aquatic conservation problems around the globe become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, scientists and land-use managers need a new way to bring strategic, science-based, and action-oriented approaches to aquatic conservation. The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), with partners such as ESRI, is developing an Aquatic Center as part of a dynamic, web-based resource (Data Basin; http: databasin.org) that centralizes usable aquatic datasets and provides analytical tools to visualize, analyze, and communicate findings for practical applications. To illustrate its utility, we present example datasets of varying spatial scales and synthesize multiple studies to arrive at novel solutions to aquatic threats.

  18. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  19. State of the Science White Paper: Effects of Plastics Pollution on Aquatic Life and Aquatic-Dependent Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a state-of-the-science review – one that summarizes available scientific information on the effects of chemicals associated with plastic pollution and their potential impacts on aquatic life and aquatic-dependent wildlife.

  20. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  1. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is unknown. However, it may be caused by cancer, tuberculosis , or an underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ), and it occasionally occurs in people with chronic ...

  2. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  3. Modeling techniques for predicting long-term consequences of the effects of radiation on natural aquatic populations and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Appropriate modeling techniques already exist for investigating some long-term consequences of the effects of radiation on natural aquatic populations and ecosystems, even if to date these techniques have not been used for this purpose. At the low levels of irradiation estimated to occur in natural aquatic systems, effects are difficult to detect at even the individual level much less the population or ecosystem level where the subtle effects of radiation are likely to be completely overshadowed by the effects of other environmental factors and stresses and the natural variability of the system. The claim that population and ecosystem models can be accurate and reliable predictive tools in assessing any stress has been oversold. Nonetheless, the use of these tools can be useful for learning more about the effects of radioactive releases on aquatic populations and ecosystems

  4. Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Koji; Atsumi, Mika; Yokoyama, Akiko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Inouye, Isao; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 released an enormously high level of radionuclides into the environment, a total estimation of 6.3 × 10¹⁷ Bq represented by mainly radioactive Cs, Sr, and I. Because these radionuclides are biophilic, an urgent risk has arisen due to biological intake and subsequent food web contamination in the ecosystem. Thus, urgent elimination of radionuclides from the environment is necessary to prevent substantial radiopollution of organisms. In this study, we selected microalgae and aquatic plants that can efficiently eliminate these radionuclides from the environment. The ability of aquatic plants and algae was assessed by determining the elimination rate of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from culture medium and the accumulation capacity of radionuclides into single cells or whole bodies. Among 188 strains examined from microalgae, aquatic plants and unidentified algal species, we identified six, three and eight strains that can accumulate high levels of radioactive Cs, Sr and I from the medium, respectively. Notably, a novel eustigmatophycean unicellular algal strain, nak 9, showed the highest ability to eliminate radioactive Cs from the medium by cellular accumulation. Our results provide an important strategy for decreasing radiopollution in Fukushima area.

  5. Aquatic fate of synfuel residuals: bioaccumulation of aniline and phenol by the freshwater phytoplankter Scenedesmus quadricauda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.T.; Dauble, D.D.; Felice, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Coal liquefaction compounds could, through accidental release, enter aquatic environments. Experiments were conducted to determine the kinetics, degree of bioconcentration and stability of two of these compounds at the first level of aquatic food web. The authors exposed the freshwater phytoplankter Scenedesmus quadricauda to sublethal concentrations of 14 C-labeled phenol and aniline. Both accumulation and elimination occurred within a few hours and followed hyperbolic kinetics. Results indicate that substantial quantities of accumulated compounds remain as the parent compound (22% for phenol and 52% for aniline) for up to 24 h and could be available to animals higher in the food web. Bioconcentration factors were 3.5 for phenol and 91 for aniline. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  6. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in aquatic environments. Annual progress report, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The present work is a combination of studies on natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in aquatic environments and on the biogeochemistry of the transuranium elements 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am, in the Bikini Lagoon. The objectives of the biogeochemical studies are to evaluate the cycling of the radionuclides in the aquatic environment from their sources, their distribution within ecosystems, their uptake by biota, and their sinks. Detailed studies of the conditions which now exist some 17 years since the last nuclear detonations at Bikini should give a basis for predicting the effects of large-scale or low-level continuous releases of nuclear waste products in the marine environment

  7. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic chemicals were released and how the 2015 TRI data compare to data from previous years. This dataset reports US state, county, large aquatic ecosystem, metro/micropolitan statistical area, and facility level statistics from 2015 TRI releases, including information on: number of 2015 TRI facilities in the geographic area and their releases (total, water, air, land); population information, including populations living within 1 mile of TRI facilities (total, minority, in poverty); and Risk Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model related pounds, toxicity-weighted pounds, and RSEI score. The source of administrative boundary data is the 2013 cartographic boundary shapefiles. Location of facilities is provided by EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS). Large Aquatic Ecosystems boundaries were dissolved from the hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States of America (November 2002), and updated to match the streams file created by the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) for the National Atlas of the United States of America.

  8. Patterns of transuranic uptake by aquatic organisms: consequences and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Literature on the behavior of plutonium and transuranic elements in aquatic organisms is reviewed. The commonality of observed distribution coefficients over a wide array of aquatic environments (both freshwater and marine) and the lack of biomagnification in aquatic food chains from these environments are demonstrated. These findings lead to the conclusion that physical processes dominate in the transfer of transuranic elements from aquatic environments to man. The question of the nature of the association of plutonium with aquatic biota (surface sorption vs biological incorporation) is discussed as well as the importance of short food chains in the transfer of plutonium to man

  9. Development of aquatic life criteria for triclosan and comparison of the sensitivity between native and non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Zheng-Tao; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Wei-Li; Zhou, Jun-Li; Pei, Shu-Wei

    2013-09-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent which is used as a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic and found in personal care products, and due to this it is widely spread in the aquatic environment. However, there is no paper dealing with the aquatic life criteria of TCS, mainly result from the shortage of toxicity data of different taxonomic levels. In the present study, toxicity data were obtained from 9 acute toxicity tests and 3 chronic toxicity tests using 9 Chinese native aquatic species from different taxonomic levels, and the aquatic life criteria was derived using 3 methods. Furthermore, differences of species sensitivity distributions (SSD) between native and non-native species were compared. Among the tested species, demersal fish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus was the most sensitive species, and the fishes were more sensitive than the aquatic invertebrates of Annelid and insect, and the insect was the least sensitive species. The comparison showed that there was no significant difference between SSDs constructed from native and non-native taxa. Finally, a criterion maximum concentration of 0.009 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.002 mg/L were developed based on different taxa, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of aquatic therapy on postural balance and muscle strength in stroke survivors--a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dong Koog; Lim, Jae-Young; Shin, Hyung-Ik; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of an aquatic therapy programme designed to increase balance in stroke survivors. A randomized, controlled pilot trial. Rehabilitation department of a university hospital. Ambulatory chronic stroke patients (n = 25):13 in an aquatic therapy group and 12 in a conventional therapy group. The aquatic therapy group participated in a programme consisting of Ai Chi and Halliwick methods, which focused on balance and weight-bearing exercises. The conventional therapy group performed gym exercises. In both groups, the interventions occurred for 1 hour, three times per week, for eight weeks. The primary outcome measures were Berg Balance Scale score and weight-bearing ability, as measured by vertical ground reaction force during four standing tasks (rising from a chair and weight-shifting forward, backward and laterally). Secondary measures were muscle strength and gait. Compared with the conventional therapy group, the aquatic therapy group attained significant improvements in Berg Balance Scale scores, forward and backward weight-bearing abilities of the affected limbs, and knee flexor strength (P aquatic therapy based on the Halliwick and Ai Chi methods in stroke survivors. Because of limited power and a small population base, further studies with larger sample sizes are required.

  11. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  12. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification.

  14. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    -term metabolic induction of gut denitrification is the preferential production of nitrous oxide rather than dinitrogen. These observations were made in detailed studies on the larvae of the freshwater insects Chironomus plumosus and Ephemera danica which both can be very abundant in lake and stream sediments......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...... not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further...

  15. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... management. Marineecosystems aims at understanding the mechanisms that govern the interaction between individuals,species and populations in an ecosystem enabling us to determine the stability and flexibility of theecosystem.Marine living resources looks at the sustainable utilization of fish and shellfish...... stocks.Ecosystem effects expands from the ecosystem approach to fisheries management to an integratedapproach where other human activities are taken into consideration. Fisheries management developsmethods, models and tools for predicting and evaluating the effects of management measures andregulations...

  16. Carbon 14 in the aquatic food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Fischer, E.

    1983-01-01

    In the links of the food chain consisting of water, water plants, and fish from 6 several aquatic ecosystems, the specific C-14 activity of the carbon was determined from 1979 to 1981 and compared with values of the terrestrial food chain. The mean values obtained from the specific acitivities of the links were between 203 and 321 mBq/g C (5.5 and 8.7 pCi/g C). Four of the six mean values differ from the values for the terrestrial food chain of 260 to 240 mBg/g C (7.0 to 6.5 pCi/g C) investigated for 1979 to 1980. The specific-acitivity model is valid for the aquatic food chain only if atmosphere and man are not included as chain links. (orig.) [de

  17. Effects of Outreach on the Prevention of Aquatic Invasive Species Spread among Organism-in-Trade Hobbyists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekamp, Erin; Mayer, Jessica E; Charlebois, Patrice; Hitzroth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Releases of aquatic organisms-in-trade by aquarists, water gardeners, and outdoor pond owners have been identified as aquatic invasive species vectors within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. The trademarked U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitattitude campaign was developed in 2004 to encourage self-regulation by these groups, but little is known about its effects. We surveyed organisms-in-trade hobbyists in the eight Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, USA) to assess their recognition of the Habitattitude campaign and their compliance with the campaign's recommended behaviors for organism purchase and disposal. Awareness of the Habitattitude campaign was low, but hobbyists that identified as both water gardeners and aquarium hobbyists were more aware of the campaign than individuals who participated in one of those hobbies. Engaged hobbyists (high aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) were significantly more likely than passive hobbyists (low aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) to make decisions about disposal of live organisms with the intention of preventing aquatic invasive species spread, were more likely to contact other hobbyists for disposal and handling advice, and were less likely to contact professionals, such as retailers. On the basis of our results, we suggest that compliance with recommended behaviors may be increased by fostering hobbyist networks; creating materials that both explain tangible, negative environmental impacts and list specific prevention behaviors; and disseminating these materials through trusted information sources and venues.

  18. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    1. Temperature and oxygen are recognised as the main drivers of altitudinal limits of species distributions. However, the two factors are linked, and both decrease with altitude, why their effects are difficult to disentangle. 2. This was experimentally addressed using aquatic macroinvertebrates...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits....

  19. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ferr?o-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, fe...

  20. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  1. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  2. Photosynthetic pathways of some aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, R A [Wayne State Univ., Detroit; Wetzel, R G

    1977-12-01

    Over 40 species of aquatic angiosperms, including submersed, floating and emergent types, have been examined for photosynthetic status as part of a search for possible aquatic C/sub 4/ species. The C/sub 4/ system is viewed as potentially of adaptive value in certain aquatic situations, although evidence for its occurrence there is not conclusive. Emphasis was on plants from North-temperate softwater and hardwater lakes to explore both possibilities of CO/sub 2/ limitation, i.e., low total inorganic carbon in softwater vs. low free CO/sub 2/ in hardwater lakes. On the basis of leaf cross-section anatomy, all plants examined, with one exception, clearly did not show evidence of C/sub 4/ ''Krantz anatomy.'' In the submersed plant Potamogeton praelongus Wulf, large starch-producing chloroplasts were concentrated in cells surrounding vascular bundles and in a narrow band of cells between vascular bundles. The in situ photosynthetic rate of this plant was twice that of a related species, but other evidence including PEP carboxylase content and photorespiratory response to high O/sub 2/ did not confirm the presence of the C/sub 4/ photosynthesis.

  3. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease in...

  4. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. Cellular nucleic acids were labeled in vivo by incubation with [ 3 H]thymidine or [ 3 H]adenine, and production of extracellular DNA in marine waters, artificial seawater, or minimal salts media was determined by detecting radiolabeled macromolecules in incubation filtrates. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Three of four organisms produced the greatest amounts of extracellular nucleic acids when incubated in low-salinity media (2% artificial seawater) rather than high-salinity media (10 to 50% artificial seawater). The greatest production of extracellular nucleic acids by P. cepacia occurred at pH 7 and 37 degree C, suggesting that extracellular-DNA production may be a normal physiologic function of the cell. Incubation of labeled P. cepacia cells in water from Bimini Harbor, Bahamas, resulted in labeling of macromolecules of the ambient microbial population. Collectively these results indicate that (i) extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physicochemical factors than biotic factors, (ii) extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments, and (iii) ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms

  5. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  6. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, R.

    1986-01-01

    The mining and milling of uranium in the Alligator River Region in the Northern Territory has raised the possibility that heavy metals and radionuclides might escape into the aquatic system and be accumulated by the reptilian fauna. Aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles are regularly eaten by Aboriginal people of the region, and data on diets and reproduction of these species, as well as on their dispersion and abundance, are essential before the possibility that reptiles might act as pathways for these contaminants to Aboriginals can be assessed. The objectives of this study were to provide quantitative data on the diets of filesnakes, sand goannas and water goannas, to provide information on seasonal changes in their abundance and distribution within the Magela Creek system; and to describe their reproductive cycles

  7. Decomposition dynamic of two aquatic macrophytes Trapa bispinosa Roxb. and Nelumbo nucifera detritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Feng, Deyou; Wen, Chunzi; Liu, Dan

    2018-03-29

    In freshwater ecosystems, aquatic macrophytes play significant roles in nutrient cycling. One problem in this process is nutrient loss in the tissues of untimely harvested plants. In this study, we used two aquatic species, Nelumbo nucifera and Trapa bispinosa Roxb., to investigate the decomposition dynamics and nutrient release from detritus. Litter bags containing 10 g of stems (plus petioles) and leaves for each species detritus were incubated in the pond from November 2016 to May 2017. Nine times litterbags were retrieved on days 6, 14, 25, 45, 65, 90, 125, 145, and 165 after the decomposition experiment for the monitoring of biomass loss and nutrient release. The results suggested that the dry masses of N. nucifera and T. bispinosa decomposed by 49.35-69.40 and 82.65-91.65%, respectively. The order of decomposition rate constants (k) is as follows: leaves of T. bispinosa (0.0122 day -1 ) > stems (plus petioles) of T. bispinosa (0.0090 day -1 ) > leaves of N. nucifera (0.0060 day -1 ) > stems (plus petioles) of N. nucifera (0.0030 day -1 ). Additionally, the orders of time for 50% dry mass decay, time for 95% dry mass decay, and turnover rate are as follows: leaves  0.05). In addition, the decomposition time had also significant effects on the detritus decomposition dynamic and nutrient release. However, the contributors of species and decomposition time on detritus decomposition were significantly different on the basis of their F values of two-way ANOVA results. This study can provide scientific bases for the aquatic plant scientific management in freshwater ecosystems of the East region of China.

  8. Proceedings, 15th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review, held 17-20 November 1980, Savannah, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Overview by Howard E. Westerdahl ... ............ . 240 Development of Controlled-Release Herbicide Technology Using Polymers by Frank W. Harris and... Westerdahl ...... ................... ... 496 𔃾 - .,e-7 -,- . .. .o. *’ ATTENDEES 35th ANNUAL MEETING U. S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS AQUATIC PLANT...West USAE Waterways Experiment Station P. 0. Box 631 Vicksburg, MS 39180 Howard Westerdahl USAE Waterways Experiment Station P. O. Box 631 Vicksburg

  9. Chronic dietary toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Tissue accumulation and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Niksirat, Hamid; Velíšek, Josef; Stará, Alžběta; Hradilová, Šárka; Kolařík, Jan; Panáček, Aleš; Zusková, Eliška

    2018-01-01

    Concerns regarding the potential toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic organisms are growing due to the fact that NPs may be released into aquatic ecosystems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary exposure to ZnO NPs on juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were fed a spiked diets at doses 50 and 500mg of ZnO NPs per kg of feed for 6 weeks followed by a 2-week recovery period. Fish were sampled every 2 weeks for haematology trends, blood biochemistry measures, histology analyses, and determination of the accumulation of zinc in tissues. At the end of the exposure and post-exposure periods, fish were sampled for an assessment of lipid peroxidation levels. Dietborne ZnO NPs had no effects on haematology, blood biochemistry, and lipid peroxidation levels during the exposure period. After the recovery period, aspartate aminotransferase activity significantly (p < 0.05) increased and alanine transferase activity significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the higher exposure group. The level of lipid peroxidation significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in liver of treated fish after 2 weeks post-exposure period. A histological examination revealed mild histopathological changes in kidneys during exposure. Our results did not show a significant increase of zinc content at the end of experiment in any of tested organs. However, chronic dietary exposure to ZnO NPs might affect kidney and liver function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  11. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o, closed-circuit (SMFC-c, aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c. The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the

  12. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  13. Elucidating differences in metal absorption efficiencies between terrestrial soft-bodied and aquatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Veltman, Karin; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    species, with the covalent index being the best predictor. It is hypothesized that metal absorption by soft-bodied species in soil systems is influenced by the rate of metal supply to the membrane, while in aquatic systems accumulation is solely determined by metal affinity to membrane bound transport...... proteins. Our results imply that developing predictive terrestrial bioaccumulation and toxicity models for metals must consider metal interactions with soil solids. This may include desorption of a cation bound to soil solids through ion exchange, or metal release from soil surfaces involving breaking...

  14. A multicenter, primary-care-based, open-label study to assess the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain to morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules using a standardized conversion guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Pixton, Glenn C; Berke, Robert; Calkins, Anne; Goli, Veeraindar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the conversion of opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain to extended-release morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride (MSN) using a standardized conversion guide. This open-label, single-arm study was conducted in 157 primary care centers in the United States. A total of 684 opioid-experienced adults with chronic moderate-to-severe pain were converted to oral administration of MSN from transdermal fentanyl and oral formulations of hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and other morphine products using a standardized conversion guide. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving a stable MSN dose within a 6-week titration phase. Secondary endpoints included duration of time to stable dose, number of titration steps, safety and efficacy measures, and investigator assessment of conversion guide utility. Of the 684 patients, 51.3% were converted to a stable dose of MSN (95% confidence interval: 47.5%, 55.1%). The mean (standard deviation) number of days to stable dose was 20 (8.94), and number of titration steps to stable dose was 2.4 (1.37). The majority of adverse events were mild/moderate and consistent with opioid therapy. Mean pain scores at stable dose decreased from baseline. Investigators were generally satisfied with the conversion guide and, in 94% of cases, reported they would use it again. Conversion to MSN treatment using the standardized MSN conversion guide was an attainable goal in approximately half of the population of opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain. Investigators found the guide to be a useful tool to assist conversion of opioid-experienced patients to MSN.

  15. Research of nickel nanoparticles toxicity with use of Aquatic Organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgaleva, T; Morgalev, Yu; Gosteva, I; Morgalev, S

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nanoparticles with the particle size Δ 50 =5 nm on the test function of aquatic organisms was analyzed by means of biotesting methods with the use of a complex of test-organisms representing general trophic levels. The dependence of an infusoria Paramecium caudatum chemoattractant-elicited response, unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer growth rate, Daphnia magna Straus mortality and trophic activity and Danio rerio fish kill due to nNi disperse system concentration, is estimated. It is determined that the release of chlorella into cultivated environment including nNi as a feed for daphnias raises the death rate of entomostracans. The minimal concentration, whereby an organism response to the effect of nNi is registered, depends on the type of test organism and the analysed test function. L(E)C 20 is determined for all the organisms used in bioassays. L(E)C 50 is estimated for Paramecium caudatum (L(E)C 50 = 0.0049 mg/l), for Chlorella vulgaris Beijer (L(E)C 50 = 0.529 mg/l), for Daphnia m. S (L(E)C 50 > 100 mg/l) and for fish Danio rerio (L(E)C 50 > 100 mg/l). According to the Globally Harmonized System hazard substance evaluation criteria and Commission Directive 93/67/EEC, nNi belongs to the “acute toxicity 1” category of toxic substances. (paper)

  16. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  17. Tritium in the aquatic environment and the associated risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tort, V.; Lefaure, C.; Linden, G.; Herbelet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Tritium, which is naturally present in the environment under tritiated water form, participates to the global water cycle. Today, nuclear fuel cycle facilities represent the main source of man-made tritium. The civilian production is estimated to be about 2 x 10 4 TBq/y, corresponding to a third of the natural production. Due to the fact that tritium releases are very local, concentrations in water higher than natural background (of 0.1 to 0.9 Bq/l for surface waters) are observed around these sites. Measurements in French aquatic environment reveal tritium concentration generally below 10 Bq/1 for underground waters and below 20 Bq/l for rivers. Nevertheless, some ground waters and some rivers presents locally a concentration up to a few hundreds of Bq/l. Moreover, measurements performed in France are generally coherent with monitoring in other European countries. Furthermore, the associated radiological impact for a potential individual taking all this water needs from a 100 Bq/l tritiated water source, was evaluated to about one thousandth of the natural background. (authors)

  18. Research of nickel nanoparticles toxicity with use of Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, Yu; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of nanoparticles with the particle size Δ50=5 nm on the test function of aquatic organisms was analyzed by means of biotesting methods with the use of a complex of test-organisms representing general trophic levels. The dependence of an infusoria Paramecium caudatum chemoattractant-elicited response, unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer growth rate, Daphnia magna Straus mortality and trophic activity and Danio rerio fish kill due to nNi disperse system concentration, is estimated. It is determined that the release of chlorella into cultivated environment including nNi as a feed for daphnias raises the death rate of entomostracans. The minimal concentration, whereby an organism response to the effect of nNi is registered, depends on the type of test organism and the analysed test function. L(E)C20 is determined for all the organisms used in bioassays. L(E)C50 is estimated for Paramecium caudatum (L(E)C50 = 0.0049 mg/l), for Chlorella vulgaris Beijer (L(E)C50 = 0.529 mg/l), for Daphnia m. S (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l) and for fish Danio rerio (L(E)C50 > 100 mg/l). According to the Globally Harmonized System hazard substance evaluation criteria and Commission Directive 93/67/EEC, nNi belongs to the “acute toxicity 1” category of toxic substances.

  19. Aquatic environmental risk assessment for human use of the old antibiotic sulfamethoxazole in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an old sulfonamide antibiotic that was launched first in combination with trimethoprim in 1969 by F.Hoffmann-La Roche. Although sales figures for SMX have been declining over the past 20 yr, the compound is still widely used; moreover, many measured environmental concentrations (MECs) are available from Europe, the United States, Asia, Australia, and Africa. To assess aquatic risks of SMX in Europe, the exposure of European surface waters was predicted based on actual sales figures from IMS Health, incorporating environmental fate data on one side, and based on collated MECs representing more than 5500 single measurements in Europe on the other. Environmental effects were assessed using chronic and subchronic ecotoxicity data for 16 groups of aquatic organisms, from periphyton communities to cyanobacteria, algae, higher plants, various invertebrates, and vertebrates. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived using both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC)/PNEC and MEC/PNEC comparisons overall showed no appreciable risk, except in a low incidence (risk characterization ratios greater than 1. The PNECs derived in the present study can be used to extend aquatic environmental risk assessment for SMX to other continents. No risk appears for indirect human exposure to SMX via the environment. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the improvement of balance and corporal symmetry in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Jéssica Cristine; Santos, Bárbara C; Battistuzzo, Camila R; Loureiro, Ana Paula C

    2014-01-01

    One of the main problems associate with hemiparesis after stroke is the decrease in balance during static and dynamic postures which can highly affect daily life activities. To assess the effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the balance and quality of life (SS-QoL) of people with pos stroke. Chronic stroke participants received at total 18 individual sessions of aquatic physiotherapy using the principle of Halliwick (2x of 40 minutes per week). The outcomes measured were: Berg Balance scale, Timed up & go test (TUG), Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL) and baropodometric analysis. These assessment were performed before and one week after intervention. Fifteen participants were included in this study. The mean age was 58.5 and 54% was male. After intervention, participants had a significant improvement on their static balance measured by Berg Balance scale and TUG. Dynamic balance had a significant trend of improvement in mediolateral domain with eyes closed and during sit-to-stand. The mobility domain of the SS-QoL questionnaire was significant higher after intervention. Our results suggest that aquatic physiotherapy using the method of Halliwick can be a useful tool during stroke rehabilitation to improve balance. However, this improvement may not have significant impact of their quality of life.

  1. Bioindication in natural-like aquatic ecosystems: endocrine disruptors in outdoor microcosms. Status-report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Severin, G.F.

    2002-07-01

    Over the past few decades scientists have shown that the hormone system of a wide range of organisms can be affected by numerous environmental chemicals. Society strongly demands studies about the fate and effects of such endocrine disruptors on the aquatic environment. It has been scientifically accepted that risk assessment studies done in aquatic microcosms can be used to extrapolate the potential impact of the tested compound on natural ecosystems. Realistic exposure situations were simulated and screening methods as well as analytical methods with high accuracy were applied on water and sediment. For the comprehensive risk assessment as many trophic levels as possible have to be investigated. Changes in the population dynamics and the community structure serve as ecotoxicological endpoints. Modelling the concentrations of the chemicals in the different aquatic compartments complements and confirms the analytical diagnostics. A directed design of the analytical procedures according to amount of sample and limits of determination becomes possible. Bridging acute and chronic time scales in effect diagnostics the 'area under the curve' - approach has been followed in combination with multivariate statistics. Haber's rule have been applied to the results about complex effect- and exposure-conditions. In some cases the interpretation of results becomes more easy and clear by this approach. (orig.)

  2. Abstracts of the 31. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, L.E.; Haya, K.; Niimi, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for an informal exchange of recent research information and knowledge on aquatic and environmental toxicology. Topics ranged from basic aquatic toxicology to applications in environmental monitoring, setting regulations and developing criteria for sediment and water quality. The workshops were attended by representatives from industry, governments and universities. The current challenges and approaches to deal with aquatic toxicology and their biological effect on aquatic biota were discussed. The sessions were entitled as follows: environmental effects monitoring; pesticides; ecological risk assessment; sediment disposal at sea; oil and gas; pharmaceuticals; artifactual toxicity in municipal waste water; sediment and soil toxicity; contaminants in aquatic systems; biological effects; and discoveries in aquatic sciences. The conference included 4 plenary sessions and 119 platform papers, of which 24 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  4. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D J

    2013-07-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any

  5. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérandour, Julien; Reynaud, Stéphane; Willison, John; Patouraux, Joëlle; Gaude, Thierry; Ravanel, Patrick; Lempérière, Guy; Raveton, Muriel

    2008-10-08

    Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine) were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  6. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  7. Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R

    2002-08-01

    Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation.

  8. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  9. The oldest record of aquatic amniote congenital scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szczygielski

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Paraná state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These observations give insight into the biomechanical aspects of underwater locomotion in an axial skeleton-compromised aquatic amniote. This is the oldest record of a hemivertebra in an aquatic animal.

  10. Movement and fate of mercury in an aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, A.P.; Nulman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Studies have been initiated of the behaviour and distribution of industrial mercury residues in the aquatic ecosystem represented by the Coatzacoalcos river estuary of Mexico. Mercury concentrations were determined in samples of water, river sediments, aquatic animals, aquatic and river-bank vegetation, local food products and in the hair of local inhabitants. Determinations were made by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry and concentrations greater than 50 ppm were found in some samples of bottom muds. (author)

  11. Aquatic animal telemetry: A panoramic window into the underwater world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussey, Nigel E.; Kessel, Steven T.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and interactions of aquatic organisms across space and time structure our marine, freshwater, and estuarine ecosystems. Over the past decade, technological advances in telemetry have transformed our ability to observe aquatic animal behavior and movement. These advances are now p...... individuals, populations, and entire ecosystems. The next advance in aquatic telemetry will be the development of a global collaborative effort to facilitate infrastructure and data sharing and management over scales not previously possible....

  12. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhainsa, K.C.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  13. Aquatic Exercise and Thermoregulation in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultanakis, Helen N

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic exercise, in a general sense, is any type of movement performed in the water for the purpose of improving health and fitness. Water, with its properties, provides buoyancy to lighten the "load" of pregnancy, hydrostatic pressure to alleviate pregnancy-induced edema, and many other benefits. Sports in extreme temperatures may involve some risks. The fact that a person's conductivity increases about 25 times in water comes with a great loss, which is the depression of the evaporative mechanism. Altered thermal control mechanisms in water, both in the gravid and the nongravid state, will be addressed in this review. convenience.

  14. Monitoring aquatic environments with autonomous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard

    High frequency measurements from autonomous sensors have become a widely used tool among aquatic scientists. This report focus primarily on the use of ecosystem metabolism based on high frequency oxygen measurements and relates the calculations to spatial variation, biomass of the primary producers...... and in shallow systems the macrophytes can completely dominate primary production. This was despite the fact that the plants in the studied system were light-saturated most of the light hours and occasionally carbon limited. It was also shown that the GPP and the total phytoplankton biomass in a nutrient...

  15. Microscale Canopy Interactions in Aquatic Phototrophs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenberg, Mads

    . This was investigated in a range of aquatic phototrophs such as macroalgae, reef-building corals, and photosynthetic biofilms. As a first step, we demonstrate that a microscale stratification of the internal light- and chemical environment exists across the investigated systems, with concomitant internal gradients...... of photosynthesis and respiration. We further investigate this by compiling a closed radiative energy budget of a coral and find that corals are highly efficient light collectors that can display photosynthetic quantum efficiencies close to the theoretical limit. Using a similar approach, we then investigate i) how...

  16. Correlations in metal release profiles following sorption by Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçüncü Tunca, Esra; Ölmez, Tolga T; Özkan, Alper D; Altındağ, Ahmet; Tunca, Evren; Tekinay, Turgay

    2016-08-02

    Following the rapid uptake of contaminants in the first few hours of exposure, plants typically attempt to cope with the toxic burden by releasing part of the sorbed material back into the environment. The present study investigates the general trends in the release profiles of different metal(loid)s in the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor and details the correlations that exist between the release of metal(loid) species. Water samples with distinct contamination profiles were taken from Nilüfer River (Bursa, Turkey), Yeniçağa Lake (Bolu, Turkey), and Beyşehir Lake (Konya, Turkey) and used for release studies; 36 samples were tested in total. Accumulation and release profiles were monitored over five days for 11 metals and a metalloid ((208)Pb, (111)Cd, (52)Cr,(53)Cr,(60)Ni,(63)Cu,(65)Cu,(75)As,(55)Mn, (137)Ba, (27)Al, (57)Fe, (66)Zn,(68)Zn) and correlation, cluster and principal component analyses were employed to determine the factors that affect the release of these elements. Release profiles of the tested metal(loid)s were largely observed to be distinct; however, strong correlations have been observed between certain metal pairs (Cr/Ni, Cr/Cu, Zn/Ni) and principal component analysis was able to separate the metal(loid)s into three well-resolved groups based on their release.

  17. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Chronic >0.5 Daphnia Repeat exposure Chronic >0.2 reproduction 0 NOTE; Fluridone was not found to cause genetic mutations or cancer in tested lab...persists. REGISTERED HERBICIDES 95 REGISTERED HERBICIDES GLYPHOSATE A. Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine Formulation...RODEO (53.5% ai, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate , liquid) B. Mode of Action: Not definite. However, investigators have postulated that

  18. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  19. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Toda, Hideshige

    2011-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ 15 N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ 15 N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ 15 N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ 15 N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  20. Migratory Waterfowl Habitat Selection in Relation to Aquatic Vegetation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, Gary

    2004-01-01

    This technical note describes studies of environmental conditions and habitat quality of replicated pond ecosystems dominated by populations of exotic plants or mixed communities of native aquatic plants...

  1. Are Aquatic Viruses a Biological Archive of Genetic Information from Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toparceanu, F.; Negoita, Gh. T.; Nita, I. I.; Sava, D.

    2009-04-01

    After 1990, when the viruses were admited as the most abundant lifeforms from aquatic environments, it became obvious that viral lysis had an essential role on release and recycling of nutrients. Studies on cellular cultures and modeling suggest that this is an important quantitative process. The viruses from oceans represent the widest source of genetic diversity on the Earth, uncharacterized yet. The ancient lifeforms records stretching back a million years are locked in ice caps. The trend of glaciers melting as effect of actual climate change will promote the release of ancient viruses from ice caps. The increasing of the freshwater layer led to the replace of some algae species by others. Law-Racovitza Station (69o23'S 76o23'E) from East Antarctica (Larsemann Hills Oasis) offers opportunities to study the Antarctic marine ecosystem, as well as archaic aquatic ecosystems from this area ( 150 lakes and waterways resulted from ice and snow melting during the austral summer). According to Law-Racovitza Station Scientific Program, we are performing studies regarding the effect of climate changes on virus-algae host relationship in these aquatic ecosystems. Phycodnaviruses, that infect the eukaryote algae, are comprised of ancient genes and they are considered a "peek" of genetic diversity useful in biological studies and exobiology regarding the evolution of genetic sequencing. The latest discoveries of the giant aquatic viruses open the unexpected perspectives for understanding the role of viral infection in global ecosystem; beyond the old concept which considered that the viruses were only etiological agents of human, animals and plants illnesses. The aquatic viruses which infect microalgae contain similar genes of other viruses, bacteria, arhebacteria and eukaryotes, all of them being on the same genome. Which is the signification of enormous abundance of viruses and excessive diversity of genetic information encoded by viruses? There is the possibility that

  2. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: sorogero@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1} and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1}. In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L{sup -1} and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L{sup -1} respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination of aquatic organisms of the Yenisei river in the area affected by the activity of a Russian plutonium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Sukovaty, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Yenisei River, one of the world's largest rivers, is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by a Russian facility producing weapons-grade plutonium, which has been in operation for many years. The aim of the study conducted between 1997 and 2003 was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides by aquatic organisms of the Yenisei River and to estimate the exposure dose rates to organisms from various sources. The aquatic plants sampled were of three species: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Ceratophyllum demersum. The gamma-spectrometric and radiochemical analysis of the samples of aquatic plants for artificial radionuclides has revealed more than 20 long-lived and short-lived radionuclides, including plutonium isotopes. The aquatic animal Phylolimnogammarus viridis and diatoms also contain artificial radionuclides. For most aquatic organisms under study, the dose received from the artificial irradiation is an order of magnitude higher than the dose received from natural irradiation. As Fontinalis antipyretica features the highest capacity to accumulate artificial radionuclides, it accumulates the largest artificial exposure does among the study aquatic organisms (up to 39 μGy/day)

  5. Aquatic ecotoxicology: what has been accomplished and what lies ahead? An Eastern Canada historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Blaise

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent history shows that degradation of aquatic ecosystems essentially stems from industrialization, urbanization and increasing human populations. After a first industrial boom in the late 19th century, contamination pressures on receiving waters now appear to be continual because of expanding economies and technologies developing at the planetary scale. Given the diversity of issues, problems and challenges facing water quality today because of complex waste and chemical discharges into waterways, aquatic ecotoxicology has blossomed with time into a more mature discipline of the environmental sciences. Its two fundamental pillars, bioassays and biomarkers, have become essential tools that allow the determination of numerous and versatile effects measurements. Herein, we demonstrate some of the ways in which thesetools have been applied and how they have evolved over the past decades to appraise the ecotoxicity of contaminants impacting aquatic systems. Examples discussed are largely reflective of work conducted in the Environment Canada (EC laboratories (Saint-Lawrence Centre, Montréal, Canada. Success stories include improvement of industrial effluent quality contributing to beluga whale population recovery in the Saint-Lawrence River, biomarker field studies conducted with endemic and caged bivalves to more fully comprehend urban effluent adverse effects, and increased discernment on the hazard potential posed by emerging classes of chemicals. Ecotoxicology continues to be confronted with diverse issues and needs related to a myriad of chemical contaminants released to aquatic environments worldwide. To cope with these, ecotoxicology will have to bank on new tools (e.g., toxicogenomics, bio-informatics, modelingand become more interdisciplinary by taking into account knowledge provided by other disciplines (e.g., ecology, chemistry, climatology, microbiology in order to more fully understand and adequately interpret hazard. This will

  6. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-04-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC{sub 50} and 96-h LC{sub 50} values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China.

  7. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  8. Predicting Hydrologic Function With Aquatic Gene Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, S. P.; URycki, D. R.; Crump, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    Recent advances in microbiology techniques, such as genetic sequencing, allow for rapid and cost-effective collection of large quantities of genetic information carried within water samples. Here we posit that the unique composition of aquatic DNA material within a water sample contains relevant information about hydrologic function at multiple temporal scales. In this study, machine learning was used to develop discharge prediction models trained on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa classified into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from six large arctic rivers. We term this approach "genohydrology," and show that OTU relative abundances can be used to predict river discharge at monthly and longer timescales. Based on a single DNA sample from each river, the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) for predicted mean monthly discharge values throughout the year was 0.84, while the NSE for predicted discharge values across different return intervals was 0.67. These are considerable improvements over predictions based only on the area-scaled mean specific discharge of five similar rivers, which had average NSE values of 0.64 and -0.32 for seasonal and recurrence interval discharge values, respectively. The genohydrology approach demonstrates that genetic diversity within the aquatic microbiome is a large and underutilized data resource with benefits for prediction of hydrologic function.

  9. On the rules for aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, M.; Fish, F. E.; Domel, A. G.; Di Santo, V.; Lauder, G. V.; Haj-Hariri, H.

    2017-08-01

    We present unifying rules governing the efficient locomotion of swimming fish and marine mammals. Using scaling and dimensional analysis, supported by new experimental data, we show that efficient locomotion occurs when the values of the Strouhal (St) number St (=f A /U ) and A*(=A /L ) , two nondimensional numbers that relate forward speed U , tail-beat amplitude A , tail-beat frequency f , and the length of the swimmer L are bound to the tight ranges of 0.2-0.4 and 0.1-0.3, respectively. The tight range of 0.2-0.4 for the St number has previously been associated with optimal thrust generation. We show that the St number alone is insufficient to achieve optimal aquatic locomotion, and an additional condition on A* is needed. More importantly, we show that when swimming at minimal power consumption, the Strouhal number of a cruising swimmer is predetermined solely by the shape and drag characteristics of the swimmer. We show that diverse species of fish and cetaceans cruise indeed with the St number and A* predicted by our theory. Our findings provide a physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with a relatively constant tail-beat amplitude of approximately 20% of the body length, and their swimming speed is nearly proportional to their tail-beat frequency.

  10. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  11. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  12. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C

    2004-01-01

    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  13. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  14. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  15. Subject-3: Study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Ueno, T.; Nagao, S.; Yanase, N.; Tkachenko, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Subject-3 has been focused on the migration behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial surface environment, especially in connection with their chemical and physical forms. Migration behavior of radionuclides is strongly affected with their chemical and physical forms (for example; Gunten and Benes 1995). One of the two categories in Subject-3 consists of migration from surface soils including aging effects of hot particles, plant uptake from contaminated soils, and resuspension of radionuclides. The other is run off by river system, considering the role of organic materials. (author)

  16. Environmental impact of engineered carbon nanoparticles: from releases to effects on the aquatic biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Antoine; Mouchet, Florence; Pinelli, Éric; Gauthier, Laury; Flahaut, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Nano-ecotoxicology is an emerging science which aims to assess the environmental effect of nanotechnologies. The development of this particular aspect of ecotoxicology was made necessary in order to evaluate the potential impact of recently produced and used materials: nanoparticles (NPs). Among all the types of NPs, carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) especially draw attention giving the increasing number of applications and integration into consumer products. However the potential impacts of CNPs in the environment remain poorly known. This review aims to point out the critical issues and aspects that will govern the toxicity of CNPs in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subject-3: Study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Ueno, T.; Nagao, S.; Yanase, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Arkhipov, A.N. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center for International Research (Ukraine); Tkachenko, Yu. [The State Enterprise Regional Monitoring and Domestic Control (RADEC) (Unknown)

    2001-03-01

    Subject-3 has been focused on the migration behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial surface environment, especially in connection with their chemical and physical forms. Migration behavior of radionuclides is strongly affected with their chemical and physical forms (for example; Gunten and Benes 1995). One of the two categories in Subject-3 consists of migration from surface soils including aging effects of hot particles, plant uptake from contaminated soils, and resuspension of radionuclides. The other is run off by river system, considering the role of organic materials. (author)

  18. Release, transport and fate of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Besides many benefits, nanotechnology brings us a new type of contaminant to worry about: nanoparticles - particles smaller than 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in medical textile, because they kill bacteria. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles are used as UV filters in sunscreens,

  19. Radiological impact evaluation on the aquatic ecosystems surrounding IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa F.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Bellintani, Sandra A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to control the discharge of radioactive materials into the aquatic system surrounding IPEN-CNEN/SP, an monitoring program has been carried out on a routine basis. All the liquid effluent generated by the IPEN facilities are released into the Pinheiros river at two different discharge points located 2 km apart. In the present paper the source term measured during the period 1985 to 1984 is presented, as well as the effective equivalent dose received by public individuals for each critical pathway. These results showed that the total activity released into the Pinheiros river is just a small fraction of the receiving capacity of the environment. The estimated annual doses during the period of study were always below 1/10 of the primary limit for the public individual as established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, which is 1 mSv/year. (author)

  20. Distribution of quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines in aquatic environment and antibiotic resistance in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: 1 quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; 2 occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and 3 microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance.

  1. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area

  2. Ash characteristics and plant nutrients in some aquatic biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; Pandit, Ankita; George, Joshy; Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Selvi, Vetrivel; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic biomasses are explored as potential fuel source for direct combustion because of their faster growth and no land requirement. The energy density and the ash characteristics of the aquatic biomasses are to be evaluated for their suitability for energy extraction. In the study, four aquatic plant samples namely Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticilleta, Lemna minor, Spirogyra spp were collected from a pond in Digwadih Campus of Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. The biomasses were air dried, powdered and ashed at different temperatures. Volatile C was relatively lower in Spirogyra and Hydrilla (53 %) than Eichornia (62.6 %) or Lemna (59.7 %), whereas fixed C was higher for Eichornia and Lemna (about 10 %) and lower for Hydrilla (1 %). Ultimate analysis showed that the carbon content was in the order Eichornia > Lemna > Spirogyra > Hydrilla. The IR spectra of each raw biomass is compared to their respective ashes obtained at different temperatures (500-900°C). With increase in ashing temperature from 500-900°C there is gradual breakdown of the cellulosic structure hence, peaks around 2900-2800cm-1 caused by aliphatic C-H vibration tends to disappear slowly in ash. More number of peaks appears at lower wavenumbers in ashes of all the biomass samples indicating towards increased percentage of inorganic ion species. Considerable enrichment of SiO2 is validated with prominent peaks at 1100-900 cm-1 in all the ashes. Lemna and Spirogyra has a similar ash composition (Si > Al > Ca > K), whereas, Ca was higher in Hydrilla (Si > Ca > K > Al). Eichornia (Si > K > Ca > Al) has higher K and Ca than Al. SiO2 and Al2O3 were higher in Spirogyra, while SiO2 and CaO in Eichornia and Hydrilla. K first increased from 500-700/800⁰C, and then decreased from 800-900⁰C. Cl is lost slowly in ash from 500-700/800⁰C and then by a drastic reduction from 800-900⁰C. S is enhanced in ash at all temperatures although the change is quite small. Most of the Cl

  3. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  4. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A classification system is described that was developed for inland aquatic ecosystems in South Africa, including wetlands. The six-tiered classification system is based on a top-down, hierarchical classification of aquatic ecosystems, following the functionally-oriented hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach to classification but ...

  5. Pieter Hendrik Nienhuis: aquatic ecologist and environmental scientist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, R.S.E.W.; van den Heuvel, P.J.; van Katwijk, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; van der Velde, G.; Ragas, A.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Pieter Hendrik (Piet) Nienhuis worked for almost 40 years in all aspects of aquatic ecology and environmental science and retired on 31 October 2003. He can be characterised as a distinguished scientist, shaped in an applied estuarine and aquatic research ambience of the former Delta

  6. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  7. Fish Diversity in Relation to Aquatic Macrophytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of fish diversity in relation to aquatic macrophytes and physicochemical parameters of Ona Lake in Asaba was carried out within a period of eighteen months. Fish samples were collected fortnightly from three sampling sites using cast, gill and trigger nets. Aquatic macrophytes found in close association with ...

  8. Environmental study of some metals on several aquatic macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macrophytes can be used in the study of quality of water ecosystems and in monitoring of metals and other pollutants. This study was focused on assessment of metals accumulation in certain aquatic macrophytes (biomonitors), in comparison with water and sediment (abiotic monitors) of the lake. Concentrations of ...

  9. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes develop in a variety of aquatic habitats and feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to agricultural chemicals. We used a microcosm approach to examine ...

  10. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  11. Aquatic worms eating waste sludge in a continuous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic worms are a biological approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced at waste water treatment plants. A new reactor concept was recently introduced in which the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is immobilised in a carrier material. The current paper describes

  12. Trace Elements Concentrations in Water and Aquatic Biota from Ase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    pollution of the Ase-creek. Metal concentrations in the fish species and aquatic plants in this study .... analysis of water, fishes and aquatic plants samples from Ase-Creek in the Niger .... Speciation in the Environment. Blackie A and P, New.

  13. DNA barcodes for assessment of the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality regulations and aquatic ecosystem monitoring increasingly rely on direct assessments of biological integrity. Because these aquatic “bioassessments” evaluate the incidence and abundance of sensitive aquatic species, they are able to measure cumulative ecosystem eff...

  14. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of four frequently used UV filter substances for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Kaiser, Dominic; Behr, Maximilian; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of growing public concern about UV radiation effects on human health chemical and physical UV filters are increasingly used in personal care and other products. The release of these lipophilic and often persistent compounds into surface waters may pose a risk for aquatic organisms. The aim of the study was to determine effects of four frequently used UV filters on primary aquatic producers and consumers, the green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Exposure to benzophenone 3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) and 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC) resulted in growth inhibition of D. subspicatus with 72 h IC(10) values of 0.56 mg/L (BP 3), 0.24 mg/L (EHMC), 0.27 mg/L (3-BC) and 0.21 mg/L (4-MBC). EC(50) concentrations in the acute test with D. magna were 1.67, 0.57, 3.61 and 0.80 mg/L for BP3, EHMC, 3-BC and 4-MBC, respectively. Chronic exposure of D. magna resulted in NOECs of 0.04 mg/L (EHMC) and 0.1 mg/L (3-BC and 4-MBC). BP 3 showed no effects on neonate production or the length of adults. Rapid dissipation of these substances from the water phase was observed indicating the need for more frequent test medium renewal in chronic tests or the use of flow-through test systems.

  16. The involvement of metallothionein in the development of aquatic invertebrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Huan; Wang Dahui; Yang Wanxi

    2012-01-01

    The many documents on metallothioneins (MTs) in aquatic organisms focus especially on their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs, but there are a few papers that summarize the physiological role of MTs in aquatic organisms especially in their development. The multifaceted role of MTs include involvement in homeostasis, protection against heavy metals and oxidant damage, metabolic regulation, sequestration and/or redox control. MTs could be induced by heavy metals which are able to hinder gametogenesis, suppress embryogenesis, and hamper development. Here we pay more attention on the non-essential metal cadmium, which is the most studied heavy metal regarding MTs, and its effects on the development of aquatic invertebrates. In this paper, we have collected published information on MTs in aquatic organisms – mollusks, crustaceans, etc., and summarize its functions in aquatic invertebrates, especially those related to their development.

  17. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The applications of this assay suggest that it is a useful assay to assess aquatic genotoxicants. However, there are some factors, which should be taken into account when using this assay as aquatic ecotoxicological assessment device such as inter-animal and cell variability.

  18. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem modellers we...... aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv...

  19. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ. Pott

    Full Text Available This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz Morrone & Zuloaga.

  20. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  1. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  2. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  3. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  4. Monitoring aquatic environments with autonomous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Philip Aagaard

    High frequency measurements from autonomous sensors have become a widely used tool among aquatic scientists. This report focus primarily on the use of ecosystem metabolism based on high frequency oxygen measurements and relates the calculations to spatial variation, biomass of the primary producers...... and environmental variables. The results can be formulated in three main conclusions. 1) Primary production and respiration in stratified lakes are not evenly distributed in the water column. Generally you can expect the net production to decreases with depth as gross primary production (GPP) decreases with depth......, unless it is a very clear lake, while respiration is relatively stable. Metabolism estimates based on data from the epilimnion will only represent a minor proportion of the whole lake metabolism under conditions of strong stratification and high water transparency. At a low depth of the upper mixed layer...

  5. Mechanical performance of aquatic rowing and flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J A; Westneat, M W

    2000-09-22

    Aquatic flight, performed by rowing or flapping fins, wings or limbs, is a primary locomotor mechanism for many animals. We used a computer simulation to compare the mechanical performance of rowing and flapping appendages across a range of speeds. Flapping appendages proved to be more mechanically efficient than rowing appendages at all swimming speeds, suggesting that animals that frequently engage in locomotor behaviours that require energy conservation should employ a flapping stroke. The lower efficiency of rowing appendages across all speeds begs the question of why rowing occurs at all. One answer lies in the ability of rowing fins to generate more thrust than flapping fins during the power stroke. Large forces are necessary for manoeuvring behaviours such as accelerations, turning and braking, which suggests that rowing should be found in slow-swimming animals that frequently manoeuvre. The predictions of the model are supported by observed patterns of behavioural variation among rowing and flapping vertebrates.

  6. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance evaluation on aquatic product cold-chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The requirements for high quality and diversification aquatic products are increasing with the improvement of Chinese living standard. However, the distribution between place of production and place of consumption are uneven, which results in large cold-chain logistics demand for aquatic products. At present, the low-level development of cold chain logistics has a bad impact on the circulation of aquatic products in China. So it is very urgent to develop cold-chain logistics in China. Design/methodology/approach: In order to do this, we apply performance evaluation, a well-known management tool, to study Chinese aquatic product cold-chain logistics. In this paper we first propose SISP(Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model(Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation. Then an ANP-Fuzzy method is proposed to evaluate the operational performance of Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. Furthermore, a system dynamic model is built to simulate the impact of temperature on the profits in aquatic products cold-chain sales section. Findings: We find out within a reasonable temperature range, lower temperature brings higher profit level. Also, performance improvement methods are proposed and the simulation of performance evaluation system is developed. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the level of aquatic product cold-chain logistics in China. Originality/value: The paper proposes the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model (Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation.

  8. The effect of aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Lidija; Aleksandrović, Marko; Madić, Dejan; Okičić, Tomislav; Radovanović, Dragan; Daly, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an aquatic intervention on the gross motor function and aquatic skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-nine children with CP, aged 5 to 14, were recruited. Fourteen children completed an aquatic intervention (EG), and 13 children served as controls (CG). Two participants dropped out due to events (illness) unrelated to the intervention. The aquatic intervention lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions per week at 55 minutes per session) with a follow-up period of 3 weeks. The outcome measures were the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) for motor function and the Water Orientation Test Alyn 2 (WOTA 2) for aquatic skills assessment. A significant improvement was observed in the secondary assessment of GMFM and WOTA 2. In contrast to the aquatic skills improvement, the GMFM change was not maintained at follow-up. Our results indicate that children with CP can improve gross motor function on dry land and aquatic skills with a 6-week water intervention. The intervention period was too short for sustainable improvement in dry-land motor skills after intervention (follow-up), but time was sufficient to achieve sustainable improvements in aquatic skills.

  9. Models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2005-01-01

    The document describes generic models for environmental impact assessments of releases of radioactive substances from CERN facilities. Except for few models developed in the Safety Commission, the models are based on the 1997 Swiss directive HSK-R-41 and on the 2001 IAEA Safety Report No. 19. The writing style is descriptive, facilitating the practical implementation of the models at CERN. There are four scenarios assumed for airborne releases: (1) short-term releases for release limit calculations, (2) actual short-term releases, (3) short-term releases during incidents/accidents, and (4) chronic long-term releases during the normal operation of a facility. For water releases, two scenarios are considered: (1) a release into a river, and (2) a release into a water treatment plant. The document shall be understood as a reference for specific environmental studies involving radioactive releases and as a recommendation of the Safety Commission.

  10. Dose apportionment using statistical modeling of the effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are always operated under the guidelines stipulated by the regulatory body. These guidelines basically contain the technical specifications of the specific power plant and provide the knowledge of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluent into the environment through atmospheric and aquatic route. However, operational constraints sometimes may violate the technical specification due to which there may be a failure to satisfy the stipulated dose apportioned to that plant. In a site having multi facilities sum total of the dose apportioned to all the facilities should be constrained to 1 mSv/year to the members of the public. Dose apportionment scheme basically stipulates the limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent released into the environment. Existing methodology of dose apportionment is subjective in nature that may result the discharge limit of the effluent in atmospheric and aquatic route in an adhoc manner. Appropriate scientific basis for dose apportionment is always preferable rather than judicial basis from the point of harmonization of establishing the dose apportionment. This paper presents an attempt of establishing the discharge limit of the gaseous and liquid effluent first on the basis of the existing value of the release of the same. Existing release data for a few years (for example 10 years) for any nuclear power station have taken into consideration. Bootstrap, a resampling technique, has been adopted on this data sets to generate the population which subsequently provide the corresponding population distribution of the effluent release. Cumulative distribution of the population distribution obtained is constructed and using this cumulative distribution, 95th percentile (upper bound) of the discharge limit of the radioactive effluents is computed. Dose apportioned for a facility is evaluated using this estimated upper bound of the release limit. Paper describes the detail of the bootstrap method in evaluating the

  11. A multicenter, primary-care-based, open-label study to assess the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain to morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules using a standardized conversion guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setnik B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Setnik,1 Carl L Roland,1 Kenneth W Sommerville,1,2 Glenn C Pixton,1 Robert Berke,3,4 Anne Calkins,5 Veeraindar Goli1,2 1Pfizer Inc, 2Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3Family Health Medical Services PLLC, Mayville, 4Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, 5New York Spine & Wellness Center, Syracuse, NY, USA Objective: To evaluate the conversion of opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain to extended-release morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride (MSN using a standardized conversion guide. Methods: This open-label, single-arm study was conducted in 157 primary care centers in the United States. A total of 684 opioid-experienced adults with chronic moderate-to-severe pain were converted to oral administration of MSN from transdermal fentanyl and oral formulations of hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and other morphine products using a standardized conversion guide. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving a stable MSN dose within a 6-week titration phase. Secondary endpoints included duration of time to stable dose, number of titration steps, safety and efficacy measures, and investigator assessment of conversion guide utility. Results: Of the 684 patients, 51.3% were converted to a stable dose of MSN (95% confidence interval: 47.5%, 55.1%. The mean (standard deviation number of days to stable dose was 20 (8.94, and number of titration steps to stable dose was 2.4 (1.37. The majority of adverse events were mild/moderate and consistent with opioid therapy. Mean pain scores at stable dose decreased from baseline. Investigators were generally satisfied with the conversion guide and, in 94% of cases, reported they would use it again. Conclusion: Conversion to MSN treatment using the standardized MSN conversion guide was an attainable goal in approximately half of the population of

  12. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom

    2004-01-01

    set of physico-chemical and toxicological effect data to enable a better comparison of the methodological differences. For the same reason, the system boundaries were kept the same in all cases, focusing on emissions into water at the disposal stage. Results and Discussion. Significant differences...... ecotoxicity is not satisfactory, unless explicit reasons for the differences are identifiable. This can hamper practical decision support, as LCA practitioners usually will not be in a position to choose the 'right' LCIA method for their specific case. This puts a challenge to the entire OMNIITOX project......) with results from an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA). Material and Methods. The LCIA has been conducted with EDIP97 (chronic aquatic ecotoxicity) [1], USES-LCA (freshwater and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity, sometimes referred to as CML2001) [2, 3] and IMPACT 2002 (covering freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity...

  13. 3. A Closed Aquatic System for Space and Earth Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Ranke, J.; Schirmer, M.

    Increased durations in space travel as well as living in extreme environments are requiring reliable life support systems in general and bioregenerative ones in detail. Waste water management, air revitalization and food production are obviously center goals in this research, however, in addition a potential influence by chemicals, drugs etc. released to the closed environment must be considered. On this basis ecotoxicological data become more and more important for CELSS (Closed Ecological Life Support System) development and performance. The experiences gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of an aquatic habitat, called AquaHab (formerly CBRU), which is a closed, self-sustaining system with a total water volume of 9 liters. In the frame program of a R&D project funded by the state of Bremen and OHB System, AquaHab is under adaptation to become an ecotoxicological research unit containing for example Japanese Medaka or Zebra Fish, amphipods, water snails and water plants. Test runs were standardized and analytical methods were developed. Beside general biological and water chemical parameters, activity measurements of biotransforming enzymes (G6PDH, CytP450-Oxidase, Peroxidase) and cell viability tests as well as residual analysis of the applied substance and respective metabolites were selected as evaluation criteria. In a first series of tests low doses effects of TBT (Tributyltin, 0.1 to 20 μgTBT/l nominal concentration) were analyzed. The AquaHab and data obtained for applied environmental risk assessment will be presented at the assembly.

  14. Tools for monitoring aquatic environments to identify anthropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Cândido, Liliam Silva; Pereira, Joelson Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti

    2018-01-05

    Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population. The physicochemical parameters were within the limits allowed by the Brazilian law. However, contamination by metals (Cd 0.510 mg L -1 , Co 0.405 mg L -1 , and Ni 0.316 mg L -1 ) has been found at various collection points to be more than the allowable values. The antibiotic oxytetracycline was detected in stream water in quantities of up to 89 μg L -1 . In relation to microbiological contamination, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. have been isolated. The averages of chlorophyll a were up to 0.15558 mg cm -2 . Genetic tools identified greater number of micronuclei and DNA damage in periods that showed lower rainfall rates and lower amounts of metals. The analysis used for monitoring was efficient to verify the interference that animal breeding and planting of different cultures have caused on that stream. Thus, the continued use of this water for drinking, irrigation of vegetables, and recreational activities makes the population susceptible to contamination by bacteria and creates conditions for the development of genetic alterations in the long run.

  15. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Reproduced

  16. A systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials on the curative effects of aquatic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka1, Kiichiro Tsutani2, Yoshiteru Mutoh3, Hiroyasu Okuizum4, Miho Ohta5, Shuichi Handa4, Shinpei Okada6, Jun Kitayuguchi7, Masamitsu Kamada7, Nobuyoshi Shiozawa8, Sang-Jun Park4, Takuya Honda4, Shoko Moriyama41Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Physical and Health Education, Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Japan; 5Laboratory of Aqua, Health, and Sports Medicine, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, Japan; 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Unnan City, Japan; 8Department of Longevity and Social Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, JapanBackground: The objectives of this review were to integrate the evidence of curative effects through aquatic exercise and assess the quality of studies based on a review of nonrandomized controlled trials (nRCTs.Methods: Study design was a systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials. Trials were eligible if they were nonrandomized clinical trials. Studies included one treatment group in which aquatic exercise was applied. We searched the following databases from 2000 up to July 20, 2009: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Ichushi-Web.Results: Twenty-one trials met all inclusion criteria. Languages included were English (N = 9, Japanese (N = 11, and Korean (N = 1. Target diseases were knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, poliomyelitis, chronic kidney disease, discomforts of pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, and rotator cuff tears. Many studies on nonspecific disease (healthy participants were included. All studies reported significant effectiveness in at least one or more outcomes. However results of evaluations with the TREND and CLEAR-NPT checklists generally

  17. Chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jorg; Whitcomb, David C; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Esposito, Irene; Lerch, Markus M; Gress, Thomas; Mayerle, Julia; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Rebours, Vinciane; Akisik, Fatih; Muñoz, J Enrique Domínguez; Neoptolemos, John P

    2017-09-07

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a pathological fibro-inflammatory syndrome of the pancreas in individuals with genetic, environmental and/or other risk factors who develop persistent pathological responses to parenchymal injury or stress. Potential causes can include toxic factors (such as alcohol or smoking), metabolic abnormalities, idiopathic mechanisms, genetics, autoimmune responses and obstructive mechanisms. The pathophysiology of chronic pancreatitis is fairly complex and includes acinar cell injury, acinar stress responses, duct dysfunction, persistent or altered inflammation, and/or neuro-immune crosstalk, but these mechanisms are not completely understood. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by ongoing inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive loss of the endocrine and exocrine compartment owing to atrophy and/or replacement with fibrotic tissue. Functional consequences include recurrent or constant abdominal pain, diabetes mellitus (endocrine insufficiency) and maldigestion (exocrine insufficiency). Diagnosing early-stage chronic pancreatitis is challenging as changes are subtle, ill-defined and overlap those of other disorders. Later stages are characterized by variable fibrosis and calcification of the pancreatic parenchyma; dilatation, distortion and stricturing of the pancreatic ducts; pseudocysts; intrapancreatic bile duct stricturing; narrowing of the duodenum; and superior mesenteric, portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment options comprise medical, radiological, endoscopic and surgical interventions, but evidence-based approaches are limited. This Primer highlights the major progress that has been made in understanding the pathophysiology, presentation, prevalence and management of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

  18. A review of environmental impacts of salts from produced waters on aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Salts are frequently a major constituent of waste waters produced during oil and gas production. These produced waters or brines must be treated and/or disposed and provide a daily challenge for operators and resource managers. Some elements of salts are regulated with water quality criteria established for the protection of aquatic wildlife, e.g. chloride (Cl−), which has an acute standard of 860 mg/L and a chronic standard of 230 mg/L. However, data for establishing such standards has only recently been studied for other components of produced water, such as bicarbonate (HCO3−), which has acute median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranging from 699 to > 8000 mg/L and effects on chronic toxicity from 430 to 657 mg/L. While Cl− is an ion of considerable importance in multiple geographical regions, knowledge about the effects of hardness (calcium and magnesium) on its toxicity and about mechanisms of toxicity is not well understood. A multiple-approach design that combines studies of both individuals and populations, conducted both in the laboratory and the field, was used to study toxic effects of bicarbonate (as NaHCO3). This approach allowed interpretations about mechanisms related to growth effects at the individual level that could affect populations in the wild. However, additional mechanistic data for HCO3−, related to the interactions of calcium (Ca2 +) precipitation at the microenvironment of the gill would dramatically increase the scientific knowledge base about how NaHCO3 might affect aquatic life. Studies of the effects of mixtures of multiple salts present in produced waters and more chronic effect studies would give a better picture of the overall potential toxicity of these ions. Organic constituents in hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback waters, etc. are a concern because of their carcinogenic properties and this paper is not meant to minimize the importance of maintaining vigilance with respect to potential organic contamination.

  19. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  20. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    decreases thereafter. By the sixth decade of life, the activity of GHRPs is reduced but it is still marked and higher than that of GHRH. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is synergistic with that of GHRH, is not affected by opioid receptor antagonists, such as naloxone, and is only blunted by inhibitory influences, including neurotransmitters, glucose, free fatty acids, gluco corticoids, recombinant human GH and even exogenous somatostatin, which are known to almost abolish the effect of GHRH. GHRPs maintain their GH-releasing effect in somatotrope hypersecretory states such as in acromegaly, anorexia nervosa and hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, their good GH-releasing activity has been shown in some but not in other somatotrope hyposecretory states. In fact, reduced GH responses after GHRP administration have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency as well as in idiopathic short stature, in obesity and in hypothyroidism, while in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing's syndrome the somatotrope responsiveness to GHRPs is almost absent. In short children an increase in height velocity has also been reported during chronic GHRP treatment. Thus, based on their marked GH-releasing effect even after oral administration, GHRPs offer their own clinical usefulness for treatment of some GH hyposecretory states.

  1. AMEG: the new SETAC advisory group on aquatic macrophyte ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Gertie; Davies, Jo; Dobbs, Michael; Ebke, Peter; Hanson, Mark; Hommen, Udo; Knauer, Katja; Loutseti, Stefania; Maltby, Lorraine; Mohr, Silvia; Poovey, Angela; Poulsen, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    Primary producers play critical structural and functional roles in aquatic ecosystems; therefore, it is imperative that the potential risks of toxicants to aquatic plants are adequately assessed in the risk assessment of chemicals. The standard required macrophyte test species is the floating (non-sediment-rooted) duckweed Lemna spp. This macrophyte species might not be representative of all floating, rooted, emergent, and submerged macrophyte species because of differences in the duration and mode of exposure; sensitivity to the specific toxic mode of action of the chemical; and species-specific traits (e.g., duckweed's very short generation time). These topics were addressed during the workshop entitled "Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides" (AMRAP) where a risk assessment scheme for aquatic macrophytes was proposed. Four working groups evolved from this workshop and were charged with the task of developing Tier 1 and higher-tier aquatic macrophyte risk assessment procedures. Subsequently, a SETAC Advisory Group, the Macrophyte Ecotoxicology Group (AMEG) was formed as an umbrella organization for various macrophyte working groups. The purpose of AMEG is to provide scientifically based guidance in all aspects of aquatic macrophyte testing in the laboratory and field, including prospective as well as retrospective risk assessments for chemicals. As AMEG expands, it will begin to address new topics including bioremediation and sustainable management of aquatic macrophytes in the context of ecosystem services.

  2. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

  4. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program

  5. Ecological Dose Modeling of Aquatic and Riparian Receptors to Strontium-90 with an Emphasis on Radiosensitive Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Traub, Richard J.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2011-07-20

    The 100-NR-2 site is the location of elevated releases of strontium-90 to the Columbia River via contaminated groundwater. The resulting dose to aquatic and riparian receptors was evaluated in 2005 (DOE 2009) and compared to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) dose guidance values. We have conducted additional dose assessments for a broader spectrum of aquatic and riparian organisms using RESRAD Biota and specific exposure scenarios. Because strontium-90 accumulates in bone, we have also modeled the dose to the anterior kidney, a blood-forming and immune system organ that lies close to the spinal column of fish. The resulting dose is primarily attributable to the yttrium-90 progeny of strontium-90 and very little of the dose is associated with the beta emission from strontium-90. All dose modeling results were calculated with an assumption of secular equilibrium between strontium-90 and yttrum-90.

  6. [Chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Teresa; Heuss, Ludwig Theodor

    2014-09-01

    Defined by lasting more than four weeks - is a common but often challenging clinical scenario. It is important to be aware that diarrhoea means different things to different patients. The evaluation of chronic diarrhoea depends on taking an excellent history and careful physical examination as well as planning investigations thoughtfully. Functional diarrhea ist the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in the developed countries and motility disorders are more common than inflammatory, osmotic or secretory causes. In some cases categorizing patients by their stool characteristics can be helpful in directing further evaluation.

  7. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  8. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  9. Interaction of 238PuO2 heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.H.; Nelson, G.B.; Matlack, G.M.; Waterbury, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators used in space missions are designed with a great factor of safety to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth, and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs, utilizing 238 PuO 2 fuel, have proved more than adequately safe. More data about the interaction of this material with terrestrial and aquatic environments is continually being sought to predict the behavior of these heat sources in the extremely unlikely contact of these materials with the land or ocean. Terrestrial environments are simulated with large environmental chambers that permit control of temperature, humidity, and rainfall using different kinds of soils. Rain falling on thermally hot chunks of 238 PuO 2 causes the spallation of the surface of the fuel into extremely fine particles, as small as 50 nm, that are later transported downward through the soil. Some of the plutonia particles become agglomerated with soil particles. Plutonium transport is more significant during winter than during summer because evaporation losses from the soil are less in winter. Aquatic environments are simulated with large aquaria that provide temperature and aeration control. Earlier fuel designs that employed a plutonia-molybdenum cermet showed plutonium release rates of about 10 μCi/m 2 - s, referred to the total surface area of the cermet. Present advanced fuels, employing pure plutonium oxide, show release rates of about 20 nCi/m 2 - s in seawater and about 150 nCi/m 2 - s in freshwater. The temperature of these more advanced heat sources does not seem to affect the release rate in seawater. (auth)

  10. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  11. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  12. Chronic Meningococcaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical features, complications, laboratory findings and treatment of this condition are discussed. The resemblance, both clinically and histologically, to allergic vasculitis is stressed. S. Air. Med. J., 48, 2154 (1974). Chronic meningococcaemia is an uncommon condition today, but was well recognised in the early decades of.

  13. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  14. Chronic Pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    It is presented a case of a man with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, whose marked dilatation of the ducts reasoned the issue. The severe untreatable pain was the surgery indication, which was practiced without complications either during or after the surgery. By the way, a shallow revision of the literature is made, by mentioning classification, physiopatholoy, clinical square, medical, surgical and endoscopic treatment

  15. FY 1987 Aquatic Species Program: Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-09-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy/Solar Energy Research Institute Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology base to produce liquid fuels from microalagae at prices competitive with conventional alternatives. Microalgae are unusual plants that can accumulate large quantities of oil and can thrive in high-salinity water, which currently has no competing uses. The algal oils, in turn, are readily converted into gasoline and diesel fuels. The best site for successful microalgae production was determined to be the US desert Southwest, with potential applications to other warm areas. Aggressive research is needed, but the improvements required are attainable. The four prime research areas in the development of this technology are growth and production, engineering design, harvesting, and conversion. Algae are selected for three criteria: tolerance to environmental fluctuations, high growth rates, and high lipid production. From 1982 to 1986, the program collected more than 3000 strains of microalgae that are more than twice as tolerant to temperature and salinity fluctuation than the initial strains. Productivity has been increased by a factor of two in outdoor culture systems since 1982, and lipid content has also been increased from 20% of body weight in 1982 to greater than 66% of body weight in 1987. Research programs are ongoing in lipid biochemistry and genetic engineering so that ultimately strains can be modified and improved to combine their best characteristics. An outdoor test facility is being built in Roswell, New Mexico.

  16. Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Essam Abdel-Salam; Canyon, Deon V

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

  17. Why Dolphins are not Aquatic Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Barrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Social Brain (or Social Intelligence hypothesis is a very influential theory that ties brain size and, by extension, cognitive ability to the demands of obligate and intense sociality. Initially developed to explain primate brain size evolution, the Social Brain hypothesis has since been applied to a diverse array of other social taxa, both mammalian and avian; its origins as a primate-based hypothesis (especially as articulated by Humphrey, 1976, however, mean that it retains a heavily anthropocentric tinge. This colors the way in which other species are viewed, and their cognitive abilities tested, despite fundamental differences in many aspects of bodily morphology, brain anatomy and behavior. The delphinids are a case in point and, in this review, we demonstrate how the anthropocentric origins of the Social Brain hypothesis have pushed us toward a view of the delphinids as a species of ‗aquatic ape‘. We suggest that a more ecological, embodied/embedded, view of dolphin behavior and psychology undercuts such a view, and will provide a more satisfactory assessment of the natural intelligence the delphinids display.

  18. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  19. Consequences of radioactive deposition on aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1994-12-01

    The publication concentrates on the analyses of the main effects of radioactive deposition on Nordic aquatic environments. A modelling approach is applied for predicting the temporal behaviour of concentrations in fish of inland freshwater ecosystems. The observed values are considered in parallel with the calculations. The time-integrated consequences, the radiation doses are estimated for the relatively significant dose pathways. After a preliminary study of various lake environments in Nordic countries, three representative examples of lake systems were selected for closer consideration: small forest lake, medium-sized forest lake and mountain lake. The effects of changes in the trophic levels of lakes are also tentatively accounted for. The results of the analyses indicate that the radiological consequences of shallow forest lakes are greater than those of mountain lakes which usually have shorter turnover times compared to forest lakes. In long-term consideration, the fish ingestion pathway may in general become important and, in addition to the external exposure, has a high contribution to the expected doses. (orig.) (8 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.)

  20. Physical Heterogeneity and Aquatic Community Function in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The geomorphological character of a river network provides the template upon which evolution acts to create unique biological communities. Deciphering commonly observed patterns and processes within riverine landscapes resulting from the interplay between physical and biological components is a central tenet for the interdisciplinary field of river science. Relationships between the physical heterogeneity and food web character of functional process zones (FPZs) – large tracts of river with a similar geomorphic character - in the Kanawha River (West Virginia, USA) are examined in this study. Food web character was measured as food chain length (FCL), which reflects ecological community structure and ecosystem function. Our results show the same basal resources were present throughout the Kanawha River but their assimilation into the aquatic food web by primary consumers differed between FPZs. Differences in the trophic position of secondary consumers – fish - were also recorded between FPZs. Overall, both the morphological heterogeneity and heterogeneity of the river bed sediment of FPZs were significantly correlated with FCL. Specifically, FCL increases with greater FPZ physical heterogeneity, supporting tenet 8 of the river ecosystem synthesis. In previous research efforts, we delineated the functional process zones (FPZs) of the Kanawha River. In this study, we examined the relationship between the hydrogeomorphically-derived zones with food webs.