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Sample records for chronic anal fissures

  1. Chronic anal fissure: new approaches to chemical sphincterotomy

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    Mohammad hassan Emami

    2008-06-01

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    • An anal fissure is a split in the mucosa extending from the anal verge towards the dentate line. It currently affects 10% of patients attending proctology clinics. Recent studies have highlighted the role of increased internal anal sphincter pressure and decreased anodermal blood flow in the pathogenesis of chronic anal fissures. Acute fissures usually heal with conservative management. Fissures lasting greater than two months with features of chronicity, are unlikely to heal with conservative management. Lateral internal sphincterotomy has been the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissures. Because of the disability associated with surgery for healing anal fissure and the risk of incontinence, medical alternatives for surgery have been sought. Among different chemical agents, Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN has been shown to be the first line treatment for chronic anal fissure but the transient sphincteric relaxation effect of pharmacologic agents such as GTN, makes them less effective than surgery. Although we have different forms of GTN products, they do not show a long acting effect on relaxing and enhancing the perfusion of anal sphincter, because they are soon metabolized. Most difficulties with current usage of drugs are due to poor compliance of patients. It can be taken into consideration that new formulation and novel combination of GTN with other treatments, in slow releasing forms may lead to acceptable strategies in the management of chronic anal fissure. As authors’ experience in this field, other clinical trials on the drug combination and slow releasing formulations are warranted to generate new data on the subject.
    • Key word: chronic anal fissure, review, chemical sphincterotomy 

  2. Innovations in chronic anal fissure treatment: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A chronic anal fissure is a common perianal condition. This review aims to evaluate both existing and new therapies in the treatment of chronic fissures. Pharmacological therapies such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), Diltiazem ointment and Botulinum toxin provide a relatively non-invasive option, but with higher recurrence rates. Lateral sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment. Anal dilatation has no role in treatment. New therapies include perineal support devices, Gonyautoxin i...

  3. Identifying the best therapy for chronic anal fissure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; H; Madalinski

    2011-01-01

    Chronic anal fissure(CAF)is a painful tear or crack which occurs in the anoderm.The optimal algorithm of therapy for CAF is still debated.Lateral internal sphincterotomy(LIS)is a surgical treatment,considered as the’gold standard’therapy for CAF.It relieves CAF symptoms with a high rate of healing.Chemical sphincterotomy(CS)with nitrates,calcium blockers or botulinum toxin(BTX)is safe,with the rapid relief of pain,mild sideeffects and no risk of surgery or anesthesia,but is a statistically less effective therapy for CAF than LIS.This article considers if aggressive treatment should only be offered to patients who fail pharmacological sphincterotomy.Aspects of anal fissure etiology,epidemiology and pathophysiology are considered with their meaning for further management of CAF.A molecular model of chemical interdependence significant for the chemistry of CAF healing is examined.Its application may influence the development of optimal therapy for CAF.BTX is currently considered the most effective type of CS and discussion in this article scrutinizes this method specifically.Although the effectiveness of BTXvs LIS has been discussed,the essential focus of the article concerns identifying the best therapy application for anal fissure.Elements are presented which may help us to predict CAF healing.They provide rationale for the expansion of the CAF therapy algorithm.Ethical and economic factors are also considered in brief.As long as the patient is willing to accept the potential risk of fecal incontinence,we have grounds for the’gold standard’(LIS)as the first-line treatment for CAF.The author concludes that,when the diagnosis of the anal fissure is established,CS should be considered for both ethical and economic reasons.He is convinced that a greater understanding and recognition of benign anal disorders by the GP and a proactive involvement at the point of initial diagnosis would facilitate the consideration of CS at an earlier,more practical stage with

  4. Sphincter-Preserving Therapy with Topical 2% Diltiazem for Chronic Anal Fissure: Our Experience

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    Manish Swarnkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic anal fissure is a common problem across the world treated largely by surgical methods. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topical agents like Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN in anal fissure but it has been shown to have side effects like headache and dizziness. There is a need for a pharmacological therapy for fissure which has fewer side effects. Hence, this study was taken up to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of topical 2% Diltiazem (DTZ gel. Aim & Objectives: To assess the efficacy and side effect of topical treatment with 2% DTZ gel in patient with chronic anal fissure. Material and Methods: Consecutive fifty adult patients with symptomatic chronic anal fissure attending the surgery clinic were enrolled in the study form February 2014- July 2014 and they were treated with regular topical application of 2% DTZ cream. Patients were followed up at regular intervals for symptomatic relief and healing of fissure. Results: In our study postdefecatory pain, bleeding and irritation were significantly reduced after 2week of therapy and a th primary healing rate of 86% (43 out of 50 at 6 week of therapy. The primary side-effects of 2% DTZ gel appeared to be perianal dermatitis and pruritis ani in 14% cases. Conclusion: Topical 2% DTZ gel is an effective agent in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. The need for hospital stay is abolished; psychological and financial burden on the patient is reduced. With a healing rate close to 90%, topical DTZ can be easily advised as the first line of treatment of chronic anal fissure.

  5. The Effect of Topical Nifedipine in Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure

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    Farzaneh Golfam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic anal fissure is the most common cause of anal pain associated with internal anal sphincter hypertonia. Reduction of hypertonocity is a special treatment for fissure healing. For this purpose chronic anal fissures were conventionally treated by anal dilatation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these methods may cause a degree of incontinence in some patients. The uptake of medical therapies that create a reversible chemical sphincterotomy has recently become widespread. The aim of this prospective clinical trial study was to assess the effectiveness of nifedipine in healing anal fissure, a calcium channel blocker that reduces sphincter pressure. A single-blind randomized comparative trial was setup to compare traditional treatment with stool softeners and 2% lidocaine cream against 0.5% nifedipine cream for 4 weeks. 110 patients were included in this study, 60 patients in the nifedipine group and 50 patients in the control group and the therapeutic outcome and side effects were recorded. Healing had occurred in 70% of patients in the nifedipine group and in 12% of patients in the control group after 4 weeks treatment (P

  6. Botulinum toxin for chronic anal fissure after biliopancreatic diversion for morbid obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serafino Vanella; Giuseppe Brisinda; Gaia Marniga; Anna Crocco; Giuseppe Bianco; Giorgio Maria

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of botulinum toxin in patients with chronic anal fissure after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for severe obesity.METHODS:Fifty-nine symptomatic adults with chronic anal fissure developed after BPD were enrolled in an open label study.The outcome was evaluated clinically and by comparing the pressure of the anal sphincters before and after treatment.All data were analyzed in univariate and multivariate analysis.RESULTS:Two months after treatment,65.4% of the patients had a healing scar.Only one patient had mild incontinence to flatus that lasted 3 wk after treatment,but this disappeared spontaneously.In the multivariate analysis of the data,two registered months after the treatment,sex (P =0.01),baseline resting anal pressure (P =0.02) and resting anal pressure 2 mo after treatment (P < 0.0001) were significantly related to healing rate.CONCLUSION:Botulinum toxin,despite worse results than in non-obese individuals,appears the best alternative to surgery for this group of patients with a high risk of incontinence.

  7. Comparison of botox and lateral internal sphincterotomy treatment outcomes in chronic anal fissures

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    Tolga Dinç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both botox and lateral internal sfinkterotomi are treatment technics used in chronic anal fissure; provide the relaxation of anal sphincter and as a result of this, healing occurs. Aim of this study is to compare efficacy of botox and LIS treatment in chronic anal fissure and discussing with the literature. Methods: 60 of 66 patients who has chronic anal fissure, that we reached, treated but not healed with medical therapy, appealed to the Dr. Sami Ulus Hospital included the study. Gender, age, fissure localization, complaints (pain, bleeding, itching, constipation, complaint length, recurrences after treatment, continence conditions and complications of patients were registered. Results: Sixty patients were enrolled the study. Of the 60 patients; 38(63.3% were male and 22 (27.7% were female. Mean age of all patients was 35.93 ± 11.45 (21 -60. Pain was the common complaint of the all patients. 10 (32.3% recurrence were detected in botox treatment group (Group-I, only 1 (3.4% recurrence was in LIS group (Group-II. There was no complication as an incontinence in group-I but 3 cases with incontinence (10.39% were obtained in group-II. In the evaluation of these 3 cases by Cleveland Clinic Continence Scoring System, 2 cases classified as gas incontinence and 1 case as moderate fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Although botulinum toxin injection seen as an alternative treatment method with low complication rates such as incontinence, high recurrence is an important shortcoming of this technic. LIS performed by experienced surgeons remained the most popular treatment modality with low complication rates and great deal of healing success.

  8. Aggressive treatment of acute anal fissure with 0.5%nifedipine ointment prevents evolution to chronicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; Jannis Kountouras; George Paroutoglou; Athanasios Beltsis; Grigoris Chatzimavroudis; Christos Zavos; Taxiarchis Katsinelos; Basilis Papaziogas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of topical application of 0.5% nifedipine ointment in healing acute anal fissue and preventing its progress to chronicity.METHODS: Thirty-one patients (10 males, 21 females)with acute anal fissure from September 1999 to January 2005 were treated topically with 0.5% nifedipine ointment (t.i.d.) for 8 wk. The patients were encouraged to follow a high-fiber diet and assessed at 2, 4 and 8wk post-treatment. The healing of fissure and any side effects were recorded. The patients were subsequently followed up in the outpatient clinic for one year and contacted by phone every three months thereafter,while they were encouraged to come back if symptoms recurred.RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the 31 patients completed the 8-wk treatment course, of them 23 (85.2%)achieved a complete remission indicated by resolution of symptoms and healing of fissure. Of the remaining four unhealed patients (14.8%), 2 opted to undergo lateral sphincterotomy and the other 2 to continue therapy for four additional weeks, resulting in healing of fissure. All the 25 patients with complete remission had a mean follow-up of 22.9 ± 14 (range 6-52) mo. Recurrence of symptoms occurred in four of these 25 patients (16%)who were successfully treated with an additional 4-wk course of 0.5% nifedipine ointment. Two of the 27 (7.4%)patients who completed the 8-wk treatment presented with moderate headache as a side effect of nifedipine.CONCLUSION: Topical 0.5% nifedipine ointment, used as an agent in chemical sphincterotomy, appears to offer a significant healing rate for acute anal fissure and might prevent its evolution to chronicity.

  9. Dermal flap advancement combined with conservative sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, George E; Spiropoulos, Vasileios; Bramis, Konstantinos; Plastiras, Aris; Zografos, George

    2015-02-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is considered the surgical treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure (CAF). Flap techniques for fissure coverage have the advantage of primary wound healing, potentially providing better functional results and faster pain relief. The standard surgical strategy for CAF consisting of conventional LIS (CLIS) up to the dentate line was modified by "tailoring" the LIS to the apex of the CAF, but never greater than 1 cm, and by advancing a dermal flap for coverage of the CAF (LIS + flap) after fissurectomy. Thirty consecutive patients who underwent "LIS + flap" were compared with 32 patients who had been previously treated by CLIS. A modified, trapezoid-like Y-V flap from perianal skin was advanced into the CAF base. Pain at the first postoperative day, pain at defecation during the first week, postoperative use of analgesics, and time for patients' pain relief were significantly less at the "LIS + flap" group (P < 0.01). Objective healing was achieved faster (P < 0.01) and soiling episodes were less (P < 0.05) after "LIS + flap." The addition of a dermal flap after "conservative" LIS resulted in better healing and significantly less postoperative discomfort than the isolated application of CLIS.

  10. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Diltiazem Gel and Glyceryl Trinitrate Ointment on Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure

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    M Akhondi-Meybodi

    2014-12-01

    Methods: This semi-experimental study consisted of sixty six outpatients (34 females and 32 males with chronic anal fissure, who referred to the gastroenterology clinic. Patients were randomly classified into two groups. Group A received GTN ointment (0.03%, whereas group B was treated with Diltiazem gel (2%. The treatment was administered twice daily for 8 weeks. Healing and side-effects were recorded to be compared after 8 weeks. Results: In group A, the anal fissure was thoroughly healed within 53.3% of patients, moderately healed for 6.7% of patients and not healed in 25.8% of patients. Moreover, side-effects were noted in 15(46.9% patients (P= 0.482. Two (6.2% patients had intolerable headache and discontinued the study, 11 (34.3% patients suffered from headache and 2 patients (6.2% were reported to have orthostatic hypotension. In group B, healing occurred in 21(67.7% out of 31 patients and 1 (3.2% case of headache was noted(P= 0.0001. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that topical diltiazem can be preferable to GTN owing to the absence of side-effects.

  11. STUDY ON USE OF TOPICAL DILTIAZEM VERSUS TOPICAL GLYCERYL TRINITRATE (GTN IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ANAL FISSURE: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Madhu Lata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, associated side effects in short term as well as long term use of topical Diltiazem and topical GTN in the management of chronic anal fissure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out patients records of 231 patients with chronic anal fissure who reported to hospital from August 2011 to August 2014 and treated were randomly selected for both types of management of which 118 patients had received topical 2% diltiazem and 113 were treated with 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate topical ointment thrice daily for 6 weeks. They were assessed at the time of presentation, then at the end of 1st week, 3rd week and at the end of 6th week of treatment. Records of patients with anal fissure due to other diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, malignancy, sexually transmitted diseases, previous treatment with local ointment or surgery, patients who required anal surgery for any concurrent disease like hemorrhoids, pregnant women, patients with significant cardiovascular conditions and patients who did not turned up for follow up were excluded. Signs and symptoms and side-effects were noted at the given time. RESULTS: The study results are comparable to national figures and other studies. CONCLUSION: Topical application of both the ointments, 2% Diltiazem and 0.2% Glyceryl trinitrate observed to be quite effective in treatment of chronic fissure in Ano. However, topical Diltiazem is preferred to topical glyceryl trinitrate due to its lesser side effects and long term better control

  12. Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps, should they be removed during anal fissure surgery?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pravin J. Gupta

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice.They are mostly ignored being considered as normal structures. The present study was aimed to demonstrate that hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps could cause symptoms to the patients and that they should be removed in treatment of patients with chronic fissure in anus.METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. A hundred patients were studied in group A in which the associated fibrous polyp or papillae were removed by radio frequency surgical device after a lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy for relieving the sphincter spasm. Another group of a hundred patients who also had papillae or fibrous polyps, were treated by lateral sphincterotomy alone. They were followed up for one year.RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent patients from group A expressed their satisfaction with the treatment in comparison to only 64% from group B who underwent sphincterotomy alone with the papillae or anal polyps left untreated. Group A patients showed a marked reduction with regard to pain and irritation during defecation (P= 0.0011),pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus (P = 0.0006)and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge (P = 0.0008).CONCLUSION: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps should be removed during treatment of chronic anal fissure. This would add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure.

  13. Effects of Aloe vera cream on chronic anal fissure pain, wound healing and hemorrhaging upon defection: a prospective double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, N; Khademloo, M; Vosoughi, K; Assadpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that promotes wound healing in burn injuries. A prospective clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a topical cream containing 0.5% Aloe vera juice powder in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. The aloe cream was applied by the patients to the wound site 3 times per day for 6 weeks following the instructions of a physician. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale before treatment and at the end of each week of treatment. Wound healing and the amount and severity of bleeding were examined and evaluated before and at the end of each week of treatment. There were statistically significant differences in chronic anal fissure pain, hemorrhaging upon defection and wound healing before and at the end of the first week of treatment also in comparison with control group (p aloe vera juice was an effective treatment for chronic anal fissures. This is a promising result indicating that further comparative studies are justified.

  14. Effects of Aloe vera cream on chronic anal fissure pain, wound healing and hemorrhaging upon defection: a prospective double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, N; Khademloo, M; Vosoughi, K; Assadpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that promotes wound healing in burn injuries. A prospective clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a topical cream containing 0.5% Aloe vera juice powder in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. The aloe cream was applied by the patients to the wound site 3 times per day for 6 weeks following the instructions of a physician. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale before treatment and at the end of each week of treatment. Wound healing and the amount and severity of bleeding were examined and evaluated before and at the end of each week of treatment. There were statistically significant differences in chronic anal fissure pain, hemorrhaging upon defection and wound healing before and at the end of the first week of treatment also in comparison with control group (p aloe vera juice was an effective treatment for chronic anal fissures. This is a promising result indicating that further comparative studies are justified. PMID:24763890

  15. Nitroglycerin 0.4% ointment vs placebo in the treatment of pain resulting from chronic anal fissure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Scott M; Barish, Charles F.; Bhandari, Raj; Clark, Gemma; Collins, Gregory V; Howell, Julian; Pappas, John E; Riff, Dennis S; Safdi, Michael; Yellowlees, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications of chronic anal fissure (CAF) treatments are prompting interest in lower-risk therapies. This study was conducted to compare nitroglycerin (NTG) 0.4% ointment with placebo for pain associated with CAF. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with one CAF and moderate-to-severe pain (≥50 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]) received 375 mg NTG 0.4% (1.5 mg active ingredient) or 375 mg placebo ointment applied anally every 12 ho...

  16. Study of efficacy and safety of a new local cream ("healer") in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, comparative study Estudo da eficácia e segurança de novo creme cicatrizante para o tratamento da fissura anal crônica: estudo prospectivo, randomizado, simples-cego e comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Yakoot; M. Abdel Salaam

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of "healer" cream as monotherapy in the treatment of acute and chronic anal fissure. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single blinded, comparative trial. METHODS: Sixty patients suffering from anal fissure were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A: treated with "healer" local cream application 3 times daily; group B: treated with nitroglycerine 0.25% local cream 3 times daily; group C: treated ...

  17. Maintenance Therapy with Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum in the Conservative Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure: Results of a Prospective, Randomized Study

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    Antonio Brillantino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the role of maintenance therapy with partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG after topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN in the conservative treatment of chronic anal fissure (CAF. Methods. From all the patients with CAF observed during the study period, 165 subjects with healed CAF after standard therapy with topical GTN 0.4% ointment were randomized to receive (group II or not (group I maintenance therapy with PHGG for 10 months. Clinical and manometric followup was carried out 6 and 12 months after treatment. Results. At six-month followup, median visual analogue scale score was significantly higher in group I if compared with group II. The success and recurrence rate at 12-month followup were, respectively, 38.3% (28/73 in group I versus 58.5% (41/70 in group II (P=0.019; Fisher’s exact test and 30.2% (13/43 in group I versus 14.5% (7/48 in group II (P=0.0047; Fisher’s exact test. Conclusion. The maintenance therapy with PHGG in patients with healed CAF after chemical sphincterotomy by topical application of GTN 0.4% ointment seems associated with a significant reduction of recurrence rate and with a significant increase of success rate at 12-month followup.

  18. Botulinum toxin A in the treatment of anal fissure

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    Stanković Nebojša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper presents our first experience in the treatment of primary anal fissure by injection of botulinum A toxin into the internal sphincter. Methods. The study group of the retrospective study included 12 outpatients (8 females and 4 males, mean age 42 (range 18-60. During the period 2000-2003, after unsuccessful conservative treatment, patients were treated with the injections of botulinum A toxin, 100 units on both sides of the anal fissure laterally into the internal anal sphincter (50 units on either side. The patients were clinically evaluated 3, 7, and 30 days, and 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Results. Three fissures had healed after a month, and seven after 3 months. Two remained unhealed, but asymptomatic. There was no incontinence of flatus or faeces after 3 months of the treatment. After temporary healing, two fissures relapsed after 6 months, and these patients had the adequate tonus of the anal sphincter muscles. Except for the temporary incontinence, there were neither other side-efects, nor serious complications. Conclusion. Injection of botulinum A toxin achieved good results in the treatment of anal fissure. The appropriate use makes this method safe as an alternative to surgical treatment of anal fissure.

  19. Avaliação do tratamento de fissura anal crônica com isossorbida tópica a 1% Evaluation of the treatment of chronic anal fissure with topical isosorbide 1%

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    Ana Carolina Lisboa Prudente

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fissuras anais crônicas são úlceras benignas, dolorosas, profundas. Ocorrem devido a trauma das fezes, hipertonia esfincteriana e pobre vascularização. Cirurgia é mais efetiva, porém com efeitos adversos (incontinência anal. Terapia conservadora consegue decréscimo transitório da pressão de repouso, cicatrizando muitas lesões, sem dano muscular. MÉTODOS: Objetivando avaliar tratamento de fissuras crônicas com isossorbida (ISO a 1% tópica, foi realizado um ensaio clínico, duplo-cego em pacientes do Serviço de Coloproctologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS - Aracaju, Sergipe, durante um ano. Foram estudados 24 pacientes: 14 no Grupo 1 - creme com ISO, e 10 no Grupo 2 - placebo. Avaliaram-se comportamento da pressão de repouso, melhora da dor e grau de cicatrização das feridas com e sem ISO. RESULTADOS: Resultados mostraram que a fissura acometeu mais mulheres, a constipação foi observada em 58,3%. Quanto à dor, obteve-se menor intensidade no Grupo 2, mas sem significância. A cicatrização ao fim de 60 dias foi igual nos dois grupos (50%. Quanto às médias de pressão de repouso com 30 e 60 dias, houve queda no padrão em ambos os grupos, porém sem significância. Observou-se que pacientes curados foram os de maior redução de pressão de repouso. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a ISO não modificou o padrão de resposta manométrica; todavia, houve melhora clínica importante nos dois grupos, cuja taxa de cicatrização foi equivalente.INTRODUCTION: Chronic anal fissures are deep, benign and painful ulcers. The involved factors are local trauma, sphinter hypertonia and poor blood flow. Surgery is gold standard treatment, but it causes fecal incontinence. Medical non-surgical therapy gets transitory resting pressure reduction and cure of lesions, without muscular damage. METHODS: In order to evaluate the treatment of chronic anal fissures using topical isossorbide (ISO 1%, a randomizated and double

  20. Open lateral internal anal sphincterotomy under local anesthesia as the gold standard in the treatment of chronic anal fissures: A prospective clinical and manometric study Esfinterotomía lateral interna abierta con anestesia local como gold standard en el tratamiento de la fisura anal crónica: Estudio prospectivo clínico y manométrico a largo plazo

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    A. Sánchez Romero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic anal fissure is one of the most frequent proctological disorders in Western populations. Open lateral internal sphincterotomy is one of the therapeutic options accepted as the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure, since it reduces the hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter (the main etiopathogenic mechanism of fissures, decreases anal pain, and allows the fissure to heal. Material and methods: we carried out a prospective study of 120 patients operated on for chronic anal fissure with open sphincterotomy under local anesthesia at our Proctology Outpatient Unit from 1998 to 2001. No preoperative studies, bowel preparation, or antibiotic prophylaxis were carried out. All patients were followed up after 1 week, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year, and underwent an anal manometry before and after surgery. Results: early complications: 3 hematoma-ecchymosis of the wound (2.5%, 3 self-limited hemorrhage events (2.5%. No hemorrhoidal thrombosis, fistulas, or perianal abscesses occurred. Fissures recurred in nine patients (7.5% within one year. The initial rate of incontinence of 7.5% at two months dropped down to 5% at six months. The mean resting pressure (MRP in incontinent patients was lower than in continent patients (55±7 mmHg versus 80.7 ± 21 mmHg. The difference in mean squeeze pressure (MSP between incontinent patients and continent patients was not statistically significant. Conclusions: open sphincterotomy under local anesthesia has a long-term rate of healing and a morbidity rate similar to other techniques. It may therefore be considered an effective treatment for chronic anal fissure.Introducción: la fisura anal crónica sigue siendo uno de los problemas proctológicos más frecuentes e incapacitantes en la población occidental actual. La esfinterotomía lateral interna abierta es una de las opciones terapéuticas descritas y aceptadas como tratamiento de elección de la fisura anal crónica, ya que reduce la

  1. [Epidemiology of anal lesions (fissure and thrombosed external hemorroid) during pregnancy and post-partum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, L; Batallan, A

    2003-06-01

    Thrombosed external hemorrhoids (TEH) and anal fissure (AF) are 2 frequent sources of anal pains during childbirth. We are going to define their incidences as available in publications and in our experience in Bichat hospital. Then we will define their risk factors. According to Martin's and Corby's studies, AF was observed in 10% of the delivered women. In Bichat hospital we performed a proctological assessment to 165 pregnant women during the last third of pregnancy and within the 2 months following delivery. We observed 2 AF (1,2%) during the first period and 25 (15,2%) during the second. Rouillon et al. reported an incidence of TEH in 12,2% (20/164), while Pradel and al. reported 34% (18/52) of it. In Bichat hospital, 13 women (7,9%) were presenting with TEH during the last third of pregnancy and 33 (20%) in post-partum period. Two studies looked for a statistical correlation between AF and obstetrical, foetal or maternal factors. Corby et al. only pointed the role of constipation. In our study, terminal constipation was the most important risk factor for AF with 5.7 (2.7-12), odds ratio (95% confidence intervals). Rouillon et al. observed more TEH among women with a prolonged first stage labor and a big baby. In our study, a big baby and mother little lips tears were observed more often among women with TEH (P <0,05). Also, we observed only one TEH among the 25 women with caesarean section (4%). Finally, observation that TEH arise immediately after delivery is another argument to support the role of traumatic delivery. We also demonstrated the role of terminal constipation as risk factor for TEH after delivery. To conclude, 1/3 of pregnant women develop AF or TEH after delivery. These 2 pathologies are strongly correlated to terminal constipation. TEH seems equally furthered by traumatic delivery. PMID:12865195

  2. Topical glyceryl trinitrate in the treatment of anal fissure Utilidad del gliceril trinitrato en el tratamiento tópico de la fisura anal

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    F. Novell

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN in the treatment of anal fissure. Patients: eighty consecutive patients were randomized to receive 0.2% GTN gel twice a day during a minimum of 6 weeks. Of these 80 patients 34 were males and 46 female, with ages be-tween 20 and 78 years. All patients underwent a work-up that included gender, age, symptom duration, site, previous treatment attempts, pain score, associated diseases, and maximum anal resting pressure. These patients were followed at regular intervals of 4, 8, and 12 weeks to assess symptom outcome, rate of healing, adverse effects, and recurrence rate. Results: pain scores were significantly reduced during the treatment period in 65% of cases. After 4 weeks, 55% of patients had healed, and 78% after 9 weeks. In 18 patients (22%, anal fissures did not heal even with 6 additional weeks of treatment, and 12 of them (15% underwent lateral sphincterotomy. Sixty one percent of patients had flushing and 15% severe headaches. Conclusion: the results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when administered to patients suffering from anal fissures.Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio era la valoración de la aplicación tópica de gliceril trinitrato en el tratamiento de las fisuras anales. Pacientes: un total de 80 consecutivos pacientes eran randomizados recibiendo gliceril trinitrato al 0,2% gel dos veces al día, durante un mínimo de 6 semanas. De los 80 pacientes, 34 eran varones y 46 mujeres, con edad comprendida entre 20 y 78 años. En los pacientes se controlaba sexo, edad, duración de síntomas, duración de tratamiento, localización, patología previa asociada, y valoración del dolor. Seguimiento a 4, 8 y 12 semanas, para controlar la sintomatología, el grado de curación, los efectos adversos y la relación de recidiva. Resultados: la disminución del dolor fue significativa en el 65% de los casos y

  3. Are we following an algorithm for managing chronic anal fissure? A completed audit cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farkas

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Topical creams were the most successful treatments (50%; n = 9/18 in ACPGBI-compliant strategies. Importantly, these data suggests that compliance with the ACPGBI algorithm leads to healing without surgery in 83.3% (n = 15/18 of patients, compared to 26.1% (n = 6/23 with non-compliant methods (P = 0.0004. This highlights the benefit of early conservative and medical management of CAF, before attempting surgery.

  4. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial Efeito da pimenta vermelha nos sintomas de pacientes com fissuras anais agudas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin J. Gupta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. AIM: To determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. METHODS: Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After 1 week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty subjects were recruited for this study. Forty three of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group. The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs 0.71 for the placebo group. Patient’s mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. Eighty one point three percent patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. CONCLUSION: Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.RACIONAL: A pimenta vermelha e outras especiarias têm sido responsabilizadas por agravar a sintomatologia das doenças anais, tais como fissuras e hemorróidas. OBJETIVO: Determinar se o consumo de pimentas vermelhas aumentaria os sintomas em fissuras anais agudas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram recrutados e randomizados para receber cápsulas contendo pimenta ou placebos por 1 semana, somadas a analgésicos e suplementos de fibras. Foi solicitado que anotassem um escore de sintomas, tais como dor, queimação anal, prurido durante o per

  5. A clinical analysis on integrated traditional Chinese with Western medicine in the treatments of anal fissure%中西医结合治疗肛裂临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅; 韩卓兴; 林俊琼

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨中西医结合治疗肛裂的临床效果.方法 将40例肛裂患者随机分为两组,术后对照组以温水清洗配合常规换药;观察组在对照组的基础上加用中药熏洗和坐浴,比较两组的效果.结果 两组的总有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但是观察组患者的创口愈合时间更短、切口感染率更低,术后肛缘的水肿更轻.结论 中西医结合治疗肛裂可显著缩短伤口愈合时间,降低并发症发生率,值得临床推广.%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of integrated traditional Chinese with Western medicine in the treatment of anal fissure.Methods 40 patients were divided into two groups.After surgery,the control group received warm water cleansing combined with routine dressing change; while the stduy group received fumigation-washing and hip bath with traditional Chinese medicines.The efficacy was compared between the two groups.Results The total effectiveness rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05).However,the duration of wound healing was shorter,the incidence of incision infection was lower,and the degree of edema in the anus margin edema was slighter in the study group than in the control group.Conclusions Integrated traditional Chinese with Western medicine for anal fissure can markedly shorten duration of wound healing and reduce rate of complications.It is worth popularizing clinically.

  6. Clinical Observation of Compound Carraghenates Suppositories in the Treatment of Wounds after Anal Fissure Operation%复方角菜酸酯栓对肛裂术后创面愈合的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建波; 郑伯安; 黄银伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of compound carraghenates suppositories in the treatment of wounds after anal fissure operation. Methods:Eighty-eight cases of patients with anal fistula post-operation wounds were diagnosed from June 2011 to June 2014 and randomly divided into the observation group (n=44) and the control group (n=44). The control group was treated with the conventional treatment and the observation group was treated with external compound carraghenates suppositories additionally. The efficacy, average healing time, growing time of granulation tissue and removal time of necrotic tissue, pain disappear-ance time and wound edema disappearance time after the operation and the area of wound surface in the two groups were observed and compared. Results:After the 14-day treatment, the time of wound healing, granulation growth and cure in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group (P<0. 05). In the observation group, the total effective rate (93. 18%) was higher than that in the control group (77. 27%, P<0. 05). After the 7-day and 14-day treatment, the pain score and wound edema score in the observa-tion group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0. 05), and the wound area was significantly smaller than that in the control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion:The clinical efficacy of external compound carraghenates suppositories in the treatment of wounds after anal fissure operation is significant, safe and reliable.%目的:探讨复方角菜酸酯栓对肛裂术后创面愈合的临床效果及安全性. 方法:2011年6月~2014年6月肛裂术后患者88例随机分为观察组(n=44)和对照组(n=44). 对照组给予常规处理,观察组在对照组基础上加用复方角菜酸酯栓,疗程均为14d. 比较两组创面平均愈合时间、肉芽生长时间及祛腐时间、疗效、术后疼痛程度评分及术后创面水肿评分、术后创面面积. 结果:观察组治疗14 d后创

  7. Late results of mucosal proctectomy and colo-anal sleeve anastomosis for chronic irradiation rectal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with severe chronic irradiation injury to the rectum were treated by mucosal proctectomy and colo-anal sleeve anastomosis. The indications were: recurrent rectal bleeding (five), stricture (three), fistula (one) and intractable pain (one). Overall follow-up has ranged from 8 to 77 months (mean 40 months). In the present survivors (n=7) the follow-up ranges from 18 to 77 months (mean 52 months). Six patients have been followed up for more than 3 years and four for more than 5 years. There was no operative mortality. Three anastomotic strictures occurred but the protecting stoma could be closed in all but one patient. Continence was acceptable although urgency and frequency of defaecation were troublesome symptoms. The operation is recommended for life-threatening, haemorrhagic chronic irradiation injury to the rectum. (author)

  8. Treatment of chronic bacterial prostatits with amikacin through anal submucosal injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-LieHU; Shi-ZhenZHONG; 等

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Aim:To assess the efficacy and safety of anal submucosal injection(ASI)of amikacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis(CBP).Methods:Fifty male outpatients with CBP were randomly diided into two groups.Thirty cases of ASI group were given amikacin 400mg daily by ASI for ten times and the other twenty cases of intramuscular injection(IM)group were given the same drug daily by IM,All patients were evaluated with NIH-Chronic prostatitis symptom index(NIH-CPSI),the bacteria culture of the expressed prostate secretion(EPS),proctoscopic examination,rectal biopsy and the clinical manifestation were checked at pretreatment and on day 7and 90after cessation of therapy,Results:The cure rate ,apparent effective rate and effective rate of ASI group and IM group were 33.3%vs5%(P0.05).respectively.The score of NIH-CPSI in both of ASI group and IM group decreased significantly 7days after cessation of therapy,both ASI and IMof amikacin could relieve symptoms within a short time,However,3months after cessation of therapy the score of NIH-CPSIin ASIgroup continued own in spite of no significant differences compared with 7days after cessation of theragy,but the score of IMgroup was rebound nearly colsed to level of pretreatment at23.8±8.5and significantly higher than that of ASI group.The amount of white blood cell(WBC)of EPS in ASIgroup increased slightly at7days after cessation of therapy without significant difference with pretreatment(P>0.050,but it significantly decreased at 3months after cessation of therapy,the amount of WBCof EPS in ASIgroup was lower than that of IM group at 3months after cessation of therapy(P<0.05).Proctoscopic examination of anal canal were normal after ASI therapy and the rectum biopsy showed no obvious histopathologic abnormality at the site of injection except mild focal submucosal infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells at 7days after cessation of therapy which disappeared on 3months after cessation of therapy.All patients had no evident

  9. Clinical outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gang; Han Hongqiu; Liu Tong; Fu Qiang; Lyu Yongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) in China is remarkably increasing,while little information on surgical treatment has been reported.This study aimed to completely describe and analyze the clinical outcome of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for CUC in China.Methods Ninety-five consecutive patients,who suffered CUC and had surgical indications,were carefully selected.All patients underwent IPAA.Data on patient characteristics,surgical indications,surgical details,postoperative complications,functional outcome,and quality of life were collected.Results The mean patient age at the time of the operation was 32 years.Twenty-nine (31%) patients underwent an emergency operation,and 66 (69%) underwent elective procedures.Four patients with severe dysplasia underwent operations,but no carcinoma was histologically confirmed.A two-stage operation was performed in 87 (92%) patients,and a hand-sewn technique was applied in 88 (93%) patients.Sixteen patients (17.0%) experienced early complications,and there was a significant difference between the emergency surgery group and the elective group (31.0% vs.10.6%,respectively; P <0.01).Five (5.3%) patients developed pouchitis as a late complication.The mean stool frequency after the operation was 4.6 (2-11) during the first 24 hours and 1.5 (0-4) overnight.According to the Kirwan grading scale,87 (91.8%) patients showed satisfactory anal continence function.The quality of life improved significantly from a preoperative mean value of 0.28-0.61 before ileostomy closure to 0.78 after ileostomy closure (P <0.01) according to the Cleveland Global Quality of Life index.Conclusions IPAA is an effective and safe surgical procedure for patients with CUC in China.However,some characteristics,such as the low incidence of pouchitis,require further study.

  10. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  11. The importance of ultrasound findings in the study of anal pain Importancia de los hallazgos ecográficos en el dolor anal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Vieira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: endoanal ultrasonography can detect organic causes of anal pain without pathology on physical examination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of endoanal ultrasonography in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of idiopathic and functional anal pain. Material and methods: retrospective study, between 15 March 2005 and 15 June 2008, of all patients with proctalgia and normal examination or with alterations not responsible for anal pain at proctologic exam that have undergone an endoanal ultrasonography. Results: a total of 90 patients were analyzed, with a mean age of 50.5 years, 58% were female. Twenty-three patients had functional anal pain clinic criteria. Endoanal ultrasonography revealed alterations in 49% of patients. The primary findings were changes in sphincters in 14 patients, followed by anal sepsis in 12 patients, anal fissure in 10 patients, perirectal lesions in 6 patients and ulcer of the anal canal in 2 patients. Of the patients with sphincter defects, 5 patients had criteria of chronic anal pain. In this group of patients, no differences were found in manometric and defecographic results between the different ultrasound abnormalities. Conclusions: the endoanal ultrasonography detected occult organic lesions to proctologic examination, in half the patients with anal pain. Ultrasound abnormalities were found in 22% of patients with functional anal pain. However, there was no correlation between ultrasound findings and physiological studies, and therefore could not find etiological or pathogenic factors of functional anal pain.Objetivo: la ecografía endoanal puede detectar causas orgánicas en el dolor anal sin patología en la exploración física. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la importancia de la ecografía endoanal en el diagnóstico y en el abordaje terapéutico del dolor anal idiopática y funcional. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo realizado entre el 15 de marzo de 2005 y el

  12. Fissure formation in coke. 1: The mechanism of fissuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney; J.C. Keating [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Pilot scale coke oven experiments, in which carbonisation has been arrested after 2 and 4 h, have been used to identify key aspects of the initial formation and propagation of fissuring in coke. The experiments show that the primary fissure network is formed within the first few hours of coking and the fissures propagate towards the centre of the oven as coking progresses. They also show that some of the initially formed fissures stop propagating, thus increasing the effective fissure spacing as coking continues. A model for the propagation of regular crack arrays has been used to identify the cause of the initial formation of the fissure network, evaluate the fissure spacing and explain the fissure coarsening effect. The coarsening is shown to be due to an instability, in the form of every second fissure stopping. The formation of lateral fissures is shown to be due to tensile stress formation near the tips of stopped fissures and also to increased shrinkage due to a maximum in the coke contraction coefficient at around 700{sup o}C. 45 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Intractable colitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aytaç; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Doğu, Figen; İkincioğulları, Aydan; Ensari, Arzu; Çiftçi, Ergin; Kansu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder caused by NADPH oxidase deficiency leading to an impaired ability of reactive superoxide anion and metabolite formation and recurring severe bacterial and fungal infections, with a high mortality rate. Diarrhea, colitis, ileus, perirectal abscess formation and anal fissures are reported gastrointestinal findings in these patients. We report a case of intractable colitis associated with CGD in a young girl.

  14. [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Parades, Vincent; Fathallah, Nadia; Barret, Maximilien; Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lemarchand, Nicolas; Molinié, Vincent; Weiss, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Anal intraepithelial lesions are caused by chronic infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus. Their incidence and prevalence are increasing, especially among patients with HIV infection. Their natural history is not well known, but high-grade intraepithelial lesions seem to have an important risk to progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Their treatment can be achieved by many ways (surgery, coagulation, imiquimod, etc.) but there is a high rate of recurrent lesions. Pretherapeutic evaluation should benefit from high-resolution anoscopy. Periodic physical examination and anal cytology may probably be interesting for screening the disease among patients with risk factors. Vaccine against oncogenic types of papillomavirus may prevent the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:23122632

  15. Can caries fissures be sealed as adequately as sound fissures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hevinga, M.A.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Sealing caries fissures is considered an appropriate treatment option for arresting the caries process. However, little information is available regarding the sealing of occlusal cavitated dentin lesions. The hypothesis tested in this in vitro study was that no difference in microleakage and sealant

  16. Variations of Lung Fissures: A Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambali Manoj P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of fissures in the normal lungs enhances uniform expansion and hence facilitates more air intake. Accessory and incomplete fissures of varying depth can be seen in unusual locations of the lung, delimiting abnormal lobes which correspond to the normal bronchopulmonary segments. The knowledge of anatomical variations of lung fissures is essential for clinicians, surgeons, and for radiologist for recognizing various images of related abnormalities because an accessory or anomalous fissure can be mistaken for a lung lesion or an atypical appearance of pleural effusion. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to observe the variations of lung fissures in Indian population. Fifty pairs (right- 50; left- 50 of lungs were used for this study. Each lung was studied carefully for number of fissures whether complete or incomplete or absent. Presences of accessory fissures were noted. Results: We observed complete absence of fissures in two right and left lungs. Accessory fissures were present in 38% right lungs and 32% in left lungs. Conclusion: Incidence of absence of oblique fissure and accessory fissure was greater in our present work when compared our results with other authors. Considering this we feel that more elaborative study should be done on this topic which will throw more light on this.

  17. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  18. Chronic adverse events and quality of life after radiochemotherapy in anal cancer patients. A single institution experience and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on chronic adverse events (CAE) and quality of life (QOL) after radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with anal cancer (AC). Patients and methods: Of 83 patients who had received RCT at our department between 1988 and 2011, 51 accepted the invitation to participate in this QOL study. CAE were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 4.0 and QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Results: CAE could be evaluated in 49 patients. There was a tendency toward a higher rate of grade 3 CAE in female patients, i.e. 18 out of 37 (49 %) vs. 2 out of 12 (17 %) male patients (p = 0.089). The most common grade 3 CAE were dyspareunia and vaginal symptoms (itching, burning and dryness) in 35 and 22 % of female patients, respectively, followed by stool incontinence in 13 % of all patients (6 out of 49). Both FACT-C and CAE information were available for 42 patients, allowing evaluation of the impact of CAE on QOL. The median total FACT-C score was 110 (40-132) out of a possible maximum of 136. The absence of grade 3 CAE (115 vs. 94, p = 0.001); an interval of ≥ 67 months after the end of the treatment (111 vs. 107, p = 0.010), no stool incontinence vs. grade 3 stool incontinence (111 vs. 74, p = 0.009), higher education (114 vs. 107, p = 0.013) and no dyspareunia vs. grade 3 dyspareunia (116 vs. 93, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a higher median FACT-C score. Conclusion: The majority of AC patients treated with RCT have acceptable overall QOL scores, which are comparable to those of the normal population. Patients with grade 3 CAE - particularly dyspareunia and fecal incontinence - have a poorer QOL compared to patients without CAE. In order to improve long-term QOL, future strategies might aim at a reduction in dose to the genitalia and more intensive patient support measures. (orig.)

  19. Chronic adverse events and quality of life after radiochemotherapy in anal cancer patients. A single institution experience and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrian, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Bochum, Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Sauer, T.; Klemm, S.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Dinkel, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy; Schuster, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To report on chronic adverse events (CAE) and quality of life (QOL) after radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with anal cancer (AC). Patients and methods: Of 83 patients who had received RCT at our department between 1988 and 2011, 51 accepted the invitation to participate in this QOL study. CAE were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 4.0 and QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Results: CAE could be evaluated in 49 patients. There was a tendency toward a higher rate of grade 3 CAE in female patients, i.e. 18 out of 37 (49 %) vs. 2 out of 12 (17 %) male patients (p = 0.089). The most common grade 3 CAE were dyspareunia and vaginal symptoms (itching, burning and dryness) in 35 and 22 % of female patients, respectively, followed by stool incontinence in 13 % of all patients (6 out of 49). Both FACT-C and CAE information were available for 42 patients, allowing evaluation of the impact of CAE on QOL. The median total FACT-C score was 110 (40-132) out of a possible maximum of 136. The absence of grade 3 CAE (115 vs. 94, p = 0.001); an interval of {>=} 67 months after the end of the treatment (111 vs. 107, p = 0.010), no stool incontinence vs. grade 3 stool incontinence (111 vs. 74, p = 0.009), higher education (114 vs. 107, p = 0.013) and no dyspareunia vs. grade 3 dyspareunia (116 vs. 93, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a higher median FACT-C score. Conclusion: The majority of AC patients treated with RCT have acceptable overall QOL scores, which are comparable to those of the normal population. Patients with grade 3 CAE - particularly dyspareunia and fecal incontinence - have a poorer QOL compared to patients without CAE. In order to improve long-term QOL, future strategies might aim at a reduction in dose to the genitalia and more intensive patient support measures. (orig.)

  20. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage.

  1. Odontalgia atípica crónica por leve fisura de la corona de un diente, no apreciable con radiografía Chronic atypical odontalgia due to a minor fissure in the tooth crown, not visible in a radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM González-González

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Las odontalgias atípicas crónicas obligan en muchos casos al paciente a ir saltando por consultas de diferentes especialistas, sin encontrar la causa, ni el tratamiento apropiado a su padecimiento. Presentamos tres casos clínicos en los cuales queda demostrada como causa de una odontalgia atípica crónica una fisura de la corona del diente. Pensamos que dicha fisura, cuando se prolonga en profundidad, puede afectar a dentina o pulpa y ser el motivo de ese dolor atípico durante incluso años, terminando en más de un caso en fractura del diente. Proponemos un diagnóstico temprano de este tipo de etiología, realización de una endodoncia y colocación de una funda metal-porcelana de protección.In many cases chronic atypical odontalgia make patients visit several different specialists' surgeries, being unable to find the reason or the suitable treatment for the pain. We present three clinical cases in which a fissure in the tooth crown is proved to be the cause of the chronic atypical odontalgia. We think that when this fissure deepens it can affect dentin or pulp and thus not only cause this atypical pain for years but also result in tooth fracture in more than one case. We propose an early diagnosis of this type of etiology, the performance of an endodontic treatment and the placement of a protective metal-porcelain cap.

  2. HRCT evaluation of the accessory fissures of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Altan E-mail: ayildiz@mersin.edu.tr; Goelpinar, Fulya; Calikoglu, Mukadder; Duce, Meltem Nass; Oezer, Caner; Apaydin, F. Demir

    2004-03-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to classify the accessory fissures of the lung and to assess their frequency by using high-resolution CT. Methods and patients: HRCT scans of 115 patients were prospectively reviewed. 1 mm thin sections were obtained at 10 mm intervals with a scan time of 1.9 s. The fissure and its relationship to the segmental bronchovascular structures were then evaluated on transverse sections. Results: Forty-four accessory fissures were detected in 35 of 115 patients. The most common accessory fissure was the inferior accessory fissure (12%). The second most common accessory fissure was the left minor fissure (8%). The right superior accessory fissure (5%), the accessory fissure between the medial and lateral segments of the right middle lobe (5%), and the accessory fissure between the superior and inferior segments of the lingula (5%) were seen in equal frequencies. Also, intersegmental accessory fissures, namely the fissure between the anterobasal and laterobasal of both the right (1%) and the left (2%) lower lobes were detected. We found only one subsegmental accessory fissure. Discussion and conclusion: The inferior accessory fissure and the left minor fissure were the most common accessory fissures in our study.

  3. Kirurgisk behandling af anale fistler ved Crohns sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyckendorff-Diebold, Tina; Maeda, Yasuko; Buntzen, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of transsphincteric anal fistulas in Crohn's disease is a balance between the elimination of the sepsis and the functional outcome. Loose setons can be used as a preoperative drainage or chronic treatment. Fibrin glue and the anal fistula plug are methods with excellent functional o...

  4. The Artificial Anal Sphincter

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, John

    2000-01-01

    The artificial anal sphincter as treatment for end stage anal incontinence was first described in 1987. Published series concern a total of 42 patients, with a success rate of approximately 80%. Infection has been the most serious complication, but a number of technical complications related to the device have also occurred and required revisional procedures in 40% to 60% of the patients. The artificial anal sphincter may be used for the same indications as dynamic graciloplasty except in pat...

  5. Effect of Psychological Nursing Intervention on the Symptom Alleviation Rate of Negative Emotion and Pain of Patients with Disease of Anal Fissure%心理护理干预对肛裂患者负性情绪及疼痛缓解率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨心理护理干预对肛裂患者忧郁、焦虑及疼痛缓解率的影响。方法将120例肛裂患者随机分为观察组和对照组各60例,对照组给予常规护理,观察组在此基础上给予心理护理干预。比较两组治疗前后负性情绪及疼痛变化。结果两组干预后SAS、SDS评分低于干预前(P<0.01),观察组干预后SAS、SDS评分低于对照组干预后(P<0.05),观察组疼痛总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论心理护理干预可有效缓解肛裂患者因恐惧、焦虑情绪导致的心理负面反应,减轻患者的疼痛感。%ObjectiveTo explore the effect of psychological nursing intervention on the symptom alleviation rate of depression, anxiety and pain of patients with disease of anal ifssure.Methods120 patients with anal ifssure diseases were randomly divided into the patients in the observation group and control group(60 cases in each group).The patients in the control group were given routine nursing care and the patients in the observation group were given extra psychological nursing intervention. The changes of negative emotion and pain of the patients were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.ResultsThe scores of SAS and SDS were lower after the intervention than those before the intervention in the two groups(P<0.01);the scores of SAS and SDS were lower in the observation group than the control group after the intervention(P<0.05);the total alleviation rate of pain of the patients was higher in observation group than the control group(P<0.05).ConclusionThe psychological nursing intervention can effectively alleviate the negative psychological response due to fear and anxiety in patients with gastrointestinal diseases so as to reduce the pain of the patients.

  6. Anal condyloma acuminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Tonna

    2009-01-01

    Anal condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV) that affects the mucosa and skin of the anorectum and genitalia. Anal condyloma acuminatum is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease in the United States. To date, there are more than 100 HPV types, with HPV-6, HPV-10, and HPV-11 predominately found in the anogenital region and causing approximately 90% of genital warts. Risk factors for anal condyloma acuminatum include multiple sex partners, early coital age, anal intercourse, and immunosuppression. Transmission occurs by way of skin-to-skin contact through sexual intercourse, oral sex, anal sex, or other contact involving the genital area. The virus may remain latent for months to years until specific mechanisms cause production of viral DNA, leading to the presentation of anal condyloma acuminatum.Patients with anal condyloma acuminatum may be asymptomatic or present with presence of painless bumps, itching, and discharge or bleeding. It is not uncommon to have involvement of more than one area, and multiple lesions may also be present and extend into the anal canal or rectum. To date, there is no serologic testing or culture to detect anal condyloma acuminatum; therefore, diagnosis is made clinically or by detection of HPV DNA. Multiple factors determine the choice of treatment, which may range from patient-applied medications to surgical intervention. Despite treatment choice, recurrence rates are high, indicating the importance of patient education on prevention of HPV infection and reinfection. Unfortunately, at this time, no cure exists for anal condyloma acuminatum; however, recently Gardasil and Cervarix (in Australia only) vaccines have become available and are showing promising results. PMID:19820442

  7. Intracranial lipoma in the sylvian fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experience with an operation on a case of intracranial lipoma in the sylvian fissure is reported. A 14-year-old man had complained of attacks of abnormal behavior for 2 years and was diagnosed by a psychiatrist as suffering from temporal epilepsy. A computed tomography (CT) scan indicated an abnormal shadow on the brain, and so he was admitted to our hospital. On admission, the results of physical and neurological examinations were normal. An electroencephalogram recorded irregular δ waves and sharp waves over the right frontotemporal region, however. A CT scan showed a round-shaped, extremely low-density area, with calcification of the wall and without contrast-enhancement, in the left sylvian fissure. No abnormal finding was seen in plain skull X-P or in left-carotid angiography. Left-frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor. A solid yellowish tumor was found in the sylvian fissure and totally removed. Histologically, it proved to be a lipoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficit. We discussed the neuroradiological findings of sylvian lipomas. As far as we have learned in an extensive review of the literature, there have been nine reports on intracranial lipomas in the sylvian fissure; as for sylvian lipomas which were detected on a CT scan during life, there have been only six cases other than the present one. (author)

  8. Identification of the pleural fissures with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pleural fissures can be identified as avascular planes within the pulmonary parenchyma on CT scans. A retrospective analysis of 23 consecutive scans was conducted to consider identification of fissures. On 21% of the axial images, a ''ground glass'' band was identified within the avascular plane, probably due to partial volume averaging of the pleural fissure with the adjacent lung. The pleural fissures could be identified in 84% of cases

  9. Thoracoscopic sympathetic clamping in a patient with an azygos fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seok Whan; Yoon, Jeong Sub; Jo, Keon Hyeon; Wang, Young Pil; Park, Hyeon Jin

    2005-04-01

    We believe that an azygos fissure may predispose to bleeding during thoracoscopic surgery. An azygos fissure causes important morphologic changes in the superior mediastinum and thereby poses a risk of massive bleeding during thoracoscopic procedures. We report on a successful thoracoscopic procedure conducted in a patient with palmar hyperhidrosis and an azygos fissure and emphasize that the course of the thoracic sympathetic chain runs laterally along the base of the azygos fissure. PMID:15821627

  10. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal; Chunli Deng

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the ano...

  11. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  12. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  13. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a peri-anal abscess is rare. A high degree of suspicion must be maintained for an anal abscess which does not resolve with conservative management. PMID:24898408

  14. Incomplete pulmonary fissures evaluated by volumetric thin-section CT: Semi-quantitative evaluation for small fissure gaps identification, description of prevalence and severity of fissural defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto – University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Paula, Wagner Diniz de, E-mail: wdpaula@unb.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Owsijewitsch, Michael, E-mail: michael.owsijewitsch@med.uniheidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Wielpütz, Mark Oliver, E-mail: mark.wielpuetz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.gompelmann@thoraxklinik-heidelberg.de [Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine, Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik) at University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter, E-mail: h.schlemmer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Radiology Department, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To assess the interobserver agreement for a semi-quantitative evaluation of the interlobar fissures integrity in volumetric thin-section CT images, looking for more detailed information regarding fissural defects; and describe prevalence and severity of fissural defects between the different functional groups of subjects. Materials and methods: Volumetric scans of 247 individuals exposed to tobacco with different functional status (normal to severe COPD), were retrospectively and independently evaluated by 2 chest radiologists, with a consensual reading additionally with a third reader in disagreement cases. Right oblique (RO), right horizontal (RH) and left oblique fissures (LO) integrity was estimated using a 5% scale. GOLD classification was available for all subjects. Results: Interobserver agreement (weighted Kappa-index) for fissural categorization was 0.76, 0.70 and 0.75, for RO, RH and LO, respectively. Final evaluation found 81%, 89% and 50% of RO, RH and LO to be incomplete, with respective mean integrity of 80%, 58% and 80%. Small fissure gaps (<10%) were present in 30% of patients. Prevalence and severity of fissural defects were not different between the GOLD categories. Conclusions: A substantial agreement between readers was found in the analysis of interlobar fissures integrity. The semi-quantitative method allowed a detailed description of the fissural defects, information that can be important, for example, in endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies for emphysema. Small fissure gaps, overlooked in previous studies, were found in almost a third of the patients. A higher than previously described prevalence of fissural defects was described, but without significant differences among the distinct functional groups.

  15. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  16. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Remon Keriakos; Deepa Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can be associated with significant short and long term consequences causing devastating impacts on the quality of lives of young, otherwise healthy women. The major consequence is anal incontinence which may be short or long term and vary in severity. The other consequences include pain, infection, dyspareunia and sexual dysfunction. This may in turn result in considerable economic burden to health care providers and patients. It also has an implication on future deliveries. Although it can never be eliminated, it can be reduced by improving practice, training and provision of high quality multidisciplinary care in order to reduce long-term morbidity. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are also a source of litigation which can be distressing to both patients and clinicians. The aim of this review article is to explore the available evidence on epidemiology, strategies for preventions, prognosis and also how to deal with governance issues.

  17. Study of the deformation mechanism of the Gaoliying ground fissure

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, G.; H. Wang; Luo, Y.; Guo, H.

    2015-01-01

    The Gaoliying ground fissure in Beijing has caused building cracking and road damage, and has seriously influenced city construction. Based on investigations and trenching, the influences of the fault and the variation of groundwater levels on the formation mechanism of the Gaoliying ground fissure were investigated by using FLAC3D. The results indicated that (1) the surface location of Gaoliying fissure is controlled by the underlying normal fault activity, and over pumping...

  18. The Fissure Swarm of Tungnafellsjökull: Recent movements

    OpenAIRE

    Þórhildur Björnsdóttir

    2012-01-01

    Fissure swarms consist of clusters of normal faults, tensile fractures and volcanic fissures, and often extend from a central volcano. Fissure swarms are often referred to as rift zones, can be found in intraplate, island arc and spreading center volcanoes on Earth, as well as on Venus and Mars. The Tungnafellsjökull fissure swarm is located in Central Iceland Volcanic Zone near the center of the hot spot of Iceland and the triple junction between the Eurasian plate, North-American plate and ...

  19. Efficacy of topical imiquimod in HIV-positive patients with recurrent anal condylomata acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Roberto Nadal; Carmen Ruth Manzione; Fernanda Bellotti Formiga; Sérgio Henrique Couto Horta; Victor Edmond Seid

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod is a topical chemotherapic and immunostimulant agent with antitumoral and antiviral activities, used for anal condylomata acuminata treatment, mainly in recurrences. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the imiquimod efficiency in chronic and recurrent anal condylomata acuminata in HIV-infected persons. METHOD: A prospective study that analyzed 61 patients with recurrent anal condylomata treated with topic 5% imiquimod, for at least 8 weeks. These patients had already been submitted to...

  20. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. PMID:26888899

  1. Anal anatomy and normal histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Priti

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  2. Anal incontinence in women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgeskov, Reneé; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Objectives: To determine the risk of recurrent anal sphincter rupture (ASR), and compare the risk of anal incontinence (AI) after recurrent ASR, with that seen in women with previous ASR who deliver by caesarean section or vaginally without sustaining a recurrent ASR. METHODS...

  3. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radionuclide migration through rock is currently of great interest due to its relevance to the possible escape paths into the biosphere of radionuclides released from high level radioactive wastes burried in deep geological repositories. While water will provide the vehicle for transportation, interaction with geological material may greatly influence the radionuclide movement relative that of water. A flow system for laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in natural fissures in granitic rock under reducing conditions is described. The system based on the use of synthetic ground water equilibrated with granitic rock in a well sealed system, allow experiments to be carried out at -240 mV reduction potential. In flow experiments with technetium the retardation was found to be dependent on the method used for reducing TcO4-. The preparation of the tracer solutions is crucial, as some of the redox-reactions may be very slow. The dynamics of the Tc(VII) reduction and also speciation need to be carried out in separate experiments. (4 illustrations, 5 tables)

  5. Calcified gallstone fissures: the reversed Mercedes Benz sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, S P

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the occurrence of an unusual radiating pattern of calcification in the center of large radiolucent gallstones. The radiographic findings are attributed to calcium deposition within the fissures of biliary calculi. PMID:3556975

  6. Numerical simulation of earth fissures due to groundwater withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Yu, J.; Gong, X.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive groundwater withdrawal can cause land subsidence and earth fissures. The initiation and propagation of earth fissures are related to tensile failure and crack propagation in soils. Based on fracture mechanics, the crack band model (CBM), one of the smear crack models which is relatively easy to construct and convenient to be integrated into standard finite element codes is used in this paper. The calculated results of CBM are less dependent on the sizes of finite e...

  7. Differential compaction mechanism for earth fissures near Casa Grande, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, R.C.; Holzer, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Precise gravity measurements indicate that earth fissures or tension cracks caused by ground-water withdrawal within a 10km2 area SE of Casa Grande are associated with relief on the buried interface between the alluvial aquifer and underlying bedrock. These relations suggest that the fissures are forming in response to localized differential compaction caused by localized variations of aquifer-system thickness. -from Authors

  8. [Surgery of anal fistulas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, E; Carriero, A; Spallanzani, A; Fundarò, S; Heydari, A; Piccoli, M; Gelmini, R

    1997-06-01

    The authors report a study on 120 patients with anal fistula (111 males and 9 females). The average age was 44.3 years (median 44, SD +/- 14.807). 64.1% of patients had an intersphincteric fistula, 23.3% hanal transphincteric fistula, 1.6% a suprasphincteric fistula, 7.5% a horseshoe fistula and the 3.3% an extrasphincteric fistula. We treated 14 patients (11.66%) with direct surgical treatment. The other 106 had various types of treatment depending on the localisation and the involvement of the anorectal sphincter. We had 11 cases (9.1%) of complications, such as recurrence in 5 patients (4.1%) transitory incontinence in 2 cases (1.6%) and finally postoperative bleeding in 3 patients (2.5%). PMID:9324655

  9. Telencephalic Flexure and Malformations of the Lateral Cerebral (Sylvian) Fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura

    2016-10-01

    After sagittal division of the prosencephalon at 4.5 weeks of gestation, the early fetal cerebral hemisphere bends or rotates posteroventrally from seven weeks of gestation. The posterior pole of the telencephalon thus becomes not the occipital but the temporal lobe as the telencephalic flexure forms the operculum and finally the lateral cerebral or Sylvian fissure. The ventral part is infolded to become the insula. The frontal and temporal lips of the Sylvian fissure, as well as the insula, all derive from the ventral margin of the primitive telencephalon, hence may be influenced by genetic mutations with a ventrodorsal gradient of expression. The telencephalic flexure also contributes to a shift of the hippocampus from a dorsal to a ventral position, the early rostral pole of the hippocampus becoming caudal and dorsal becoming ventral. The occipital horn is the most recent recess of the lateral ventricle, hence most vulnerable to anatomic variations that affect the calcarine fissure. Many major malformations include lack of telencephalic flexure (holoprosencephaly, extreme micrencephaly) or dysplastic Sylvian fissure (lissencephalies, hemimegalencephaly, schizencephaly). Although fissures and sulci are genetically programmed, mechanical forces of growth and volume expansion are proposed to be mainly extrinsic (including ventricles) for fissures and intrinsic for sulci. In fetal hydrocephalus, the telencephalic flexure is less affected because ventricular dilatation occurs later in gestation. Flexures can be detected prenatally by ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging and should be described neuropathologically in cerebral malformations. PMID:27590993

  10. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF AYURVEDIC COMPOUND AND MANUAL DILATATION OF ANUS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PARIKARTIKA (FISSURE-IN ANO: AN OPEN PERSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Hemanta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parikartika (Anal fissure is the most common cause of anal pain. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effectiveness of Ayurvedic compound along with manual dilatation of Anus and Jatyadi tail in anal fissure. 40 patients were included in this study and the therapeutic outcome and side effects were recorded. Recurrence of symptoms occurred in two healed patients in four months. Remission of the disease was found in 80% of cases which is statistically significant. Partial remission in 12.5% and no remission was found in 7.5% of cases. The appetite was markedly improved, which was either nil or, reduced before treatment. The mean was 0.4 as compared to 2.375 before treatment with SD 0.5905 and P is significant <0.001. Complete healing of the fissure occurred in 95% of the subjects by the end of 30 days (P<0.0001, statistically highly significant. The pain score in the subjects dropped from 3.325 (mean to 0.35 (mean in 30days time with SD 0.4830, SEM dropped from 0.1154 to 0.07638 with P value < 0.001 which is statistically significant. Ninty nine percent of the subjects experienced a significant fall in the bleeding by the end of 30 days. There was also a significant reduction in the discharge with mean dropped from 3.375 to 0.2 and SD 0.4051, P value <0.0001.Perianal pruritis was also significantly reduced with mean dropped from 3.175 to 0.35 before and after treatment respectively with SD 0.4830, SEM0.07638, and P value <0.001.

  11. The effect of fissure morphology and eruption time on penetration and adaptation of pit and fissure sealants: An SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal N

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effect of fissure morphology on penetration and adaptation of fissure sealants and their relationship with the eruption time of tooth. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty extracted molars and premolars were divided into two groups on the basis of their eruption time. The two groups were further divided into five subgroups on the basis of fissure morphology. An scanning electron microscopic analysis of penetration and adaptation of sealant was done. Observations and Results: V- and U-shaped fissures were found to have the maximum penetration. Penetration was very poor for I- and IK-types of fissures. No significant difference in penetration was found in relation to eruption time. Adaptation of sealant was not affected by any of the factors. Conclusion: Even the well-applied sealant does not necessarily provide complete obturation of pits and fissures, thus necessitating periodical clinical observation to determine the success or potential failure of the sealant treatment.

  12. A conceptual model of the hydrological influence of fissures on landslide activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Krzeminska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes control the behaviour of many unstable slopes, and their importance for landslide activity is generally accepted. The presence of fissures influences the storage capacity of a soil and affects the infiltration processes of rainfall. The effectiveness of the fissure network depends upon fissure size, their spatial distribution, and connectivity. Moreover, fissure connectivity is a dynamic characteristic, depending on the degree of saturation of the medium.

    This research aims to investigate the influence of the fissure network on hydrological responses of a landslide. Special attention is given to spatial and temporal variations in fissure connectivity, which makes fissures act both as preferential flow paths for deep infiltration (disconnected fissures and as lateral groundwater drains (connected fissures. To this end, the hydrological processes that control the exchange of water between the fissure network and the matrix have been included in a spatially distributed hydrological and slope stability model. The ensuing feedbacks in landslide hydrology were explored by running the model with one year of meteorological forcing. The effect of dynamic fissure connectivity was evaluated by comparing simulations with static fissure patterns to simulations in which these patterns change as a function of soil saturation. The results highlight that fissure connectivity and fissure permeability control the water distribution within landslides. Making the fissure connectivity function of soil moisture results in composite behaviour spanning the above end members and introduces stronger seasonality of the hydrological responses.

  13. Comparative study of anal acoustic reflectometry and anal manometry in the assessment of faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, B R; Mitchell, P J; Carlson, G L;

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry (AAR) is a reproducible technique providing a novel physiological assessment of anal sphincter function. It may have advantages over conventional anal manometry. The aims of this study were to determine the ability of AAR and anal manometry to identify changes in anal...

  14. Identification of pulmonary fissures using a piecewise plane fitting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Suicheng; Wilson, David; Wang, Zhimin; Bigbee, William L; Siegfried, Jill; Gur, David; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-10-01

    We describe an automated computerized scheme to identify pulmonary fissures depicted in chest computed tomography (CT) examinations from a novel perspective. Whereas CT images can be regarded as a cloud of points, the underlying idea is to search for surface-like structures in the three-dimensional (3D) Euclidean space by using an efficient plane fitting algorithm. The proposed plane fitting operation is performed in a number of small spherical lung sub-volumes to detect small planar patches. Using a simple clustering criterion based on their spatial coherence and surface area, the identified planar patches, assumed to represent fissures, are classified into different types of fissures, namely left oblique, right oblique and right horizontal fissures. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created "reference standard" and the results obtained by a previously developed approach on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. The experiments show that the average discrepancy is around 1.0mm in comparison with the reference standard, while the corresponding maximum discrepancy is 20.5mm. In addition, 94% of the fissure voxels identified by the computerized scheme are within 3mm of the fissures in the reference standard. As compared to a previously developed approach, we also found that the newly developed scheme had a smaller discrepancy with the standard reference. In efficiency, it takes approximately 8 min to identify the fissures in a chest CT examination on a typical PC. The developed scheme demonstrates a reasonable performance in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency.

  15. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  16. Modern management of anal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limura, Elsa; Giordano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Ideal surgical treatment for anal fistula should aim to eradicate sepsis and promote healing of the tract, whilst preserving the sphincters and the mechanism of continence. For the simple and most distal fistulae, conventional surgical options such as laying open of the fistula tract seem to be relatively safe and therefore, well accepted in clinical practise. However, for the more complex fistulae where a significant proportion of the anal sphincter is involved, great concern remains about damaging the sphincter and subsequent poor functional outcome, which is quite inevitable following conventional surgical treatment. For this reason, over the last two decades, many sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of anal fistula have been introduced with the common goal of minimising the injury to the anal sphincters and preserving optimal function. Among them, the ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure appears to be safe and effective and may be routinely considered for complex anal fistula. Another technique, the anal fistula plug, derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, is safe but modestly effective in long-term follow-up, with success rates varying from 24%-88%. The failure rate may be due to its extrusion from the fistula tract. To obviate that, a new designed plug (GORE BioA®) was introduced, but long term data regarding its efficacy are scant. Fibrin glue showed poor and variable healing rate (14%-74%). FiLaC and video-assisted anal fistula treatment procedures, respectively using laser and electrode energy, are expensive and yet to be thoroughly assessed in clinical practise. Recently, a therapy using autologous adipose-derived stem cells has been described. Their properties of regenerating tissues and suppressing inflammatory response must be better investigated on anal fistulae, and studies remain in progress. The aim of this present article is to review the pertinent literature, describing the advantages and limitations of

  17. Inter-Rater Agreement of Anal Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Darragh, Teresa M.; Tokugawa, Diane; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; LaMere, Brandon J.; Schwartz, Lauren; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most anal cancers are caused by persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV). Similar to cervical carcinogenesis, the progression from HPV infection to anal cancer goes through precancerous lesions that can be treated to prevent invasion. In analogy to cervical cytology, anal cytology has been proposed as a screening tool for anal cancer precursors in high-risk populations. We analyzed the inter-observer reproducibility of anal cytology in a population of 363 HIV-infec...

  18. Normal and accessory fissures of the lung: Evaluation with contiguous volumetric thin-section multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to use volumetric, 1.25 mm collimation MDCT read as softcopy and using a 2D and 3D viewer tool, to establish the frequency of normal and accessory fissures, the continuity of the fissures, whether the fissures are visible as a thin line, a hypovascular region, or both, and also to establish the interobserver agreement of readers. 150 consecutive MDCT examinations were retrospectively assessed. Interobserver agreement for each of these fissures was evaluated using the Kappa statistic. All subjects had a right and a left major fissure. 96.7% of subjects also had a right minor fissure. 40% had an accessory fissure, the most common, the left minor in 16% of subjects. Most of the three usual fissures were continuous, whereas fewer than half of accessory fissures were continuous. The majority (54-100%) of normal and accessory fissures were visualized as a thin line. There was substantial to excellent interobserver agreement on the presence or absence of fissures their continuity (k = 0.96), and fair to excellent agreement on fissure morphology (k = 0.37-1.0). The prevalence of fissures on MDCT, equivalent to autopsy studies, visualizing fissures as a thin line and high interobserver agreement is probably due to the high sensitivity of MDCT, secondary to thin-section volumetric imaging.

  19. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  20. Cochlear implant electrode array misplaced in Hyrtl's fissure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzali, Amina; Ouennoughi, Kheiredidine; Haraoubia, Mohamed-Salah; Zemirli, Omar; Triglia, Jean Michel

    2011-11-01

    Hyrtl's fissure is a cleft that is present in the developing fetal petrous temporal bone and extends from the area inferior to the round window to the meninges of the posterior fossa. Persistent Hyrtl's fissure, due to incomplete ossification, is considered a rare temporal bone malformation, and is a known cause of perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Very few cases are reported as being at risk of complication of cochlear implant surgery. Here we report the case of an 8-year-old boy with misplacement of an electrode array in Hyrtl's fissure. The diagnosis was made postoperatively, since cochlear implant failure was suspected from non-auditory responses. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the extracochlear location of the electrode array. We emphasize the role of presurgical imaging CT and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting temporal bone abnormalities, and we discuss the value of intraoperative auditory nerve response telemetry and postoperative radiological evaluation in diagnosing cochlear implant misplacement.

  1. Sealant Microleakage Evaluation of Three Common Fissure Preparation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadinejad Sh.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In order to decrease microleakage, several preparation methods and cleaning techniques are used on the tooth surface before sealant application has been advocated. These techniques are pumice prophylaxis, fissure enameloplasty, adhesive, laser and air abrasion. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of three different preparation techniques before acid etching and pit and fissure sealant application. Materials and Method: Sixty extracted sound third molars were randomly divided into 4 groups of 15 each. The teeth were prepared using 1 of the 3 occlusal surface treatments, 1 traditional pumice prophylaxis 2 fissure enameloplasty 3 air abrasion and acid etching. Then the sealant (Clinpro was applied on the occlusal fissures of all the teeth based on the manufacturer's recommendations. The teeth were thermocycled between 5 and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles with a dwell time of 30 seconds and then stored in normal saline. All the teeth were sealed apically and coated within 1.5 mm of the sealant margin with two layers of nail varnish. They were then immersed in a 0.5% solution of fushin for 24 hours to allow dye penetration into the possible gaps between the enamel and sealant. Buccolingual cuts were made parallel to the long axis of the tooth. The surfaces were scored 0 to 2 for the extent of microleakage using a stereomicroscope. The results were analyzed through mann-Withney test and Mann-Whitney U test.Results: Pretreatment with air abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores. In the control group, 46.7% microleakage was shown, in the pumice prophylaxis group 40% and in the enameloplasty group 53.3%. There was no significant difference in microleakage between the 3 fissure preparation methods prior to sealant placement ( p >0.05.Conclusion: Neither air abrasion nor enameloplasty followed by acid etching produced significantly less fissure sealant microleakage as compared to the

  2. Engineering a robotic approach to mapping exposed volcanic fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Field geology provides a framework for advanced computer models and theoretical calculations of volcanic systems. Some field terrains, though, are poorly preserved or accessible, making documentation, quantification, and investigation impossible. Over 200 volcanologists at the 2012 Kona Chapman Conference on volcanology agreed that and important step forward in the field over the next 100 years should address the realistic size and shape of volcanic conduits. The 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provides a unique opportunity to document volcanic fissure conduits, thus, we have an ideal location to begin addressing this topic and provide data on these geometries. Exposed fissures can be mapped with robotics using machine vision. In order to test the hypothesis that fissures have irregularities with depth that will influence their fluid dynamical behavior, we must first map the fissure vents and shallow conduit to deci- or centimeter scale. We have designed, constructed, and field-tested the first version of a robotic device that will image an exposed volcanic fissure in three dimensions. The design phase included three steps: 1) create the payload harness and protective shell to prevent damage to the electronics and robot, 2) construct a circuit board to have the electronics communicate with a surface-based computer, and 3) prototype wheel shapes that can handle a variety of volcanic rock textures. The robot's mechanical parts were built using 3d printing, milling, casting and laser cutting techniques, and the electronics were assembled from off the shelf components. The testing phase took place at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea, Hawai'i, from May 5 - 9, 2014. Many valuable design lessons were learned during the week, and the first ever 3D map from inside a volcanic fissure were successfully collected. Three vents had between 25% and 95% of their internal surfaces imaged. A fourth location, a non-eruptive crack (possibly a fault line) had two transects imaging the textures

  3. Surgery for Crohn's anal fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, A; Koganei, K; Harada, H; Yamazaki, Y; Fukushima, T; Shimada, H

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the features of Crohn's anal fistulas and to evaluate the efficacy of seton treatment. In 119 patients with Crohn's disease, the incidence of anal fistula was 56% (67/119), with no significant difference in the incidence among patients with ileitis, colitis, and ileocolitis. "Intractable" anal fistulas were found in 17% of patients with ileitis, compared to 64% of those with colitis (P = 0.051) and 68% of those with ileocolitis (P = 0.014). Seton treatment, i.e., non-cutting, long-term seton drainage, was performed for 21 patients (5 with intersphincteric, and 16 with transsphincteric fistulas). In the 16-month follow up, 9 patients required redrainage for recurrent fistulous abscess, mainly because of progressive colorectal disease. Finally, a good result was obtained in 17 of the 21 patients (81%) and no recurrent fistulous abscess developed in the 8 patients in whom all setons were removed. Anal continence was preserved in all the patients. These results indicate that anal fistulas with Crohn's ileitis were cured more easily than those with colitis or ileocolitis, and that seton treatment was effective for intersphincteric fistula with multiple fistula openings and for transphincteric fistulas in patients exhibiting remission of intestinal Crohn's disease. PMID:8563879

  4. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting as a peri-anal abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasekera, Hasanga; Gorissen, Kym; Francis, Leo; Chow, Carina

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing peri-anal abscess can be difficult to manage and is often attributed to chronic disease. This case documents a male in his seventh decade who presented with multiple peri-anal collections. The abscess cavity had caused necrosis of the internal sphincter muscles resulting in faecal incontinence. Biopsies were conclusive for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A de-functioning colostomy was performed and the patient was initiated on CHOP-R chemotherapy. Anal lymphoma masquerading as a ...

  5. Method to calculate fatigue fracture life of control fissure in perilous rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-kai; TANG Hong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Rupture and safety of perilous rock are dominated by control fissure behind perilous rock block. Based on model-Ⅰ and model-Ⅱ stress strength factors of control fissure under acting of weight of perilous rock, water pressure in control fissure and earthquake forces, method to calculate critical linking length of control fissure is established. Take water pressure in control fissure as a variable periodic load, and abide by P-M criterion, when control fissure is filled with water, establish the method to calculate fatigue fracture life of control fissure in critical status by contributing value of stress strength factor stemming from water pressure of control fissure in Paris's fatigue equation. Further, parameters(C and m)of sandstone with quartz and feldspar in the area of the Three Gorges Reservoir of China are obtained by fatigue fracture testing.

  6. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  7. Delay in diagnosis of congenital anal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Weledji, Elroy P; Motaze Sinju

    2016-01-01

    Although a minor anorectal malformation the delay in diagnosis and treatment of anal stenosis may result in significant early or late complications. Early inspection of the perineum in the neonate to pick up and correct anorectal malformation improves long term outcome but this requires proper anal examination or it could be missed. We present and discuss a case of delayed diagnosis of congenital anal stenosis (a low anorectal anomaly) with an imminent colonic perforation. Severe anal stenosi...

  8. Delay in diagnosis of congenital anal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elroy P. Weledji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although a minor anorectal malformation the delay in diagnosis and treatment of anal stenosis may result in significant early or late complications. Early inspection of the perineum in the neonate to pick up and correct anorectal malformation improves long term outcome but this requires proper anal examination or it could be missed. We present and discuss a case of delayed diagnosis of congenital anal stenosis (a low anorectal anomaly with an imminent colonic perforation. Severe anal stenosis will always require examination under anesthesia with graded Hegar's dilatation followed by postoperative maintenance. The Hegar dilator is thus both diagnostic and therapeutic in congenital anal stenosis.

  9. The effect of vegetation on infiltration in shallow soils underlain by fissured bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothoff, S. A.; Or, D.; Groeneveld, D. P.; Jones, S. B.

    1999-05-01

    Mean annual infiltration above the high-level waste repository proposed to be sited at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has a large impact on assessments of repository performance. Ongoing investigations of infiltration processes have identified the relatively horizontal caprock environment above portions of the repository as a potentially large source of infiltrating waters, due to shallow, permeable soils above a moderately welded tuff with large soil-filled fissures. The combination of shallow soils and fissured bedrock allows rapid penetration of wetting pulses to below the rooting zone. Plant uptake can strongly reduce net infiltration in arid environments with high water storage capacity, and, despite the low water storage capacity, there is a relatively high vegetation density in this environment. The apparent discrepancy between high vegetation density and low water storage motivates the study of plant-hydrologic interactions in this semiarid environment. Field observations were coupled with plant- and landscape-scale models to provide insight into plant-hydrologic interactions. Several lines of evidence, including: (i) linear plant growth features observed on aerial photographs; (ii) comparisons of plant cover within the fissured environment and comparable environments lacking fissures; and (iii) direct excavations, all suggest that the widely spaced soil-filled fissures are conducive to plant growth even when fissures are buried at soil depths exceeding 30 cm. Results from a mechanistic simulation model for root growth into fissures suggest that the additional (sheltered) plant-available soil water within fissures provides a competitive advantage for plant establishment. Therefore, plants that germinate above a fissure are more likely to survive, in turn developing linear features above fissures. Having established that plants preferentially root within soil-filled fissures in the caprock environment, a set of simulations were performed to examine the hydrologic

  10. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  11. Fissured and geographic tongue in Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a rare, most often sporadic, genetic disease caused by a chromosomal microdeletion at locus 7q11.23 involving 28 genes. It is characterized by congenital heart defects, neonatal hypercalcemia, skeletal and renal abnormalities, cognitive disorder, social personality disorder, and dysmorphic facies. A number of clinical findings has been reported, but none of the studies evaluated this syndrome considering oral cavity. We here report a fissured and geographic tongue in association with WBS.

  12. Fluoride release and uptake abilities of different fissure sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andenna, Gianluigi; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Cucca, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term capability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride is associated to a reduction in pit and fissure caries. The regular use of fluoride varnishes/toothpastes can result in the absorption of fluoride into the sealant. The objective of the present study was to assess the fluoride release/uptake capacities of different fissure sealants. Material and Methods Three different fissure sealants (Fuji Triage/GC, Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco) were examined. Ten discs of each material were prepared. Each disc was incubated with distilled water and then the solution analyzed for diluted for fluoride concentration, using a combination of fluoride electrode (OrionGP 1 S/N 13824, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA) connected to an expandable ion analyzer (Orion 720A, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA). Standard curves between 1 and 100 ppm F- were used to calibrate the electrode. Cumulative fluoride release was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35 and 49, then two different fluoride varnishes/pastes (Profluorid Varnish/Voco, MI Paste Plus/GC), were applied to the sealants tested, and fluoride release (after reuptake) was measured on days 56, 70 and 84. Results Kruskal Wallis test confirmed significant differences in fluoride release between Fuji Triage/GC and Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco from day 1 (P fluoride varnish Profluorid Varnish enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants (P fluoride release for all sealants except for Fuji Triage/GC (P > 0.05). Conclusions The GIC-based sealant (Fuji Triage/GC) released significantly more fluoride than the resin sealants tested. The exposure to the fluoridated varnish (Profluorid Varnish) significantly recharged the sealants tested more than the CPP-ACPF toothpaste (MI Paste Plus). Key words:Fissure sealants, fluoride release, fluoride uptake, glass ionomer cements. PMID:27398179

  13. Consistency of DIAGNOdent instruments for clinical assessment of fissure caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astvaldsdóttir, Alfheidur; Holbrook, W Peter; Tranaeus, Sofia

    2004-08-01

    DIAGNOdent (KaVo, Biberach, Germany) has shown high diagnostic accuracy and intra-operator agreement for caries detection, both in vitro and in vivo. The aims of this study were to compare DIAGNOdent with visual examination (VI) and bitewing radiographs (BW) for clinical assessment of occlusal fissures, and to evaluate inter-device consistency of clinical recording using four different DIAGNOdent instruments; secondly, to correlate DIAGNOdent readings with microbial culture of the measured site. The subjects were young adults, the material comprising 34 occlusal fissures, scheduled for restorative treatment at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Iceland. Two examiners conducted visual and radiographic assessments. One examiner measured each site with four DIAGNOdent instruments in random order. The fissure was then opened and lesion depth was classified on a 4-point scale. Bacterial samples were taken from the fissure before and after opening. Intra-operator agreement was high (r = 0.85-0.98). Inter-device correlation for the four DIAGNOdent instruments was significant in all cases (r = 0.81-0.92). However, a common cut-off point could not be determined. There was weak but significant correlation between DIAGNOdent readings and all three classes of lesion depth. Level of infection showed very weak correlation with the DIAGNOdent readings. It was concluded that DIAGNOdent is more reliable in detecting dentinal caries if a proper cut-off point is used than in indicating actual lesion depth. Readings from the different instruments were not directly comparable, however, owing to the lack of a common cut-off point.

  14. Internal anal sphincter: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, A; Elhan, A; Ersoy, M; Tekdemir, I

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the internal anal sphincter and surrounding structures was investigated in 24 cadavers using a surgical microscope (6-25 x magnification). An understanding of the anatomy of the internal anal sphincter is helpful in avoiding complications during surgical procedures in the anorectal region. The external anal sphincter was composed of three ellipsoid rings of skeletal muscle (subcutaneous, superficial, and deep) that encircle the anal canal; in contrast, we found that the internal anal sphincter was composed of flat rings of smooth muscle bundles stacked one on top of the other, like the slats of a Venetian blind. In each anal canal, the average number of ring-like slats observed was 26.33 +/- 2.93 (range = 20-30) and each was covered by its own fascia. The smooth muscle fibers and fascia coalesced at three equidistant points around the anal canal to form three columns that extended distally into the lumen and differed in form from the other anal columns. When viewed from an anterior position, the columns were located anteriorly at the observer's right (5 o'clock position), posteriorly at the right (1 o'clock position), and laterally at the left (9 o'clock position). This heretofore unreported anatomy of the internal anal sphincter may play an important role in closing off the lumen of the anal canal and maintaining bowel continence. PMID:14695582

  15. The effect of fissures on the strength of structural timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñiguez, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of drying fissures were carried out on 28 pieces of gross cross-section structural Scots pine timber. Different parameters have been proposed to measure their magnitude: length, depth, thickness and slope of grain, as well as an index of area in the neutral axis plane (ratio of effective to total surface. The parameters of fissures have been related to bending strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity and rupture energy obtained from mechanical tests, considering whether rupture is due to bending or shear. All of the fissures observed allows to classify the pieces as MEG according to the UNE 56544 standard. To quantify the magnitude of fissures the index of areas is proposed, while mechanical properties can be quantified by rupture energy. Analysis of the results does not show any relation between the fissures analyzed and the mode of failure, their magnitude and mechanical properties..

    Se han realizado mediciones detalladas de las fendas de secado en 28 piezas de madera de pino silvestre de gran escuadría. Se han propuesto diferentes parámetros para medir su magnitud en longitud, profundidad, grosor e inclinación, así como un índice de áreas en el plano medio de rasante (superficie eficaz respecto a superficie total. Se han relacionado los parámetros de fendas con resistencia a flexión, resistencia a cortante, módulo de elasticidad y energía de rotura obtenidos mediante ensayos mecánicos, teniendo en cuenta si la rotura se produce por flexión o por cortante. Todas las fendas observadas permiten clasificar las piezas como MEG según la norma UNE 56544. Se propone cuantificar las fendas mediante el índice de áreas y las propiedades mecánicas mediante la energía de rotura. El análisis realizado no muestra una relación significativa entre las fendas analizadas, los modos de rotura o las propiedades mecánicas.

  16. Hallazgos ecográficos en la proctalgia espontánea y postoperatoria Ultrasound findings in spontaneous and postoperative anal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pascual

    2008-12-01

    endoprobe providing 360º images. Results: ninety-five cases of anal pain were studied by endoanal ultrasonography. Sixty-seven cases of anal pain ocurred in patients with previous perineal or pelvic surgery: anal fissure (48, hemorrhoidectomy (12, episiotomy (4, fistula (2, and prostatectomy (1. After fissure surgery, incomplete sphincterotomy was the first cause of anal pain. Twenty-eight patients had no previous surgery, and more than 57.14% of them were found to have internal anal sphincter hypertrophy. Conclusions: patients with anal pain can be studied by endoanal ultrasounds in spite of the use of an endoprobe. With this exploration a cause of pain is found in 81.93% of cases. Internal anal sphincter hypertrophy is the most frequent finding associated with spontaneous anal pain.

  17. Elements of an anal dysplasia screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is highly elevated compared to the general population, as is the incidence of its precursor lesion, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN). MSM in general and other immunocompromised populations are also at higher risk. Treatment of HGAIN may prevent development of cancer, similar to the decrease in cervical cancers that has occurred since the advent of cervical cancer screening programs in women. Cervical cancer screening tools have been adapted and validated for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of anal HGAIN. Anal cancer screening programs have now been available for more than a decade, although they are not yet standards of care. Incorporating screening procedures into practice depends on the available resources in a particular community. This article discusses the procedures for anal cancer screening including cytology, digital anal rectal examinations, high-resolution anoscopy, and biopsy. PMID:22035526

  18. Mining-induced movement properties and fissure time-space evolution law in overlying strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Xingliang; Zhang; Nong; Tian; Suchuan

    2012-01-01

    Mining-induced fracture zone will be produced in the overlying strata after the coal was mined.In this article,the mining-induced deformation of overlying strata and the time-space evolution law of fissure were studied by the methods of physical simulation and field measurement.The results show that bed separation fissure and vertical fissure will appear in the overlying strata above mining face,which form the wedge-shaped fissure zone.The open degree of fissure depends on the size of uncoordinated deformation between neighbor layers,and the absolute strata sinking controls both the width of bed separation zone and the open degree of vertical breakage fissure.At last,the calculating formula was deducted based on theoretical analysis.

  19. The 1981 eruptive fissure on Mt. Etna: considerations on its exploration and genesis

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Leotta; Marco Liuzzo

    1998-01-01

    This paper is targeted to an analysis of features common to various fissure caves on Mt. Etna, Sicily. The Authors report the preliminary results of the exploration carried out in the 1981 eruptive fissure, the technical problems met during the exploration, the flow trends and the different courses of the molten material inside the fissure, the particular morphologies. A genetic model is proposed, different from those characterising the lava tube cave genesis, and links are suggested between ...

  20. Clinical analysis of molar fissures by Cone-beam tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, V R N; Azevedo, B C; Gravina, D B L; Toledo, O A; Bezerra, A C B

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to validate clinical analysis of 20 pediatric dentists on occlusal groove-fossa-system of molar depth comparing to Cone-beam tomography. The 48 sound third molars were visually classified from the shallowest to the deepest. Images were taken from the Accuitomo 3DX. There was a fair correlation between clinical analysis and the tomographic scorings (rs = 0.238; P = 0.103). It was concluded that pediatric dentists were not able to classify the fissures depth by visual analysis correctly. PMID:19161057

  1. Management and operative strategy for Currarino syndrome associated with thickening of the internal anal sphincter, megarectum and presacral tumor: A case report and literature reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Tatekawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currarino syndrome is characterized by anorectal malformation, a presacral tumor and sacral malformation. A funnel-shaped anal stenosis causes chronic constipation resulting in the development of megarectum and requires surgical intervention. We present a three-year-old girl with Currarino syndrome consisting of a presacral tumor, anal stenosis and megarectum associated with the thickening of the internal anal sphincter. After transverse loop colostomy, excision of the presacral tumor was performed via a posterior sagittal approach and posterior anoplasty with sphincterotomy was done for the anal stenosis. After discharge, anastomotic stenosis in the anal ring remained and anal dilatation, along with closure of colostomy, was performed with an extended skin graft method. Five months postoperatively, there had not been any recurrence of her tumor and she felt the desire to defecate and smoothly defecated with a laxative.

  2. The fissural complex of the lung: anatomy and variations on thin-section CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Kim, Il Young; Bae, Won Kyung; Lee, Byoung Ho [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    To evaluate further the right minor and major fissure on thin-section narrow-interval CT scans with particular emphases on orientation, degree of completeness. This section CT scans from 10 mm distal to carina to the proximal basal segmental bronchus were obtained at 5 mm invervals in 50 consecutive subjects. Orientation, degree of completeness, and the relationship of the minor and major fissure on thin-section CT scans were analyzed. Four principal types of the minor fissure could be identified according to the highest point of the upper surface of the middle lobe. At bronchus intermedius level, the major fissure appeared with its medial end anterior to lateral end in 45 subjects. The minor fissure was complete in only 10 subjects (20%). Completely absent minor fissure was noted in four subjects (8%). The major fissure was incomplete in 17 subjects (34%) at bronchus intermedius level, the minor and major fissure intersected each other in only 27 subjects (54%). The highest point of intersection was variable. There are much more variations in the fissural complex in our study than in previous reports and these variations can be visualized well on thin-section CT scans.

  3. Experimental investigation and numerical simulation on the effect of fissure water pressure in vertical sliding surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; LI Shihai; LIAN Zhenzhong; WANG Yuannian

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of fissure water pressure in different fractures on the critical angle of landslide by laboratory investigation and numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanisms of fissure water pressure on landslide stability. Laboratory observations show that the effect of fissure water pressure on the critical angle of landslide is little when the distance between water-holding fracture and slope toe is three times greater than the depth of fissure water. These experimental results are also simulated by a three-dimensional face-to-face contact discrete element method. This method has included the fissure water pressure and can accurately calculate the critical angle of jointed slope when fissure water pressure in vertical sliding surface exists.Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is revealed that the location of water-holding structural surface is important to landslide stability. The ratio of the distance between water-holding fissure and slope toe to the depth of fissure water is a key parameter to justify the effect of fissure water pressure on the critical angle of landslide.

  4. Study of fissured-rock seepage flow with isotope tracer method in single borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 董海洲

    2001-01-01

    A systematic summary is presented describing the application of isotope tracer method in detecting seepage flow in a single borehole. In a single borehole, many hydraulic coefficients, such as flow velocity, direction of flow, vertical flow etc., can be obtained by using isotope tracer method. There are three conditions if a fissure intersects a borehole: vertical, parallel and tilt. According to each different condition, the formulation of flow velocity deduced by isotope dilution method is different. At the same time, well theory of blended borehole about fissure groups including single fissure group and multi-fissure groups, has also been discussed.

  5. Research of features related to land subsidence and ground fissure disasters in the Beijing Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, R.; Wang, H.

    2015-11-01

    This study overviews the development history, current situation, impact, and hazards of land subsidence and ground fissure disasters in the Beijing Plain (BP) and focuses on the disaster distribution and features of disaster-causing mechanisms. Currently, the BP is still in a rapid developmental stage of land subsidence. The development and distribution of land subsidence are affected by various factors including the thickness of Quaternary compressible clay, groundwater overexploitation, and the rapid development of urban construction. The causes of ground fissures in the BP are complex and diverse, with evidence of structure fissures, non-structure fissures, and mixed genesis fissures. Investigations of the Gaoliying ground fissure have shown that this fissure has evidence of fracture activity, with vertical deformation that is more significant than horizontal deformation. Furthermore, this ground fissure has characteristics of inter-annual periodicity and annual jumping. The land subsidence and ground fissures are all under structural control and impact each other, and more severe hazards may be induced under the superimposition of these two types of disasters. Effective measures and suggestions for disaster prevention and control are recommended on the basis of this study.

  6. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  7. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Clark; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised.

  8. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  9. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  10. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: review and recommendations for screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyczek, Petra; Singh, Ameeta E; Romanowski, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Anal cancer is a rare malignancy of the distal gastrointestinal tract, often associated with human papillomavirus, the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Currently available screening methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia, a precursor for anal cancer, combine anal Papanicolaou cytology and high resolution anoscopy with biopsy of suspicious lesions. Significant barriers to establishing anal cancer screening programmes include the small number of healthcare professionals performing high resolution anoscopy and the lack of data showing that anal cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality related to anal carcinoma. Despite several controversies surrounding anal cancer screening, the rising incidence of this disease in some groups supports routine screening programmes in high-risk populations, especially in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. This review outlines the epidemiology of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer and summarizes issues related to the introduction of anal cancer screening programmes. PMID:23970583

  11. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although pit and fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries, their efficacy may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the caries prevention of pit and fissure sealants in children and adolescent...

  12. Video monitoring analysis of the dynamics at fissure eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-04-01

    At basaltic eruption often lava fountains occur. The fountains mainly develop at erupting fissures, underlain by a magma-filled dike transporting the magma horizontally and vertically. Understanding of the dynamics of the deep dike and fracture mechanisms are mainly based on geophysical data as well as observations from seismic or geodetic networks. At the surface, however, new methods are needed to allow detailed interpretation on the eruption velocities, interactions between vents and complexities in the magma paths. With video cameras we collected imaging data from different erupting fissures. We find that lava fountaining is often correlated at distinct vents. From the frames of the videos we calculated the height and velocities of fountains as a function of time. Lava fountains often show a pulsating regime, that may change over time. Comparing the fountain height as a function of time of different vents by an time-dependent cross-correlation, we find a time lag between the pulses at adjacent vents. From this we derive an apparent velocity of temporal separation between vents, associated with the fountaining activity based on the calculated time lag and the vent distances. Although the correlation system can change episodically and sporadically, both the frequency of the fountains and eruption and the rest time between single fountains remain remarkably similar for adjacent lava fountains imply a controlling process in the magma feeder system itself. We present and compare our method for the Kamoamoa eruption 2011 (Hawaii) and the Holuhraun eruption 2014/2015 (Iceland). Both sites show a significant time shift between the single pulses of adjacent vents. We compare our velocities determined by this time shift to the assumed magma flow velocity in the dike as determined by independent models. Therefore we conjecture that the time shift of venting activity may allow to estimate the dynamics of magma and fluid migration at depth, as well as to identify the

  13. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: Areview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. Anumber of risk-stratification strategies as well as screeningtechniques have been suggested, and currently littleconsensus exists among national societies. Much ofthe current clinical rationale for the prevention of analcancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervicalcancer and the successful use of routine screening toidentify cervical cancer and its precursors early in thedisease process. It is thought that such a strategy ofidentifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reducethe incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalenceof anal cancer in the general population prevents theuse of routine screening. However, routine screeningof selected populations has been shown to be a morepromising strategy. Potential screening modalities includedigital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, humanpapilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy.Additional research associating high-grade dysplasiatreatment with anal cancer prevention as well as directcomparisons of screening regimens is necessary todevelop further anal cancer screening recommendations.

  14. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  15. Fissure formation in coke. 2: Effect of heating rate, shrinkage and coke strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the effects of the heating rate, coke shrinkage and coke breakage strength upon the fissure pattern developed in a coke oven charge during carbonisation. This is done principally using a mechanistic model of the formation of fissures, which considers them to be an array of equally spaced fissures, whose depth follows a 'period doubling' pattern based upon the time history of the fissures. The model results are compared with pilot scale coke oven experiments. The results show that the effect of heating rate on the fissure pattern is different to the effect of coke shrinkage, while the effect of coke breakage strength on the pattern is less pronounced. The results can be seen in both the shape and size of resulting coke lumps after stabilisation. The approach gives the opportunity to consider means of controlling the carbonisation process in order to tune the size of the coke lumps produced. 7 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Anal erogeneity: the goose and the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1982-01-01

    A case is presented in which the patient's traumatically derived intense anal erogeneity (associated with traumatic anxiety as well as with castration anxiety) inhibited his phallic sensations and potency and also his power to sustain productive thought. His passive cravings were disguised and reacted against in his compulsive-exhibitionistically phallic role of a Don Juan. He described at least two levels of anal feelings: a dangerous but exciting, tolerable or even pleasurable tension associated with the imago of the goose; and an unbearable, terrifying overcharged level embodied in the imago of the rat. (He had read of, and had felt himself identified with, Freud's Rat Man.) Contrasts are presented with François Rabelais' account of the instinctual development and anal training of Gargantua, in which the connotations of the goose lead to a happy anal, phallic and intellectual control. Generalizations are ventured about the crucial attainment of command over the anal sphincter for the taming of 'primal affect'(Fliess). With early psychopathology there is a defensive overcathexis of anal control (and of anal mechanisms and character traits) to try to contain over-stimulation. In contrast true anal mastery contributes to the acquisition of optimal genital feelings and functioning and to the capacity for sustaining integrative thinking so necessary for 'owning' one's affects and impulses, and therefore for a feeling of identity. Finally, some remarks of Freud on Rabelais are reviewed in relation to levels of urethral erogeneity, seen as developmental way stations between the anal and the phallic, and partaking of both.

  17. VERJETNOSTNE VARNOSTNE ANALIZE JEDRSKE ELEKTRARNE V ZAUSTAVITVI

    OpenAIRE

    Antončič, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Pričujoča magistrska naloga obravnava verjetnostne varnostne analize jedrske elektrarne v zaustavitvenih stanjih. Verjetnostne varnostne analize so namenjene ocenjevanju in izboljšanju varnosti kompleksnih sistemov, tudi jedrskih elektrarn. Skozi analizo izvemo možne neželene dogodke, do katerih lahko pride v sistemu, verjetnost nastopa teh dogodkov, način njihovega razvoja in končne posledice. Na podlagi analize lahko določimo pomembnost posameznih komponent, kar je koristna informacija pri ...

  18. Superior orbital fissure syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kirwan, R P

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To report a case of superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case report. RESULTS: A 71-year-old male with HZO presented acutely to accident and emergency complaining of right vision loss, double vision and drowsiness. The right visual acuity was counting fingers. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect. He had interstitial keratitis, ptosis, proptosis and total ophthalmoplaegia. The signs indicated HZO complicated by SOFS. Brain imaging and lumbar puncture confirmed the diagnosis of varicella zoster encephalitis. Systemic acyclovir and prednisolone led to recovery of visual acuity and ocular motility in addition to resolution of his proptosis and ptosis. CONCLUSION: SOFS is a rare complication of herpes zoster infection. With the appropriate treatment and follow-up, patients may be reassured that recovery of their visual acuity and ocular motility will occur.

  19. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics. PMID:27651887

  20. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  1. Relation between electromyography and anal manometry of the external anal sphincter.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, M; Tetzschner, T; Rasmussen, O O; Christiansen, J

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients with faecal incontinence and 26 control subjects were studied to investigate whether a quantitative electromyographic (EMG) signal could be correlated to anal manometry. Three different electrodes were used--a concentric needle electrode, a disposable sponge electrode, and a hard anal plug electrode. The maximum amplitude of the EMG recording was used as a quantitative parameter. Linear regression showed significant correlation between EMG and anal manometry with the sponge ...

  2. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Anal Disorders URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/analdisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Modeling and numerical study of transfers in fissured environments; Modelisation et etude numerique des transferts en milieux fissures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granet, S.

    2000-01-28

    Oil recovery from fractured reservoirs plays a very important role in the petroleum industry. Some of the world most productive oil fields are located in naturally fractured reservoirs. Modelling flow in such a fracture network is a very complex problem. This is conventionally done using a specific idealized model. This model is based on the Warren and Root representation and on a dual porosity, dual permeability approach. A simplified formulation of matrix-fracture fluid transfers uses a pseudo-steady-state transfer equation involving a constant exchange coefficient. Such a choice is one of the main difficulties of this approach. To get a better understanding of the simplifications involved in the dual porosity approach a reference model must be available. To obtain such a fine description, we have developed a new methodology. This technique called 'the fissure element methodology' is based on a specific gridding of the fractured medium. The fissure network is gridded with linear elements coupled with an unstructured triangular grid of matrix. An appropriate finite volume scheme has been developed to provide a good description of the flow. The numerical development of is precisely described. A simulator has been developed using this method. Several simulations have been realised. Comparisons have been done with different dual-porosity dual-permeability models. A reflexion concerning the choice of the exchange coefficient used in the dual porosity model is then proposed. This new tool has permit to have a better understanding of the production mechanisms of a complex fractured reservoir. (author)

  4. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Garazi Elorza; Yolanda Saralegui; José María Enríquez-Navascués; Carlos Placer; Leyre Velaz

    2016-01-01

    Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN) constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal ca...

  5. A conceptual model of the hydrological influence of fissures on landslide activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Krzeminska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes control the behaviour of many unstable slopes and their importance for landslide activity is generally accepted. In slow-moving landslides differential displacement complicates the hydrological regime due to continuous opening and closing of the fissures and cracks, creating dynamic preferential flow path systems. The consequences of the appearance and destruction of these preferential flow paths is thus closely related to the formation of critical pore pressure and the resulting movement and persistence of fissure systems. This interaction may account for the seasonal nature of the slow-moving landslide activity, including the often observed shifts and delays.

    This research aims to investigate this interaction between slope stability and spatial and temporal variations in fissure patterns, which makes fissures act both as preferential flow paths for infiltration and as lateral groundwater drains. To this end, the hydrological processes that control exchange of water between the fissure network and the matrix has been included in a spatially distributed hydrological and slope stability model. The ensuing feedbacks in landslide activity were explored by running the model with the meteorological forcing of one year until a dynamic steady-state was achieved. The effect of fissure dynamics was evaluated by comparing simulations with static fissure patterns to those in which these patterns deform as function of the local stability.

  6. Infrasound from the 2007 fissure eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.; Orr, T.; Poland, M.

    2011-01-01

    Varied acoustic signals were recorded at Kīlauea Volcano in mid-2007, coincident with dramatic changes in the volcano's activity. Prior to this time period, Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater produced near-continuous infrasonic tremor and was the primary source of degassing and lava effusion at Kīlauea. Collapse and draining of Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater in mid-June produced impulsive infrasonic signals and fluctuations in infrasonic tremor. Fissure eruptions on 19 June and 21 July were clearly located spatially and temporally using infrasound arrays. The 19 June eruption from a fissure approximately mid-way between Kīlauea's summit and Pu'u 'O'o produced infrasound for ~30 minutes-the only observed geophysical signal associated with the fissure opening. The infrasound signal from the 21 July eruption just east of Pu'u 'Ō'ō shows a clear azimuthal progression over time, indicative of fissure propagation over 12.9 hours. The total fissure propagation rate is relatively slow at 164 m/hr, although the fissure system ruptured discontinuously. Individual fissure rupture times are estimated using the acoustic data combined with visual observations.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of sandstone containing a single fissure after exposure to high temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Tantan; Jing Hongwen; Su Haijian; Yin Qian; Du Mingrui; Han Guansheng

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of sandstone containing fissures after exposure to high temperatures, fissures with different angles a were prefabricated in the plate sandstone samples, and the processed samples were then heated at 5 different temperatures. Indoor uniaxial com-pression was conducted to analyze the change rules of physical properties of sandstone after exposure to high temperature, and the deformation, strength and failure characteristics of sandstone containing fis-sures. The results show that, with increasing temperature, the volume of sandstone increases gradually while the quality and density decrease gradually, and the color of sandstone remains basically unchanged while the brightness increases markedly when the temperature is higher than 585 ?C;the peak strength of sandstone containing fissures first decreases then increases when the temperature is between 25 ?C and 400 ?C. The peak strain of sandstone containing fissures increases gradually while the average mod-ulus decreases gradually with increasing temperature, and the mechanical properties of sandstone show obvious deterioration after 400 ?C. The peak strain of sandstone containing fissures increases gradually while the average modulus decreases gradually with increasing temperature; with increasing angle a of the fissure, the evolution characteristics of the macro-mechanical parameters of sandstone are closely related to the their own mechanical properties. When the temperature is 800 ?C, the correlation between the peak strength and average modulus of sandstone and the angle a of the fissure is obviously weakened. The failure modes of sandstone containing fissures after high temperature exposure are of three different kinds including: tensile crack failure, tensile and shear cracks mixed failure, and shear crack failure. Tensile and shear crack mixed failure occur mainly at low temperatures and small angles;tensile crack failure occurs at high

  8. Cassini VIMS Spectra of the Thermal Emission from Hot Spots Along Enceladus South Pole Fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Cassini VIMS Team

    2016-10-01

    Most of the south pole fissure region has not been directly illuminated by sunlight since the sub-solar point moved into the northern hemisphere in 2009, thereby eliminating the background of reflected sunlight at VIMS wavelengths and making the fissure thermal emission readily measureable. Since then, VIMS has measured spectra of at least 11 hot spots along the fissures. Most of these measurements were acquired in ride-along mode with CIRS as the prime instrument. During at least 2 encounters, VIMS and CIRS acquired simultaneous or near-simultaneous spectra of the same fissure location. VIMS spectra include multiple hot spots along Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, and a likely hot spot on Alexandria.All of the VIMS spectra examined to date are consistent with this scenario of a self-regulating fissure maximum T~200 K with brighter VIMS emissions corresponding to fissures up to ~20 m wide. Emission from the warm fissure interior walls dominate the VIMS spectra with <15% contributed by conductive heating of the adjacent terrain at VIMS wavelengths.CIRS spectra report slightly cooler T's due to CIRS increased sensitivity to lower T emission at longer wavelengths and averaging over contributions from both the hottest and cooler areas. Combined analysis of the CIRS and VIMS spectra spanning 3 to 500 micron wavelengths promises to reveal the distribution of [T, area] near the fissures that cannot be spatially resolved. This [T, area] distribution holds the key to understanding how heat is transferred to the surface within a few 100 m of the fissures.The VIMS-detected emission is concentrated in localized hot spots along the fissures and does not seem to be distributed continuously along them. CIRS spectra suggest a more continuous distribution of the emission along the fissure length. Jets locations also are distributed along the fissure length and it appears that the VIMS-detected hot spots in general correlate with jet locations, but not all of the jet locations have been

  9. Application of Seismic Anisotropy Caused by Fissures in Coal Seams to the Detection of Coal-bed Methane Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coal-bed methane is accumulated in micro-fissures and cracks in coal seams. The coal seam is the source terrace and reservoir bed of the coal-bed methane (Qian et al., 1996). Anisotropy of coal seams is caused by the existence of fissures. Based on the theory of S wave splitting: an S wave will be divided into two S waves with nearly orthogonal polarization directions when passing through anisotropic media, i.e. the fast S wave with its direction of propagation parallel to that of the fissure and slow S wave with the direction of propagation perpendicular to that of the fissure.This paper gives the results of laboratory research and field test on the S wave splitting caused by coal-seam fissures. The results show that it is feasible to detect fissures in coal seams by applying the converted S wave and finally gives the development zone and development direction of these fissures.

  10. Anal acoustic reflectometry: a new technique for assessing anal sphincter function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, P J; Klarskov, N; Hosker, G;

    2010-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry (AAR) is a new technique that offers an assessment of anal sphincter function by the measurement of additional parameters not available with conventional manometry. The aim of this study is to describe the technique, methodology and initial pilot study results....

  11. Fissures in the commercial cinematic space: Screening Taiwanese documentary blockbusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chi Shiau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the trajectory of how a new wave of documentary making has incorporated or resisted dominant social forces to create fissures in the commercial cinematic spaces. Two documentary blockbusters The Long Goodbye (2010 and Beyond Taiwan (2013 are examined to explicate how the restructuring of cinematic spaces in Taiwan has facilitated changes in documentary screening culture and spectatorships, leading to the recent documentary renaissance. This result suggests that independent filmmakers intervene and create the spaces for their documentaries, financially dependent on advance ticket sales and private sponsorship. However, relational distributive venues of documentary film within a larger public sphere are increasingly privatized and commercialized in the age of global neoliberalism. The various and creative methods applied in the exhibition of documentary blockbusters have illuminated the intersection of documentary and mainstream commercial cinema sites and practices, and have spawned associated, commercially oriented articulations. The reception study reveals that the past decade has witnessed Taiwanese audiences anxiously situate their precarious local identity against a myriad of socio-political crises: an aging and shrinking population, environmental pollution, and stagnant economy.

  12. Land subsidence and earth fissures due to groundwater withdrawal in the Southern Yangtse Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Xue, Yu-Qun; Wu, Ji-Chun; Yu, Jun; Wei, Zi-Xin; Li, Qin-Fen

    2008-08-01

    Excessive extraction of groundwater has caused severe land subsidence and earth fissures in the Southern Yangtse Delta, China. Based on field data, the temporal and spatial distribution of land subsidence is investigated and the causes for earth fissures are analyzed. The areal distribution of the land subsidence is closely related to the cones of depression in the main exploited aquifers. The compaction of a hydrostratigraphic unit depends on its mechanical behavior, thickness, compressibility, and the piezometric level changing. The primary subsidence layers in Shanghai have been the first aquitard before 1990 and the third confined aquifer since then. But the second aquitard unit was the primary subsidence layer in Changzhou. Earth fissures, trending in several directions, occurred in the Husu tectonic zone. They were mainly caused by differential subsidence and horizontal displacement that resulted from tensile stress and shear stress in units. The majority of fissures in the study area are tensile.

  13. Relationship of Resistivity with Water Content and Fissures of Unsaturated Expansive Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The development of fissures in expansive soils has a great effect on the stability of slope.Of the three phases of soils, the gas phase and solid phase are relatively insulated, so the average resistivity of soils can be calculated from the resistivity of the liquid phase.On this basis, the two-part model of resistivity changing with the water saturation of the expansive soil can be deduced.A 2-D resistance grid model is established based on simulating the resistance of vertically developed fissures.Variation in measured resistance of vertically developed fissures at different positions can be calculated from this model.Fissure development can be inversely determined from the variation in the measured resistance.Finally, the model is verified by an indoor resistivity test for remolded soil samples, indicating that the test result agrees well with that of the model established.

  14. THE EFFECT OF FISSURES IN DOLOMITE ROCK MASS ON BLASTING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock fractures in the form of fissures are one of more important geological features of a tectonic system. They have an effect on mechanical behaviour of rook masses exposed to the actions of surface forces. For exploitation in dolomite quarries carried out by blasting of deep shot holes it is important to know the system of fissures within a rock mass for the rock brakes along already weakened planes (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Fluorine mapping in sound and carious fissures of human teeth using PIGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, Tsuruga, Fukui, 914-0192 (Japan); Iwami, Y. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Ebisu, S. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Sakai, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology Center, Japan Atomic Energy, Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Gunma, 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Advanced Radiation Technology Center, Japan Atomic Energy, Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Gunma, 370-1292 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    By using the PIGE technique at JAERI Takasaki, we measured fluorine (F) distribution in a micro area of occlusal fissures in the enamel of human teeth. The fissures were classified into three groups: Group I, no caries; Group II, incipient caries; Group III, advanced caries. The extracted teeth were embedded in epoxy resin and cut along the longitudinal axis through the fissures. The F concentration in the fissure at the cut surface was measured. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 {mu}m with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, {sup 19}F (p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O, was used to measure the F concentration and gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI(Tl) detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Ge detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. The obtained results were shown as two-dimensional mapping. In all specimens, an F concentration was observed around the fissure. The F concentration varied depending on the location of the fissure and decreased towards the inner part of the tooth. The maximum F concentration values in the measured area ranged from 3500-11700 ppm (mean 6000 ppm) in Group I, 2400-10700 ppm (mean = 6300 ppm) in Group II, and 5200-16900 ppm (mean = 9300 ppm) in Group III. Although high F concentrations tended to be measured in the carious fissures, high values were also recognized in the sound fissures. More studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between F and carious lesions.

  16. Radar Observations of Fissure-fed Basaltic Lava Flows, Craters of the Moon, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L.; Greeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in surface roughness of lava flows, estimated from dual polarization, synthetic aperture, X and L band side-looking airborne radar images, were tested as a means of locating fissure vent areas. If lava textures proess from smooth, near-vent shelly pahoehoe to hummocky pahoehoe to aa with distance from fissure vents, then radr images of the lava flows would show a progression from dark to brighter tones due to the flows' increasing radar back-scatter.

  17. The use of holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser as pit and fissure cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armasastra Bahar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevention and management of pit and fissure caries has become relatively more important in recent times. There is a need for an effective preventive measure against pit and fissure caries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser beam as a cleaning method of pits and fissures. Methods: Ho-YAG laser which has a wavelength of 2.1 µm was used in this experiment. The specimens were extracted human teeth. The effect of three cleaning methods was examined comparatively by scoring the cleaned area of fissure, namely laser irradiation with Ho-YAG laser, chemico-mechanical with combination of 10% NaOCl and ultrasonic scaler and mechanical with ultrasonic scaler. Vertico-bucco-lingual serial ground sections of each tooth were observed under light microscopy. Scoring the depth of cleaned area was performed by comparing the depth of fissure. result: Progressive result was obtained on the cleaning effect of three methods laser irradiation methods which was the most effective compared to other methods but statistically was not significant. Cleaned area of laser irradiation method was 48.91%, chemico-mechanical method was 41.77% and mechanical method was 36.78%. Conclusion: Holmium -yttrium aluminum garner laser is a relatively new method for pit and fissure cleaning even though the effectivity is not yet maximal. More research is needed to maximize the use of this laser.

  18. Proctology - diseases of the anal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Proctology is a medical subspecialty that encompasses diseases of the perianal region, anal canal, and rectum. Dermatologists play a pivotal role in this realm, as inflammatory perianal disorders, infectious and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as perianal tumors and their precursor lesions fall within the core competency of dermatology. In a concise manner, the present article highlights all relevant disease groups in the field of proctology. With a particular focus on aspects pertinent to dermatologists, this includes inflammatory disorders, "classic" proctologic diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, malignancies of the anal region, as well as pathogen-induced diseases. Despite the wide variety of disorders, there are only five key symptoms prompting patients to consult a proctologist, including anal pruritus and burning, discharge, bleeding, pain, and foreign body sensation. A simple algorithm, which incorporates these symptoms as well as key clinical features, may assist in quickly establishing the correct diagnosis in everyday clinical practice. PMID:27027745

  19. Seoseid loov kunstiteose analüüs / Anneli Porri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Porri, Anneli, 1980-

    2013-01-01

    Kunstiteose analüüsi seosest riikliku õppekavaga, ülevaade kunstiteose analüüsimeetoditest kunstiteaduses ning metoodilistest tähelepanekutest kunsti ja visuaalkultuuri kujutiste vaatamise kohta gümnaasiumi kunstitunnis

  20. PRIMENA SWOT ANALIZE NA SISTEM INTEGRALNOG TRANSPORTA VOJSKE SRBIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Pamučar

    2008-01-01

    U radu je prikazana primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije. Kao rezultat analize predstavljeni su ciljevi daljeg usavršavanja integralnog transporta, kao i mogući problemi generisani strateškim upravljanjem.

  1. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  2. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  3. KRAS and BRAF mutations in anal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid;

    2015-01-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) is expressed in most cases of anal carcinomas. Anecdotal benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy has been reported in anal cancer and a negative correlation with Kirsten Ras (KRAS) mutation status has been proposed. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate...... the frequency and the prognostic value of KRAS and BRAF mutations in a large cohort of patients with anal cancer. One hundred and ninety-three patients with T1-4N0-3M0-1 anal carcinoma were included in the study. Patients were treated with curative (92%) or palliative intent (8%) between January 2000...... and January 2010. KRAS mutations were detected using Therascreen(®)KRAS real-time PCR assay (Qiagen) and V600E or V600D/K BRAF mutations were uncovered using Pyrosequencing. The frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations was low; KRAS mutations were detected in 1.6% and BRAF mutations in 4.7% of the biopsies...

  4. [Diagnostics and conservative treatment of anal incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geile, Dorothea; Osterholzer, Georg; Rosenberg, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Anal incontinence is diagnosed primarily by clinical and proctologic examination. Etiological factors of the disease are found in 85% of the patients by additional examinations. Motility dysfunction of colon and rectum has to be excluded (stenosis, dyschezia, internal hernias). Because anal incontinence is a multifactorial disease as a rule, the single compounds have to be diagnosed and have to undergo therapy. Accordingly, useful investigations are: endorectal ultrasound (defect of muscle, inflammatory or tumour infiltration), manometry (alteration of either anal resting pressure and/or anal squeezing pressure) and surface electromyography (ability of contraction, duration of contraction, strength). Neurophysiological examinations are: needle electromyography, pudendal nerve latency time measurement (PNLT). The occurrence of nerve damage determines the outcome of operative intervention! Conservative treatment is indicated in 80 to 90% of all patients, even higher when one includes all patients in the perioperative period. Possible therapy modalities are: nutrition consultation, physiotherapy, pelvic floor training, biofeedback training of pelvic floor and sphincter muscles, electrostimulation and the combination of both (EMG-triggered electrostimulation). Short-term results are satisfying in up to 85% of patients, but later, successful results depend on the patient's willingness or ability to continue training, and on his/her age.

  5. Treatment of non-IBD anal fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Hagen, Kikke; Christensen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The course of the fistula tract in relation to the anal sphincter is identified by clinical examination under general anaesthesia using a fistula probe and injection of fluid into the external fistula opening. In the event of a complex fistula or in the case of fistula recurrence, this should be ...

  6. Comparing the etiology and treatment of skin fissure in traditional and conventional medicine; a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jedkareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry skin is a common problem which affects wound healing, severity of other skin diseases and quality of life of people. One of its undesirable effects is fissure that is a cutaneous condition in which there is a linear loss of epidermis and dermis with sharply defined, nearly vertical walls. In the present study, we have investigated the etiology of the disease and its treatments in conventional medicine and Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Two traditional medicine references, current scientific data bases and medicinal texts were explored with the selected keywords such as "sheqaq-e-poosti", "skin fissure" and "dry skin" to find the etiology and treatment of skin fissure. From the view point of both conventional medicine and ITM, dry skin is the cause of skin fissure and some causes of dry skin are similar. In conventional medicine, moisturizers are mainly used for treatment of dry skin; while in ITM some herbs, oils and other natural remedies have been used. A topical dosage form which was called "qeirooti", a mixture of wax and oil, was used to treat skin fissure in ITM. It comprised of oily ingredients that acted as occlusives and also some herbal components that directly improved dry skin (similar to moisturizers. Components efficacy of traditional dosage forms for treatment of dry skin lead us to study about formulation of “qeirooti” for treatment of dry skin.

  7. In vitro evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of different pit and fissure sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Vaid, Shivali; Deep, S.; Mishra, Samvit; Srivastava, Madhulika; Manjooran, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Fissure caries is most common in children due to deep pit and fissures. Pit and fissure areas on the occlusal surface of the teeth make them susceptible to dental caries, which need to be prevented or restored. Fissures sealant reduces the risk of occlusal caries. The present study was done to evaluate microleakage and shear bond strength of various fissure sealants. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six extracted molars were randomly allocated equally (n = 12) into three groups with three different sealants to evaluate shear bond strength and microleakage at sealant space. The shear bond strengths was evaluated with one-way analysis of variance and microleakage by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18.0 (Chicago: SPSS Inc, 2009). Results: Tetric flow (16.8 MPa) recorded the highest shear bond strength and the difference was statistically significant with enamel loc (12.8 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference in relation to microleakage (P > 0.05) in the tested groups. Conclusions: Tetric flow recorded the highest shear bond strength and the difference was statistically significant with enamel loc. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups regarding microleakage. PMID:27652241

  8. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and anal HPV-related disorders in women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Sebring, Meagan C; Mendez, Audrey E; Ba, Fatimata S; Trimble, Debra D; Chiao, Elizabeth Y

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the findings of publications addressing the epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in women. We conducted a systematic review among publications published from Jan. 1, 1997, to Sept. 30, 2013, to limit to publications from the combined antiretroviral therapy era. Three searches were performed of the National Library of Medicine PubMed database using the following search terms: women and anal HPV, women anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and women and anal cancer. Publications were included in the review if they addressed any of the following outcomes: (1) prevalence, incidence, or clearance of anal HPV infection, (2) prevalence of anal cytological or histological neoplastic abnormalities, or (3) incidence or risk of anal cancer. Thirty-seven publications addressing anal HPV infection and anal cytology remained after applying selection criteria, and 23 anal cancer publications met the selection criteria. Among HIV-positive women, the prevalence of high-risk (HR)-HPV in the anus was 16-85%. Among HIV-negative women, the prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection ranged from 4% to 86%. The prevalence of anal HR-HPV in HIV-negative women with HPV-related pathology of the vulva, vagina, and cervix compared with women with no known HPV-related pathology, varied from 23% to 86% and from 5% to 22%, respectively. Histological anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater) was found in 3-26% of the women living with HIV, 0-9% among women with lower genital tract pathology, and 0-3% for women who are HIV negative without known lower genital tract pathology. The incidence of anal cancer among HIV-infected women ranged from 3.9 to 30 per 100,000. Among women with a history of cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, the incidence rates of anal cancer ranged from 0.8 to 63.8 per 100,000 person-years, and in

  9. The Lobe Fissure Tracking by the Modified Ant Colony Optimization Framework in CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Jen Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chest computed tomography (CT is the most commonly used technique for the inspection of lung lesions. However, the lobe fissures in lung CT is still difficult to observe owing to its imaging structure. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to develop an efficient tracking framework to extract the lobe fissures by the proposed modified ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm. We used the method of increasing the consistency of pheromone on lobe fissure to improve the accuracy of path tracking. In order to validate the proposed system, we had tested our method in a database from 15 lung patients. In the experiment, the quantitative assessment shows that the proposed ACO method achieved the average F-measures of 80.9% and 82.84% in left and right lungs, respectively. The experiments indicate our method results more satisfied performance, and can help investigators detect lung lesion for further examination.

  10. Numerical simulation and damage analysis of fissure field evolution law in a single coal seam mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Xingguang Liu; Chaofeng Ge; Hongmei Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the different deformation and failure laws of coal and rock materials under tensile or compressive loads,the damage variable was defined to divide three phases from the damage and rupture point of view in order to reveal the fissured field evolution characteristics and spatial distribution of coal and rock in the single coal seam mining with low permeability and rich methane.According to the corresponding damage constitutive equations,the secondary development of the finite element program was completed.The fissures field evolution law of a coal mine with single coal seam mining was calculated and analyzed by this new program and the distribution areas and failure degree of the surrounding coal and rock structures with damage,fissure or rupture are given on the condition of mining.This paper provides a scientific basis for quantitative research and evaluation of the safe simultaneous production of coal and gas.

  11. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiiri, Anne; Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Nordblad, Anne;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to pit and fissure surfaces of first molars. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes in the prevention...... of dental decay on occlusal surfaces. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and 10 other databases were searched to November 2009. There were no language or publication restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Random or quasi-random allocation study design...... the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants to be statistically significantly higher than an application of fluoride varnish every 6 months in preventing occlusal decays of first molars at 23 months (with a RR of 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 0.95); and at 4 years and 9 years (with a RR of 0.42, 95...

  12. Incomplete fissures in severe emphysematous patients evaluated with MDCT: Incidence and interobserver agreement among radiologists and pneumologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto - University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048 900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Puderbach, Michael [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix [Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, Claus Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik), University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5,69126 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Pulmonary fissures completeness predicts efficacy in endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation, a new lobar volume reduction therapy for severe emphysematous patients. We assessed the incidence of incomplete fissures and the interobserver agreement in its evaluation with MDCT, in severe emphysematous patients prior to EBV implantation. Materials and Methods: Volumetric thin-section CT scans of 35 patients (CODP GOLD 3/4, heterogeneous emphysema) were retrospectively reviewed by 2 pneumologists, 1 general and 2 experienced chest radiologists, independently and blinded for treatment outcome, and the pulmonary fissures were classified as either complete or incomplete. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Kappa index (KI). Results: Agreement between all readers for the left oblique, right oblique and horizontal fissure was, respectively, moderate (KI = 0.53), fair (KI = 0.37) and moderate (KI = 0.42). Highest agreement (99/105 fissures) was observed among experienced radiologists, being for left oblique, right oblique and horizontal, respectively, almost perfect (KI = 0.79), perfect (KI = 1.0) and moderate (KI = 0.52). These 2 reviewers found that all of 35 patients had at least one incomplete fissure, with a proportion of incomplete fissures assigned as 74/65%, 85/85% and 91/88%, respectively for the left oblique, right oblique and horizontal fissures. Conclusions: Pneumologists and radiologists agreed fairly to moderately in fissures analysis, while the experienced chest radiologists reached the highest clinically adequate agreement of 94%. We believe that clinical routine visual analysis of the fissures integrity can be done with a good degree of confidence in MDCT images, and experienced readers might be required. Also, a higher than expected incidence of incomplete fissures was described in our studied population.

  13. An experimental study on fracture mechanical behavior of rock-like materials containing two unparallel fissures under uniaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hua Huang; Sheng-Qi Yang; Wen-Ling Tian; Wei Zeng; Li-Yuan Yu

    2016-01-01

    Strength and deformability characteristics of rock with pre-existing fissures are governed by cracking behavior. To further research the effects of pre-existing fis-sures on the mechanical properties and crack coalescence process, a series of uniaxial compression tests were car-ried out for rock-like material with two unparallel fissures. In the present study, cement, quartz sand, and water were used to fabricate a kind of brittle rock-like material cylindri-cal model specimen. The mechanical properties of rock-like material specimen used in this research were all in good agreement with the brittle rock materials. Two unparallel fissures (a horizontal fissure and an inclined fissure) were cre-ated by inserting steel during molding the model specimen. Then all the pre-fissured rock-like specimens were tested under uniaxial compression by a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system. The peak strength and Young’s modulus of pre-fissured specimen all first decreased and then increased when the fissure angle increased from 0◦ to 75◦. In order to investigate the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence process, photographic monitoring was adopted to capture images during the entire deformation process. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique was also used to obtain the AE evolution characteristic of pre-fissured specimen. The relationship between axial stress, AE events, and the crack coalescence process was set up:when a new crack was initiated or a crack coalescence occurred, the corresponding axial stress dropped in the axial stress–time curve and a big AE event could be observed simultaneously. Finally, the mechanism of crack propagation under micro-scopic observation was discussed. These experimental results are expected to increase the understanding of the strength fail-ure behavior and the cracking mechanism of rock containing unparallel fissures.

  14. An experimental study on fracture mechanical behavior of rock-like materials containing two unparallel fissures under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Zeng, Wei; Yu, Li-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Strength and deformability characteristics of rock with pre-existing fissures are governed by cracking behavior. To further research the effects of pre-existing fissures on the mechanical properties and crack coalescence process, a series of uniaxial compression tests were carried out for rock-like material with two unparallel fissures. In the present study, cement, quartz sand, and water were used to fabricate a kind of brittle rock-like material cylindrical model specimen. The mechanical properties of rock-like material specimen used in this research were all in good agreement with the brittle rock materials. Two unparallel fissures (a horizontal fissure and an inclined fissure) were created by inserting steel during molding the model specimen. Then all the pre-fissured rock-like specimens were tested under uniaxial compression by a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system. The peak strength and Young's modulus of pre-fissured specimen all first decreased and then increased when the fissure angle increased from 0° to 75°. In order to investigate the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence process, photographic monitoring was adopted to capture images during the entire deformation process. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique was also used to obtain the AE evolution characteristic of pre-fissured specimen. The relationship between axial stress, AE events, and the crack coalescence process was set up: when a new crack was initiated or a crack coalescence occurred, the corresponding axial stress dropped in the axial stress-time curve and a big AE event could be observed simultaneously. Finally, the mechanism of crack propagation under microscopic observation was discussed. These experimental results are expected to increase the understanding of the strength failure behavior and the cracking mechanism of rock containing unparallel fissures.

  15. Incomplete fissures in severe emphysematous patients evaluated with MDCT: Incidence and interobserver agreement among radiologists and pneumologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Pulmonary fissures completeness predicts efficacy in endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation, a new lobar volume reduction therapy for severe emphysematous patients. We assessed the incidence of incomplete fissures and the interobserver agreement in its evaluation with MDCT, in severe emphysematous patients prior to EBV implantation. Materials and Methods: Volumetric thin-section CT scans of 35 patients (CODP GOLD 3/4, heterogeneous emphysema) were retrospectively reviewed by 2 pneumologists, 1 general and 2 experienced chest radiologists, independently and blinded for treatment outcome, and the pulmonary fissures were classified as either complete or incomplete. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Kappa index (KI). Results: Agreement between all readers for the left oblique, right oblique and horizontal fissure was, respectively, moderate (KI = 0.53), fair (KI = 0.37) and moderate (KI = 0.42). Highest agreement (99/105 fissures) was observed among experienced radiologists, being for left oblique, right oblique and horizontal, respectively, almost perfect (KI = 0.79), perfect (KI = 1.0) and moderate (KI = 0.52). These 2 reviewers found that all of 35 patients had at least one incomplete fissure, with a proportion of incomplete fissures assigned as 74/65%, 85/85% and 91/88%, respectively for the left oblique, right oblique and horizontal fissures. Conclusions: Pneumologists and radiologists agreed fairly to moderately in fissures analysis, while the experienced chest radiologists reached the highest clinically adequate agreement of 94%. We believe that clinical routine visual analysis of the fissures integrity can be done with a good degree of confidence in MDCT images, and experienced readers might be required. Also, a higher than expected incidence of incomplete fissures was described in our studied population.

  16. A robotic approach to mapping post-eruptive volcanic fissure conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Pavlov, Catherine A.; Wiltsie, Nicholas; Carpenter, Kalind C.; Nash, Jeremy; Parness, Aaron; Mitchell, Karl L.

    2016-06-01

    VolcanoBot was developed to map volcanic vents and their underlying conduit systems, which are rarely preserved and generally inaccessible to human exploration. It uses a PrimeSense Carmine 1.09 sensor for mapping and carries an IR temperature sensor, analog distance sensor, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) inside a protective shell. The first field test succeeded in collecting valuable scientific data but revealed several needed improvements, including more rugged cable connections and mechanical couplers, increased ground clearance, and higher-torque motors for uphill mobility. The second field test significantly improved on all of these aspects but it traded electrical ruggedness for reduced data collection speed. Data collected by the VolcanoBots, while intermittent, yield the first insights into the cm-scale geometry of volcanic fissures at depths of up to 25 m. VolcanoBot was deployed at the 1969 Mauna Ulu fissure system on Kīlauea volcano in Hawai'i. It collected first-of-its-kind data from inside the fissure system. We hypothesized that 1) fissure sinuosity should decrease with depth, 2) irregularity should be persistent with depth, 3) any blockages in the conduit should occur at the narrowest points, and 4) the fissure should narrow with depth until it is too narrow for VolcanoBot to pass or is plugged with solidified lava. Our field campaigns did not span enough lateral or vertical area to test sinuosity. The preliminary data indicate that 1) there were many irregularities along fissures at depth, 2) blockages occurred, but not at obviously narrow locations, and 3) the conduit width remained a consistent 0.4-0.5 m for most of the upper 10 m that we analyzed.

  17. Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Laurberg, Søren

    2010-08-01

    Compromised immune function may increase the risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We examined the risk of anal SCC in patients with HIV infection and other chronic disorders associated with immunosuppression. A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR). We identified all patients with a first-time hospital contact or procedure for HIV infection, solid organ transplantation or autoimmune disease or a first-time record of haematologic malignancy in the DCR, 1978-2005, and followed these for a subsequent anal SCC, starting follow-up 1 year after diagnosis of the index disease. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of anal SCCs, based on national age-, sex- and period-specific rates. Among 4,488 patients with HIV, we observed 21 anal SCCs with 0.3 expected (SIR: 81.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.6-121.9)). Risk of anal SCC was markedly increased among 5,113 solid organ recipients (SIR: 14.4 (CI: 7.0-26.4)) and 30,165 patients with haematologic malignancies (SIR: 2.3 (CI: 1.1-4.2)) but only moderately increased among 242,114 patients with autoimmune diseases (SIR: 1.3 (CI: 1.0-1.6)). SIRs varied according to type of autoimmune disease and were high in patients with Crohn's disease (SIR: 3.1 (CI: 1.2-6.4)), psoriasis (SIR: 3.1 (CI: 1.8-5.1)), polyarteritis nodosa (SIR: 8.8 (CI: 1.5-29.0)) and Wegener's granulomatosis (SIR: 12.4 (CI: 2.1-40.8)). In conclusion, we found HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, haematologic malignancies and a range of specific autoimmune diseases strongly associated with increased risk of anal SCC. PMID:19960431

  18. Antiretroviral therapy as a factor protective against anal dysplasia in HIV-infected males who have sex with males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with oncogenic HPV genotype is associated with the development of anal dysplasia. Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been shown to decrease the incidence of cervical carcinoma in women with HIV. We sought to: 1 describe the prevalence and grade of anal dysplasia and HPV infection in our study subjects; 2 analyze the grade of correlation between anal cytology, PCR of high-risk HPV, and histology; 3 identify the factors associated with the appearance of ≥ AIN2 lesions.Cross-sectional, prospective study.A cohort of HIV-positive males (n = 140, mean age  = 37 years who have sex with males (MSM had epidemiological, clinical and analytical data collected. Anal mucosa samples were taken for cytology, HPV PCR genotyping, and anoscopy for histological analysis.Within the cohort, 77.1% were being treated with ART, 8.5% anoscopy findings were AIN2, and 11.4% carcinoma in situ; 74.2% had high-risk (HR, 59.7% low-risk (LR HPV genotypes and 46.8% had both. The combination of cytology with PCR identifying HR-HPV better predicts the histology findings than either of these factors alone. Logistic regression highlighted ART as a protective factor against ≥ AIN2 lesions (OR: 0.214; 95%CI: 0.054-0.84. Anal/genital condylomas (OR: 4.26; 95%CI: 1.27-14.3, and HPV68 genotype (OR: 10.6; 95%CI: 1.23-91.47 were identified as risk factors.In our cohort, ART has a protective effect against dysplastic anal lesions. Anal/genital warts and HPV68 genotype are predictors of ≥ AIN2 lesions. Introducing PCR HPV genotype evaluation improves screening success over that of cytology alone.

  19. The effects of urbanization, bark fissure depth and sun exposure on lichens in south eastern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tälle, Malin

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that air pollution, as well as bark fissure depth and sun exposure of a tree can have an effect on lichen growth as well as abundance of lichen species. The aim of this study was to find out the relative importance of these factors. 211 oaks in south eastern Sweden were surveyed for presence of 17 lichen species, as well as the total number of lichen species. Half of the trees were situated in urban areas and half in the countryside. For each tree the bark fissure depth was...

  20. [Saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a patient with azygos accessory fissure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Guedea Martin, A; Salvador Adell, I; Elias Artiga, J

    2015-01-01

    The saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein is an extremely rare condition, which when located in the path of an accesory pulmonary fissure, becomes a diagnostic challenge because it can be mistaken for tumors arising from the accesory pleura, like solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura or mesothelioma. The diagnosis should ideally be done by non-invasive methods such as CT or MR angiographic technique in multiple phases, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. This case is exceptional because, to our knowledge, it is the first to report both concomitant clinical situations, an aneurysm of the azygos vein in the pathway of its accessory fissure.

  1. Sylvian fissure lipoma with angiomatous component and associated brain malformation: A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Thakur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas are congenital malformations. These uncommon lesions have an incidence of 0.1 to 1.7% of all intracranial tumors. Most cases are located at midline and 5% are along the sylvian fissures. If symptomatic, seizures are the most common symptom. These tumors are slow growing and have favorable outcome. We report a case of a 25-year-old man whose CT and MRI revealed a lesion in right sylvian fissure suggesting a lipoma with abnormal vasculature and overlying cortical dysplasia.

  2. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  4. Comparison between anal endosonography and digital examination in the evaluation of anal fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choen, S; Burnett, S; Bartram, C I; Nicholls, R J

    1991-04-01

    A prospective trial was performed comparing the accuracy of digital examination and anal endosonography in defining the anatomy of anal fistulae. Before operation 38 consecutive patients were assessed by the consultant in charge of the case, by a research fellow and by anal endosonography involving two radiologists. These findings were compared with the operative findings. Consultants correctly identified 26 of 33 internal openings, 29 of 34 primary tracks and 15 of 21 secondary tracks. The research fellow correctly identified 26 internal openings, 24 primary tracks and 10 secondary tracks. There was no significant difference between the accuracy of consultants and the research fellow. Anal endosonography identified 10 internal openings based on initial criteria. This rose to 24 when revised ultrasonographic criteria were applied. There was no statistical difference between consultant assessment and anal ultrasonography in correctly identifying intersphincteric and transphincteric tracks. Ultrasonography is unable to assess primary superficial, suprasphincteric and extrasphincteric tracks or secondary supralevator and infralevator tracks. Consultant assessment of secondary supralevator and infralevator tracks was correct in 78 per cent of cases. PMID:2032103

  5. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author)

  6. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazi Elorza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population.

  7. Anal intraepitelial neoplasia: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorza, Garazi; Saralegui, Yolanda; Enríquez-Navascués, Jose María; Placer, Carlos; Velaz, Leyre

    2016-01-01

    Anal intraepitelial neoplasia (AIN) constitutes a major health problem in certain risk groups, such as patients with immunosuppression of varied origin, males who have sexual relations with other males, and females with a previous history of vaginal or cervical abnormalities in cytology. Its relationship with the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been well documented; however, many of the factors involved in the progression and regression of the viral infection to dysplasia and anal carcinoma are unknown. AIN can be diagnosed through cytology of the anal canal or biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy. However, the need for these techniques in high-risk groups remains controversial. Treatment depends on the risk factors and given the high morbidity and high recurrence rates the utility of the different local treatments is still a subject of debate. Surgical biopsy is justified only in the case of progression suggesting lesions. The role of the vaccination in high-risk patients as primary prevention has been debated by different groups. However, there is no general consensus on its use or on the need for screening this population. PMID:26765233

  8. Management of rare, low anal anterior fistula exception to Goodsall′s rule with Kṣārasūtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep S Shindhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal fistula (bhagandara is a chronic inflammatory condition, a tubular structure opening in the ano-rectal canal at one end and surface of perineum/peri-anal skin on the other end. Typically, fistula has two openings, one internal and other external associated with chronic on/off pus discharge on/off pain, pruritis and sometimes passing of stool from external opening. This affects predominantly male patients due to various etiologies viz., repeated peri-anal infections, Crohn′s disease, HIV infection, etc., Complex and atypical variety is encountered in very few patients, which require special treatment for cure. The condition poses difficulty for a surgeon in treating due to issues like patient hesitation, trouble in preparing kṣārasūtra, natural and routine infection with urine, stool etc., and dearth of surgical experts and technique. We would like to report a complex and atypical, single case of anterior, low anal fistula with tract reaching to median raphe of scrotum, which was managed successfully by limited application of kṣārasūtra.

  9. Calcul statistique du volume des blocs matriciels d'un gisement fissuré The Statistical Computing of Matrix Block Volume in a Fissured Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La recherche des conditions optimales d'exploitation d'un gisement fissuré repose sur une bonne description de la fissuration. En conséquence il est nécessaire de définir les dimensions et volumes des blocs matriciels en chaque point d'une structure. Or la géométrie du milieu (juxtaposition et formes des blocs est généralement trop complexe pour se prêter au calcul. Aussi, dans une précédente communication, avons-nous dû tourner cette difficulté par un raisonnement sur des moyennes (pendages, azimuts, espacement des fissures qui nous a conduits à un ordre de grandeur des volumes. Cependant un volume moyen ne peut pas rendre compte d'une loi de répartition des volumes des blocs. Or c'est cette répartition qui conditionne le choix d'une ou plusieurs méthodes successives de récupération. Aussi présentons-nous ici une méthode originale de calcul statistique de la loi de distribution des volumes des blocs matriciels, applicable en tout point d'un gisement. La part de gisement concernée par les blocs de volume donné en est déduite. La connaissance générale du phénomène de la fracturation sert de base au modèle. Les observations de subsurface sur la fracturation du gisement en fournissent les données (histogramme d'orientation et d'espacement des fissures.Une application au gisement d'Eschau (Alsace, France est rapportée ici pour illustrer la méthode. The search for optimum production conditions for a fissured reservoir depends on having a good description of the fissure pattern. Hence the sizes and volumes of the matrix blocks must be defined at all points in a structure. However, the geometry of the medium (juxtaposition and shapes of blocks in usually too complex for such computation. This is why, in a previous paper, we got around this problem by reasoning on the bases of averages (clips, azimuths, fissure spacing, and thot led us to an order of magnitude of the volumes. Yet a mean volume cannot be used to explain

  10. Tensions and Fissures: The Politics of Standardised Testing and Accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While Ontario has received international accolades for its enactment of province-wide standardised testing upon the formation of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), a closer look at provincial assessments over a 20-year span reveals successes as well as systemic tensions and fissures. The purpose of this paper is twofold.…

  11. Coal and rock fissure evolution and distribution characteristics of multi-seam mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dongming; Qi Xiaohan; Yin Guangzhi; Zheng Binbin

    2013-01-01

    Henan Pingdingshan No.10 mine is prone to both coal and gas outbursts. The E9-10 coal seam is the main coal-producing seam but has poor quality ventilation, thus making it relatively difficult for gas extraction. The F15 coal seam, at its lower section, is not prone to coal and gas outbursts. The average seam separa-tion distance of 150 m is greater than the upper limit for underside protective seam mining. Based on borehole imaging technology for field exploration of coal and rock fracture characteristics and discrete element numerical simulation, we have studied the evolution laws and distribution characteristics of the coal and rock fissure field between these two coal seams. By analysis of the influential effect of group F coal mining on the E9-10 coal seam, we have shown that a number of small fissures also develop in the area some 150 m above the overlying strata. The width and number of the fissures also increase with the extent of mining activity. Most of the fissures develop at a low angle or even parallel to the strata. The results show that the mining of the F15 coal seam has the effect of improving the permeability of the E9-10 coal seam.

  12. Response of rock-fissure seepage to snowmelt in Mount Taihang slope-catchment, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun

    2013-01-01

    The complex physiographic and hydrogeological systems of mountain terrains facilitate intense rock-fissure seepages and multi-functional ecological interactions. As mountain eco-hydrological terrains are the common water sources of river basins across the globe, it is critical to build sufficient understanding into the hydrological processes in this unique ecosystem. This study analyzes infiltration and soil/rock-fissure seepage processes from a 65 mm snowfall/melt in November 2009 in the typical granitic gneiss slope catchment in the Taihang Mountains. The snowfall, snowmelt and melt-water processes are monitored using soil-water time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes and tipping bucket flowmeters. The results suggest that snowmelt infiltration significantly influences soil/rock water seepage in the 0-100 cm soil depth of the slope-catchment. It is not only air temperature that influences snowmelt, but also snowmelt infiltration and rock-fissure seepage. Diurnal variations in rock-fissure seepage are in close correlation with air temperature (R(2) > 0.7). Temperature also varies with soil/rock water viscosity, which element in turn influences soil/rock water flow. Invariably, water dynamics in the study area is not only a critical water supply element for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses, but also for food security and social stability.

  13. A comparison between three different pit and fissure sealants with regard to marginal integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin; Chalakkal, Paul; de Ataide, Ida de Noronha; Pavaskar, Rajdeep; Fernandes, Precylia Philo; Soni, Harleen

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the occurrence of enamel fractures, sealant fractures and marginal fissures after placement of three sealants: Helioseal F, Conseal F and Clinpro. Materials and Methods: Thirty individuals between 13 and 15 years of age, diagnosed with pit and fissure caries by visual and DIAGNOdent examination, were chosen for sealant placement on their mandibular molars. The sealants were placed at random, after which, impressions were made with polyvinyl siloxane and casts were fabricated. Dies were prepared, each of which were sputter coated with gold in order to be examined under a scanning electron microscope. The following morphologies were analyzed from dies from each of the sealant groups: Continuous margins, sealant fractures, marginal fissures and enamel fractures. After six months, they were recalled for impression making. Dies were prepared and microscopically analyzed as mentioned. Based on the time of evaluation, there were two groups: Initial group (soon after placement) and final group (after six months). Statistical analysis was done using the paired ‘t’ test and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results and Conclusions: Clinpro had the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Conseal F and Helioseal F. The occurrence of marginal fissure was found to be least with Clinpro. PMID:22557813

  14. Søvind Marl - Behaviour of a plastic fissured Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng

    The thesis regards the characterisation and determination of properties of Søvind Marl, a Danish highly fissured and plastic clay. Highly fissured, plastic clays are present at great depths several places in Denmark, where extensive development activity is currently ongoing. Nonetheless, the know......The thesis regards the characterisation and determination of properties of Søvind Marl, a Danish highly fissured and plastic clay. Highly fissured, plastic clays are present at great depths several places in Denmark, where extensive development activity is currently ongoing. Nonetheless......, the knowledge of these highly clays is very limited. The thesis consists of three parts based on five scientific papers and a monograph covering a range of different geotechnical tests and properties. The first part describes the geotechnical description and properties of Søvind Marl in order to get a general...... knowledge of the material and an idea of potential challenges. The second part deals with the preconsolidation and stiffness of Søvind Marl. This study herein evaluates the preconsolidation stresses and clarifies and discusses potential difficulties. During continuous loading oedometer tests, the earth...

  15. Rice fissure resistance QTLs from ‘Saber’ complement those from ‘Cypress’

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic value of broken rice is about half that of whole milled rice, so one goal of producers, millers, and rice breeders is to reduce grain breakage during the dehusking and milling processes. One of the primary causes of rice breakage is fissuring, or cracking, of the rice before it enters ...

  16. Painless ulcers and fissures of toes: Hereditary sensory neuropathy, not leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angoori Gnaneshwar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN are rare genetically determined neuropathies. They often manifest as painless injuries in children. We present HSN in a 5-year-old boy who presented with recurrent fissuring and ulceration involving both great toes.

  17. Caries-inhibiting effect of chlorhexidine varnish in pits and fissures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Truin, G.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Evidence regarding the caries-inhibiting effect of chlorhexidine varnish is inconclusive. This study investigated the caries-inhibiting effect of the varnish EC40 on pits and fissures of first permanent molars. A two-year randomized controlled trial was carried out among 461 six- to seven-year-old c

  18. A comparison between three different pit and fissure sealants with regard to marginal integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristlee Sabrin Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the occurrence of enamel fractures, sealant fractures and marginal fissures after placement of three sealants: Helioseal F, Conseal F and Clinpro. Materials and Methods: Thirty individuals between 13 and 15 years of age, diagnosed with pit and fissure caries by visual and DIAGNOdent examination, were chosen for sealant placement on their mandibular molars. The sealants were placed at random, after which, impressions were made with polyvinyl siloxane and casts were fabricated. Dies were prepared, each of which were sputter coated with gold in order to be examined under a scanning electron microscope. The following morphologies were analyzed from dies from each of the sealant groups: Continuous margins, sealant fractures, marginal fissures and enamel fractures. After six months, they were recalled for impression making. Dies were prepared and microscopically analyzed as mentioned. Based on the time of evaluation, there were two groups: Initial group (soon after placement and final group (after six months. Statistical analysis was done using the paired ′t′ test and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results and Conclusions: Clinpro had the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Conseal F and Helioseal F. The occurrence of marginal fissure was found to be least with Clinpro.

  19. Methods for monitoring land subsidence and earth fissures in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, K. C.; Rucker, M. L.; Panda, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    Depletion of groundwater resources in many deep alluvial basin aquifers in the Western USA is causing land subsidence, as it does in many regions worldwide. Land subsidence can severely and adversely impact infrastructure by changing the ground elevation, ground slope (grade) and through the development of ground cracks known as earth fissures that can erode into large gullies. Earth fissures have the potential to compromise the foundations of dams, levees, and other infrastructure and cause failure. Subsequent to an evaluation of the overall subsidence experienced in the vicinity of subsidence-impacted infrastructure, a detailed investigation to search for earth fissures, and design and/or mitigation of potentially effected infrastructure, a focused monitoring system should be designed and implemented. Its purpose is to provide data, and ultimately knowledge, to reduce the potential adverse impacts of land subsidence and earth fissure development to the pertinent infrastructure. This risk reduction is realized by quantifying the rate and distribution of ground deformation, and to detect ground rupture if it occurs, in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The authors have successfully designed and implemented monitoring systems capable of quantifying rates and distributions of ground subsidence and detection of ground rupture at multiple locations throughout the Western USA for several types of infrastructure including dams, levees, channels, basins, roadways, and mining facilities. Effective subsidence and earth fissure monitoring requires understanding and quantification of historic subsidence, estimation of potential future subsidence, delineation of the risk for earth fissures that could impact infrastructure, and motivation and resources to continue monitoring through time. A successful monitoring system provides the means to measure ground deformation, grade changes, displacement, and anticipate and assess the potential for earth fissuring. Employing multiple

  20. Electrophysiological observations on the human pudendo-anal reflex.

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, J S; Smith, A N; McInnes, A

    1986-01-01

    A reproducible electrophysiological technique is described to determine the latency of reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter in response to stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve: the pudendo-anal reflex. This was studied in 38 asymptomatic control subjects and 20 women with neurogenic faecal incontinence, supplemented by determination of the mean motor unit potential duration (MUPD) of the external anal sphincter and anorectal manometry. The reflex latency in the control group w...

  1. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Weis SE

    2013-01-01

    Stephen E Weis1,2 1Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 2Preventive Medicine Clinic, Tarrant County Public Health, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepi...

  2. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E.; Berry, Michael J.; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey ...

  3. Microleakage, adaptation ability and clinical efficacy of two fluoride releasing fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Retention of fissure sealants and good adaptation to enamel are essential for their success. Fluoride releasing resin-based materials are widely accepted for pit and fissure sealing, but newly designed glass ionomers can serve as a good alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage and sealing ability in vitro, and to clinically assess two fluoride releasing fissure sealants. Methods. The sample for experimental study consisted of 20 freshly extracted intact human third molars, divided in two experimental groups according to the sealing material: fluoride releasing resin-based (Heliosel F and glass ionomer (Fuji Triage material. Digital images and scanning electron microscope were used to assess microleakage and adaptation ability. Sample for clinical study consisted of 60 children, aged 6-8 years, with high caries risk, divided in two groups according to the sealant material. Fissure sealant was applied to all erupted, caries-free first permanent molars. Sealants were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months using modified Ryge criteria for retention, marginal adaptation, colour match, surface smoothness and caries. Results. Microleakage was detected in more than half of the specimen, without significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05. Both materials exhibited acceptable sealing ability. Complete retention at the end of the observation period was 81.8% for resin-based, and 21.1% for glass-ionomer fissure sealant (p < 0.001. The presence of caries in sealed molars has been detected in one patient in both groups. During the 12-month observation period, Helioseal F demonstrated better retention, marginal adaptation and surface smoothness (p < 0.001. There were no differences between the two materials regarding caries and color match (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Both tested materials demonstrate satisfactory clinical and caries prophylactic characteristics that justify their use in contemporary preventive

  4. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.

  5. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Křemečková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce obsahuje celkovou analýzu firmy Pegas NONWOVENS. Práce se zabývá analýzami SWOT a SLEPTE, Porterovým pětifaktorovým modelem, Kralickovým Quick testem a vybranými ukazateli finanční analýzy. Na základě zpracování těchto analýz jsou navržena doporučení, která by mohla zlepšit situaci firmy.

  6. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  7. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  8. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  9. [Treatment of anorectal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, A

    2007-02-14

    HAEMORRHOIDAL DISEASE: Stage orientated treatment of haemorrhoidal disease using conservative and operative measures provides high healing rates with low complication- and recurrence rates. ANAL FISSURE: Muscle relaxing ointments (Nitrates, Ca-channel-blocker) are the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure. In cases of insufficiency fissurectomy provides high healing rates. ABSCESS AND ANAL FISTULA: Anal fistulae are treated with respect of their involvement of the anal sphincters. Distal fistulae are completely excised reaching high healing rates, proximal fistulae are treated using local flap procedures with healing rates reaching 50 to 80%. ANAL INCONTINENCE: Treatment of anal incontinence is depending on the severity and on the etiology of the disease. The following procedures are used: conservative: improving consistency, physical exercises, electrostimulation Biofeedback-Training surgical: Sphincterreconstruction, Pre-anal Repair, Post-anal Repair, Total Pelvic Floor Repair, Dynamic Graciloplasty, Artificial Anal Sphincter, Sacralnervestimulation, Stoma

  10. Land subsidence, Ground Fissures and Buried Faults: InSAR Monitoring of Ciudad Guzmán (Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Brunori

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study land subsidence processes and the associated ground fissuring, affecting an active graben filled by thick unconsolidated deposits by means of InSAR techniques and fieldwork. On 21 September 2012, Ciudad Guzmán (Jalisco, Mexico was struck by ground fissures of about 1.5 km of length, causing the deformation of the roads and the propagation of fissures in adjacent buildings. The field survey showed that fissures alignment is coincident with the escarpments produced on 19 September 1985, when a strong earthquake with magnitude 8.1 struck central Mexico. In order to detect and map the spatio-temporal features of the processes that led to the 2012 ground fissures, we applied InSAR multi-temporal techniques to process ENVISAT-ASAR and RADARSAT-2 satellite SAR images acquired between 2003 and 2012. We detect up to 20 mm/year of subsidence of the northwestern part of Ciudad Guzmán. These incremental movements are consistent with the ground fissures observed in 2012. Based on interferometric results, field data and 2D numerical model, we suggest that ground deformations and fissuring are due to the presence of areal subsidence correlated with variable sediment thickness and differential compaction, partly driven by the exploitation of the aquifers and controlled by the distribution and position of buried faults.

  11. Radio(chemo)therapy of the anal carcinoma. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study the data of a consecutive cohort of 138 patients with a locally advanced squamous cell anal cancer were analysed, who were treated with a radio(chemo)therapy in the period from 1988 to 2011. The 5-year overall survival rate was 82%±4%. T category, UICC clinical stage, histopathologic grading and the ECOG performance status were significantly associated with overall survival. Acute toxicity grade 3/4 and chronic side effects grade 3 were found in 58% and 37% of the patients, respectively.

  12. Modélisation de la fissuration à chaud lors du soudage de l'alliage base nickel IN600

    OpenAIRE

    Bouffier, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    La fissuration à chaud de solidification qui est l'un des problèmes majeurs rencontrés dans le cadre du soudage pourrait être préjudiciable à la tenue en service de structures mécano-soudées. Ce phénomène correspond à la formation de fissures en fin de solidification sous l'effet des déformations induites par les contraintes thermiques et le retrait de solidification. Ces travaux de thèse portent sur la modélisation de la fissuration à chaud dans un alliage base nickel en soudage TIG. L'objec...

  13. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  14. Technická analýza

    OpenAIRE

    NĚMEC, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je technická analýza – vytvoření investičních strategií. V teoretické části jsou popsána teoretická východiska vztahující se k technické analýze a indikátorům. V praktické části je zmapována současná situace v prostředí investování na forexu – porovnání brokerů, výběr platformy apod. Vlastní řešení potom obsahuje popis investičních strategií, které byly naprogramovány v jazyku Meta Quotes Language 4 a testovány a optimalizovány pomocí genetických algoritmů v prostřed...

  15. Survey of anal sphincter dysfunction using anal manometry in patients with fecal incontinence: a possible guide to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaliya, Rohan; DiMarino, Anthony J.; Moleski, Stephanie; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the surge of new medical and surgical approaches to treat fecal incontinence, the types of sphincter abnormalities in patients with incontinence have not been well characterized. We aimed to categorize anal sphincter dysfunction using anorectal manometry in patients with fecal incontinence as a potential guide for improved treatment. Methods A retrospective review of 162 consecutive patients with fecal incontinence referred for anorectal manometry was performed. Resting anal pressure and maximal squeeze pressure were considered as measures of internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter function respectively. Results Mean age of the patients was 63 years (13-89); females (81.5%) and males (18.5%). 74% of the patients had sphincter dysfunction on anorectal manometry. Internal anal sphincter dysfunction was present in 62% patients vs. external anal sphincter dysfunction present in 44% patients. 80% females had abnormal manometry vs. 44% in males (P<0.0001). Internal anal sphincter dysfunction was present in 68% females vs. 37% in males (P=0.0026). Conclusions Overall, abnormal anorectal manometry studies revealed that internal anal sphincter dysfunction is the most common finding, alone or in combination with external anal sphincter dysfunction. We suggest that anorectal manometry may be important to delineate anal sphincter function prior to using newer therapeutic mechanical devices. Future studies using pharmacological agents to increase internal anal sphincter tone may be of clinical importance. Finally, the classification of fecal incontinence based on the type of sphincter dysfunction may be an improved guide in the selection of newer agents in treating fecal incontinence. PMID:26423466

  16. [The anal incontinence-- study on 20 operated cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Grasa, C; Cristache, C; Botea, F

    2001-01-01

    The authors present 20 cases operated for anal incontinence. Two techniques were performed: direct repair (18 cases) and Musset-Cottrell procedure (2 cases). The results were excellent in 12 cases, good in 5 cases and satisfactory in 3 cases. The method of choice seems to be the direct repair of the anal sphincter after a proper local and general preparation. PMID:12731180

  17. Obstetrical anal sphincter injuries and outcome of primary repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri J. Desai

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Nulliparity, instrumental delivery, increasing birth weight were high risk factors for obstetrical anal sphincter injuries. Obstetrician needs to be more careful while delivering a patient with multiple risk factors for OASIs. Primary suturing of anal sphincter injury with good post-operative care has a favorable outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3568-3571

  18. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  19. Sotsiaalvõrgustike analüüs / Innar Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Innar, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalvõrgustike analüüs (social network analys - SNA) on tehnikate, meetodite ning vahendite kogum, mis aitab avastada mustreid sotsiaalsetes struktuurides. Analüüsi kasutamisest energeetikaettevõtte Enron ja kohalike ettevõtete võrgustike näitel. Skeemid

  20. 脑脉络膜裂MRI解剖研究及脉络膜裂囊肿影像分析%MRI anatomic study of choroidal fissure and imaging analysis of choroidal fissure cyst of brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹子仪; 高振华; 胡晓书

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study MRI anatomic characteristics of choroidal fissure of brain in vivo and the clinical significance and CT and MRI findings of choroidal fissure cyst.Methods MR images of choroidal fissures in 90 normal brains aged between 20 and 50 were retrospectively analyzed, combining with the anatomical observation of one cadaveric head.At the same time, MRI findings of 20 patients with choroidal fissure cyst in brain were observed.Results Gross dissection showed C- shaped choroid fissure of brain accompanied with lateral ventricle.Choroid fissures could be clearly shown on MRI, demonstrating the linear fissure full of cerebrospinal fluid and nearly the same width in adult before 50 years old.Choroid fissure cyst was displayed as round or oval foci of cerebrospinal fluid- like density or signal intensity in choroid fissure on CT or MR imaging.Conclusion The understanding of the anatomical characteristics of brain choroid fissure and normal MRI findings may be very significant for the diagnosis of choroidal fissure cyst.%目的 探讨脑脉络膜裂的MRI解剖学特点及脉络膜裂囊肿的CT和MRI表现.方法 结合1例颅脑标本的解剖观察,分析90例20~50岁正常脑脉络膜裂的MRI表现并测量其宽度,同时分析20例脑脉络膜裂囊肿的CT和MRI表现.结果 经颅脑标本解剖观察脑脉络膜裂呈"C"形裂隙,深处由室管膜封闭,侧脑室内的脉络丛附着于此裂隙并与之走行一致.脉络膜裂在MRI上为含脑脊液的线状裂隙,50岁前成人裂隙的宽度相差不大.脑脉络膜裂囊肿CT和MRI表现为脑脉络膜裂内类圆形或椭圆形的脑脊液密度或信号.结论 了解脑脉络膜裂的解剖学特征及其正常MRI表现,对于脉络膜裂囊肿诊断具有重要意义.

  1. Comparing methods of estimating strength parameters for fissured clays at Seven Sisters Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, D.P.; Yereniuk, V.A. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Some instabilities have been observed at several dyke locations at the Seven Sisters Generating Station, Manitoba since construction in the late 1940s. The foundations of the dykes are fissured plastic clays. Slope stabilizing methods have been proposed by a number of researchers since the late 1970s for estimating strength parameters for fissured plastic clays. This paper reports on four methods which were used for estimating Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters for stability analyses involving nine dyke locations where instability has been reported in the past. Correlation is established between the calculated safety factors and observed performance in an effort to determine the most appropriate method for this site. It was determined that the most appropriate method was that proposed by P.J. Rivard and Y.Lu in the late 1970s. 16 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  2. EVALUATION OF DIAGNODENT FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF FISSURAL CARIES. A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of fissural caries, especially in young permanent teeth, is quite difficult to establish, its sometimes aleatory character possibly leading to incorrect therapeutical decisions. The aim of the study is to evaluate laser fluorescence (LF represented by Diagnodent as a diagnosis means, comparatively with the exams involving inspection and probing (VI, the validation test of which is the exploratory drilling. Method: 72 occlusal surfaces of the permanent molars of 10-15 year-old children have been examined, the diagnosis being established by two methods; after validation of the diagnosis through exploratory drilling, specific treatments were performed, exemplified by self-evident clinical cases. Results: The obtained values are: VI sensitivity 68.1%, LF 83.3%, specificity VI 77.7%, LF 50%, comparable with the results of other studies. Conclusions: Due to its increased sensitivity, Diagnodent completes the examination through inspection and probing, for the establishment of a correct diagnosis and treatment of fissural caries.

  3. Preconsolidation of Søvind Marl - a highly fissured Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    the preconsolidation stresses. Used test apparatus and methods are presented. The differences between the testing methods and results are discussed. Several well-established methods were used to determine the preconsolidation stresses based on the oedometer tests. All tests and interpretation methods yields the same......Determination of the preconsolidation stresses is a key tool in geotechnical engineering used to evaluate and estimate the behavior of soils. However, it has been proven difficult to accurately estimate the preconsolidation in highly fissured overconsolidated clays, due to the effect...... result; two apparent values can be determined as the preconsolidation stresses. However, only the upper boundary is deemed to be related to the preconsolidation, and the lower boundary arises as the fissured structure collapses during increasing stresses. The upper boundaries of the preconsolidation...

  4. Dose escalation without split-course chemoradiation for anal cancer: results of a phase II RTOG study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: An attempt at radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation (from 45 Gy to 59.6 Gy) in a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) chemoradiation protocol for advanced anal cancers had resulted in an unexpectedly high 1-year colostomy rate (23%) and local failure (The Cancer Journal from Scientific American 2 (4):205-211, 1996). This was felt to be probably secondary to the split course chemoradiation (CR) that was mandated in the protocol. A second phase of this dose escalation study was therefore undertaken without a mandatory split and with an identical RT dose (59.6 Gy) and chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with anal cancers ≥2 cms were treated with a concurrent combination of 59.6 Gy to the pelvis and perineum (1.8 Gy daily, 5 times per week in 33 fractions over 6 (1(2)) weeks) and two cycles of 5 fluorouracil infusion (1000 mg/m2 over 24 hours for 4 days) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m2 bolus). A 10 day rest period was allowed only for severe skin reactions. A comparative analysis was made with the 47 patients in the earlier phase of this study who were treated with the identical chemoradiation course but with a mandatory 2-week break at the 36.00 Gy level. RESULTS: Predominant Grade 3 and 4 toxicities in 18 evaluable patients with dermatitis ((14(18)) or 78%), hematologic ((14(18)) or 78%), infection ((3(18)) or 17%) and gastrointestinal ((5(18)) or 28%). There were no fatalities. Nine patients (50%) completed the planned course without a break; 9 others (50%) had their treatments interrupted for a median of 11 days (range 7-19 days) at a median dose of 41.4 Gy (range 32.4 to 48.6 Gy). This compared to (40(47)) patients (85%) who had a 12 day treatment interruption at 36 Gy total dose in a planned break group. One patient had an abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for persistent disease and another for an anal fissure for (2(18)) or 11% 1-year colostomy rate. This was again favorably comparable to 23% 1-year colostomy rate for the earlier group of

  5. Intraventricular racemose type neurocysticercosis with anterior interhemispheric fissure cyst: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Racemose type of neurocysticercosis (NCC is a rare form of parasitic infestation of central nervous system. Most commonly it is found in fourth ventricle and cisterns. On reviewing the PubMed and Google databases, we found that this would be the first reported case of racemose type NCC in occipital horn of lateral ventricle with obstructive hydrocephalus, along with an incidental interhemispheric fissure arachnoid cyst.

  6. Ability of Pit and Fissure Sealant-containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate to inhibit Enamel Demineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Zawaideh, Feda I; Owais, Arwa I; Kawaja, Wasan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the effect of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing pit and fissure sealant on inhibition of enamel demineralization in vitro. Materials and methods: Enamel specimens (n = 75) were prepared using freshly extracted noncarious human third molars. Box-shaped cavities (8 × 2 × 2 mm) on the buccal or lingual surfaces were prepared and restored with resin-based sealant (Concise™), ACP-containing sealant (Aegis®) or fluoride-containing sealant (Conseal-F™). The sampl...

  7. The effect of different enamel surface treatments on microleakage of fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Topaloglu-Ak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different techniques of surface treatment on the microleakage of fissure sealants in permanent molar teeth in vitro. Materials and methods. 96 extracted impacted human third molars were randomly divided into 8 surface treatment groups (n=12/group as 1. Er: YAG laser; (Fidelis II, Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia (125 mj, 20Hz. 2. Er: YAG laser + 37% H3PO4 (15s; 3. ER: AG laser + 37% H3PO4+Prime&Bond NT; 4. Er: YAG laser + G Bond; 5. Er: YAG laser + Prime&Bond NT; 6. 37% H3PO4; 7. 37% H3PO4 + Prime &Bond NT; 8. G Bond. Sealant material (Clinpro, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, was applied into the fissures and light-cured for 20s with LED (Bluephase C5, Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling (1000×, 5-55°C, dwell time: 15s and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution for 24h at 37°C. The samples were sectioned and scored on a 3 point rating scale using a light microscope with a magnification of ×20. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Multiple comparisons were analyzed using Bonferroni test (p=0.05. Results. Er:YAG laser showed the highest microleakage scores whereas Er YAG laser + 37% H3PO4 showed the lowest. Although 37% H3PO4 group showed higher scores than Er:YAG laser + 37% H3PO4, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Etching fissures with phosphoric acid is sufficient prior to fissure sealant application.

  8. Drainage structures and transit-time distributions in conduit-dominated and fissured karst aquifer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lauber, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers are important groundwater resources. Solutionally-enlarged conduits embedded in a fissured rock matrix result in a highly heterogeneous underground drainage pattern that makes karst aquifers difficult to characterize. This thesis emphasizes the identification of drainage structures and the quantification of related transit-time distributions of diverse karst aquifer systems. Applied methods include artificial tracer tests, natural tracer analysis, and discharge analysis.

  9. A randomized control clinical trial of fissure sealant retention: Self etch adhesive versus total etch adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Aman; Farhan Raza Khan; Aisha Salim; Huma Farid

    2015-01-01

    Context: There are limited studies on comparison of Total etch (TE) and Self etch (SE) adhesive for placement of sealants. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the retention of fissure sealants placed using TE adhesive to those sealants placed using SE (seventh generation) adhesive. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the dental section, Aga Khan University Hospital. This study was a randomized single blinded trial with a split mouth design. Materials and Methods:...

  10. A 1-year clinical evaluation of fissure sealants on permanent first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Ninawe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods : Thirty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, who were attending the school health program regularly, had participated in the study. A split-mouth design was used in which the two fissure sealants (Helioseal-F and Glass ionomer Fuji VII were randomly placed in 60 matched contralateral pairs of permanent molar teeth. Sealants were rated by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirrors and probes following the US Public Health Service criteria. The sealants were evaluated at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Results : The data obtained for retention, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomical form of pit and fissure sealants were tabulated and compared statistically using the Chi-square test of significance. Conclusion : The Helioseal-F sealant was better than the Glass ionomer Fuji VII sealant with respect to retention, anatomical form and surface texture. Both the materials showed similar results with respect to marginal discoloration.

  11. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Relationship between DIAGNOdent values and sealant penetration depth on occlusal fissures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas A; Diniz, Michele B; Hug, Isabel; Cordeiro, Rita C L; Lussi, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the relationship between laser fluorescence values and sealant penetration depth on occlusal fissures. One hundred and sixty-six permanent molars were selected and divided into four groups, which were each treated using a different sealant (two clear and two opaque). The teeth were independently measured twice by two experienced dentists using two laser fluorescence devices-DIAGNOdent (LF and LFpen)-before and after sealing, and then thermoclycled. After measuring, the teeth were histologically prepared and assessed for caries extension. Digital photographs of the cut sealed sites were assessed, and the sealant penetration depth was measured. All 166 sites were measured by one of the examiners taking as limits the outer and inner surface of the sealant into the fissure. For each device (LF and LFpen) and each group, the difference between the values at baseline and after sealing was plotted against the sealant penetration depth and scatter plots were provided. It could be observed that most of the points were concentrated around the zero line, for both LF and LFpen in the four groups. In conclusion, there is no relation between changes in DIAGNOdent values and increasing of depth sealant penetration within the occlusal fissures.

  13. Sinking the II mine shaft in fissured aquiferous sandstone layers in the Budryk mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparski, H.; Mizia, A.; Napieracz, T.

    1984-03-01

    Methods are evaluated for prevention of water influx during excavation of the II Budryk shaft in the Budryk black coal mine being constructed in Ornontowice. Water hazards are associated with a layer of fissured aquiferous sandstones at 270 m depth. After drilling and blasting at 270 m depth, water influx to the shaft increased in the initial phase to 2 m/sup 3//min and at a later stage to 4.7 m/sup 3//min. Water removal from the shaft using pumps with an output of 5 m/sup 3//min caused a decrease in mineral content from 12 to 6.6 g/l. This showed that water removed from the shaft flew through a system of geologic fissures from aquiferous strata. Grouting was used for prevention of water influx. Two phases of water influx control are characterized: prevention of water influx to the shaft, grouting the surrounding rock strata. A layer of concrete placed at the shaft bottom was used for water influx prevention. The concrete cover consisted of 3 layers: crushed brick layer 2 m thick, plastic layer 2 mm thick and 5.5 m thick concrete layer. Pipes used for water removal were placed directly in aquiferous fissures from 1 cm to 10 cm wide. After water influx to the mine shaft declined, surrounding rock strata were grouted using 15 boreholes.

  14. Trends in incidence of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark, 1978-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidences of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2/3) over time in Danish women and men. Describing the burden of anal cancer and AIN may be valuable in future evaluations of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. We included all......-associated histological types levelled out or even declined during the 30 years of observation. In women, the increase in HPV-associated cancers was more pronounced among those under 60 years of age. Our findings indicate that vaccines against HPV might play an important role in the prevention of anal cancer and its...... cases of AIN2/3 during the study period. The average annual percentage change of 5% between 1998 and 2008 represents a steep increase in the incidence of AIN in both genders. Furthermore, the incidence rate of HPV-associated anal cancers increased significantly, whereas that of non-HPV...

  15. An Experimental and Numerical Study on Cracking Behavior of Brittle Sandstone Containing Two Non-coplanar Fissures Under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hua; Ranjith, P. G.; Ju, Yang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the fracture mechanism in all kinds of rock engineering, it is important to investigate the fracture evolution behavior of pre-fissured rock. In this research, we conducted uniaxial compression experiments to evaluate the influence of ligament angle on the strength, deformability, and fracture coalescence behavior of rectangular prismatic specimens (80 × 160 × 30 mm) of brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures. The experimental results show that the peak strength of sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures depends on the ligament angle, but the elastic modulus is not closely related to the ligament angle. With the increase of ligament angle, the peak strength decreased at a ligament angle of 60°, before increasing up to our maximum ligament angle of 120°. Crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence were all observed and characterized from the inner and outer tips of pre-existing non-coplanar fissures using photographic monitoring. Based on the results, the sequence of crack evolution in sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures was analyzed in detail. In order to fully understand the crack evolution mechanism of brittle sandstone, numerical simulations using PFC2D were performed for specimens containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results. By analyzing the stress field, the crack evolution mechanism in brittle sandstone containing two non-coplanar fissures under uniaxial compression is revealed. These experimental and numerical results are expected to improve the understanding of the unstable fracture mechanism of fissured rock engineering structures.

  16. Clinical Evaluation of applying a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic bonding agent on the retention and durability of fissure sealant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa GHandi; Babak Namvar; Sotodeh Davaie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: As in fissure sealant therapy the tooth surface is mostly enamel, the use of an enamel bonding agent (hydrophobic bonding agent) may be more cost effective than that of newer generations of bonding (hydrophilic bonding agents). The aim of this study was to compare the retention and durability of fissure sealant therapy when applying an enamel bonding agent, a dentin bonding agent and no bonding agent during 4 years. Materials and Methods: This study was done on the fi...

  17. Preventive Intervention of Pit Fissure Sealant to Reduce New Dental Caries Incidence in the Student of Sumbangsih Primary Schools Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Risqa Rina Darwita; Iwany Amalliah

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study to determine whether a pit fissure sealing teeth represents an effective method of decreasing the incidence of new dental caries, to gain the parents, teachers and Sumbangsih Education foundation acceptance on this new activity. Methods. The subjects were 7-11 year of age of 251 student of Sumbangsih Primary School, which located in Kemang, South Jakarta and Grogol, West Jakarta. Intra oral examinations and pit fissure sealing were done in the school dental clinic. The d...

  18. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcelk46@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina; Paula, Wagner Diniz de [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Brasilia University Hospital; Gompelmann, Daniela [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Heussel, Claus Peter; Puderbach, Michael [University of Heidelberg (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine of the Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate lung fissures completeness, post-treatment radiological response and quantitative CT analysis (QCTA) in a population of severe emphysematous patients submitted to endobronchial valves (EBV) implantation. Materials and Methods: Multi-detectors CT exams of 29 patients were studied, using thin-section low dose protocol without contrast. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images in consensus; fissures completeness was estimated in 5% increments and post-EBV radiological response (target lobe atelectasis/volume loss) was evaluated. QCTA was performed in pre and post-treatment scans using a fully automated software. Results: CT response was present in 16/29 patients. In the negative CT response group, all 13 patients presented incomplete fissures, and mean oblique fissures completeness was 72.8%, against 88.3% in the other group. QCTA most significant results showed a reduced post-treatment total lung volume (LV) (mean 542 ml), reduced EBV-submitted LV (700 ml) and reduced emphysema volume (331.4 ml) in the positive response group, which also showed improved functional tests. Conclusion: EBV benefit is most likely in patients who have complete interlobar fissures and develop lobar atelectasis. In patients with no radiological response we observed a higher prevalence of incomplete fissures and a greater degree of incompleteness. The fully automated QCTA detected the post-treatment alterations, especially in the treated lung analysis. (author)

  19. Endobronchial valves in severe emphysematous patients: CT evaluation of lung fissures completeness, treatment radiological response and quantitative emphysema analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Koenigkam-Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung fissures completeness, post-treatment radiological response and quantitative CT analysis (QCTA in a population of severe emphysematous patients submitted to endobronchial valves (EBV implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multi-detectors CT exams of 29 patients were studied, using thin-section low dose protocol without contrast. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed all images in consensus; fissures completeness was estimated in 5% increments and post-EBV radiological response (target lobe atelectasis/volume loss was evaluated. QCTA was performed in pre and post-treatment scans using a fully automated software. RESULTS: CT response was present in 16/29 patients. In the negative CT response group, all 13 patients presented incomplete fissures, and mean oblique fissures completeness was 72.8%, against 88.3% in the other group. QCTA most significant results showed a reduced post-treatment total lung volume (LV (mean 542 ml, reduced EBV-submitted LV (700 ml and reduced emphysema volume (331.4 ml in the positive response group, which also showed improved functional tests. CONCLUSION: EBV benefit is most likely in patients who have complete interlobar fissures and develop lobar atelectasis. In patients with no radiological response we observed a higher prevalence of incomplete fissures and a greater degree of incompleteness. The fully automated QCTA detected the post-treatment alterations, especially in the treated lung analysis.

  20. Distributed Computing for Seismic Data Retrieval using FISSURES DHI Client FMI Implimented from MatSeis 1.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D. M.; Li, Q.; Creager, K. C.; Ning, R.; Crotwell, H. P.; Zuzlewski, S.; Hellman, S. B.; Schoch, K. S.; Laughbon, C. J.; Stromme, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Three software development efforts have recently combined to allow a seamless method for obtaining data from the IRIS DMC over the Internet and analyzing it in MATLAB. During the past few years IRIS has constructed the initial framework and definitions for FISSURES servers and Data Handling Interface (DHI) clients. FISSURES uses the distributed computing language Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), which allows software systems to work across the Internet in a platform independent and computer-language neutral manner. Starting from the FISSURES object model three seismic services have been defined: event, network and seismogram. From these three object types a DHI client is used to access information through FISSURES services. Using the University of Washington developed FISSURES-Matlab-Interface (FMI) DHI client, all three FISSURES objects can be accessed via the Internet and downloaded into local MATLAB objects, allowing access to earthquake event catalogs, seismograms, network and instrument information. The DHI client FMI can be implemented from MatSeis. MatSeis, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, is a MATLAB based, Graphical User Interface (GUI) controlled software package with seismic data visualization, signal processing, and database importing and exporting capabilities, to list just a few. In this poster, we will discuss the seismic data retrieval currently prototyped for the IRIS DMC, as well as the planned connections to the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC), and South Carolina Earth Physics Project (SCEPP) data center.

  1. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Žahourek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    V dnešní nelehké situaci musí organizace obzvlášť pečlivě sledovat svoje hospodaření a plánovat. Cílem této práce je zhodnotit aktuální situace společnosti Centropen a.s.. Použitými nástroji jsou finanční analýza, fundamentální analýza, SLEPTE analýza a Porterova analýza pěti sil. Výsledky těchto analýz jsou dále zpracovány ve SWOT analýza, ta je potom porovnána se SWOT analýzou k situaci z roku 2006. Today, in the hard situation, must organization very carefully observe its economy and pl...

  2. The Effectiveness of Fissure Sealant Therapy Placed by Professional Complementary to Dentistry Compared with Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nilchian

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a process that may take place on any tooth surface in the oral cavity where a microbial biofilm (dental plaque is allowed to develop over a period. From the public health perspective, the prevention of caries is still a major challenge. The development of dental caries within the mouth follows a fixed hierarchy indicating that tooth surfaces vary in caries susceptibility. The most susceptible surfaces are the buccal pits and occlusal-fissured surfaces of the first molar teeth. Since the 1960`s many trials have investigated the effectiveness of using sealants on pit and fissure surfaces. However, the cost effectiveness of sealants is an important issue considered by many studies noted that cost-effectiveness of sealants would be enhanced by using trained auxiliaries to apply them. The changes in dentistry and oral health reveal a need to review the roles of dental auxiliaries in order to deliver quality care cost-effectively. There were number of studies conducted on the effectiveness of dental auxiliaries around the world. According to the purpose of this project, studies evaluated the effectiveness of Professional complementary to dentistry (PCDs and different type of dental auxiliaries in carrying out complete restorations and in the preventive therapies, fissure sealants, traumatic restorative treatment were evaluated in literature review. The aim of the present study is to review the literature and assess whether PCDs can perform pit and fissure sealants as effectively as dentist through investigation of the caries preventive effect of sealant placed by dentist relative to sealant placed by PCDs. Method: Electronic databases were searched till January 2005. The databases which were used are: Medline via Ovid, Cochrane databases of systematic review , DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, CCTR (Clinical Controlled Trials Register Cochrane Library, Dissertation Abstracts International database

  3. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  4. Anal transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Holder-Murray; Alessandro Fichera

    2009-01-01

    Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis;these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.

  5. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    NOZAWA, HIROAKI; ISHIHARA, SOICHIRO; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; YASUDA, KOJI; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for t...

  6. DO CHANGES IN ANAL SPHINCTER ANATOMY CORRELATE WITH ANAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN WITH A HISTORY OF VAGINAL DELIVERY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria MURAD-REGADAS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate anal sphincter anatomy using three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-DAUS in incontinent women with vaginal delivery, correlate anatomical findings with symptoms of fecal incontinence and determine the effect of vaginal delivery on anal canal anatomy and function. Methods Female with fecal incontinence and vaginal delivery were assessed with Wexner’s score, manometry, and 3DAUS. A control group comprising asymptomatic nulliparous was included. Anal pressure, the angle of the defect and length of the external anal sphincter (EAS, the anterior and posterior internal anal sphincter (IAS, the EAS + puborectal and the gap were measured and correlated with score. Results Of the 62, 49 had fecal incontinence and 13 were asymptomatic. Twenty five had EAS defects, 8 had combined EAS+IAS defects, 16 had intact sphincters and continence scores were similar. Subjects with sphincter defects had a shorter anterior EAS, IAS and longer gap than women without defects. Those with a vaginal delivery and intact sphincters had a shorter anterior EAS and longer gap than nulliparous. We found correlations between resting pressure and anterior EAS and IAS length in patients with defects. Conclusions Avaliar a anatomia do esfíncter anal usando ultra-sonografia tridimensional (3D-US em mulheres incontinentes com parto vaginal, correlacionar os achados anatômicos com sintomas de incontinência fecal e, determinar o efeito do parto vaginal sobre a anatomia e função do canal anal.

  7. The classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors give information about frequency of cancerous growths of the anal canal, general analysis of observations the classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal, clinical-anatomy classification of cancerous growths of the anal canal and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal

  8. MRI in evaluating atrophy of the external anal sphincter in patients with fecal incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Terra; R.G.H. Beets-Tan; V.P.M. van der Hulst; M. Deutekom; M.G.W. Dijkgraaf; P.M.M. Bossuyt; A.C. Dobben; C.G.M.I. Baeten; J. Stoker

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. External anal sphincter atrophy seen at endoanal MRI may predict poor outcome of surgical anal sphincter repair for an external anal sphincter defect. The purposes of this study were to compare external phased-array MRI to endoanal MRI for depicting external anal sphincter atrophy in pati

  9.  Surgical excision of extensive anal condylomata is a safe operation without risk of anal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wroński

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:Anal condylomata acuminata was a well-known disease in ancient times but in recent years there has been a rapidly increasing number of people who suffer from this disease. The main cause of this disease is infection of human papilloma virus (HPV which occurs through sexual contact.Currently there are three different ways to treat anal condylomata. Small changes of anal condylomata can be treated with local therapeutic agents, but the best results of treatment of extensive changes are obtained by surgical techniques.Material/Methods:The study group consisted of 30 patients with diagnosed extensive anal condylomata who underwent surgery in Mikolaj Pirogow High Specialized Hospital in Lodz. The survey was conducted from 2007 to 2011. Patients had been directed to the surgical ward by general surgeons and practitioners, proctologists and urologists. The diagnosis was made after proctological assessment in the knee-chest position.Results:All patients underwent surgery and had complete macroscopic electroexcision of anal condylomata. In the research group there was no mortality. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 (13.3�20patients – postoperative bleeding. Strong pain was present in 14 (46.7�20patients but only in the postoperative period. During postoperative follow-up there was no observed infection in the anal region or recurrence of disease. In the operated group there were no observed cosmetic deformations of the anus and/or the anal canal, narrow anal canal or functional fecal incontinence symptoms.Conclusions:Surgical treatment of anal condylomata is an effective and safe method for the patient. In our research there were no serious postoperative complications or recurrence of the disease during the follow-up period.

  10. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce utváří celkový obraz o vybrané firmě pomocí SWOT analýzy, SLEPTE analýzy, Porterovy analýzy konkurence a analyzuje její finanční situaci od roku 2006 do roku 2008 prostřednictvím soustav poměrových ukazatelů. Z výsledků všech analýz jsou navržena doporučení ke zlepšení stávající situace firmy. This bachelor’s thesis presents a picture of a selected firm by applying SWOT and SLEPTE analysis and Porter´s Five Forces analysis. Next follows an analysis of the financial st...

  11. Softwarová podpora analýzy rizik

    OpenAIRE

    Psota, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá teoretickým popisem možností řízení rizik především v oblasti informačních technologií a popisuje metody sloužící k analýze rizik. Rozebrané metody jsou analýza stromu událostí, analýza stromu poruch, FMEA, HAZOP a Markovova analýza. Praktická část práce zahrnuje návrh a implementaci aplikace, která vizualizuje rozhodovací stromy a určuje pravděpodobnosti jednotlivých prvků.

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  13. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Peloušková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    Předmětem bakalářská práce je analýza společnosti MMB Consulting, s.r.o., která se zabývá realizací staveb v Jihomoravském kraji. Obsahem práce je vypracování SLEPTE analýzy, Porterova modelu pěti konkurenčních sil a SWOT analýzy. Na základě provedených analýz jsou nakonec navrženy způsoby zlepšení současné situace společnosti. Subject of this thesis is the analysis the MMB Consulting company, which is engaged in construction of buildings in the South Moravian region. The thesis includes S...

  14. Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhupinder S Anand; Gordana Verstovsek; George Cole

    2006-01-01

    Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma. We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis. A 78-year-old white man presented with rectal bleeding of several months duration. Examination revealed a 4 cm friable mass attached to the anus by a stalk. At surgery, the mass was grasped with a Babcock forceps and was resected using electrocautery.Microscopic examination revealed a tubulovillus adenoma with no areas of high grade dysplasia or malignant transformation. The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor. We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus. Although seen rarely, it is important to recognize and treat these tumors at an early stage because of their potential to transform into adenocarcinoma.

  15. Anal sphincter EMG in the diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, K; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Løkkegaard, Annemette;

    2010-01-01

    The role of electromyography (EMG) recorded from the external anal sphincter (EAS) in the diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes is a matter for continuous debate. Most studies addressing this issue are retrospective.......The role of electromyography (EMG) recorded from the external anal sphincter (EAS) in the diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian syndromes is a matter for continuous debate. Most studies addressing this issue are retrospective....

  16. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Ira L.; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors earl...

  17. Fissuring and weathering of clays as controlling factors for slope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Internò, G.

    2003-04-01

    , hydrogeology, and geotechnique was therefore performed; in addition, recently published data on mineralogy and geotechnique of Argille Subappennine have also been considered. The work started from a detailed geological and structural analysis conducted on several natural and excavated slopes in the area: this phase of study allowed to identify the main systems of discontinuity in the rock mass. Fissuring seems characterized by good persistence along the overall exposed outcrops, and is typically marked by different colour which gives an overall yellow aspect to the upper portion of the clay slopes, strongly contrasting with the gray colour of the lower, less-weathered to unweathered, clays. A discrimination between fissures and the other discontinuities (the latter being related to lamination of argillaceous deposits, drying, and tensional release in the outermost portion of the slopes) has also been attempted. At the outcrop scale the fissures are marked by the yellow colour, which is indicative of the preferential ways of infiltration of water into the rock mass. Continuity and persistence of the main systems of fissuring in the clays is furtherly evidenced by morphology of exposed slopes, where erosional landforms (namely, rills, gullies, and badlands) are preferentially oriented according to the main directions of fissuring. The geotechnical analysis and the laboratory tests have been performed through: i) geotechnical characterization of the two portions exposed on the slopes (unweathered and weathered clays); ii) permeability tests; iii) tests of chemical interactions with likely contaminants (to evaluate the suitability of the argillaceous materials to host landfills). In addition, specific analysis addressed to evaluate the dispersivity of contaminants in the rock mass have also been performed. Eventually, the overall sets of data is discussed to assess the controlling role exerted by fissuring and by weathering in the slope evolution, as well as to provide useful

  18. Double-Porosity Models for a Fissured Groundwater Reservoir With Fracture Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Allen F.

    1984-07-01

    Theories of flow to a well in a double-porosity groundwater reservoir are modified to incorporate effects of a thin layer of low-permeability material or fracture skin that may be present at fracture-block interfaces as a result of mineral deposition or alteration. The commonly used theory for flow in double- porosity formations that is based upon the assumption of pseudo-steady state block-to-fissure flow is shown to be a special case of the theory presented in this paper. The latter is based on the assumption of transient block-to-fissure flow with fracture skin. Under conditions where fracture skin has a hydraulic conductivity that is less than that of the matrix rock, it may be assumed to impede the interchange of fluid between the fissures and blocks. Resistance to flow at fracture-block interfaces tends to reduce spatial variation of hydraulic head gradients within the blocks. This provides theoretical justification for neglecting the divergence of flow in the blocks as required by the pseudo-steady state flow model. Coupled boundary value problems for flow to a well discharging at a constant rate were solved in the Laplace domain. Both slab-shaped and sphere-shaped blocks were considered, as were effects of well bore storage and well bore skin. Results obtained by numerical inversion were used to construct dimensionless-type curves that were applied to well test data, for a pumped well and for an observation well, from the fractured volcanic rock terrane of the Nevada Test Site.

  19. Fissure distribution at Mauna Loa (Hawaii) as an example to understand shallow magma transfer at volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Trusdell, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Mauna Loa (Hawaii) is the largest active shield volcano on the Island of Hawai'i, covering more than half of it and rising to 4,169 meters above sea level. The volcano hosts the Moku'aweoweo summit caldera, from which two elongated rift zones depart: the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) and the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). Most of Mauna Loa's eruptions begin with lava fountains from a series of fissure vents in the summit region and then often migrate to vents down either rift zone. Mauna Loa volcano shows a distinctive feature, being characterized by minor radial eruptive fissures (not related to the two main rifts) on the NW flank only. This study tries to explain such a selective distribution of vents, and thus of shallow magma transfer. To this aim, we run numerical models with different amount of opening of the two rift zones of Mauna Loa, as well as different amount of slip on its SE flank. Our results suggest that the selective occurrence of the radial fissures may be explained by the competition between two processes: a) rift intrusion (especially along the NERZ), promoting the development of radial dikes along the NW flank; b) flank slip, inhibiting the development of the radial dikes on the SE flank. The opening of the two non-parallel main rift zones of Mauna Loa promotes the local extension necessary to develop the radial dikes on the NW flank. A general model for the development of a third branch of radial rift, which may be also applied to Mt. Etna and some volcanoes on the Canary Islands, is proposed.

  20. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  1. Reflexo pudendo-anal em mulheres normais Pudendo-anal reflex in normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Aguiar Cavalcanti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritas observações do registro do reflexo pudendo-anal em mulheres sem queixas de incontinência urinária. Foram estudadas 31 voluntárias adultas, com estimulação elétrica bilateral e independente do clitóris e registros de superfície em ambos os lados do músculo esfíncter externo do ânus (EEA. As respostas foram obtidas com pulsos duplos de 0,2 ms de duração e intervalos de 5 ms, aplicados a uma freqüência menor que 0,5 Hz. Foram medidas as latências iniciais das respostas. Não foram evidenciadas diferenças entre as respostas obtidas de cada lado do EEA e nem entre os lados, com relação aos estímulos. Uma das voluntárias não apresentou respostas após estimulação de um dos lados. Não foram observadas diferenças relacionadas a paridade total e nem com a presença de partos vaginais. A idade e o índice de massa corpórea não se correlacionaram com as respostas. Em 12% das respostas, a medida das latências foi dificultada pela baixa relação sinal-ruído.The pudendo-anal reflex was studied in a sample of 31 normal women. Responses were obtained after bilateral independent stimulation of the clitoris, with surface recordings from both sides of the external anal sphincter. Reponses were elicited with double-pulses of 0,2 ms duration with a interstimulus interval of 5 ms, frequency of stimulation was lower than 0,5 Hz. A minimal of four responses were recorded after supramaximal stimulation. In one volunteer no response was recorded after unilateral stimulation. Latencies of the responses from the right and left sides of the anal sfincter after right and left stimulation were 36.35±6.37, 36.28±6.23, 35.88±4.68, 36.44±4.45ms, respectively. No relation was detected between latencies and age, body mass index and parity (considering either total parity or vaginal delivery only. In 12% of the recordings uncertainty was introduced in the latency measurements related to a poor signal-noise ratio.

  2. Fissure sealants in caries prevention:a practice-based study using survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leskinen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse the effectiveness and cost of fissure sealant treatment in preventing dental caries in children in a practice-based research network using survival analysis. The survival times of first permanent molars in children were analysed in three countries: in Finland (age cohorts 1970–1972 and 1980–1982), in Sweden (1980–1982) and in Greece (1980–1982), and additionally at two municipal health centres in Finland (age cohorts 1988–1990 in Kemi...

  3. Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna L. S. Picciani; Souza, Thays T.; Santos, Vanessa de Carla B.; Domingos, Tábata A.; Sueli Carneiro; João Carlos Avelleira; Azulay, David R.; Pinto, Jane M. N.; Dias, Eliane P.

    2015-01-01

    Geographic tongue (GT) and fissured tongue (FT) are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of GT/FT between psoriasis group (PG) and healthy controls (HC) and investigate the correlation between GT/FT and psoriasis severity using the PASI and age of psoriasis onset. Three hundred and forty-eight PG and 348 HC were selected. According to the age of psoriasis onset, the individuals were classified as having early psoriasi...

  4. [Epithelium and anal glands in rectal pouches and fistula. Histologic studies of swine with congenital anal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, W; Kluth, D; Lierse, W

    1989-02-01

    The epithelial coating of the rectal pouch and fistula was studied morphologically in 33 newborn piglets with high and low forms of anal atresia and was found to be similar to the epithelial coating of the anal canal in normal piglets: the typical epithelium of the rectum changed its character into transitional epithelium at the region of the internal sphincter which surrounded the fistulae in all animals. In the caudal part of the fistula the transitional epithelium was followed by squamous epithelium. Only in male piglets with deformities and recto-urethral fistulae no squamous epithelium was found. In these cases transitional epithelium covered all parts of the fistula and the region of the internal sphincter. Anal glands were found in all animals, with or without anorectal malformations. They always invaded the internal sphincter. According to our morphological studies the fistula in anorectal malformations represents an ectopic anal canal.

  5. High prevalence of high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women screened for anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, June Y; Smotkin, David; Grossberg, Robert; Suhrland, Mark; Levine, Rebecca; Smith, Harriet O; Negassa, Abdissa; McAndrew, Thomas C; Einstein, Mark H

    2012-06-01

    There is no consensus on optimal screening for anal cancer (AC) in HIV+ women. Seven hundred fifteen unique asymptomatic women in a high-prevalence HIV+ community were screened for AC with anal cytology and triage to high-resolution anoscopy after routine screening was implemented in a large urban hospital system. Of these, 75 (10.5%) had an abnormal anal cytology and 29 (38.7%) of those with an abnormality had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Women with poorly controlled HIV were significantly more likely to have high-grade AIN (P = 0.03). Given the high rate of AIN in screened HIV-infected women, routine AC screening in all HIV-infected women should be strongly considered. PMID:22466085

  6. A method for the automatic quantification of the completeness of pulmonary fissures: evaluation in a database of subjects with severe emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Abtin, Fereidoun; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Shaw, Greg; Brown, Matthew S. [University of California-Los Angeles, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers and Thoracic Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To propose and evaluate a technique for automatic quantification of fissural completeness from chest computed tomography (CT) in a database of subjects with severe emphysema. Ninety-six CT studies of patients with severe emphysema were included. The lungs, fissures and lobes were automatically segmented. The completeness of the fissures was calculated as the percentage of the lobar border defined by a fissure. The completeness score of the automatic method was compared with a visual consensus read by three radiologists using boxplots, rank sum tests and ROC analysis. The consensus read found 49% (47/96), 15% (14/96) and 67% (64/96) of the right major, right minor and left major fissures to be complete. For all fissures visually assessed as being complete the automatic method resulted in significantly higher completeness scores (mean 92.78%) than for those assessed as being partial or absent (mean 77.16%; all p values <0.001). The areas under the curves for the automatic fissural completeness were 0.88, 0.91 and 0.83 for the right major, right minor and left major fissures respectively. An automatic method is able to quantify fissural completeness in a cohort of subjects with severe emphysema consistent with a visual consensus read of three radiologists. (orig.)

  7. A method for the automatic quantification of the completeness of pulmonary fissures: evaluation in a database of subjects with severe emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To propose and evaluate a technique for automatic quantification of fissural completeness from chest computed tomography (CT) in a database of subjects with severe emphysema. Ninety-six CT studies of patients with severe emphysema were included. The lungs, fissures and lobes were automatically segmented. The completeness of the fissures was calculated as the percentage of the lobar border defined by a fissure. The completeness score of the automatic method was compared with a visual consensus read by three radiologists using boxplots, rank sum tests and ROC analysis. The consensus read found 49% (47/96), 15% (14/96) and 67% (64/96) of the right major, right minor and left major fissures to be complete. For all fissures visually assessed as being complete the automatic method resulted in significantly higher completeness scores (mean 92.78%) than for those assessed as being partial or absent (mean 77.16%; all p values <0.001). The areas under the curves for the automatic fissural completeness were 0.88, 0.91 and 0.83 for the right major, right minor and left major fissures respectively. An automatic method is able to quantify fissural completeness in a cohort of subjects with severe emphysema consistent with a visual consensus read of three radiologists. (orig.)

  8. Different scale land subsidence and ground fissure monitoring with multiple InSAR techniques over Fenwei basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, C.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, W.; Qu, F.; Liu, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Fenwei basin, China, composed by several sub-basins, has been suffering severe geo-hazards in last 60 years, including large scale land subsidence and small scale ground fissure, which caused serious infrastructure damages and property losses. In this paper, we apply different InSAR techniques with different SAR data to monitor these hazards. Firstly, combined small baseline subset (SBAS) InSAR method and persistent scatterers (PS) InSAR method is used to multi-track Envisat ASAR data to retrieve the large scale land subsidence covering entire Fenwei basin, from which different land subsidence magnitudes are analyzed of different sub-basins. Secondly, PS-InSAR method is used to monitor the small scale ground fissure deformation in Yuncheng basin, where different spatial deformation gradient can be clearly discovered. Lastly, different track SAR data are contributed to retrieve two-dimensional deformation in both land subsidence and ground fissure region, Xi'an, China, which can be benefitial to explain the occurrence of ground fissure and the correlation between land subsidence and ground fissure.

  9. Influences of soil hydraulic and mechanical parameters on land subsidence and ground fissures caused by groundwater exploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴贤; 骆祖江; 周世玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influences of hydraulic and mechanical parameters on land subsidence and ground fissure caused by groundwater exploitation, based on the Biot’s consolidation theory and combined with the nonlinear rheological theory of soil, the constitutive relation in Biot’s consolidation theory is extended to include the viscoelastic plasticity, and the dynamic relationship among the porosity, the hydraulic conductivity, the parameters of soil deformation and effective stress is also considered, a three-dimensional full coupling mathematical model is established and applied to the study of land subsidence and ground fissures of Cangzhou in Hebei Province, through the analysis of parameter sensitivity, the influences of soil hydraulic and mechanical parame-ters on land subsidence and ground fissure are revealed. It is shown that the elastic modulus E , the Poisson ratio, the specific yield m and the soil cohesion c have a great influence on the land subsidence and the ground fissures. In addition, the vertical hydraulic conductivity zk and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity ks also have a great influence on the land subsidence and the ground fissures.

  10. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  11. The Effects of Opaque and Clear Pit and Fissure Sealants on Infrared Laser Fluorescence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrololoomi Z.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF. However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001 while the statistical changes in this measurement is negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311. Conclusion: Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant.

  12. The Effects of Opaque and Clear Pit and Fissure Sealants on Infrared Laser Fluorescence Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrololoomi, Z.; Khodabakhsh, M.; Khaksar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF). However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre- and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001) while the statistical changes in this measurement was negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311). Conclusion: Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore, DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant. PMID:24883342

  13. Understanding the link between circumferential dikes and eruptive fissures around calderas based on numerical and analog models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Active calderas are seldom associated with circumferential eruptive fissures, but eroded magmatic complexes reveal widespread circumferential dikes. This suggests that, while the conditions to emplace circumferential dikes are easily met, mechanisms must prevent them from reaching the surface. We explain this discrepancy with experiments of air injection into gelatin shaped as a volcano with caldera. Analog dikes show variable deflection, depending on the competition between overpressure, Pe, and topographic unloading, Pl; when Pl/Pe = 4.8-5.3, the dikes propagate orthogonal to the least compressive stress. Due to the unloading, they become circumferential and stall below the caldera rim; buoyancy is fundamental for the further rise and circumferential fissure development. Numerical models quantitatively constrain the stress orientation within the gelatin, explaining the observed circumferential dikes. Our results explain how dikes propagate below the rim of felsic and mafic calderas, but only in the latter they are prone to feed circumferential fissures.

  14. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  15. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissures in Xian, China 2005-2006: Mapped by sar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.Y.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, X.-L.; Lu, Zhiming; Yang, C.S.; Qi, X.M.

    2009-01-01

    The City of Xian, China, has been experiencing significant land subsidence and ground fissure activities since 1960s, which have brought various severe geohazards including damages to buildings, bridges and other facilities. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissure activities can provide useful information for assessing the extent of, and mitigating such geohazards. In order to achieve robust Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) results, six interferometric pairs of Envisat ASAR data covering 2005-2006 are collected to analyze the InSAR processing errors firstly, such as temporal and spatial decorrelation error, external DEM error, atmospheric error and unwrapping error. Then the annual subsidence rate during 2005-2006 is calculated by weighted averaging two pairs of D-InSAR results with similar time spanning. Lastly, GPS measurements are applied to calibrate the InSAR results and centimeter precision is achieved. As for the ground fissure monitoring, five InSAR cross-sections are designed to demonstrate the relative subsidence difference across ground fissures. In conclusion, the final InSAR subsidence map during 2005-2006 shows four large subsidence zones in Xian hi-tech zones in western, eastern and southern suburbs of Xian City, among which two subsidence cones are newly detected and two ground fissures are deduced to be extended westward in Yuhuazhai subsidence cone. This study shows that the land subsidence and ground fissures are highly correlated spatially and temporally and both are correlated with hi-tech zone construction in Xian during the year of 2005-2006. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  16. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis SE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Weis1,2 1Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 2Preventive Medicine Clinic, Tarrant County Public Health, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN, the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5

  17. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Ligurská, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na analýzu vybrané firmy. Práce je rozdělena na teoretickou a praktickou část. V teoretické části jsou popsány metody, které byly použity pro analyzování firmy. V praktické části jsou aplikovány jednotlivé metody, Pro analýzu vnějšího prostředí byla použita analýza SLEPTE, pro analýzu odvětví byl použit Porterův model pěti konkurenčních sil, v další části se práce zabývá identifikací silných a slabých stránek firmy. V závěru práce jsou zhodnoceny výsledky analýz a...

  18. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Rysková, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá zhodnocením situace vybraného podniku prostřednictvím analýz vnějšího a vnitřního okolí, mezi které patří SLEPTE analýza, SWOT analýza a Porterův model pěti konkurenčních sil. Teoretická část vystihuje podstatu jednotlivých analýz, které jsou následně aplikovány v praktické části bakalářské práce. Na základě výsledků z analýz jsou navržena řešení zjištěných problémových oblastí, směřující k upevnění postavení společnosti na trhu a jejího možného růstu. The bachel...

  19. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  20. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; Yasuda, Koji; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for tumor cells. Six years later, an elevated lesion, macroscopically five millimeters in size, was detected in the left wall of the anal canal in a follow-up colonoscopy. Local excision of the tumor was performed, and the lesion was pathologically confirmed to be tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia limited to the mucosa. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of recurrence for six months after surgery. Although she had a past history of cervical cancer, the multiple tumors arising in the anal canal were unlikely to be related to human papilloma virus infection. Our case report underscores the importance of careful observations throughout colonoscopy to detect precancerous lesions, particularly in anatomically narrow segments. PMID:26249723

  1. All's Well That Ends Well: Shakespeare's treatment of anal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, B C

    1998-07-01

    Textual and contextual evidence suggests that the French king's fistula, a central plot device in Shakespeare's play All's Well That Ends Well, is a fistula-in-ano. Anal fistula was known to the lay public in Shakespeare's time. In addition, Shakespeare may have known of the anal fistula treatise of John Arderne, an ancestor on Shakespeare's mother's side. Shakespeare's use of anal fistula differs from all previous versions of the story, which first appeared in Boccaccio's Decameron and from its possible historical antecedent, the fistula of Charles V of France. This difference makes sense given the conventions of Elizabethan comedy, which included anal humor. It is also understandable when one looks at what wounds in different locations mean in European legend. In this light, it is not surprising that subsequent expurgations treat Boccaccio's and Shakespeare's fistulas differently, censoring only Shakespeare's. This reading has implications for the staging of All's Well That Ends Well, and for our view of the place of anal fistulas in cultural history.

  2. A Study of Anorectal Manometry in Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the changes of anorectal motility in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation, anorectal motility was investigated by water-perfused manometric system in 30 patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and 18 healthy subjects. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the constipation group and the control group in anal sphincteric resting pressure and anal maximal squeezing pressure. The minimum relaxation volume, the rectal defecatory threshold, the rectal maximal tolerable volume and the rectal compliance in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P< 0. 01 or P< 0. 05). It is concluded that patients with chronic idiopathic constipation have anorectal motility disturbances.

  3. Radio(chemo)therapy of the anal carcinoma. A retrospective study; Radio(chemo)therapie des Analkarzinoms. Eine retrospektive Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Thomas Albert

    2013-07-17

    In a retrospective study the data of a consecutive cohort of 138 patients with a locally advanced squamous cell anal cancer were analysed, who were treated with a radio(chemo)therapy in the period from 1988 to 2011. The 5-year overall survival rate was 82%±4%. T category, UICC clinical stage, histopathologic grading and the ECOG performance status were significantly associated with overall survival. Acute toxicity grade 3/4 and chronic side effects grade 3 were found in 58% and 37% of the patients, respectively.

  4. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Peš, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hlavním cílem diplomové práce je analyzovat skutečný a aktuální stav společnosti Laufen CZ, s.r.o. a navržení opatření. Jedná se o analýzu vnitřního a vnějšího prostředí společnosti. Jak se firma vyrovnala s dopady finanční a hospodářské krize nám sdělí analýzy SWOT, SLEPT, Quick test, Fundamentální analýza a Porterův model 5 sil.

  5. Hrvatsko nazivlje u analitičkoj kemiji

    OpenAIRE

    Kaštelan-Macan (ur.), M.

    2008-01-01

    U radu je prikazan povijesni razvoj prirodoslovnoga nazivlja s naglaskom na nazivlje u analitičkoj kemiji te današnje stanje i nastojanja da se to nazivlje ujednači i normira u skladu s hrvatskom jezičnom normom. Konačni cilj znanstvenoga projekta Hrvatsko nazivlje u analitičkoj kemiji, koji Ministarstvo znanosti, obrazovanja i športa podupire unutar znanstvenoga programa Hrvatska standardnojezična leksikologija i leksikografija jest izraditi cjeloviti enciklopedijski rječnik hrvatskoga anali...

  6. Essai de fissuration à chaud en soudage TIG sur un alliage d'aluminium 6061

    OpenAIRE

    Niel, Aurélie; Bordreuil, Cyril; Deschaux-Beaume, Frédéric; Fras, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Le soudage est une technique d'assemblage de pièces très développée dans l'industrie. Compte tenu des exigences actuelles du marché, les industriels cherchent à repousser les limites des procédés. En vue d'accroître la productivité, diminuer les coûts tout en garantissant la qualité des pièces. L'augmentation de la vitesse de soudage entraîne de nombreux défauts, dont la fissuration à chaud. Plusieurs études ont été faites à ce sujet. Toutefois, la compréhension de ce phénomène est un problèm...

  7. Seepage of a fluid to an imperfect well in a bounded nonhomogeneously anisotropic fissured-porous layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, A.M.; Moiseikina, I.I. [Kiev Univ. (Ukraine)

    1994-10-05

    We consider nonstationary seepage in a bounded nonhomogeneously anisotropic fissured-porous layer. The layer contains by an imperfect well, which operates with a constant discharge. Formulas for the distribution of fluid pressure are obtained using the Laplace transform and the separation of variables method.

  8. Evaluation of palpebral fissure and orbital volume after bimatoprost 0.03% orbital injections. Experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lopes da Fonseca Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in experimental animals the changes of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03%. Methods: Two main groups of Wistar rats were analyzed, one after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and another, a control group, after orbital injection of saline solution. The calculation of the palpebral fissure was done on images by means of computer processing, using the program Image J. After taking photographs, the animals were submitted to bilateral orbital exenteration and the volume was calculated in all the animals by the water displacement method (Archimedes’ Principle. Results: While comparing the measurements of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given an injection with bimatoprost 0.03% and the control group it was found that there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusions: In this study there were no statistically significant differences in the measurement of the vertical palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given the orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and the animals of the control group.

  9. Prevalence of the types of the petrotympanic fissure in the temporomandibular joint dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakur, Binali; Sumbullu, Muhammed Akif; Durna, Dogan; Akgul, Hayati Murat (Dept. of Oral Diagnosis and Oral Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey)), email: bcakur@atauni.edu.tr

    2011-06-15

    Background Petrotympanic fissure (PTF) is a fissure in the temporal bone that runs from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) to the tympanic cavity (TC). In PTF, the discomallear ligament (DML) connects the malleus in the tympanic cavity and the articular disc and capsule of the temporomandibular joint. PTF with the DML is a possible cause of aural symptoms related to temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Purpose To investigate the prevalence of different types of PTF in TMD using dental volumetric tomography (DVT) and determine whether PTF type correlates with age. Material and Methods DVT scans in the sagittal planes of PTFs of 134 patients with TMD were examined for the types of PTF present. Three main PTF types were described: wide, tunnel-shaped structure (type 1); tunnel-shaped structure that is wide open in the PTF entrance to the mandibular fossa and gradually thins out in the tympanic cavity (type 2), tunnel-shaped structure that is wide open in the entrance of the mandibular fossa, with a middle region with a flat-shaped tunnel structure and a narrow exit in the tympanic cavity (type 3). Results In DVT scans, PTF types 1, 2 and 3 were seen in 67.2%, 1.5%, and 31.3% of cases, respectively. We found no significant relationship between age or gender and PTF type. Conclusion The low percentage of type 2 PTF and high percentage of type 1 PTF must be taken into consideration during pre-surgical planning related to TMD. However, future well-designed clinical studies involving larger numbers of subjects will be necessary to confirm the findings of this study

  10. Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austénitiques au voisinage des soudures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2003-03-01

    Des fissures intergranulaires peuvent se développer au voisinage des soudures des aciers inoxydables austénitiques lorsqu'ils sont réchauffés dans le domaine de température compris entre 500^{circ}C et 700^{circ}C. A ces températures, les contraintes résiduelles post-soudage se relaxent par déformation viscoplastique. Il peut arriver que ces zones proches de la soudure soient tellement fragiles, qu'elles ne puissent accommoder cette faible déformation. Afin de préciser quelles peuvent être les modifications microstructurales qui conduisent à une telle fragilisation, on a examiné les microstructures de ces zones et révélé ainsi un écrouissage résiduel, responsable d'une forte élévation de la dureté. On a pu reproduire par hypertrempe puis laminage entre 400^{circ}C et 600^{circ}C une microstructure similaire. Des essais mécaniques (traction, fluage, relaxation, sur éprouvettes lisses et pré-fissurées) ont été réalisés à 550^{circ}C et à 600^{circ}C sur ces zones affectées simulées et sur un état de référence hypertrempé. Ils ont montré que l'écrouissage diminuait la ductilité dans le domaine de rupture intergranulaire, sans modifier qualitativement le mécanisme d'endommagement. Pendant la pré-déformation les incompatibilités de déformation entre grains conduiraient à l'existence de contraintes locales élevées qui favoriseraient la germination des cavités intergranulaires.

  11. Empaatia kogemus kunstiteoses kujutatud subjekti suhtes: fenomenoloogiline analüüs / Marge Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Marge, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Analüüsitakse vaataja esteetilist kogemust kunstiteose suhtes. Autor tugineb Edith Steini empaatia kogemuse uurimusele ja fenomenoloogilisele uurimismeetodile. Vaataja empaatia kogemuse analüüs Maarit Murka maalisarjas "Hairpower" kujutatud subjekti suhtes

  12. Modifiable risk factors of obstetric anal sphincter injury in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jango, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    To determine modifiable risk factors and incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in primiparous women.......To determine modifiable risk factors and incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in primiparous women....

  13. Shift from magmatic to phreatomagmatic explosion controlled by the evolution of lateral fissure eruption in Suoana Crater, Miyakejima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Nemeth, Karoly; Noguchi, Rina; Oikawa, Teruki

    2016-04-01

    Combined analysis of the proximal deposit and exposed feeder-diatreme structure of the Suoana Crater of Miyakejima reveals the process of magma-water interaction controlled by the evolution of lateral fissure eruption in a stratovolcanic edifice. The Suoana Crater, an oval maar with 400 x 300 m across is one of the craters of the Suoana-Kazahaya crater chain which is formed during a fissure eruption in the 7th Century. The eruption fissure extends ~3 km from the summit area (~700 m asl) to the lower-flank area (~200m asl). The eruption fissure consists of upper maar-chain (>450 m asl) and lower scora-cone chain. As the wall of the 2000 AD caldera truncated at near the center of the Suoana Crater, the vertical section of the feeder dike - diatreme - maar system of the Suoana Crater is exposed in the caldera wall (Geshi et al., 2011). The ejected materials from the Suoana crater indicate the transition of eruption style from magmatic to phreatomagmatic. The juvenile clasts in the lower half of the deposit exhibit spatter-like shape, indicating the typical deposit from a vigorous fire fountain. Contrary, the juvenile clasts in the upper half are less vesiculated and exhibit cauliflower-shape, indicating the typical phreatomagmatic activity. This transition indicates that the magma-water interaction started at the middle of the eruption. Judging from the ratio of the thickness of the lower and upper parts, the contrast of the content of juvenile clasts, and bulk density of the deposit, the total ejected volume of magma is larger in the lower part compare to the upper part. The transition from magmatic to phreatomagmatic occurred only in the upper half of the eruption fissure, including the Suoana crater, whereas the lower half of the fissure continued dry magmatic eruption throughout their activity. The limited distribution of phreatomagmatic activity can be resulted by the magma extraction from the upper feeder dike system to the lower eruption fissure as it

  14. HPV infection and intraepithelial lesions from the anal region: how to diagnose?

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Sérgio de Carvalho; Aliana Meneses Ferreira; Camila Caroline Tremel Bueno

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be us...

  15. Cause-Specific Colostomy Rates After Radiotherapy for Anal Cancer: A Danish Multicentre Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Lundby, Lilli;

    2011-01-01

    In anal cancer, colostomy-free survival is a measure of anal sphincter preservation after treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Failure to control anal cancer and complications of treatment are alternative indications for colostomy. However, no data exist on cause-specific colostomy...

  16. Aspectos funcionales de la psicoterapia analítico funcional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Virués Ortega

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se considera una nueva psicoterapia de orientación conductual: la Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional. Se describen brevemente sus fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos y aplicados. Se discuten sus aspectos funcionales desde un punto de vista contextual.

  17. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Zavoralová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práce je zaměřena na analýzu realitní společnosti M&M reality holding, a.s.. V rámci mapování společnosti se zaměřuji na rozbor oborového okolí pomocí PEST analýzy, Porterův model pěti konkurenčních sil, SWOT analýzu a finanční analýzu. V závěru práce navrhuji doporučení, která by měla vést ke zlepšení současné situace. The master´s thesis is focused on the analysis of real estate company M&M reality holding, a.s.. The mapping of the analysis focuses on the professional environme...

  18. Anal endosonographic findings in women after vaginal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona, E-mail: iwsud@ciop.pl [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Stefanski, Robert [Department of Proctology, Hospital at Solec, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Second Faculty of Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland); Panorska, Anna K. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Nevada, Reno (United States); Gardyszewska, Agnieszka [Second Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warsaw (Poland); Krasnodebski, Ireneusz [Department of General and Gastroenterological Surgery and Nutrition, Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: To estimate a frequency of obstetric anal sphincters defects in women after vaginal delivery. Methods: The study included 102 women, aged from 16 to 40 years (mean age 28.6 years). 28 women had perineal lacerations of 3rd and 4th degree. 22 women had instrumental delivery. Anal endosonography was performed on all participants using BK Medical scanner Pro focus with a 3D endoprobe during the first week after delivery. Starck's classification was used to score sphincters defects. Results: The endosonographic images were abnormal in 8 out of 102 women (7.8%). Follow-up examinations after 6 weeks confirmed defects in 6 out of 102 women (5.8%). Five women had external anal sphincter torn, and 1 woman had both sphincters, internal and external, defected. Discordance between endosonographic diagnosis of defect and clinical assessment of sphincters continuity was demonstrated in 6 (5.9%) out of 8 initially found, including 2 (1.9%) false endosonographic results and 4 (3.9%) false clinical diagnosis (occult sphincter defects). The endosonography sensitivity and accuracy in sphincter defect diagnostic amounted to 100% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: (1) Anal sphincters' tears in symptomatic women are not as frequent as it was believed. (2) The defect diagnosis in the first week after delivery should be verified by a follow-up endosonography in 6 weeks, after regression of the edema and hematoma.

  19. Histo-topographic study of the longitudinal anal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Vigato, Enrico; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    The longitudinal anal muscle (LAM) has been described as a vertical layer of muscular tissue interposed between the circular layers of the internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincters. There is, however, no general agreement in the literature on its composition and attachments. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological structure, attachments, and topography of the LAM in order to evaluate its role in continence and defecation, thus enhancing knowledge of the surgical anatomy of this region. After in situ formalin fixation, the pelvic viscera were removed from eight male and eight female cadavers (age range: 52-72 years). Serial macrosections of the bladder base, lower rectum and anal canal, cervix and pelvic floor complex, cut in the transverse (six specimens) and coronal (six specimens) planes, underwent histological and immunohistochemical studies. Four specimens were studied using the E12 sheet plastination technique. The LAM was identified in 10/12 specimens (83%). Transverse and coronal sections made clear that it is a longitudinal layer of muscular tissue, marking the boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters. From the anorectal junction it extends along the anal canal, receives fibers from the innermost part of the puborectalis and the puboanalis muscles, and terminates with seven to nine fibro-elastic septa, which traverse the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter, reaching the perianal dermis. In the transverse plane, the mean thickness of the LAM was 1.68 +/- 0.27 mm. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the LAM consists of predominantly outer striated muscle fibers and smaller numbers of inner smooth muscle fibers, respectively coming from the levator ani muscle and from the longitudinal muscular layer of the rectum. The oblique fibers suggest that the LAM may represent the intermediate longitudinal course of small bridging muscle bundles going reciprocally from the striated EAS to the smooth IAS and

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Brittle Rock-Like Specimens with Pre-existing Fissures Under Uniaxial Loading: Experimental Studies and Particle Mechanics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ri-hong; Cao, Ping; Lin, Hang; Pu, Cheng-zhi; Ou, Ke

    2016-03-01

    Joints and fissures with similar orientation or characteristics are common in natural rocks; the inclination and density of the fissures affect the mechanical properties and failure mechanism of the rock mass. However, the strength, crack coalescence pattern, and failure mode of rock specimens containing multi-fissures have not been studied comprehensively. In this paper, combining similar material testing and discrete element numerical method (PFC2D), the peak strength and failure characteristics of rock-like materials with multi-fissures are explored. Rock-like specimens were made of cement and sand and pre-existing fissures created by inserting steel shims into cement mortar paste and removing them during curing. The peak strength of multi-fissure specimens depends on the fissure angle α (which is measured counterclockwise from horizontal) and fissure number ( N f). Under uniaxial compressional loading, the peak strength increased with increasing α. The material strength was lowest for α = 25°, and highest for α = 90°. The influence of N f on the peak strength depended on α. For α = 25° and 45°, N f had a strong effect on the peak strength, while for higher α values, especially for the 90° sample, there were no obvious changes in peak strength with different N f. Under uniaxial compression, the coalescence modes between the fissures can be classified into three categories: S-mode, T-mode, and M-mode. Moreover, the failure mode can be classified into four categories: mixed failure, shear failure, stepped path failure, and intact failure. The failure mode of the specimen depends on α and N f. The peak strength and failure modes in the numerically simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

  1. Assessment of risks of stenosis of the anal canal during a prostatic radiotherapy; evaluation des risques de stenose du canal anal lors de la radiotherapie prostatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almokhles, H.; Pan, Q.; Calitchi, E.; Diana, C.; Muresan, M.; Jiang, M.W.; Wu, J.F.; Wang, X.W.; Lu, H.J.; Lagrange, J.L. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the late tolerance of a prostatic irradiation at the rectum and anal canal level. They assessed the length of the rectum and of the anal canal after prostate irradiation or surgery in patients who suffered from a prostate adenocarcinoma. Data of 154 patients have been analyzed regarding the number of cases of stenosis of rectum or anal canal. They highlight the importance of the irradiated length and dose level. Short communication

  2. Efficacy of topical imiquimod in HIV-positive patients with recurrent anal condylomata acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod is a topical chemotherapic and immunostimulant agent with antitumoral and antiviral activities, used for anal condylomata acuminata treatment, mainly in recurrences. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the imiquimod efficiency in chronic and recurrent anal condylomata acuminata in HIV-infected persons. METHOD: A prospective study that analyzed 61 patients with recurrent anal condylomata treated with topic 5% imiquimod, for at least 8 weeks. These patients had already been submitted to other topical and surgical treatments for anal warts. We evaluated the efficiency of this agent, through wart remission, with clinical examination and high-resolution anoscopy, CD4+ T lymphocyte count and side effects. The patients were 55 males and 6 females, from 22 to 63 years old. RESULTS: Remission was seen in 90%, being 46% complete remission and 44% partial remission. Other 10% did not respond to the treatment with imiquimod within the 16th week. Recurrences were observed in 11% of patients in 24-week follow-up. Statistics showed no differences in CD4+ T cell scores when groups with and without complete remission were compared. Adverse effects were reported by 45% of patients. They were mild to moderate burning (25%, intense burning (7%, ulcerative dermatitis (8% and systemic symptoms (5%. CONCLUSION: Imiquimod was effective in controlling recurrent anal condylomata acuminata in HIV-positive patients, regardless of CD4+ T cell count.INTRODUÇÃO: O imiquimode é agente tópico quimioterápico e imunoestimulante, com atividades antitumoral e antiviral, usado para tratamento dos condilomas acuminados perianais, principalmente os recidivantes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do imiquimode nos condilomas acuminados perianais crônicos e multirrecidivantes dos doentes soropositivos para o vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo clínico prospectivo por 12 meses em que observamos o uso tópico de imiquimode creme 5%, por no

  3. Interaction between central volcanoes and fissure swarms along divergent plate boundaries: an example from Askja Volcano, Northern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, Valerio; Urbani, Stefano; Thordarson, Thor

    2016-04-01

    Central volcanoes located along divergent plate boundaries are typically part of a larger volcanic system that consists of a central edifice and a fissure swarm through which magma propagates and spreads plates apart. Regional normal faults and graben structures develop within the volcanic system, also dissecting portions of the central volcano with ring-faults faults and eruptive fissures related to the caldera structure. Both the fissure swarm and the caldera structure influence the pathway of the ascending magma, however, the influences of the structures on magma propagation and vice versa are not well defined and understood. Here we aim to understand the relationship between the activity of the central volcano structures (e.g. caldera ring faults, radial dykes and cone sheets) and those of the fissure swarm (e.g. regional normal faults, regional dikes). We focus on Askja volcano, located in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. It is comprised of three nested calderas, largely filled in with subaerial basaltic lava flows and surrounded by a massive hyaloclastite mountain on the Eastern side. Formation of the youngest, the Öskjuvatn caldera, was initiated during the 1874-1876 rifting episode on the Askja system. This major event was followed by several localized radial and circumferential magmatic intrusions taking place along the new-formed caldera ring fault, as well as intruding in the fissure swarm related to the regional tectonics. In order to characterize the influence of the caldera structure on the regional tectonics, we analysed the structural framework of the caldera and direct surroundings using remote sensing (optical imagery and high resolution DEM from TanDEM-X data). Then we made detailed field measurements (500 data) by analysing azimuth, dip, and opening of eruptive fissures, dikes, faults and extension fractures. Both remote sensing and field measurements have been then integrated producing a detailed structural map of Askja. Our results show

  4. Human papillomavirus, anal cancer, and screening considerations among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, William Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Invasive anal cancer has become an important cause of non AIDS-related cancer among HIV-infected individuals. Human papillomavirus is the main etiological agent. This review explains the pathophysiologic role of human papillomavirus in the development of invasive anal cancer, summarizes recent epidemiological trends of invasive anal cancer, and reviews the evidence to address common clinical questions posed when screening for anal cancer in HIV-infected patients. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on human papillomavirus oncogenesis is still unclear, but given the increased clinical burden of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients, many clinics have implemented screening programs for anal cancer and its precursors. Despite the availability of several modalities for treatment of precursors of anal cancer, evidence that current treatment modalities favorably alter the natural history of human papillomavirus oncogenesis in the anal and perianal regions is still inconclusive. However, there is sufficient evidence to state that the accuracy of anal cancer screening procedures (cytology and high-resolution anoscopy directed biopsy) is comparable to the accuracy of those used in screening for cervical cancer precursors. Studies that systematically assess the efficacy of these anal cancer screening programs in reducing the incidence of and morbidity and mortality from invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients are needed. PMID:23681437

  5. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer

  6. The 'Jack Stone' or 'Mercedes Benz' sign--anew theory to explain the presence of gas within fissures in gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F W

    1977-07-01

    Gas within clefts of fissures in gallstones is not a very common finding, but when it occurs is, characteristic and indicates the presence of one or more calculi. It closely resembles the appearance of a 'Jack Stone' but has previously been termed the 'Mercedes Benz' sign. Only a few cases have previously been recognised in the U.K. Most reported cases have been associated with biliary colic or cholecystitis. Various theories have been put forward to explain the presence of gas, but the author believes that the gas is released from solution by negative pressure within cholesterol stones undergoing internal fissuring due to their crystalline structure, i.e. the gas is released from solution from the small amount of fluid trapped in the calculus, in the same way that gas may be 'pulled' out of solution in a joint, a degenerate intervertebral disc or the fibro-cartilage of the symphysis pubis. PMID:872516

  7. In vitro study of microleakage of different techniques of surface preparation used in pits and fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Javadi Nejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different techniques of surface preparation on the microleakage of a sealant applied with traditional acid etching and self-etched bonding agent. Study Design : A total of 60 extracted third molars were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 10/each. The occlusal surfaces were sealed with a sealant (Clinpro after one of the following pretreatments: (1 phosphoric acid etching; (2 Prompt L-Pop; (3 laser + etching; (4 laser + Prompt L-Pop; (5 air abrasion + etching; (6 air abrasion + Prompt L-Pop. The specimens were immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. Buccolingual cuts parallel to the long axis of the tooth were made. The surfaces were scored 0--2 for extent of microleakage using a microscope and the data were analyzed statistically. Results : The poorest results were obtained with laser + Prompt L-Pop which showed a greater number of specimens with microleakage (80%. Air abrasion surface preparation + phosphoric acid etching showed less microleakage than the other groups (40%. Kruskal--Wallis and t-tests revealed no significant difference in microleakage between six groups. Conclusion : The self-etching adhesive studied seems an attractive alternative to the acid-etch technique for sealant application in young children where simplifications in the clinical procedure are warranted. No significant difference was noted between the different types of enamel preparation before fissure sealant.

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Analytic modeling of flow in a permeable fissured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic model has been developed for two dimensional steady flow through infinite fissured porous media, and is implemented in a computer program. The model is the first, and major, step toward the development of a model with finite boundaries, intended for use as a tool for numerical experiments. These experiments may serve to verify some of the simplifying assumptions made in continuum models and to gain insight in the mechanics of the flow. The model is formulated in terms of complex variables and the analytic functions presented are closed-form expressions obtained from singular Cauchy integrals. An exact solution is given for the case of a single crack in an infinite porous medium. The exact solution is compared with the result obtained by the use of an independent method, which assumes Darcian flow in the crack and models the crack as an inhomogeneity in the permeability, in order to verify the simplifying assumptions. The approximate model is compared with solutions obtained from the above independent method for some cases of intersecting cracks. The agreement is good, provided that a sufficient number of elements are used to model the cracks

  9. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A. Knaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions.

  10. A randomized control clinical trial of fissure sealant retention: Self etch adhesive versus total etch adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Aman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are limited studies on comparison of Total etch (TE and Self etch (SE adhesive for placement of sealants. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the retention of fissure sealants placed using TE adhesive to those sealants placed using SE (seventh generation adhesive. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the dental section, Aga Khan University Hospital. This study was a randomized single blinded trial with a split mouth design. Materials and Methods: The study included 37 patients, 101 teeth were included in both study groups. The intervention arm was treated with SE Adhesive (Adper Easy One, 3M ESPE, US. Control arm received TE adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, US before sealant application. The patients were followed after 6 months for assessment of sealant retention. Statistical analysis used: Interexaminer agreement for outcome assessment was assessed by Kappa Statistics and outcome in intervention group was assessed by McNemar′s test. Results: Ninety-one pairs of molar (90% were reevaluated for sealant retention. Complete retention was 56% in TE arm and 28% in SE arm with an odds ratio (OR of 3.7. Conclusions: Sealants applied with TE adhesives show higher rate of complete sealant retention than SE adhesive.

  11. Probable recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.

    2012-09-01

    The Cerberus Plains have received increasing attention in recent years due to evidence from highresolution imagery that they are some of the youngest surfaces on Mars. The plains are incised by large outflow channels, possibly as recently as 20Ma in the case of Athabasca Valles [2]. These channels are generally thought to be water-carved [1,3], though it is possible they were incised by turbulent lava [8]. As recently as 10Ma or less [5] both the channels and the plains around them are proposed to have been draped with lava [7]. Thus the recent activity forming the Cerberus Plains probably required large volumes of both water and lava. The problem which arises is a source. Cerberus Fossae have been suggested as the source of the Athabasca Valles outflows [3,6], but topographic and stratigraphic issues have arisen which make this unlikely: for example, a streamlined island spans the fossa where water and/or lava is said to have originated [4]. No other specific sources have been identified. As plains volcanism often obscures its fissures, sources should be searched for in features elevated above the plain. New HiRISE images have shown just such a feature: a wrinkle ridge south of Cerberus Fossae incised by a series of fissures. Every fissure has associated channels and deposits indicating outflow onto the plains surrounding the ridge. Until now, the stratigraphic history of these features was poorly known, with Tanaka et al.'s [9] geological map considering the area only on the broadest scale. This study produces small-scale geomorphological maps to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the fissure-sourced outflows and the plains surrounding the ridge to test the hypothesis that they were the source of the plains material. Crater counting is also conducted to supplement stratigraphic observations and give tentative ages.

  12. Anal metastasis from recurrent breast lobular carcinoma: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Puglisi; Emanuela Varaldo; Michela Assalino; Gianluca Ansaldo; Giancarlo Torre; Giacomo Borgonovo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of isolated gastrointestinal metastasis from breast lobular carcinoma, which mimicked primary anal cancer. In July 2000, an 88-year-old woman presented with infiltrating lobular cancer (pT1/G2/N2). The patient received postoperative radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Four years later,she presented with an anal polypoid lesion. The mass was removed for biopsy. Immunohistochemical staining suggested a breast origin. Radiotherapy was chosen for this patient, which resulted in complete regression of the lesion. The patient died 3 years after the first manifestation of gastrointestinal metastasis.According to the current literature, we consider the immunohistochemistry features that are essential to support the suspicion of gastrointestinal breast metastasis, and since we consider the gastrointestinal involvement as a sign of systemic disease, the therapy should be less aggressive and systemic.

  13. Nástroj pro shlukovou analýzu

    OpenAIRE

    Hezoučký, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce se věnuje shlukové analýze dat. Jsou v ní vysvětleny základní pojmy a metody z této oblasti. Výsledkem práce je Nástroj pro shlukovou analýzu dat. Implementovány byly metody K-Medoids a DBSCAN. Součástí práce je i srovnání dosažených výsledků na reálných datech s programy Rapid Miner a SAS Enterprise Miner. The master' s thesis deals with cluster data analysis. There are explained basic concepts and methods from this domain. Result of the thesis is Cluster an...

  14. The architecture and shallow conduits of Laki-type pyroclastic cones: insights into a basaltic fissure eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P.; Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Llewellin, E. W.

    2016-05-01

    Pyroclastic cones built along basaltic fissures provide important volcanological information, but it is often difficult to examine the early-erupted products due to burial by later products. Furthermore, it is rare to see the link between the feeder dyke and overlying cone fully exposed. In this study, we detail the architecture of a hybrid spatter cone, scoria half-cone and feeder dyke that has been dissected to below the pre-eruption surface by glacial floods. The cones were constructed during the 6-8 ka Rauðuborgir-Kvensöðul fissure eruption in North Iceland during Hawaiian- and Strombolian-style activities. Widening of their feeder dyke in the shallow sub-surface to produce an upward flaring morphology was accommodated by country rock removal and elastic host rock deformation. Ballistic calculations and stratigraphic relationships indicate that the scoria half-cone was constructed early in the eruption from the deposits of a lava fountain ~100 m high. A decline in fountain height and the generation of abundant welded deposits resulted in the formation of a nested spatter cone within the scoria half-cone. The cones are similar in structure and size to the hybrid scoria and spatter cones produced during the 15-km3 1783 Laki eruption and serve as a valuable window into the construction of pyroclastic edifices during basaltic fissure eruptions.

  15. Holocephalan embryo provides new information on the evolution of the glossopharyngeal nerve, metotic fissure and parachordal plate in gnathostomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Pradel

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships between the different groups of Paleozoic gnathostomes are still debated, mainly because of incomplete datasets on Paleozoic jawed vertebrate fossils and ontogeny of some modern taxa. This issue is illustrated by the condition of the glossopharyngeal nerve relative to the parachordal plate, the otic capsules and the metotic fissure in gnathostomes. Two main conditions are observed in elasmobranchs (shark and rays and osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods. The condition in the other chondrichthyan taxon, the holocephalans, is still poorly known, and without any information on this taxon, it remains difficult to polarize the condition in gnathostomes. Based on the anatomical study of an embryo of the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii by means of propagation X-Ray Synchrotron phase contrast microtomography using both holotomography and single distance phase retrieval process, we show that, contrary to what was previously inferred for holocephalans (i.e. an osteichthyan-like condition, the arrangement of the glossopharyngeal nerve relative to the surrounding structure in holocephalans is more similar to that of elasmobranchs. Furthermore, the holocephalan condition represents a combination of plesiomorphic characters for gnathostomes (e.g., the glossopharyngeal nerve leaves the braincase via the metotic fissure and homoplastic characters. By contrast, the crown osteichthyans are probably derived in having the glossopharyngeal nerve that enters the saccular chamber and in having the glossopharyngeal foramen separated from the metotic fissure.

  16. Pelvic floor ultrasound and anal incontinence in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakse, Abelone Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Afhandlingen havde til formål at undersøge muskulære forandringer på bækkenbundsmuskulaturen i relation til første fødsel, med særligt fokus på anal inkontinens. Forsvaret fandt sted d. 10. september 2010 kl. 14:00 i Auditoriet på Hvidovre Hospital.   ...

  17. Endosonographic appearance of the anal sphincters in patients following colostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The aim of the study was to visualize, by anal ultrasound (AUS), the suspected defects of the anal sphincters in the patients after colostomy and to analyze possible factors that could have led to such defects. Patients and methods. AUS, using a 7.0 MHz endorectal probe, was performed in a group of 25 patients with colostomy. The internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PR) were visualized and the defects within them were qualified and quantified. For statistical analysis, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Results. The IAS was thin in all but three patients (22 patients; 88 %) with the mean thickness of 1.62 mm. A circular reduction of the thickness along the entire length of the IAS was seen in 20 patients (90.9 %). The echogenicity of the IAS was increased in 15 patients (60 %), and in 10 of them (66.6%), this defect embraced the whole length and circumference of the IAS. The margins of the IAS were not well-defined in 10 patients (40%). A significant correlation was found between the length of the patient's life with the stoma and the IAS echogenicity defect (p-value = 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between the dynamic examination, the IAS thickness and the IAS borders definition. Conclusion. The reduced thickness, increased echogenicity and borders definition defect of the IAS are seen in the patients after colostomy. The only significant correlation was confirmed between the length of the patient's life with the stoma and the IAS echogenicity defect. (author)

  18. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  19. Heterosexual anal intercourse among men in Long Beach, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G

    2014-01-01

    Anal intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the anal intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565

  20. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahammer, H., E-mail: helmut.ahammer@medunigraz.a [Institute of Biophysics, Center of Physiological Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kroepfl, J.M. [Human Performance Research Graz (HPR Graz), Karl-Franzens and Medical University of Graz, Max-Mell Allee 11, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hackl, Ch. [Research Group of Applied Theoretical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria); Sedivy, R. [Research Group of Applied Theoretical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria); Department of Pathology, Country Medical Centre St.Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St.Poelten (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Research Highlights: Human papillomaviruses cause anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Digital image processing was carried out to classify the grades of AIN quantitatively. The fractal dimension as well as grey value statistics was calculated. Higher grades of AIN yielded higher values of the fractal dimension. An automatic detection system is feasible. - Abstract: It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. HPV-subtypes also cause premalignant lesions which are termed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population. The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

  1. Analýza signálů AVG

    OpenAIRE

    Mikauš, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    MIKAUŠ, J. Analýza signálů AVG. Brno: Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta elektrotechniky a komunikačních technologií, 2008. 33 s., 1 příl. Vedoucí bakalářské práce doc. Ing. Jiří Rozman, CSc. Práce se zabývá analýzou signálů AVG (arteriovelocitogram), který je získán neinvazivním měřením pomocí ultrazvukových lékařských přístrojů. Získaná data z těchto signálů jsou využívána pro stanovení diagnózy pacientů postižených ischemickou chorobou. Pro danou analýzu je využit algoritmus používajíc...

  2. Analýza AVG signálu

    OpenAIRE

    Matušek, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá analýzou signálu AVG (arteriovelocitogramu). Naměřená data vypovídají o rychlosti a charakteristice průtoku krve tepnami lidského těla. Signál je získáván ultrazvukovým měřením, využívá se odrazu mechanického vlnění od pohybující se tkáně a následné změny frekvence. Tento fenomén nazýváme Dopplerův jev. Na základě provedené analýzy určujeme přítomnost a stupeň ischemické choroby. K samotné klasifikaci dat byla použita metoda shlukové analýzy. Vyhodnocovací algoritmu...

  3. Screening, Surveillance, and Treatment of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kevin C; Menon, Raman; Bastawrous, Amir; Billingham, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia has been increasing, especially in high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men, human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, and those who are immunosuppressed. Several studies with long-term follow-up have suggested that rate of progression from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive anal cancer is ∼ 5%. This number is considerably higher for those at high risk. Anal cytology has been used to attempt to screen high-risk patients for disease; however, it has been shown to have very little correlation to actual histology. Patients with lesions should undergo history and physical exam including digital rectal exam and standard anoscopy. High-resolution anoscopy can be considered as well, although it is of questionable time and cost-effectiveness. Nonoperative treatments include expectant surveillance and topical imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil. Operative therapies include wide local excision and targeted ablation with electrocautery, infrared coagulation, or cryotherapy. Recurrence rates remain high regardless of treatment delivered and surveillance is paramount, although optimal surveillance regimens have yet to be established. PMID:26929753

  4. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia--is treatment better than observation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, M; Roman, A; Parvaiz, A C

    2013-01-01

    Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (AIN) is an increasingly common condition for which the best treatment has not been well established. Traditional management was based on a 'watch and wait' strategy, but as the natural history of AIN and its progression to anal cancer is becoming better understood, more active treatment strategies are warranted. A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol to address the question whether treatment is indicated in patients with AIN. A total of 169 papers were identified using the defined search criteria. This included only one randomised controlled trial. Case series were therefore also included to help answer the question. The details of the papers were tabulated including relevant outcomes and study weaknesses. We conclude that treatment of high grade AIN, particularly in high risk groups is recommended to try to avoid progression to anal cancer. Treatment options that have shown some benefit include topical use of imiquimod cream or ablation directed by high resolution anoscopy. PMID:23643642

  5. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  6. Anal squamous carcinoma: a new AIDS-defining cancer? Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous anal cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy that represents the 1.5% to 2% of all the lower digestive tract cancers. However, an increased incidence of invasive anal carcinoma is observed in HIV-seropositive population since the widespread of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Human papillomavirus is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of anal cancer. Anal intercourse and a high number of sexual partners appear to be risk factors to develop anal cancer in both sexes. Anal pain, bleeding and a palpable lesion in the anal canal are the most common clinical features. Endo-anal ultrasound is the best diagnosis method to evaluate the tumor size, the tumor extension and the infiltration of the sphincter muscle complex. Chemoradiotherapy plus antiretroviral therapy are the recommended treatments for all stages of localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-seropositive patients because of its high rate of cure. Here we present an HIV patient who developed a carcinoma of the anal canal after a long time of HIV infection under highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good virological and immunological response.

  7. A novel artificial anal sphincter system based on transcutaneous energy transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zan Peng; Yan Guozheng; Liu Hua

    2008-01-01

    For controlling anal incontinence, a new artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) with sensor feedback based on transcutaneous energy transmission is developed. The device mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter (AAS), a wireless power supply subsystem, and a communication subsystem. The artificial anal sphincter comprises a front cuff and a sensor cuff placed around the rectum, a reservoir sited in abdominal cavity and a micropump controlling inflation and deflation of the front cuff. There are two pressure sensors in the artificial anal sphincter. One can measure the pressure in the front cuff to clamp the rectum, the other in the sensor cuff can measure the pressure of the rectum. Wireless power supply subsystem includes a resonance transmit coil to transmit an alternating magnetic field and a secondary coil to receive the power. Wireless communication subsystem can transmit the pressure information of the artificial anal sphincter to the monitor, or send the control commands to the artificial anal sphincter. A prototype is designed and the basic function of the artificial anal sphincter system has been tested through experiments. The results demonstrate that the artificial anal sphincter system can control anal incontinence effectively.

  8. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  9. PROGRESS IN GROUND FISSURES AND ITS HAZARD RESEARCH%地裂缝及其灾害研究的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景明; 刘科; 王春梅

    2001-01-01

    已查明我国26个省市出现具一定规模的地裂缝1 003处,6 000多条。其中80%是构造地裂缝,它们是地壳浅表层破裂。区域地裂缝与强震区分布一致,活跃期也相吻合,它们是同一构造应力场作用的不同构造现象,区域地裂缝释放地壳应变能远超过同期强震能量释放的总和。作为动力源的地裂缝活动使同期地质体发生位移产生形变场和应力场,并通过地基使建筑物结构等失稳失效破坏成灾,估算全国地裂缝造成的损失为91.2亿元,其中华北区损失占70%。地裂缝已构成一个新的独立的灾种。%It generally discusses the main progress in ground fissures studyingin in our country's.Investigation showes that:there are 1 003 places (more than 6 000 strips) where ground fissures are on a certain extent scale and knockout in 26 provinces and cities in China.Among which tectonic ground fissures occupies about 80%.The ground fissures of wriggle fault occupies 15%~20.8% and that of territorial slight cracking occupies 79.2%~85% among tectonic ground fissures.Tectonic ground fissures are territorial superficial crack of lithosphere.They are domino effect of wriggle crack in rock and soil.   According to the pattern of distribution,the degree of development,the type of cause of formation and tectonic background,it can be marked off four distributed regions of ground fissures such as the NANHUA,the big North of China,the Northeast and the West.In every place the degree of development of ground fissures is corresponding to the degree of lithosphere motion at the location.In the big North of China,the earth is basically steady once,and the length of the ground fissures with earthquake and without earthquake separately add up to 321 km and 497 km.In the West,the lithosphere is relatively unsteady,and that separately add up to 2 696 km and 2.5 km.In the Nanhua and the Northeast,lithosphere is relatively steady,and the non

  10. Translabial ultrasound assessment of the anal sphincter complex: normal measurements of the internal and external anal sphincters at the proximal, mid-, and distal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rebecca J; Rogers, Rebecca G; Saiz, Lori; Qualls, C

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the internal and external anal sphincters using translabial ultrasound (TLU) at the proximal, mid, and distal levels of the anal sphincter complex. The human review committee approval was obtained and all women gave written informed consent. Sixty women presenting for gynecologic ultrasound for symptoms other than pelvic organ prolapse or urinary or anal incontinence underwent TLU. Thirty-six (60%) were asymptomatic and intact, 13 symptomatic and intact, and 11 disrupted. Anterior-posterior diameters of the internal anal sphincter at all levels and the external anal sphincter at the distal level were measured in four quadrants. Mean sphincter measurements are given for symptomatic and asymptomatic intact women and are comparable to previously reported endoanal MRI and ultrasound measurements. PMID:17221149

  11. Câncer ano-reto-cólico - aspectos atuais: I - câncer anal Anal canal and colorectal cancer - current features: I - anal canal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M. Santos Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão do tema - câncer anal - nessa revisão, apesar de sua relativa raridade, responde, em parte, ao propósito de chamar atenção para o significativo aumento dessa lesão e sua estreita relação com doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, principalmente causadas pelo vírus do papiloma humano (HPV; seus aspectos nosológicos, sua epidemiologia, sua etiologia multifatorial, seus fatores de riscos, sua prevenção e, em parte, para revelar a definição atual do tratamento.The inclusion of the theme - anal cancer - in this revision, in spite of its relative rarity, it answers, partly, to the purpose of calling attention for the significant increase of that lesion and its narrow relationship with sexually transmissible diseases mainly caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV; its nosologic aspects, epidemiology, etiology, and the multifactorial nature of risk that is associated to the disease, its prevention, and, partly, to reveal the current definition of the treatment.

  12. Straight ileo-anal anastomosis with myectomy as an alternative to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in restorative proctocolectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, E; Landa, L; Fianchini, A; Marmorale, C; Piloni, V

    1994-04-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with various types of reservoir is widely used in the elective surgery of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Both, advantages and disadvantages of this procedure are well known and documented. Straight ileo-anal anastomosis (IAA) yields unsatisfactory clinical results due to the lack of storage capacity of the distal ileum and the frequency of bowel movements related to high pressure ileal waves. In an attempt to create an alternative to the above procedures, we have performed a straight ileo-anal anastomosis with two rectangular (10 cm x 1 cm) myectomies down to 2 cm, above the anastomotic line. The two myectomies are spaced at 120 degrees to each other and to the mesenteric border of the ileal loop. The rationale of this approach is to reduce the peristaltic drive of the ileum by weakening the muscular wall. This study presents the results in three patients operated on with this new method in the last year.

  13. Progression of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J Michael; Jay, Naomi; Cranston, Ross D; Darragh, Teresa M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Welton, Mark L; Palefsky, Joel M

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) compared to the general population. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are common in HIV-infected MSM and the presumed precursors to anal squamous cell cancer; however, direct progression of HSIL to anal cancer has not been previously demonstrated. The medical records were reviewed of 138 HIV-infected MSM followed up at the University of California, San Francisco, who developed anal canal or perianal squamous cancer between 1997 and 2011. Men were followed up regularly with digital anorectal examination (DARE), high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and HRA-guided biopsy. Although treatment for HSIL and follow-up were recommended, not all were treated and some were lost to follow-up. Prevalent cancer was found in 66 men. Seventy-two HIV-infected MSM developed anal cancer while under observation. In 27 men, anal cancer developed at a previously biopsied site of HSIL. An additional 45 men were not analyzed in this analysis due to inadequate documentation of HSIL in relation to cancer location. Of the 27 men with documented progression to cancer at the site of biopsy-proven HSIL, 20 men progressed from prevalent HSIL identified when first examined and seven men from incident HSIL. Prevalent HSIL progressed to cancer over an average of 57 months compared to 64 months for incident HSIL. Most men were asymptomatic, and cancers were detected by DARE. Anal HSIL has clear potential to progress to anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM. Early diagnosis is facilitated by careful follow-up. Carefully controlled studies evaluating efficacy of screening for and treatment of HSIL to prevent anal cancer are needed. PMID:23934991

  14. Measurements of the gas emission from Holuhraun volcanic fissure eruption on Iceland, using Scanning DOAS instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Bo; Pfeffer, Melissa; Arellano, Santiago; Bergsson, Baldur; Conde, Vladimir; Barsotti, Sara; Stefansdottir, Gerdur; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Bergsson, Bergur; Weber, Konradin

    2016-04-01

    On 31 August 2014 a volcanic fissure eruption started at Holuhraun on Iceland. The eruption lasted for 6 months and was by far the strongest source of sulfur dioxide in Europe over the last 230 years, with sustained emission rates exceeding 100 000 ton/day. This gas emission severely affected people within Iceland. Under the scope of the EU-project FUTUREVOLC, a project with 3.5 years duration, aiming at making Iceland a supersite for volcanological research as a European contribution to GEO, a version of the Scanning DOAS instrument that is adapted to high latitudes with low UV radiation and severe meteorological conditions was developed. Since the first day of the eruption several of these novel instruments were monitoring the SO2 emission from the eruption. A lot of work was needed to sustain this operation during the winter at a very remote site and under severe field conditions. At the same time the very high concentrations in the gas plume, in combination with bad meteorological conditions has required the development of novel methods to derive reliable flux estimates. A simple approach to make a first order correction for atmospheric scattering has been applied, as well as filtering of the dataset to remove the data most affected by scattering. Substantial work has also been made to obtain realistic information on plume height and wind speed. The data from these instruments are the only sustained ground-based measurements of this important gas emission event. In this presentation we will discuss the instrumental issues and evaluation procedures and present the latest version of the emission estimates made from our measurements.

  15. HPV infection and intraepithelial lesions from the anal region: how to diagnose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Sérgio de Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be used. Although useful, these methods should be performed correctly and not indiscriminately in all patients. Patients for whom anal cytology screening is recommended are: HIV-infected patients, homosexuals, women who present with high-grade vulvar squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar cancer or cervical cancer. An abnormal anal cytology should be further evaluated with high resolution anoscopy.

  16. HPV infection and intraepithelial lesions from the anal region: how to diagnose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Ferreira, Aliana Meneses; Bueno, Camila Caroline Tremel

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal region has increased, especially in some groups like homosexual and HIV-positive people. Since this infection can be associated with the development of squamous anal cancer due to its progression from HPV infection to anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and finally to cancer, the screening and evaluation of these conditions are important. Anal cytology and high resolution anoscopy are good methods that are available and can be used. Although useful, these methods should be performed correctly and not indiscriminately in all patients. Patients for whom anal cytology screening is recommended are: HIV-infected patients, homosexuals, women who present with high-grade vulvar squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, vulvar cancer or cervical cancer. An abnormal anal cytology should be further evaluated with high resolution anoscopy. PMID:22230855

  17. Human papillomavirus in anal squamous cell carcinoma: an angel rather than a devil?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenda, Paola Simona; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Nicola; Barberis, Massimo; Bottiglieri, Luca; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer is a rare disease with an increasing incidence worldwide but, unfortunately, even today the scientific community still has a limited knowledge and limited options of treatment. More than 50% of patients with anal cancer presenting at diagnosis with locoregional disease have good chances of cure with chemoradiotherapy (CT–RT). However, once patients develop metastatic spread, the prognosis is very poor. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in more than 80% of anal cancers and whil...

  18. Incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries after training to protect the perineum: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Katariina; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Sandvik, Leiv; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) in two time periods, before and after implementing a training programme for improved perineal support aimed at reducing the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries. The secondary aim was to study incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries in subgroups defined by risk factors for OASIS. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting University hospital setting in Oslo, Norway. Participants Two...

  19. Effects of serotonin on the internal anal sphincter: in vivo manometric study in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M; Hanani, M.; Nissan, S

    1986-01-01

    The effects of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on the internal anal sphincter were studied in anaesthesized rats. Serotonin induced a dose dependent relaxation of the internal anal sphincter. Methysergide blocked this relaxation, but did not affect the rectoanal reflex. Methysergide did not antagonise the actions of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on the internal anal sphincter. Other 5-HT antagonists such as cyproheptadine, ketanserin, chlorpromazine, amitriptyline and ergotamine f...

  20. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  1. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM.

  2. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Results in Patients with Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Soo Kon [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Geol; Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    Among the 63 patients with histopathologically proven primary squamous cell anal cancer who were managed in Presbyterian Medical Center and Yonsei University Cancer from Jan. 1971 to Dec. 1991, 34 patients, who were managed with surgery alone (abdominoperineal resection) or post-operative radiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy were analyzed. With mean follow up time of 81.3 months, 30 patients (88%) were followed up from 17 to 243 months. In methods, 10 patients were treated with surgery alone. 9 patients were treated with combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (59{approx}60 Gy in 28{approx}30 fractions). 15 patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Chemotherapy (Mitomycin C 15 mg/squ, bolus injection day 1;5-FU, 750 mg/squ, 24hr infusion, day 1 to 5) and radiotherapy started the same day. A dose of 30 Gy was given to the tumor and to the pelvis including inguinal nodes, in 15 fractions. After 2 weeks a boost of radiotherapy (20 Gy) to the ano-perineal area and second cycle of chemotherapy completed the treatment. The overall 50 year survival rate was 56.2%. concurrent chemoradiotherapy group was 70% and surgery alone group was 16.7%. According to the cox proportional harzard model, there was significant different between survival with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and surgery alone (p=0.0129), but post-operative radiotherapy was 64.8%, which was not statically significant (p=0.1412). In concurrent chemoradiotherapy group, the anal function preservation rate was 87% and the severe complication rate (grade 3 stenosis and incontinence) was 13.3%. In conclusion, we conclude that the concurrent chemoradiotherapy may be effective treatment modality in patients with anal cancer.

  3. Role of intracellular calcium in contraction of internal anal sphincter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a continuation of the smooth circular muscle layer thickened at the rectum, innervated by vegetative nerve. IAS is a special smooth muscle, which is different from colonic smooth muscle in physiology and pharmaology[1]. It was found that contraction of gastric smooth muscle depends on the influx of extracellular calcium and release of intracellular calcium[2]. In present study, we observed and compared the effects of extra- and intracellular calcium on the contraction of IAS and colonic smooth muscle.

  4. [The time of proctectomy during ileo-anal anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautefeuille, P

    1993-01-01

    Proctectomy is one of the most important operative phases of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. It allows complete resection of the rectal mucosa and determines the quality of the postoperative course and the functional results. Two procedures are described, either with a distal rectal mucosectomy or complete resection of the rectal wall as far as the pectinate line. Functional results are identical. The second procedure leads to a complete resection of the rectal mucosa and therefore will be indicated in cases of low rectal cancer of dysplasia when the anus can be preserved. PMID:8161140

  5. Tailgut cyst in a neonate with anal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, B; Lee, A C H; Gannon, C; Arthur, R; Sugarman, I D

    2004-06-01

    Tailgut cysts, embryological remnants of the hindgut, are rare retrorectal tumours. They have been described in adults but are rare in children, especially neonates. We report a case of a neonate, who presented with anal stenosis and an incidental ultrasonographic finding of a presacral mass. Excision and histological examination of the mass confirmed the appearance of a tailgut cyst. There were no postoperative complications and no evidence of recurrence of the presacral mass over one year after excision. The clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of the tailgut cyst are described with a review of the literature. PMID:15211416

  6. Hrvatski studentski pokret – pokušaj teorijske analize

    OpenAIRE

    Mesić, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Postoje različite ocjene, prigodne i djelomične analize, pa i empirijska istraživanja nedavnog protestnog kolektivnog djelovanja hrvatskih studenata. No teško da je bilo pokušaja njegova teorijskoga objašnjenja i razumijevanja. Imajući u vidu vrlo raznovrsna određenja društvenoga pokreta, autorovo je stajalište da se zahtjevi pobunjenih studenata, blokade fakulteta i plenumsko odlučivanje te drugi oblici kolektivnoga studentskog djelovanja mogu teorijski najbolje sagledati k...

  7. La Contabilidad Analítica en los Hospitales Públicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Silvia Fresneda Fuentes

    1998-01-01

    La confección de presupuestos públicos austeros para la consecución de los criterios de convergencia impuestos por el Tratado de Maastricht ha originado una preocupación en todo el Sector Público en general, y en el hospitalario en particular, por la contención de los costes. Esta situación ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de introducir sistemas de Contabilidad para la Gestión interna de las organizaciones hospitalarias públicas. Así, la Contabilidad Analítica o de Costes se constituye co...

  8. Analítica de datos en Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Montserrat, Dani; López Vicario, José

    2015-01-01

    Aquest document conté originàriament altre material i/o programari només consultable a la Biblioteca de Ciència i Tecnologia. Als últims anys, les xarxes socials han esdevingut una eina empresarial indispensable amb la que, en definitiva, augmentar les vendes a les companyies. El present treball fa front al repte de realitzar analítica a Twitter, mitjançant la comparativa entre dues grans marques com son adidas i Nike, i experimentant amb l'algorisme k-menas i tècniques Natural Language Pr...

  9. The effect of different surface conditioning methods and curing protocols on bond strengths of two different fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezin Özer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro shear bond strength of two different resin-based fissure sealants [BeautiSealant (BS, UltraSeal XT hydro (UH] associated with application of an acid etching (Ultra-Etch Acid or a primer (BeautiSealant Primer and two different polymerization modes (Standard mode; 10 s or Xtra power mode; 3 s of a third generation light emitting diode (LED light curing unit. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eighty enamel surface samples were prepared from 40 extracted human third molar teeth. Samples were randomly divided into 8 subgroups according to fissure sealants, conditioning methods and polymerization modes (n=10; Group 1: Acid + BS+ Xtra power mode, Group 2: Primer + BS + Xtra power mode, Group 3: Acid + BS + Standard mode, Group 4: Primer + BS + Standard mode, Group 5: Acid + UH + Xtra power mode, Group 6: Primer + UH + Xtra power mode, Group 7: Acid + UH + Standard mode, Group 8: Primer + UH + Standard mode. An Instron machine (1.0 mm/min was used to measure shear bond strength values. Data were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were detected between the groups (p<0.05. Shear bond strength values of all BS subgroups were significantly lower than UH subgroups (p<0.05. Highest shear bond strength values were obtained in Group 5 and the lowest was obtained in Group 1. CONCLUSION: Shear bond strength values of fissure sealants can be affected by surface conditioning methods and curing protocols.

  10. Enamel Surface with Pit and Fissure Sealant Containing 45S5 Bioactive Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Kwon, J-S; Kim, K-N; Kim, K-M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel demineralization adjacent to pit and fissure sealants leads to the formation of marginal caries, which can necessitate the replacement of existing sealants. Dental materials with bioactive glass, which releases ions that inhibit dental caries, have been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel surface adjacent to sealants containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) under simulated microleakage between the material and the tooth in a cariogenic environment. Sealants containing 45S5BAG filler were prepared as follows: 0% 45S5BAG + 50.0% glass (BAG0 group), 12.5% 45S5BAG + 37.5% glass (BAG12.5 group), 25.0% 45S5BAG + 25.0% glass (BAG25.0 group), 37.5% 45S5BAG + 12.5% glass (BAG37.5 group), and 50.0% 45S5BAG + 0% glass (BAG50.0 group). A cured sealant disk was placed over a flat bovine enamel disk, separated by a 60-µm gap, and immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) at 37 °C for 15, 30, and 45 d. After the storage period, each enamel disk was separated from the cured sealant disk, and the enamel surface was examined with optical 3-dimensional surface profilometer, microhardness tester, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in roughness and a decrease in microhardness of the enamel surface as the proportion of 45S5BAG decreased (P< 0.05). In the scanning electron microscopy images, enamel surfaces with BAG50.0 showed a smooth surface, similar to those in the control group with distilled water, even after prolonged acid storage. Additionally, an etched pattern was observed on the surface of the demineralized enamel with a decreasing proportion of 45S5BAG. Increasing the 45S5BAG filler contents of the sealants had a significant impact in preventing the demineralization of the enamel surface within microgaps between the material and the tooth when exposed to a cariogenic environment. Therefore, despite some marginal leakage, these novel sealants may be effective preventive dental materials for inhibiting

  11. Enamel Surface with Pit and Fissure Sealant Containing 45S5 Bioactive Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Kwon, J-S; Kim, K-N; Kim, K-M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel demineralization adjacent to pit and fissure sealants leads to the formation of marginal caries, which can necessitate the replacement of existing sealants. Dental materials with bioactive glass, which releases ions that inhibit dental caries, have been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel surface adjacent to sealants containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) under simulated microleakage between the material and the tooth in a cariogenic environment. Sealants containing 45S5BAG filler were prepared as follows: 0% 45S5BAG + 50.0% glass (BAG0 group), 12.5% 45S5BAG + 37.5% glass (BAG12.5 group), 25.0% 45S5BAG + 25.0% glass (BAG25.0 group), 37.5% 45S5BAG + 12.5% glass (BAG37.5 group), and 50.0% 45S5BAG + 0% glass (BAG50.0 group). A cured sealant disk was placed over a flat bovine enamel disk, separated by a 60-µm gap, and immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) at 37 °C for 15, 30, and 45 d. After the storage period, each enamel disk was separated from the cured sealant disk, and the enamel surface was examined with optical 3-dimensional surface profilometer, microhardness tester, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in roughness and a decrease in microhardness of the enamel surface as the proportion of 45S5BAG decreased (Pacid storage. Additionally, an etched pattern was observed on the surface of the demineralized enamel with a decreasing proportion of 45S5BAG. Increasing the 45S5BAG filler contents of the sealants had a significant impact in preventing the demineralization of the enamel surface within microgaps between the material and the tooth when exposed to a cariogenic environment. Therefore, despite some marginal leakage, these novel sealants may be effective preventive dental materials for inhibiting secondary caries at the margins. PMID:26767770

  12. Geophysical Exploration of Faults, Fissures, and Fractures at Four Sites in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Mancilla, O.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Contreras-Corvera, A.; Stock, J. M.; Moreno-Ayala, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted field geophysical measurements in areas in the City of Mexicali that are associated with geological faults, fissures, and fractures. The study sites are: 1) Instituto Tecnologico de Mexicali 2) The buried trace of the Michoacan de Ocampo fault in the urban zone 3) Rio Nuevo 4) A site reported by Frez (2013) with ground rupture SW of Cerro Prieto At Site 1, seismic reflection profiling used a cable with 24 geophones at 1 m spacing. The source was a 3.6 kg sledge hammer, with 3 impacts per shot point. 347 shot points at 2 m spacing provided 6 fold coverage along a straight line with minimal elevation changes. Sample rate was 2000/s, and record length 1 s; reflections were seen down to 0.3 s TWTT. Processing included: frequency filter, fk filter, predictive deconvolution, geometry, velocity analysis, NMO and stacking. Lateral changes in the seismic section are due to surface modification and/or the presence of faults.At site 2, we measured 222Radon in 36 locations along 17 profiles across the fault, using inherent alpha spectrometry with a Durridge RAD7 detector. Each site was measured at a depth of 60 cm, with 31 five-minute readings in a 3 hour period, interspersed with 10 minute of background purge and 3 five-minute background measurements. In a profile parallel to the fault, 78% of the readings were > 100 pCi/L, confirming the presence of the fault along the swath surveyed. At Site 3 we compiled observations of post-earthquake cracks, conducted reconnaissance, and measured some profiles using 100 MHz GPR. These observations showed that the cracks are associated with ground failure due to earthquake shaking. At Site 4 our new 222Radon gas measurements complemented a pre-existing profile that had high 222Radon values lacking a structural explanation. Related to this we found that this region has two NW-SE trending features: a magnetic anomaly low of 360 nT (Evans, Summer and Castillo, 1972) and a graben reported by the Mexican Geological Survey in 2003

  13. Surgical treatment of anal stenosis: assessment of 77 anoplasties Tratamento cirúrgico da estenose anal: resultados de 77 anoplastias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Habr-Gama

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Anal stenosis is a rare, incapacitating, and challenging condition, occurring mainly after hemorrhoidectomy, for which several surgical techniques have been devised. The purpose of this study was to describe early and late (1 year results of 77 anoplasty operations performed in the Colorectal Unit of our institution. METHODS: From 1977 to 2002, 77 patients with moderate to severe anal stenosis underwent surgery using two sliding graft techniques: 58 underwent Sarner's operation and 19 underwent Musiari's technique. Bilateral flaps were used in 7 patients. RESULTS: Early morbidity was due to pruritus occurring in 2 patients, urinary infection in 1, and temporary incontinence in 1 patient. One patient needed early reoperation following suture line dehiscence. Late results (1 year were classified as good in 67 cases (87%. There was no reoperation due to recurrence of stenosis. CONCLUSION: The ease of performance, good functional results, and lack of severe complications show that Sarner's and Musiari's flap advancement techniques are effective and safe methods for surgical correction of anal stenosis, particularly when cutaneous fibrosis plays a major role in its etiology.OBJETIVO: A estenose anal é uma condição rara, incapacitante e desafiadora que ocorre principalmente após hemorroidectomia, para a qual diversas técnicas cirúrgicas reparadoras foram desenvolvidas. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever os resultados precoces e tardios (um ano de 77 anoplastias realizadas no Serviço de Cirurgia Colorretal. MÉTODOS: No período de 1977 a 2002, 77 pacientes com estenose anal moderada ou grave foram operados, utilizando-se duas técnicas diferentes de avanço de retalho: 58 foram submetidos à técnica de Sarner e 18 submetidos à Técnica de Musiari. Avanços bilaterais foram utilizados em sete pacientes. RESULTADOS: As complicações precoces foram: prurido em dois pacientes, infecção urinária em um paciente e incontinência fecal

  14. Diagnóstico de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC: prevenção de câncer do ânus? Anal HPV diagnosis in women with NIC: anal cancer prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Capobiango

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a frequência de HPV anal em pacientes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC, verificar a concordância entre os subtipos encontrados nos dois locais e investigar os fatores que influenciaram a ocorrência de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC sem evidências clínicas de imunodepressão. Foram avaliadas 52 mulheres com idades entre 16 e 72 anos e diagnóstico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical graus I, II e III. A identificação do DNA (ácido desoxirribonucleico do HPV e de sete subtipos dos vírus foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em material colhido no ânus e colo uterino. Foram pesquisados fatores que poderiam contribuir para a infecção anal, como paridade, número de parceiros, tabagismo, manipulação e coito anal e o tipo de doença ginecológica. Das 52 mulheres, foi diagnosticado HPV na região anal em 25 (48%, das quais 23 (44% também apresentavam HPV no colo uterino - resultado significativo para existência do HPV em portadoras de NIC. Em 16 (31% o HPV foi diagnosticado somente no colo uterino e em 11 (21% não foi identificado em colo ou ânus. Houve associação significativa nas variáveis paridade (p=0,02 e número de parceiros (p=0,04. Concluiu-se que: as mulheres com HPV genital têm mais probabilidade de serem acometidas por HPV anal; não há concordância unânime entre os subtipos do HPV do colo do útero e do ânus e a paridade e o número de parceiros contribuem para aumentar a incidência de HPV anal nas mulheres sem imunodeficiência e com HPV cervical.This study aims were to assess the frequency of HPV anal infection in patients with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN, to find out the relation between the found subtypes, when present in both regions, and investigate factors that influenced the occurrence of anal HPV in women with CIN. Fifty two women with age between 16 and 72 years and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN diagnosis

  15. Klasifikacija zaliha pomoću višekriterijske ABC analize, neuronskih mreža i klaster analize

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić, Tomislav; Šimunović, Katica; Pezer, Danijela; Šimunović, Goran

    2014-01-01

    U radu je dano istraživanje ABC klasifikacije zaliha koristeći različite višekriterijske metode (AHP metoda i klaster analiza) te neuronske mreže. Za definirani realni podatkovni model zaliha i prethodno postavljeni model ABC analize, istražene su i primjene navedenih metoda u klasifikaciji zaliha. Kroz ostvarene rezultate primijenjenih metoda, procijenjene su mogućnosti njihova korištenja u realnom proizvodnom okruženju. Provedena istraživanja u ovom radu stvaraju dobru pretpostavku za bolje...

  16. Analýza USB rozhraní

    OpenAIRE

    Zošiak, Dušan

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce je zaměřena na zpracování a analýzu USB komunikačního protokolu a implementace jeho jednotlivých částí do FPGA obvodu s využitím programovacího jazyka VHDL. Ve finální podobě by měla práce představovat souhrnný a ucelený dokument popisující principy USB rozhraní a jeho komunikace doplněných praktickým návrhem v jazyce VHDL, který by byl schopen převést data do USB. Tato práce je zaměřena na zpracování a analýzu USB komunikačního protokolu a implementace jeho jednotlivých částí d...

  17. High-resolution MRI for Primary anal fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and clinical value of preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a phased-army coil for the detection of anal fistulas. Methods: A total of 20 patients with surgically proved anal fistulas underwent preoperative MR imaging with phased-array coil at 1.5 T MR unit. The imaging protocol included high-resolution T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence acquisition at axial, sagittal and coronal planes and axial T2-weighted sequence with fat suppression. Results: Twenty patients were found to have 27 fistulas, 24 internal openings, 28 external openings, and 10 perianal abcesses. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting primary fistula tracks, abscesses and internal openings were 92.6% (25/27) and 92.3% (12/13), 100.0% (10/10) and 96.3% (26/27), 91.7% (22/24) and 85.7% (12/14), respectively. Conclusion: High-resolution Mil imaging is a very accurate preoperative technique for evaluating the classification of fistula-in-ano, the course of primary tracks and the presence of abscesses, thus providing important information for proper surgical treatment. (authors)

  18. Analýza vybrané firmy

    OpenAIRE

    Košťál, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Tato Diplomová práce analyzuje výrobně obchodní společnost FINO-trade s.r.o., její vztahy s oborovým okolím a její pracovní postupy. Je založena na jednoduchých analytických nástrojích, kterými jsou SLEPTE analýza, SWOT analýza, Porterův pětifaktorový model konkurenčního prostředí a Kralickův QUICKTEST. Cílem je navrhnout opatření směřující k růstu a upevnění postavení firmy na trhu. This Master’s Thesis is analyzing the FINO-trade company, relations with it’s branch surroundings and it’s ...

  19. Analýza event marketingu studentské organizace

    OpenAIRE

    Ježková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá analýzou marketingové komunikace neziskové organizace se zaměřením na pořádání eventů a s tím související event marketing. Cílem analýzy je připravit podklady pro vytvoření a realizaci nového unikátního eventu, který doplní doprovodný program konkrétního projektu. Práce je rozdělena na část teoretickou, analytickou a návrhovou. Analytická část se zaměřuje na kulturní vyžití ve veřejném prostranství se zaměřením na studenty i širší veřejnost s cílem připravit uni...

  20. Anal cytology in women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancer: interobserver agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Heráclio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Incidence rates of anal cancer have been rising worldwide in the last 20 years. Due to embryological, histological and immunohistochemical similarities between the anal canal and the cervix, routine screening with anal cytology for precursor lesions in high-risk groups has been adopted. Objective: To determine interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of anal neoplasia by anal cytology.Material and methods:A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 324 women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancers, for screening of anal cancer, from December 2008 to June 2009. Three hundred twenty-four cytological samples were analyzed by three cytopathologists. Cytological evaluation was based on the revised Bethesda terminology; samples were also classified into negative and positive for atypical cells. We calculated the kappa statistic with 95% confidence interval (95% CI to assess agreement among the three cytopathologists.Results:Interobserver agreement in the five categories of the Bethesda terminology was moderate (kappa for multiple raters: 0.6. Agreement among cytopathologists 1, 2 and 3 with a consensus diagnosis was strong (kappa: 0.71, 0.85 and 0.82, respectively.Conclusion:Interobserver agreement in anal cytology was moderate to strong, indicating that cervical cytomorphological criteria are reproducible also in anal samples.

  1. Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Caricato; Fabio Ausania; Giovanni Francesco Marangi; Ilaria Cipollone; Gerardo Flammia; Paolo Persichetti; Lucio Trodella; Roberto Coppola

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.

  2. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions. PMID:26645338

  3. Tunni analüüs - mis see on? / Peep Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Peep

    2001-01-01

    Tunni analüüs, õppe-kasvatustöö eesmärgid. Tunni analüüs on hinnangu andmine protsessidele, mille kutsub esile õpetaja tegevus (või tegevusetus) tunnis. Tunni läbiviimise protsessi mõjutavad õpilaste koosseis klassis, erinevate õppevormide ja õppemeetodite kasutamine, kasutatud õppevõtete otstarbekus, erinevad metoodikad ja õppesüsteemid

  4. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gandra S; Azar A; Wessolossky M

    2015-01-01

    Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evalu...

  5. Experimental and numerical study on loading rate effects of rock-like material specimens containing two unparallel fissures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彦华; 杨圣奇; 曾卫

    2016-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments and PFC numerical simulations for rock-like material specimens containing two unparallel fissures were carried out. On the basis of experimental and numerical results, the stress−strain curves, mechanical properties, AE events, cracking behavior and energy characteristics were analyzed to reveal the macro-mechanical behavior and meso-mechanism of pre-fissured specimens under different loading rates. Investigated results show that:1) When the loading rate is relatively low, the stress−strain curves show a brittle response. When the loading rate is relatively high, the curve shows a more ductile response. Both of the peak strength and elastic mudulus increase with the increase of loading rate, which can be expressed as power functions. 2) Four crack types are identified, i.e., tensile crack, shear crack, far-field crack and surface spalling. Moreover, the tensile crack, far-field crack and surface spalling are under tensile mechanism, while the shear crack is under shear mechanism. 3) The drops of the stress−strain curves all correspond to the crack initiation or coalescence, which is also linked to a sudden increasing in the accumulated micro-crack curve. 4) Both of the maximum bond force and energy have the similar trend with the increase of loading rate to peak strength, which indicates that the trend of peak strength can be explained by the meso-mechanics and energy.

  6. A Modified LBM Model for Simulating Gas Seepage in Fissured Coal Considering Klinkenberg Effects and Adsorbability-Desorbability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yun-Liang; Teng, Gui-Rong; Zhang, Ze

    2010-01-01

    A modified Lattice-Boltzmann method is proposed by considering the Klinkenberg effect and adsorbability-desorbability for the purpose of simulating methane gas seepage in fissured coal. The results show that the Klinkenberg effect has a little influence on methane gas seepage in fissured coal, so it can be neglected in engineering computations for simplicity. If both the Klinkenberg effect and the adsorbability-desorbability are considered, the Klinkenberg influence on gas pressure decreases as the Darcy coefficient increases. It is found by gas drainage simulations that near a drainage hole, the effect of adsorption and desorption cannot be neglected, and the location of the drainage hole has a great influence on drainage efficient λ when the hole is just located at the mid-zone of the coal seam, λ is 0.691808; when the hole is excursion down to 1.0 m from the mid-zone of coal seam, λ decreases to 0.668631; when the hole is excursion up or down to 2.0 m from the mid-zone of coal seam, λ decreases to 0.632917. The simulations supply an effective approach for optimizing the gas drainage hole location.

  7. Native gold from volcanic gases at Tolbachik 1975-76 and 2012-13 Fissure Eruptions, Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Ilya; Yudovskaya, Marina; Vergasova, Lidiya; Mokhov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Aggregates and euhedral crystals of native gold were found in sublimates formed during New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption in 2012-2013 (NTFE). Gold-bearing sublimate samples were taken from a red-hot (690 °C) degassing fracture in the roof of an active lava tunnel 1.5 km from active Naboko cinder cone in May 2013. The gas condensate collected at 690 °C in this site contains 16 ppb Au, 190 ppb Ag and 1180 ppm Cu compared to 3 ppb Au, 39 ppb Ag and 9.7 ppm Cu in the condensate of pristine magmatic gas sampled at 1030 °C. The 690 °C volcanic gas is most likely a mix of magmatic gas and local snow buried under the lava flows as indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the condensate. The lower-temperature gas enrichment in gold, copper and chlorine is resulted from evaporation of the 690 °C condensate during forced gas pumping at sampling. Native gold was also found in fumarolic encrustations collected from caverns in basalt lava flows with temperature up to 600 °C in June 2014, in a year after eruption finished. The native gold precipitation in newly formed Cu-rich sublimates together with the well known gold occurrences in cinder cones of 1975-1976 Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption manifest a transport capability of oxidized volcanic gas.

  8. Long-term anorectal, urinary and sexual dysfunction causing distress after radiotherapy for anal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, K G; Nørgaard, M; Lundby, L;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The objective of primary radiotherapy for anal cancer is to remove cancer while maintaining anorectal function. However, little is known about anorectal function among long-term survivors without colostomy. Using a cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined symptoms and distress relate...... function. CONCLUSION: Distressing long-term anorectal and sexual dysfunction was common after radiotherapy for anal cancer, and morbidity due to urinary dysfunction was moderate.......AIM: The objective of primary radiotherapy for anal cancer is to remove cancer while maintaining anorectal function. However, little is known about anorectal function among long-term survivors without colostomy. Using a cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined symptoms and distress related...... to the dysfunction of pelvic organs after radiotherapy for anal cancer. METHOD: A questionnaire regarding anorectal, urinary and sexual symptoms was sent to anal cancer patients without recurrence or colostomy, diagnosed during 1996-2003, and treated with curative intent (chemo)radiotherapy at three Danish centres...

  9. [Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendagorta, E; Herranz, P; Guadalajara, H; Zamora, F X

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma has increased alarmingly, particularly in high-risk groups such as men who have sex with men and immunosuppressed patients. Infection with an oncogenic strain of the human papillomavirus in the anal canal or perianal skin leads to anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN), progressive dysplastic intraepithelial lesions that are the precursors of anal squamous cell carcinoma. AIN can be diagnosed through cytological screening and biopsy guided by high-resolution anoscopy and can be treated using a range of procedures in an effort to prevent progression to invasive anal carcinoma. Given the recent advances in the understanding of this disease, and the increasing calls from experts for the establishment of screening programs to identify AIN, we review current knowledge on the condition, its diagnosis, and treatment from the point of view of dermatology. PMID:21764027

  10. Planification de la trajectoire optimale du bras robotisé d'une machine de réparation de fissures

    OpenAIRE

    VELINSKY STEVEN, A; MATHURIN, R; DUCROS, DM

    2001-01-01

    Traitement d'images et optimisation combinatoire des calculs sont utilisés ici pour accroître l'ergonomie du module de commande d'un engin de travaux publics dédié à la réparation de fissures dans les chaussées. L'intervention de l'opérateur est ainsi limitée à la sélection des extrémités de segments de fissures à réparer. Le bras automatisé de cet engin supporte un dispositif qui injecte du bitume afin d'obstruer les fissures. Le pilotage précis de ce bras nécessite deux phases de traitement...

  11. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC): design and methods of a three-year prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Machalek, Dorothy A; Grulich, Andrew E; Hillman, Richard J; Jin, Fengyi; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Garland, Suzanne M; Prestage, Garrett; McCaffery, Kirsten; Howard, Kirsten; Tong, Winnie; Fairley, Christopher K.; Roberts, Jennifer; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Poynten, I Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM). Screening for the presumed cancer precursor, high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in a manner analogous to cervical cancer screening has been proposed. Uncertainty remains regarding anal HPV natural history and the role of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) as screening tests. Well-designed cohort studies are required to address these...

  12. Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%. The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%, clout/influence of the client (45%, risk of losing client (27%, and forced sex (1.2%. Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98% while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

  13. Effect of Chalkiness on Fissuring of Milled RiceCaused by Moisture-absorption%垩白对稻米吸湿产生裂纹的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家年; 程秋琼; 谭军

    2001-01-01

    Relations between the fissure rate of milled rice cause d bymoisture absorption and immersing time were determined by immersing milled s hort-grain rice and long-grain rice,with and without chalkiness,into water of sa me temperature.The results showed:1) With moisture absorption,milled rice with chalkiness fissured more easy than those without chalkiness;2)With moisture abso rption,milled short-grain rice fissured more easy than milled 1ong-grain rice;3) The peak fissure rate of milled long-grain rice with chalkiness was much higher than that of milled short-grain rice with chalkiness,the former fissured more se verely,but its peak fissure rate appeared later.%将有垩白与无垩白的籼稻米和粳稻米浸入相同温度的水中,测定浸水时间与稻米吸湿产生裂纹率的关系。结果表明:稻米在水中吸湿后,有垩白的稻米比无垩白的稻米容易产生裂纹;粳稻米比籼稻米容易吸湿产生裂纹;有垩白籼稻米比有垩白粳稻米裂纹率峰值更高,裂纹产生更剧烈,但裂纹率峰值出现时间滞后。

  14. Comparison of Clinical Success of Applying a Kind of Fissure Sealant on the Lower Permanent Molar Teeth in Dry and Wet Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Eskandarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Fissure sealant therapy is among the most effective methods of preventing dental caries. However, it is lengthy and isolation of the teeth is difficult in this procedure especially in young children. Using new hydro-philic fissure sealant may reduce such problems. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical success of a hydrophilic fissure sealant on the lower permanent molar teeth in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Method: This clinical trial assessed 31 patients (mean age 8.13±1.77 years who needed fissure sealant therapy on their first or second man-dibular permanent molar. Having performed dental prophylaxis, the teeth were etched and rinsed. Then one of the two was randomly selected and sealed with smartseal & loc in isolated and dry conditions; while, the other was wetted on the etched enamel by using a saliva-contaminated micro brush, and was then sealed with the same fissure as the first tooth. Six and 12 months later, two independent observers examined the clinical success of sealant through checking the marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, and anatomical form. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The bivariate Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used to compare the clinical success of the two treatment methods. Results: There was a high interpersonal reliability between the two examiners (K= 0.713. After 12 months, 90.3% clinical success was observed in dry conditions and 83.9% in wet conditions for smartseal & loc; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.0707. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that using new hydro-philic fissure sealant can reduce technical sensitivities and consequently decreases the apprehensions on saliva contamination of etched enamel during treatment procedures.

  15. Comparison of Clinical Success of Applying a Kind of Fissure Sealant on the Lower Permanent Molar Teeth in Dry and Wet Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Eskandarian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Fissure sealant therapy is among the most effective methods of preventing dental caries. However, it is lengthy and isolation of the teeth is difficult in this procedure especially in young children. Using new hydrophilic fissure sealant may reduce such problems. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical success of a hydrophilic fissure sealant on the lower permanent mo-lar teeth in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Method: This clinical trial assessed 31 patients (mean age 8.13±1.77 years who needed fissure sealant therapy on their first or second mandibular permanent molar. Having performed dental prophylaxis, the teeth were etched and rinsed. Then one of the two was randomly selected and sealed with smartseal & loc in isolated and dry con-ditions; while, the other was wetted on the etched enamel by using a saliva-contaminated micro brush, and was then sealed with the same fissure as the first tooth. Six and 12 months later, two independent observers examined the clinical success of sealant through checking the marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, and anatomical form. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The bivariate Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used to compare the clinical success of the two treatment methods. Results: There was a high interpersonal reliability between the two examiners (K= 0.713. After 12 months, 90.3% clinical success was observed in dry conditions and 83.9% in wet conditions for smartseal & loc; however, the differ-ence was not statistically significant (p= 0.0707. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that using new hydrophilic fissure sealant can reduce tech-nical sensitivities and consequently decreases the apprehensions on saliva contamination of etched enamel during treatment procedures.

  16. Incontinence after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter tears is related to relative length of reconstructed external sphincter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norderval, S; Røssaak, K.; Markskog, A;

    2012-01-01

    To determine if anatomic primary repair with end-to-end reconstruction of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in its full length combined with separate repair of coexisting internal anal sphincter (IAS) tear, when present, results in less incontinence and better anal sphincter integrity compared wi...

  17. Bezpečnostní analýza organizace

    OpenAIRE

    Cahová, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Bakalářská práce "Bezpečnostní analýza organizace" pojednává o problematice ochrany informací v souvisosti s fyzickou, personální a administrativní bezpečností. Zabývá se několika podstatnými oblastmi, které mají vliv na bezpečnost státní instituce. Jedná se především o bezpečnostní politiku, osobu manažera, stanovení hrozeb a míry rizik, stejně jako o prevenci a konkrétní postupy při řešení bezpečnostních incidentů. The Bachelor's thesis "Organization Security Analysis" deals with the pro...

  18. 复方角菜酸酯栓治疗单纯性肛裂50例%A Therapeutic Evaluation of Compound Comb. Carraghenates Suppository for Simple Anal Fissure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐波; 朱光辉; 庄思敏

    2003-01-01

    目的:研究复方角菜酸酯栓治疗单纯性肛裂的有效性及安全性.方法:100例肛裂患者随机分为两组,治疗组50例,每次用0.1%的聚维酮碘消毒伤口后,早晚各用复方角菜酸酯栓1粒塞入肛门内;对照组50例,用1∶5 000高锰酸钾溶液500~1 000 mL坐浴,bid,每次15 min,之后外换九华膏.均连用7 d.结果:治疗组出血、疼痛、瘙痒、水肿、糜烂的减轻程度明显优于对照组(P<0.05),两组均未出现全身不良反应.结论:复方角菜酸酯栓治疗单纯性肛裂的临床效果明显,安全性高,无明显副作用.

  19. Overview of the precursors and dynamics of the 2012-13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Edwards, Benjamin; Volynets, Anna; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    We present a broad overview of the 2012-13 flank fissure eruption of Plosky Tolbachik Volcano in the central Kamchatka Peninsula. The eruption lasted more than nine months and produced approximately 0.55 km3 DRE (volume recalculated to a density of 2.8 g/cm3) of basaltic trachyandesite magma. The 2012-13 eruption of Tolbachik is one of the most voluminous historical eruptions of mafic magma at subduction related volcanoes globally, and it is the second largest at Kamchatka. The eruption was preceded by five months of elevated seismicity and ground inflation, both of which peaked a day before the eruption commenced on 27 November 2012. The batch of high-Al magma ascended from depths of 5-10 km; its apical part contained 54-55 wt.% SiO2, and the main body 52-53 wt.% SiO2. The eruption started by the opening of a 6 km-long radial fissure on the southwestern slope of the volcano that fed multi-vent phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive activity, as well as intensive effusion of lava with an initial discharge of > 440 m3/s. After 10 days the eruption continued only at the lower part of the fissure, where explosive and effusive activity of Hawaiian-Strombolian type occurred from a lava pond in the crater of the main growing scoria cone. The discharge rate for the nine month long, effusion-dominated eruption gradually declined from 140 to 18 m3/s and formed a compound lava field with a total area of ~ 36 km2; the effusive activity evolved from high-discharge channel-fed 'a'a lavas to dominantly low-discharge tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. On 23 August, the effusion of lava ceased and the intra-crater lava pond drained. Weak Strombolian-type explosions continued for several more days on the crater bottom until the end of the eruption around 5 September 2013. Based on a broad array of new data collected during this eruption, we develop a model for the magma storage and transport system of Plosky Tolbachik that links the storage zones of the two main genetically related magma

  20. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  1. Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Resected by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Tamaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment approach for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the anal canal includes abdominoperineal resection and chemoradiotherapy. However, there are currently very few reports of early SCC of the anal canal resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. We report 2 rare cases of SCC of the anal canal resected by ESD. In case 1, a 66-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to blood in her stool, and an elevated lesion, 15 mm in size, was identified from the rectum to the dentate line of the anal canal on internal hemorrhoids. The lesion was diagnosed as an early SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. In case 2, a 71-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to constipation, and an elevated lesion, 25 mm in size, was identified from the dentate line to the anal canal. The lesion was diagnosed as early-stage SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. No complications or recurrence after ESD occurred in either case.

  2. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  3. Anal cancer in Chinese: human papillomavirus infection and altered expression of p53

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AIM To detect the presence of HPV DNA and study the alteration of p53 expression in anal cancers in Chinese.METHODS HPV DNA was amplified by PCR. The amplified HPV DNA was classified by DBH. HPV antigen and p53 expression were respectively detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS HPV DNA was amplified only in one case of squamous cell carcinoma of the 72 Chinese anal cancers and further classified as HPV type 16. Others were all HPV negative. HPV antigen and p53 expression were also detected in this case. Positive stainings with anti-p53 antibody were seen in 61.2% anal cancers. There were no statistically significant differences between anal squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas and between anal adenocarcinomas and rectal adenocarcinomas. p53 protein expression was observed in the basal cells of squamous epithelium of condyloma acuminatum and morphologically normal squamous epithelium in 2 cases invaded by anal adenocarcinoma.CONCLUSION HPV infection was not associated with these cases of anal cancer. p53 alteration was a common event. Positive p53 immunostaining can not be regarded as a marker for differentiating benign from malignant lesions.

  4. Secondary repair of severe chronic fourth-degree perineal tear due to obstetric trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Elong, Adolphe; Verla, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Obstetric injury is the commonest cause of anal incontinence. We report a case of anal incontinence as a result of severe chronic fourth-degree perineal tear secondary to birthing with complete disruption of the perineum. Secondary repair consisting of an anterior sphincter repair and levatorplasty in a poor resourced area rendered excellent immediate clinical result. The outcome of anterior sphincter repair following obstetric trauma is good but long-term follow-up is required because of the underlying complexity of obstetric injury. As prevention is not always possible, immediate recognition and adequate primary treatment is of importance. PMID:24876506

  5. Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anal HPV infection, which contributes to the development of anal warts and anal cancer, is well known to be common among men who have sex with men (MSM, especially among those HIV positives. However, HIV and anal HPV co-infection among MSM has not been addressed in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Study participants were recruited using multiple methods with the collaboration of local volunteer organizations. Blood and anal swabs were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. RESULTS: A total of 602 MSM were recruited and laboratory data were available for 578 of them (96.0%. HIV and anal HPV prevalence were 8.5% and 62.1%, respectively. And 48 MSM (8.3% were found to be co-infected. The HPV genotypes identified most frequently were HPV06 (19.6%, HPV16 (13.0%, HPV52 (8.5% and HPV11 (7.6%. Different modes of HPV genotypes distribution were observed with respect to HIV status. A strong dose-response relationship was found between HIV seropositivity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes (p<0.001, which is consistent with the observation that anal HPV infection was an independent predictor for HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HIV and anal HPV co-infection was observed in the MSM community in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Anal HPV infection was found to be independently associated with increased HIV seropositivity, which suggests the application of HPV vaccine might be a potential strategy to reduce the acquisition of HIV infection though controlling the prevalence of HPV.

  6. Utilidade da citologia anal no rastreamento dos homens heterossexuais portadores do HPV genital Anal cytology for screening heterosexual men harboring genital HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Marianelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV de alto risco estão fortemente relacionados à etiologia do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anogenital e suas lesões precursoras. O HPV-16 é o tipo mais freqüente, estando presente em até 87% dos CEC do canal anal HPV-positivo. Apesar de ser relativamente raro, vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticado, nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos do sexo masculino. A incidência é ainda mais elevada nos grupos considerados de risco, particularmente, os homens e as mulheres HIV-positivo e os homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Grande parte das pesquisas direcionadas à infecção anal pelo HPV e sua relação com neoplasia intraepitelial-anal (NIA e com o carcinoma esteve focada nos grupos de risco. Pouco interesse vem sendo destinado à investigação dos homens heterossexuais. Estudos epidemiológicos da prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em homens, mostraram que os heterossexuais masculinos apresentavam infecção anal pelo HPV em até 12%. As Sociedades médicas e os especialistas recomendam o rastreamento dos portadores de imunodepressão e dos HSH com citologia do raspado do canal anal. Entretanto, até o momento, não há recomendação de rastreamento para homens que fazem sexo com mulheres.The oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV are straightly associated with anogenital cancer and dysplasia. The HPV-16 is the most common type, isolated in 87% of the HPV-positive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Despite being a rare tumor, the incidence of SCC has increased in the last decades, especially in males. Incidence is particularly high amongst men who have sex with men (MSM and among HIV infected men and women. For decades anogenital HPV researches have largely focused risk groups. Poor interest was intended to men who have sex with women (MSW. Prevalence studies of HPV infection in MSW have demonstrated that anal infection was identified in as far as 12%. Medical societies and specialists recommend anal

  7. Biosistemes analítics integrats per a aplicacions industrials i mediambientals

    OpenAIRE

    Llopis i Gonzàlez, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    En el marc d’aquesta tesi s’han desenvolupat tres biosistemes analítics integrats que mostren: 1) la millora substancial que suposa realitzar un procés d’integració, encara que aquest sigui parcial, en el rendiment analític de les metodologies proposades; 2) com la miniaturització, en diferents graus, permet augmentar de forma significativa la robustesa, la sensibilitat o la selectivitat dels sistemes proposats; i 3) noves solucions a la problemàtica comuna dels biosensors i biosistemes analí...

  8. Apontamentos sobre a psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2002-01-01

    O texto faz uma introdução à Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung: define o conceito de Psicologia Analítica, traz uma biografia resumida de Carl Gustav Jung, indica as principais diferenças entre a Psicologia Analítica e a Psicanálise, descreve a estrutura e o funcionamento da psique e, por fim, apresenta sinteticamente as características dos tipos de personalidades traçadas por Jung. The text makes an introduction to the Analytical Psychology of the psycholo...

  9. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Bravo Maia; Larissa Cardoso Marinho; Tânia Wanderley Paes Barbosa; Lara Franciele Ribeiro Velasco; Patrícia Godoy Garcia Costa; Fabiana Pirani Carneiro; Paulo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was d...

  10. Automatic classification of pulmonary peri-fissural nodules in computed tomography using an ensemble of 2D views and a convolutional neural network out-of-the-box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciompi, Francesco; de Hoop, Bartjan; van Riel, Sarah J; Chung, Kaman; Scholten, Ernst Th; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Jong, Pim A; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of automatic classification of pulmonary peri-fissural nodules (PFNs). The classification problem is formulated as a machine learning approach, where detected nodule candidates are classified as PFNs or non-PFNs. Supervised learning is used, where a classifier is

  11. Diagnostic performance comparison of the Chartis System and high-resolution computerized tomography fissure analysis for planning endoscopic lung volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompelmann, Daniela; Eberhardt, Ralf; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Brown, Matthew S.; Abtin, Fereidoun; Kim, Hyun J.; Holmes-Higgin, Debby; Radhakrishnan, Sri; Herth, Felix J. F.; Goldin, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Endobronchial valve (EBV) therapy is optimized in patients who demonstrate little or no collateral ventilation (CV). The accuracy of the Chartis System and visual assessment of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) fissure completeness by a core radiology laboratory

  12. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  13. Outcomes of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin C for Anal Cancer in Immunocompetent Versus Immunodeficient Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Information is limited as to how we should treat invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with chronic immunosuppression, since the majority of clinical studies to date have excluded such patients. The objective of this study is to compare treatment outcomes in immunocompetent (IC) versus immunodeficient (ID) patients with invasive anal SCC treated similarly with combined modality therapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and March 2007, a total of 36 consecutive IC and ID patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with infusional 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. The IC and ID groups consisted of 19 and 17 patients, respectively, with 14 human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) and 3 post-solid organ transplant ID patients. There were no significant differences in tumor size, T stage, N stage, chemotherapy doses, or radiation doses between the two groups. Results: With a median follow-up of 3.1 years, no differences were found in overall survival, disease-specific survival, and colostomy-free survival. Three-year overall survival was 83.6% (95% CI = 68.2-100) and 91.7% (95% CI = 77.3-100) in the IC and ID groups, respectively. In addition, there were no differences in acute and late toxicity profiles between the two groups. In the human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, Cox modeling showed no difference in overall survival by pretreatment CD4 counts (hazard ratio = 0.994, 95% CI = 0.98-1.01). No correlation was found between CD4 counts and the degree of acute toxicities. Conclusion: Our data suggest that standard combined modality therapy with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C is as safe and effective for ID patients as for IC patients.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the length of resin tags, viscosity and microleakage of pit and fissure sealants - an in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Prabhakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In this era of preventive dentistry, many techniques are available for prevention of caries, such as plaque control, use of systemic and local fluorides and pit and fissure sealants. The rationale of pit and fissure sealants is that, when they are applied into the caries prone fissures, they penetrate and seal them from the oral environment. This study aims to correlate the relationship between the viscosity of the sealant, resin tag length and microleakage. Materials and Methods : 30 third molars were selected for study. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group E: Embrace wetbond, H: Helioseal, G: Guardian seal. Teeth were cleaned with pumice prophylaxis and pretreated with acid etching and bonding agent. The respective pit and fissure sealants were applied. Teeth were placed in 1% methylene blue dye and sectioned mesio-distally into two halves. These were used to assess the microleakage using stereomicroscope and resin tag length using SEM. Viscosity was assessed using Brooke′s field viscometer. Results : Viscosity was lowest for Embrace wetbond and highest for Guardian seal. Microleakage scores were highest with Guardian seal and lowest with Embrace wetbond. Resin tag lengths were longer with Embrace wetbond as compared to other groups. There is a definite negative correlation between viscosity, resin tag length and microleakage. Lower the viscosity, the longer were the resin tags and the microleakage decreased. Embrace wetbond pit and fissure sealant had lowest viscosity, longest resin tag length and lowest microleakage scores. Conclusion : Embrace wetbond appears to be compatible with residual moisture and ideal for use in children, where isolation is a problem.

  15. La Contabilidad Analítica en los Hospitales Públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Silvia Fresneda Fuentes

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La confección de presupuestos públicos austeros para la consecución de los criterios de convergencia impuestos por el Tratado de Maastricht ha originado una preocupación en todo el Sector Público en general, y en el hospitalario en particular, por la contención de los costes. Esta situación ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de introducir sistemas de Contabilidad para la Gestión interna de las organizaciones hospitalarias públicas. Así, la Contabilidad Analítica o de Costes se constituye como un componente más de dichos sistemas y está llamada a alcanzar dos objetivos muy claros, por un lado, la determinación del coste del producto hospitalario para en base a él realizar una presupuestación prospectiva, y por otro, suministrar información interna que permita llevar a cabo un verdadero Control de Gestión. Con este trabajo se pretenden describir los modelos de costes alternativos propuestos por la literatura especializada, señalando su idoneidad en base a la consecución de los objetivos que la Contabilidad Analítica debe satisfacer. Se pondrá de manifiesto la tendencia actual a establecer modelos basados en la nueva definición de producto hospitalario, los cuales tienen como finalidad la determinación de los costes totales de dicho producto, dejando a un lado el objetivo del control de la eficacia y eficiencia de la gestión.The development of strict Public Budgets in order to reach the goals settled by Maastricht agreements have caused a deep concern in the Public Sector and mostly in hospitals in order to brake the growth of costs. Such a situation has stated clearly the necessity of implementing Management Accounting Systems in Public Hospitals organizations. Therefore, costs accounting cames to be a part of such systems, which is to reach two very clear objetives. In one hand, the definition of the hospital product cost using it as the base to develop the hospital budget. On the other hand, to supply internal

  16. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF COLORECTAL AND ANAL CANAL MALIGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majethia Nikhil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma is considered a calamity for humanity, but it could have a long survival if it is diagnosed early. The epidemiology of this calamity is also interesting and has always been the subject of investigati on in the in the western world. AIMS: 1. To compare the findings in a series of 215 cases studied over a period of 6 years from 2008 to 2013 . 2. T o study the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in a population with respect to age, sex, religion and diet . 3. T o study the occurrence of the carcinoma in a different parts of the colon . 4. To study the different histological an d m orphological types of carcinoma of colon . 5. To study the stages of carcinoma at the time of presentation by American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC staging system . 6. To study the clinical presentation of colorectal carcinoma. SETTINGS: Lokmanya Til ak Municipal General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai . DESIGN: A retrospective observational study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: The malignant tumor of large bowel and anal canal received in the Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Lokmanya Tilak Medical College an d General Hospital in Mumbai in the form of biopsy and resected speciemen were studied after microscopic confirmation of diagnosis over a period of 6 years from 2008 to 2013. A total number of cases studied are 215 cases excluding the superficial biopsy an d doubtful cases. RESULTS: Of total 46255 surgical specimen, 6911 were gastrointestinal specimen i.e. 14.9% of all specimens , and 4271 were colorectal specimen. Of 4271 gastrointestinal specimens 497 gastrointestinal malignancy while 215 had colorectal malignancy. The common age group affected is 51 - 60 years. Rectum (57.74% is the most common site of colorectal malignancy. Abdo minal pain (33.5% was the most common clinical feature. Ulceroinfilterative is the most common type of gross morphology of tumor in rectum. Hindu and non - vegetarian are most common risk factors

  17. A New Method to Treat High Anal Fistula - Bidirectional Isobaric Drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Linghua; Wang, Yanmei; Zhao, Jingbo;

    2016-01-01

    -category verbal rating scale, VRS), and the score of anal function (Wexner Incontinence Score) were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Comparison of the efficacy between two groups indicated that the complete cure rate differed significantly between two groups (P... cavity, then put the drainage seton to form a two-way isobaric drainage with the low incision. The patients in Control group were treated using a high cutting seton therapy with the low incision. The changes of average wound healing time, the cure rate, the recurrence rate, the postoperative pain (four...... postoperative pain and protect anal function. In the patients of Experimental group, the appearance was kept well and had good anal closure (Figure 1 A-D). However, in the patients of Control group, the appearance was changed and the anal closure was not well (Figure 1 E-H). Conclusions and perspectives...

  18. Riskide analüüs aitab kriisi puhuks varusid planeerida / Janis Toomla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toomla, Janis

    2005-01-01

    Riskide hindamisele järgnevast organisatsiooni jätkusuutlikkuse planeerimise faasist, kus toimub kriisistsenaariumide analüüs, võimalike kahjude suuruse hindamine ja taasteaja määratlemine (Business Impact Analyse)

  19. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  20. Anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients in the period 1995-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca Asbjørn; Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several studies have demonstrated an increased risk of non-AIDS cancers in HIV patients and, for some cancers, also in relatives of HIV patients. We aimed to estimate (1) the risk of anal carcinoma among HIV patients and their parents, and (2) the mortality after a diagnosis...... of anal carcinoma. Methods: We used Poisson regression to estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of anal carcinoma in (1) a population of HIV patients identified from the Danish HIV Cohort Study (n = 4993) compared with a population control cohort matched on age and gender (n = 59,916) for the period...... 1995-2009, and (2) parents of HIV patients compared with parents of controls for the period 1978-2009. Cancer diagnoses were identified from The Danish Cancer Registry. We further estimated the mortality rate ratios (MRR) of HIV patients compared with controls after the diagnosis of anal carcinoma...

  1. [The usefulness of manometry in the determination of the morphology of the anal canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Vernet, J M; Asensio, M; Marhuenda, C; Broto, J; Lloret, J; Boix-Ochoa, J

    1997-07-01

    The appearance of the new lecture systems for the manometry studies by computer, like the Polygram by Synectics (vector volume), offer the possibility to see the circumferential pressure forces, that even in rest conditions as in voluntary contraction, they keep coaptation of the anal canal, and this will act as a continent closure system in the most distal part of the G.I. tract. The study is with the normal parameters obtained in 14 individuals, considered as normal, getting the mean +/- sd pressure of the anal canal convey in mm Hg, from de anal canal profile in rest as in voluntary contraction, and the maximum variability that could exist between the six profile waves, that are obtained in the same individual to develop an image of the anal canal. This valves will allow the author's to get to the bottom of fecal incontinence derivative from anorectal malformations, defining the pressure valves of muscular hypoplasia or surgical outcomes of the malformations. PMID:9376242

  2. Histochemical properties of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in canine anal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of sialic acids appear to be manifold. Additionally, antimicrobial substances serve as a non-specific defense against microorganisms. In this study, therefore, the localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in the anal glands of dog was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium, luminal secretions and excretory ducts exhibited high levels of sialoglycoconjugates that terminated in Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc or Siaα2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc. Additionally, O-acetylated sialic acids were detectable in these glandular structures. Antimicrobial substances, such as lysozyme, immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin and the peptide group of β-defensins, were also demonstrated as products of the anal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the functional significance of the anal glands. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion at the anal mucosa.

  3. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K;

    BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological evaluation of anorectal sensory function is hampered by a paucity of methods. Rapid balloon distension (RBD) has been introduced to describe the cerebral response to rectal distension, but it has not successfully been applied to the anal canal. METHODS: Nineteen...... healthy women received 30 RBDs in the rectum and the anal canal at intensities corresponding to sensory and unpleasantness thresholds, and response was recorded as cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) in 64-channels. The anal canal stimulations at unpleasantness level were repeated after 4 min to test...... the within-day reproducibility. CEPs were averaged, and to overcome latency variation related to jitter the spectral content of single sweeps was also computed. KEY RESULTS: Repeated stimulation of the anal canal generated CEPs with similar latencies but smaller amplitudes compared to those from the rectum...

  4. Cortical evoked potentials in response to rapid balloon distension of the rectum and anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, S; Brock, C; Krogh, K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological evaluation of anorectal sensory function is hampered by a paucity of methods. Rapid balloon distension (RBD) has been introduced to describe the cerebral response to rectal distension, but it has not successfully been applied to the anal canal. METHODS: Nineteen...... healthy women received 30 RBDs in the rectum and the anal canal at intensities corresponding to sensory and unpleasantness thresholds, and response was recorded as cortical evoked potentials (CEPs) in 64-channels. The anal canal stimulations at unpleasantness level were repeated after 4 min to test...... the within-day reproducibility. CEPs were averaged, and to overcome latency variation related to jitter the spectral content of single sweeps was also computed. KEY RESULTS: Repeated stimulation of the anal canal generated CEPs with similar latencies but smaller amplitudes compared to those from the rectum...

  5. Anal extrusion of migrated ventriculo-peritoneal shunt catheter: An unusual complication and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari, Avijit; Borkar, Sachin A.; Mahapatra, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Authors present an unusual case of anal extrusion of peritoneal end of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in a 2-year-old male child. Pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this rare complication of a very commonly performed neurosurgical procedure.

  6. Infiltrating adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma of the anal canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marni Colvin; Aris Delis; Erika Bracamonte; Hugo Villar; Luis R Leon Jr

    2009-01-01

    Primary neoplasms arising in the anal canal are relatively unusual. In particular, adenomas and adenocarcinomas are distinctly rare entities in this region. We describe an infiltrating, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma from the distal anal canal, in an otherwise healthy patient at low risk for gastrointestinal malignancy. This is the case of an octogenarian man with a several year history of hemorrhoids and intermittent rectal bleeding, more recently complaining of continuous hematochezia. Examination revealed a blood-covered pedunculated mass with a long stalk protruding from the anus. The lesion was amputated at the bedside. Microscopic evaluation revealed an infiltrating well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, arising from a villous adenoma. This was further evaluated under anesthesia and complete excision of distal anal tissue was performed. Our report is the first describing the possible malignant degeneration of a villous adenoma in the anal canal.

  7. Oral and Anal vaccination against enteric red mouth disease protection against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;

    dose of ERM bacterin fully protected rainbow trout when they are vaccinated anally. Oral vaccination can also induce full protection but the dose of the bacterin has to be 100 times higher than if the fish was to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the oral feed bacteria is digested......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...

  8. Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone S Contu; Grasiela Agnes; Andrea P Damin; Paulo C Contu; Mário A Rosito; Claudio O Alexandre; Daniel C Damin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for development of anal cancer.METHODS: Thirty-two patients with invasive anal carcinoma and 103 healthy blood donors were included in the study. p53 codon 72 polymorphism was analyzed in blood samples through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing.RESULTS: The relative frequency of each allele was 0.60 for Arg and 0.40 for Pro in patients with anal cancer,and 0.61 for Arg and 0.39 for Pro in normal controls.No significant differences in distribution of the codon 72 genotypes between patients and controls were found.CONCLUSION: These results do not support a role for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in anal carcinogenesis.

  9. Open versus laparoscopic (assisted) ileo pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Usama Ahmed; Keus, Frederik; Heikens, Joost T.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Berdah, Stephane V.; Gooszen, H. G.; van Laarhoven, Cees J. H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Restorative proctocolectomy with ileo pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the main surgical treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). With the advancements of minimal-invasive surgery this demanding operation is increasingly being performed

  10. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Ruanpeng

    Full Text Available Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV-infected (HIV+ persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL using Papanicolau (Pap screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors.Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification.Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54. Overall, 86 (43.0% had ASIL: 28 (14.2% with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 1 (0.5% with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, 56 (28.4% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 1 (0.5% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05 with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women, rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002 and HIV infection (p = 0.01.ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA, not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  11. Relation between rectal sensation and anal function in normal subjects and patients with faecal incontinence.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, W M; Read, N W; Miner, P B

    1990-01-01

    The relation between sensory perception of rapid balloon distension of the rectum and the motor responses of the rectum and external and internal anal sphincters in 27 normal subjects and 16 patients with faecal incontinence who had impaired rectal sensation but normal sphincter pressures was studied. In both patients and normal subjects, the onset and duration of rectal sensation correlated closely with the external anal sphincter electrical activity (r = 0.8, p less than 0.0001) and with re...

  12. Correlates of anal sex roles among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin How

    2016-03-01

    Identifying roles for anal sex is an important issue for populations of MSM. We describe the prevalence of identifying as being 'top', 'bottom', 'versatile', or 'don't know/not applicable' among Malay and Chinese MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and behavioural outcomes according to these labels for sexual role identity. Data analysis was conducted on a survey administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur in 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of MSM who reported roles for anal sex. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the odds of behavioural outcomes among MSM who identified as 'bottom', 'versatile,' and 'don't know' compared to MSM who reported that 'top' was their sexual role. Labels for anal sex roles were significantly associated with condom use for last anal sex. Among MSM who used labels for anal sex roles, MSM who identified as 'bottom' had highest level of not using condoms for last anal sex (24.1%, p = .045). In binary logistic regression model, identifying as 'top' was significantly associated with reporting using a condom during last anal sex and reported consistent condom use for anal sex in the past six months (p = .039 and .017, respectively). With regard to sexual role identity, some MSM may be a part of a special subgroup of at-risk men to be targeted. Future research should evaluate the origins, meanings, and perceptions of these labels, and the developmental process of how these MSM identify with any of these categories. Research should also uncover condom use decision making with regard to these labels for sexual positioning.

  13. Analüütilised voolud psühholoogias ja nende rakendamine pedagoogikas / Aleksander Elango

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elango, Aleksander, 1902-2004

    2001-01-01

    Analüütise psühholoogia kolm koolkonda - S.Freudì koolkond e. päris-psühhoanalüüs, A.Adlerì koolkond e. individuaalpsühholoogia ja C.G.Jungì psühhoanalüüsi ja individuaalpsühholoogia sünteesi luua püüdev koolkond. Analüütise psühholoogia koolkondade ja pedagoogika suhetest

  14. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  15. Early Impact and Performance Characteristics of an Established Anal Dysplasia Screening Program: Program Evaluation Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Christopher; Caperna, Joseph; Cachay, Edward R.; Cosman, Bard

    2007-01-01

    Background: Screening for invasive anal cancer and its precursors is being increasingly advocated as a response to increasing incidence among HIV-infected persons. We implemented a comprehensive screening program in 2001 and report our early experience to inform monitoring and evaluation of such programs. Our research aims were: (1) to estimate incidence of and mortality from invasive anal cancer (IAC) before (1995-2000) and after (2001-2005) screening program implementation and (2) to examin...

  16. Addressing Risk and Reluctance at the Nexus of HIV and Anal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Cassel, Kevin; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Robles, Andrew; Kapua, Cathy; Orton, Malulani; Milne, Cris; Sesepasara, Maddalynn

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer disproportionately burdens persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) regardless of natal sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, and ethnic identity. Culturally competent communications are recommended to address health disparities, with sociocultural relevance ensured through constituent dialogic processes. Results are presented from six provider focus groups conducted to inform the promotion/education component of a Hawai'i-based project on anal cancer screening tools. Krueger's focus group methodology guided discussion queries. Verbatim transcripts of digitally recorded discussions were analyzed using grounded theory and PEN-3 procedures. Adherence to an audit trail ensured analytic rigor. Grounded theory analysis detected the overall theme of risk and reluctance to anal cancer screening, characterized by anal cancer not being "on the radar" of PLHIV, conflicting attributions of the anus and anal sex, fear of sex-shaming/-blaming, and other interrelated conceptual categories. PEN-3 analysis revealed strategies for destigmatizing anal cancer, through "real talk" (proactive, candid, nonjudgmental discussion) nested in a framework of sexual health and overall well-being, with additional tailoring for relevance to Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, transgender persons, and other marginalized groups. Application of strategies for health practice are specific to the Hawai'i context, yet may offer considerations for developing strengths-based, culturally relevant screening promotion/education with diverse PLHIV in other locales. PMID:26630979

  17. Human papillomavirus in anal squamous cell carcinoma: an angel rather than a devil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenda, Paola Simona; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Fazio, Nicola; Barberis, Massimo; Bottiglieri, Luca; Chiocca, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anal cancer is a rare disease with an increasing incidence worldwide but, unfortunately, even today the scientific community still has a limited knowledge and limited options of treatment. More than 50% of patients with anal cancer presenting at diagnosis with locoregional disease have good chances of cure with chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT). However, once patients develop metastatic spread, the prognosis is very poor. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in more than 80% of anal cancers and while multiple etiologic connections between HPV infection and anal cancer have already been well elucidated, its prognostic and/or predictive role is currently under investigation, especially among immunocompetent patients affected by this disease. In a single-institutional set, we have retrospectively analysed clinical data of 50 consecutive cases homogeneously treated with CT-RT for stage I-III anal squamous cell carcinoma. We found that HPV-positive anal cancers had a statistically significant improved five-year disease-free survival (DFS) compared to HPV-negative group. These findings could be explained by an increased chemo/radiosensitivity of HPV-positive tumours. Further efforts should be directed towards a better understanding of HPV-related oncogenesis and towards designing novel tailored strategies for the management of this disease both in terms of prevention and treatment. PMID:25987898

  18. An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an "app" created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33 %) or having a high school diploma (33 %). The mean age was 39 years (SD = 11.78). Anal intercourse occurred on days when women also reported using illicit drugs, specifically methamphetamine and cocaine. Anal intercourse was not an isolated sexual activity, but took place on days when vaginal intercourse and giving and receiving oral sex also occurred along with illicit drug use. Anal intercourse also occurred on days when women reported they wanted sex. HIV prevention interventions must address the risks of anal intercourse for women, taking into account concurrent drug use and sexual pleasure that may reduce individual harm-reduction behaviors. PMID:25835461

  19. Maternal Body Mass Index and Risk of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Blomberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the association between maternal obesity and risk of three different degrees of severity of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Methods. The study population consisted of 436,482 primiparous women with singleton term vaginal cephalic births between 1998 and 2011 identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were grouped into six categories of BMI. BMI 18.5–24.9 was set as reference. Primary outcome was third-degree perineal laceration, partial or total, and fourth-degree perineal laceration. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age, fetal head position at delivery, infant birth weight and instrumental delivery. Results. The overall prevalence of third- or four-degree anal sphincter injury was 6.6% (partial anal sphincter injury 4.6%, total anal sphincter injury 1.2%, unclassified as either partial and total 0.2%, or fourth degree lacerations 0.6%. The risk for a partial, total, or a fourth-degree anal sphincter injury decreased with increasing maternal BMI most pronounced for total anal sphincter injury where the risk among morbidly obese women was half that of normal weight women, OR 0.47 95% CI 0.28–0.78. Conclusion. Obese women had a favourable outcome compared to normal weight women concerning serious pelvic floor damages at birth.

  20. HPV and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Mooij, Sofie H; Richel, Oliver; de Vries, Henry J C; Prins, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor for ASCC, is present in about 30 % of HIV+ MSM, but neither the progression rate to ASCC nor the regression rate are known. The incidence rate of ASCC among HIV-infected people has risen in the first decade after cART became available, but appears to be plateauing recently. Anal cytology has poor sensitivity and specificity. High resolution anoscopy (HRA) is advocated by some as a screening tool in high-risk groups, but is cumbersome and time-consuming and it is unknown whether HRA followed by treatment of HGAIN prevents ASCC. More research is needed on progression and regression rates of HGAIN, on effective therapy of HGAIN, and on biomarkers that predict HGAIN or anal cancer. HPV vaccination and earlier start of cART may prevent most anal cancers in the long run. PMID:24990810

  1. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  2. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  3. Oscillation of a Shallow Hydrothermal Fissure Inferred from Long-Period Seismic Events at Taal Volcano, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y.; Kumagai, H.; Lacson, R.; Figueroa, M. S.; Yamashina, T.

    2012-12-01

    examine H2O gas (vapor) for simplicity. We calculated far-field waveforms generated by an oscillation of a crack containing vapor, and applied the Sompi method to estimate Q and nondimensional frequency. The estimated Q of a fundamental longitudinal mode oscillation was similar to the observation. We obtained a reasonable crack size (188 m) from a comparison of the observed peak frequency (0.8 Hz) with the calculated nondimensional frequency of the mode. In the swarm period of the LP events, other anomalies such as large volcano deformation and significant increase of gas emission from the main crater were not observed. This feature and the crack model result above suggest an active and localized vapor supply from magma at depth to the LP source. Such a localized supply may be realized by a transportation of vapor through a fissure. If we assume that the estimated crack volume (10^2 m^3) corresponds to vapor supplied to the LP source for each event, the total vapor mass supplied throughout the swarm period is ~10^7 kg. If we assume that this amount of vapor was originated by degassing from the magma and transported to the LP source through the fissure, we can estimate a magma volume of ~10^6 m^3. We thus suggest that the LP events at Taal were triggered by degassing and transportation of vapor from a deep magma to a shallow depth through a fissure.

  4. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Amsale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select a representative sample of school youth. The total sample size for this study was 3840. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was guided by the ecological framework. Results The overall proportion of people who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4% (190 and that of anal sex was 4.3% (154. Of these 51.6% (98 had oral sex and 57.1% (87 had anal sex in the past 12 months. Multiple partnerships were reported by 61.2% of the respondents who had oral sex and 51.1% of students practicing anal sex. Consistent condom use was reported by 12.2% of those practicing oral sex and 26.1% of anal sex. Reasons for oral and anal sex included prevention of pregnancy, preserving virginity, and reduction of HIV and STIs transmission. Oral sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with perception of best friends engagement in oral sex (AOR = 5.7; 95% CI 3.6-11.2 and having illiterate mothers (AOR = 11.5; 95%CI 6.4-18.5. Similarly, anal sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with favorable attitude towards anal sex (AOR = 6.2; 95%CI 3.8-12.4, and perceived best friends engagement in anal sex (AOR = 9.7; 95%CI 5.4-17.7. Conclusion Considerable proportion of adolescents had engaged in oral and anal sex practices. Multiple sexual partnerships were common while consistent condom use was low. Sexual health education and behavior change communication strategies need to

  5. Comparison of elective inguinal node irradiation techniques in anal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hye; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Koom, Woong Sub [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To compare photon thunderbird with deep match (technique 1) with 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost (technique 2) in acute skin toxicity, toxicity-related treatment breaks and patterns of failure in elective inguinal radiation therapy (RT) for curative chemoradiation in anal cancer. Seventeen patients treated between January 2008 and September 2010 without evidence of inguinal and distant metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. In 9 patients with technique 1, dose to inguinal and whole pelvis area was 41.4 to 45 Gy and total dose was 59.4 Gy. In 8 patients with technique 2, doses to inguinal, whole pelvis, gross tumor were 36 to 41.4 Gy, 36 to 41.4 Gy, and 45 to 54 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 27.6 and 14.8 months in group technique 1 and 2, respectively. The incidences of grade 3 radiation dermatitis were 56% (5 patients) and 50% (4 patients), dose ranges grade 3 dermatitis appeared were 41.4 to 50.4 Gy and 45 to 54 Gy in group technique 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.819). The areas affected by grade 3 dermatitis in 2 groups were as follow: perianal and perineal areas in 40% and 25%, perianal and inguinal areas in 0% and 50%, and perianal area only in 60% and 25%, respectively (p = 0.196). No inguinal failure has been observed. Photon thunderbird with deep match technique and 3-field technique with electron inguinal boost showed similar incidence of radiation dermatitis. However, photon thunderbird with deep match seems to increase the possibility of severe perineal dermatitis.

  6. Anal Intercourse among Young Heterosexuals in Three US STD Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hess, Kristen L.; Stoner, Bradley P.; Martin, David H.; Holmes, King K.

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine factors associated with heterosexual anal intercourse (AI). Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 890 heterosexual adults aged 18-26 attending public STD clinics in Seattle, New Orleans and St Louis were interviewed using CASI and tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI) Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, and genital herpes (HSV-2). Characteristics associated with AI were identified using logistic regression. Results Overall 289 (32%) reported ever having had AI, 201 (26.5%) reported AI with at least one of their last three partners and 17% reported AI with their last partner. Fewer females than males reported condom use at last AI (24% vs. 47%, p3 lifetime sex partners (AOR 2.2 [1.17-4.26]) among women, and sex on the same day as meeting a partner (AOR 2.0 [1.28-3.14]) and paying for sex (AOR 1.8 [1.00-3.15]) among men. AI with the last partner was associated with sex toy use (AOR 5.3 [2.35-12.0]) and having concurrent partners (AOR 2.3 [1.18-4.26]) among men, and with sex within a week of meeting (AOR 2.7 [1.21-5.83]), believing the partner was concurrent (AOR 2.6 [1.38-4.83]), and partnership duration >3 months (AOR 3.2 [1.03-10.1]) among women. Prevalent STI was not associated with AI. Conclusions Many young heterosexuals attending STD clinics reported AI, which was associated with other sexual risk behaviors, suggesting a confluence of risks for HIV infection. PMID:19265740

  7. Pina Bausch; Danza Abstracta y Psicodrama Analítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Vásquez Rocca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “El cuerpo ya no es el obstáculo que separa al pensamiento de sí mismo”. Esta afirmación de Deleuze (La imagen-tiempo, Estudios sobre cine 2, l985 reinstala al cuerpo en el dominio del pensamiento. Con Nietzsche ya se sugería un pensar desde el cuerpo. El cuerpo insiste y es esa pulsión vital la que lo fuerza a pensar. Su capacidad de metamorfosis y de vértigos nos fuerza a interrogar su régimen de signos y valores. La Danza-Teatro y el psicodrama analítico pondrán en cuestión los automatismos psíquicos y sociales. Siendo de este modo las pulsiones del cuerpo, sus vibraciones, su anatomía como destino y su morfo-fisiología las condiciones de posibilidad de los gestos, los que nos imprimen y dotan no sólo de una posición ética, sino también –y fundamentalmente– estética en la constitución de nuestra subjetividad. El vigor, la elegancia, el heroísmo o el júbilo no sólo responden a un talante ético, sino que originariamente son imágenes estéticas que proveen los cuerpos. El cuerpo así pensado se afirma como comportamiento y gesto.Al aproximarnos a los dominios de la danza, en particular a la obra de Pina Bausch indagaremos el terreno de las transformaciones de la mundaneidad del cuerpo bajo los regímenes del deseo. Nos aproximaremos al cuerpo como producción expresiva del arte de vivir y de la ética como tonalidad y particular voluntad expresiva.

  8. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Bravo Maia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher′s test, particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001 and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002. Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy.

  9. Functional luminal imaging probe: a new technique for dynamic evaluation of mechanical properties of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, F.; Fynne, L.; Gregersen, H; Lundager, F.; Buntzen, S.; Lundby, L.; Laurberg, S.; Krogh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The muscle structures surrounding the anal canal are of major importance in maintaining continence but their anatomy and function vary along its length. Standard manometry does not provide detailed information about mechanical properties of the anal canal. A new functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) has been developed for this purpose. The aim of our study was to investigate whether FLIP allows detailed evaluation of dynamic biomechanical properties along the length of the anal c...

  10. [The current place of abdomino-anal pull-through resection of the rectum in the modern rectal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaĭ, I A

    2014-01-01

    It was discussed abdomino-anal resection of rectum with relegation of colon excess in anal canal in case of cancer. It was presented the data about state of colo-anal functions in patients after such operations. The reasons of unsatisfactory functional results are analyzed in the article. Also it was described the factors influencing on violation of tank, evacuation and obturator functions. PMID:24874224

  11. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Felicidad Gimenez; Ivan Tramujas da Costa-e-Silva; Adriana Daumas; José Araújo; Sara Grigna Medeiros; Luiz Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of preven...

  12. Anal cushion lifting method is a novel radical management strategy for hemorrhoids that does not involve excision or cause postoperative anal complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gentaro; Ishiyama; Toshihiko; Nishidate; Yuji; Ishiyama; Akihiko; Nishio; Ken; Tarumi; Maiko; Kawamura; Kenji; Okita; Toru; Mizuguchi; Mineko; Fujimiya; Koichi; Hirata

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the anal cushion lifting(ACL) method with preliminary clinical results. METHODS: Between January to September 2007, 127 patients who received ACL method for hemorrhoid was investigated with informed consent. In this study, three surgeons who specialized in anorectal surgery performed the procedures. Patients with grade two or more severe hemorrhoids according to Goligher’s classification were considered to be indicated for surgery. The patients were given the choice to undergo either the ACL method or theligation and excision method. ACL method is an original technique for managing hemorrhoids without excision. After dissecting the anal cushion from the internal sphincter muscle, the anal cushion was lifted to oral side and ligated at the proper position. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients were recorded including complications after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 42(19-84) years, and 74.8% were female. In addition, more than 99% of the patients had grade 3 or worse hemorrhoids. The median followup period was 26(0-88) mo, and the median operative time was 15(4-30) min. After surgery, analgesics were used for a median period of three days(0-21). Pain control was achieved using extra-oral analgesic drugs, although some patients required intravenous injections of analgesic drugs. The median duration of the patients’ postoperative hospital stay was 7(2-13) d. A total of 10 complications(7.9%) occurred. Bleeding was observed in one patient and was successfully controlled with manual compression. Urinary retention occurred in 6 patients, but it disappeared spontaneously in all cases. Recurrent hemorrhoids developed in 3 patients after 36, 47, and 61 mo, respectively. No anal stenosis or persistent anal pain occurred. CONCLUSION: We consider that the ACL method might be better than all other current methods for managing hemorrhoids.

  13. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Petersson, Lars G;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development. METHODS: The study group consisted of 58 healthy adolescents (12-17 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances....... A double-blind split-mouth design was applied, and 116 pairs of molar teeth were randomly assigned to topical varnish applications with either the new Cervitec Plus or its predecessor Cervitec. Both varnishes contained 1% CHX and 1% thymol (CHX/T) as active ingredients, but differed with respect...... reduction in the levels of MS in the fissures after the initial treatment was displayed with both varnishes (p

  14. Rectal atresia and anal stenosis: the difference in the operative technique for these two distinct congenital anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, V A; Wood, R J; Reck, C; Skerritt, C; Levitt, M A

    2016-04-01

    Rectal atresia and anal stenosis are rare forms of anorectal malformations. The aim of the definitive surgical repair in such cases is to preserve the anal canal, the dentate line, and the sphincter complex. We present a case of rectal atresia and anal stenosis to demonstrate the differences in the operative repair. The techniques described leave the anterior wall of the very distal anal canal untouched in both rectal stenosis and anal atresia; however, the dissection of the rectum differs. The atretic rectum in rectal atresia is mobilized and sutured to the anal canal circumferentially. In anal stenosis, the posterior rectum is mobilized in the form of rectal advancement, and the posterior 180° is anastomosed directly to the skin (as in a standard PSARP) with preservation of the anal canal as the anterior 180° of the final anoplasty. These patients have an excellent prognosis for bowel control and fecal continence, and therefore, complete mobilization and resection of the anal canal must be avoided. PMID:26902368

  15. Comparative study of fluoride released and recharged from conventional pit and fissure sealants versus surface prereacted glass ionomer technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nahum Salmerón-Valdés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The fluoride release of sealants in vitro shows a marked decrease. Giomers are distinguishable from manufactured resin-based sealants and contain prereacted glass-ionomer particles (PRG. Aims: To compare the amounts of fluoride released from the main pit and fissure of a resin-based sealant with that from a Giomer and to assess the abilities of the sealant and the Giomer to recharge when exposed to regular use of fluoride rinse. Materials and Methods: The readings for the fluoride concentration were carried out for 60 days using a fluoride ion-specific electrode. After this period, the samples were recharged using a fluoride mouth rinse. The amount of fluoride released after this recharge was determined for 5 days. The data were analyzed using Student′s t- and analysis of variance tests. Results: In general, all materials presented higher fluoride release in the first 24 h; G1 and G4 showed a higher fluoride release in this period. On the other hand, G3 and G1 presented the most constant fluoride release until the 8 th day, wherein all the sealants considerably decreased in the amount of fluoride released. Conclusion: G1 and G3 released higher concentrations of fluoride, although no significant differences were found. Giomers recharged in the first 24 h after polymerization presented an improved and sustained fluoride release.

  16. Dental depth profilometric diagnosis of pit & fissure caries using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated laser luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, R. J.; Mandelis, A.; Sanchez, V.; Abrams, S. H.

    2005-06-01

    Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659- nm and 830-nm laser sources to detect artificial and natural sub-surface defects in human teeth. Fifty-two human teeth were examined with simultaneous measurements of PTR and LUM and compared to conventional diagnostic methods including continuous (dc) luminescence (DIAGNOdent), visual inspection and radiographs by calculating sensitivities and specificities. With the combined criteria of four PTR and LUM signals (two amplitudes and two phases), it was found that the sensitivity of this method was much higher than any of the other methods used in this study, whereas the specificity was comparable to that of dc luminescence diagnostics. Therefore, PTR and LUM, used together as a combined technique, have the potential to be a reliable tool to diagnose early pit and fissure caries and could provide detailed information about deep lesions with its depth profilometric character. Also, from experiments with natural or artificial defects, some depth profilometric characteristics were confirmed.

  17. Surgical Simulation of Extradural Anterior Clinoidectomy through the Trans-superior Orbital Fissure Approach Using a Dissectable Three-dimensional Skull Base Model with Artificial Cavernous Sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; NAKAO, Yasuaki; Esaki, Takanori

    2010-01-01

    Extradural anterior clinoidectomy via the trans-superior orbital fissure (SOF) approach can provide extensive exposure of the anterior clinoid process and safe drilling under direct view. This technique requires peeling of the dura propria of the temporal lobe from the lateral wall of the SOF. Therefore, cadaveric dissection is mandatory to acquire surgical technique. However, chances for cadaveric dissection are limited. We propose modification of our three-dimensional (3-D) skull base model...

  18. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syn...

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy in a patient with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Aya; Nakazuru, Shoichi; Sakakibara, Yuko; Nishio, Kumiko; Yamada, Takuya; Ishida, Hisashi; Yajima, Keishiro; Uehira, Tomoko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mita, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy has increased for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been associated with reductions in the incidences of some AIDS-defining malignancies, such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but has coincided with an increased incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as anal cancer. However, anal cancers are rare in patients with HIV in Japan. We report the case of an HIV-infected patient with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. A 37-year-old man receiving ART for HIV infection presented with a 1-month history of left inguinal lymphadenopathy and anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a 56-mm mass, left inguinal lymphadenopathy, and left external iliac lymphadenopathy. The mass had infiltrated from the anal canal to the right levator ani and corpus spongiosum. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor with an ulcer in the anal canal. Histological examination of the tumor biopsy specimens confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with anal cancer (T4N2M1 stage IV), and he received 5-fluorouracil (1000mg/m(2) on days 1-4 and 29-32) plus mitomycin C (10mg/m(2) on days 1 and 29) and concurrent radiotherapy (total dose, 59.4Gy in 33 fractions) along with ART. The treatment-related adverse events were grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, grade 3 thrombocytopenia, and grade 2 radiation dermatitis. Moreover, CD4 suppression was observed:the CD4 count decreased from 190 cells/μl before chemoradiotherapy to 138 cells/μl after 3 months, but increased to 210 cells/μl after 1 year. Because of the grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, the dose of 5-fluorouracil was reduced to 800mg/m(2) on days 29-32. A complete response was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, and colonoscopy confirmed the disappearance of the anal cancer. The patient is living with no signs of recurrence at 2 years

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy in a patient with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Aya; Nakazuru, Shoichi; Sakakibara, Yuko; Nishio, Kumiko; Yamada, Takuya; Ishida, Hisashi; Yajima, Keishiro; Uehira, Tomoko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mita, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy has increased for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been associated with reductions in the incidences of some AIDS-defining malignancies, such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but has coincided with an increased incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as anal cancer. However, anal cancers are rare in patients with HIV in Japan. We report the case of an HIV-infected patient with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. A 37-year-old man receiving ART for HIV infection presented with a 1-month history of left inguinal lymphadenopathy and anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a 56-mm mass, left inguinal lymphadenopathy, and left external iliac lymphadenopathy. The mass had infiltrated from the anal canal to the right levator ani and corpus spongiosum. Colonoscopy revealed a tumor with an ulcer in the anal canal. Histological examination of the tumor biopsy specimens confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with anal cancer (T4N2M1 stage IV), and he received 5-fluorouracil (1000mg/m(2) on days 1-4 and 29-32) plus mitomycin C (10mg/m(2) on days 1 and 29) and concurrent radiotherapy (total dose, 59.4Gy in 33 fractions) along with ART. The treatment-related adverse events were grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, grade 3 thrombocytopenia, and grade 2 radiation dermatitis. Moreover, CD4 suppression was observed:the CD4 count decreased from 190 cells/μl before chemoradiotherapy to 138 cells/μl after 3 months, but increased to 210 cells/μl after 1 year. Because of the grade 4 leukopenia and neutropenia, the dose of 5-fluorouracil was reduced to 800mg/m(2) on days 29-32. A complete response was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, and colonoscopy confirmed the disappearance of the anal cancer. The patient is living with no signs of recurrence at 2 years

  1. The Relationship of 3D Translabial Ultrasound Anal Sphincter Complex Measurements to Postpartum Anal and Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MERIWETHER, Kate V.; HALL, Rebecca J.; LEEMAN, Lawrence M.; MIGLIACCIO, Laura; QUALLS, Clifford; ROGERS, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine whether ASC measurements on translabial ultrasound (TL-US) were related to anal incontinence (AI) or fecal incontinence (FI) symptoms six months postpartum. Methods A prospective cohort of primiparous women underwent TL-US six months after a vaginal birth (VB) or Cesarean delivery (CD). Muscle thickness was measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o’clock positions of the external sphincter (EAS), the same four quadrants of the internal sphincter (IAS) at proximal, mid, and distal levels, and at the bilateral pubovisceralis muscle (PVM). Measurements were correlated to AI and FI on the Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale, with sub-analyses by mode of delivery. The odds ratio (OR) of symptoms was calculated for every one millimeter increase in muscle thickness (E1MIT). Results 423 women (299 VB, 124 CD) had TL-US six months postpartum. Decreased AI risk was associated with thicker measurements at the 6 o’clock (OR 0.74 E1MIT) and 9 o’clock proximal IAS (OR 0.71 E1MIT) in the entire cohort. For CD women, thicker measurements of the 9 o’clock proximal IAS were associated with decreased risk of AI (OR 0.56 E1MIT) and thicker distal 6 o’clock IAS measurements were related to a decreased risk of FI (OR 0.37 E1MIT). For VB women, no sphincter measurements were significantly related to symptoms, but thicker PVM measurements were associated with increased risk of AI (right side OR 1.32 E1MIT; left side OR 1.21 E1MIT). Conclusions ASC anatomy is associated with AI and FI in certain locations; these locations varybased on the patient’s mode of delivery. PMID:26085463

  2. Application of three-dimensional discrete element face-to-face contact model with fissure water pressure to stability analysis of landslide in Panluo iron mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; WEI Zuoan; LIU Xiaoyu; LI Shihai

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional discrete element face-to-face contact model with fissure water pressure is established in this paper and the model is used to simulate three-stage process of landslide under fissure water pressure in the opencast mine, according to the actual state of landslide in Panluo iron mine where landslide happened in 1990 and was fathered in 1999. The calculation results show that fissure water pressure on the sliding surface is the main reason causing landslide and the local soft interlayer weakens the stability of slope. If the discrete element method adopts the same assumption as the limit equilibrium method, the results of two methods are in good agreement; while if the assumption is not adopted in the discrete element method, the critical φ numerically calculated is less than the one calculated by use of the limit equilibrium method for the sameC. Thus, from an engineering point of view, the result from the discrete element model simulation is safer and has more widely application since the discrete element model takes into account the effect of rock mass structures.

  3. Effectiveness of Ozone with or without the Additional Use of Remineralizing Solution on Non-Cavitated Fissure Carious Lesions in Permanent Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabek, Didem; Oztas, Nurhan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ozone alone and with a re-mineralizing solution following application on initial pit and fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Methods: Forty children (9–12 years) having non-cavitated fissure caries lesions on bilateral 40 first permanent mandibular molar teeth were participated in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 experimental groups consisting of 20 subjects. In the first group, ozone was applied once for 40 seconds to the assigned test teeth of each pair. In the second group, ozone was applied once for 40 seconds to the assigned test teeth of each pair with the use of re-mineralizing solution. Progression or improvement of the caries was assessed at baseline, immediately after treatment and at 1-,2-,3-, and 6 month follow-up by comparing the DIAGNOdent values, Clinical Severity Indexes, Oral Hygiene Scores. The results were analyzed statistically by using the Wilcoxon-Test for dependent samples in each group. When comparing different test groups (control and experimental groups) the Friedman S test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between all of the control and experimental test lesions in each group (P.001). Conclusions: Ozone treatment either alone or combined with a re-mineralizing solution was found to be effective for remineralization of initial fissure caries lesions. PMID:22654551

  4. Desenvolvimento das fissuras cerebrais fetais: avaliação com ultrassonografia tridimensional Fetal brain fissures development a three-dimensional ultrasonography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Maria Soares Alves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a distância das fissuras cerebrais fetais à borda interna da calota craniana por meio da ultrassonografia tridimensional (US3D. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal em 80 gestantes normais entre a 21ª e 34ª semanas de gestação. Avaliou-se a distância entre a tábua óssea interna da calota craniana fetal e as fissuras de Sylvius, parieto-occipital, hipocampo e calcarina. Para a obtenção desta distância para as três primeiras fissuras, realizou-se uma varredura tridimensional através do plano axial (nível dos ventrículos laterais. Para a obtenção da distância da fissura calcarina utilizou-se uma varredura coronal (nível dos lobos occiptais. Para avaliar a correlação entre as fissuras e a idade gestacional foram realizadas regressões de primeiro grau, sendo os ajustes calculados pelo coeficiente de determinação (R². Foram determinados percentis 5, 50 e 95 para cada fissura. Avaliou-se ainda a correlação entre a distância destas fissuras com os diâmetros biparietal (DBP e circunferência craniana (CC utilizando o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r. RESULTADOS: todas as medidas das fissuras apresentaram correlação linear com a idade gestacional (Sylvius: R²=0,5; parieto-occipital: R²=0,7; hipocampo: R²=0,3 e calcarina: R²=0,3. A média da distância das fissuras variou de 7,0 a 14,0 mm, 15,9 a 28,7 mm, 15,4 a 25,4 mm e 15,7 a 24,8 mm para as fissuras de Sylvius, parieto-occipital, hipocampo e calcarina, respectivamente. As fissuras de Sylvius e parieto-occipital apresentaram as maiores correlações com o DBP (r=0,8 e 0,7, respectivamente e a CC (r=0,7 e 0,8, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a distância das fissuras cerebrais fetais à borda interna da calota craniana por meio da US3D apresentou correlação positiva com a idade gestacional.PURPOSE: to assess the distance of the fetal cerebral fissures from the inner edge of the skull by three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS

  5. Analýza vybrané instituce - fotbalový klub TJ Start Brno

    OpenAIRE

    Jirátko, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá zhodnocením fotbalového klubu TJ Start Brno prostřednictvím analýz vnějšího a vnitřního okolí, mezi které patří SLEPTE analýza, SWOT analýza a model pěti konkurenčních sil. Teoretická část vystihuje podstatu jednotlivých analýz, které jsou následně aplikovány v praktické části bakalářské práce. Na základě zjištěných údajů následně podávám návrhy řešení a jejich přínosy, které vyplynuly z provedených analýz. The bachelor thesis deals with the assessment of th...

  6. Anal Cancer Screening in an Urban HIV Clinic: Provider Perceptions and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah, Leonard Anang; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Riedel, David J; Gilliam, Bruce L; Khambaty, Mariam; Fantry, Lori; Spencer, Derek E; Weaver, Jeffery; Taylor, Gregory; Skoglund, Mary; Amoroso, Anthony; Redfield, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we sought to understand the perceptions and practice of providers on anal cancer screening in HIV-infected patients. Providers in an academic outpatient HIV practice were surveyed. Data were analyzed to determine the acceptability and perceptions of providers on anal Papanicolaou tests. Survey response rate was 55.3% (60.7% among male and 47.4% among female providers). One-third of the providers had received screening requests from patients. Female providers had higher self-rated comfort with anal Papanicolaou tests, with a mean score of 7.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-9.5) compared to 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-5.7) for male providers, P = .02. Sixty-seven percent of male providers and 37.5% of female providers would like to refer their patients for screening rather than perform the test themselves. Only 54.2% of our providers have ever performed anal cytology examination. Our survey revealed that not all providers were comfortable performing anal cancer screening for their patients.

  7. Analýza vybraného volejbalového klubu

    OpenAIRE

    Karnišová, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá analyzováním volejbalového klubu TJ Junior Brno. V teoretické části jsou popsány základní pojmy a analýzy, které jsou následně využity v analytické části. Ke zjištění současného stavu fungování klubu budou využity Porter analýza pěti konkurenčních sil, SLEPTE analýza a SWOT analýza. Výsledky analýz tvoří návrhy a doporučení, která směřují volejbalovému klubu TJ Junior Brno ke zlepšení jeho činnosti. The bachelor thesis deals with an analysis of the volleyball clu...

  8. Primena cost-benefit-benefit analize u vrednovanju i izboru javnih projekata (ekonomski aspekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana N. Petrović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit analiza je celovita analiza koristi i troškova koje jedan projekat donosi samom vlasniku projekta i društvu u celini (uključujući i investitora. Izbor najbolje investicione alternative ostvaruje na osnovu finansijske i ekonomske analize, kao dva integralna dela cost-benefit analize. Prvu od ovih analiza obradila je ista grupa autora u članku „Primena cost-benefit analize u vrednovanju i izboru javnih projekata (finansijski aspekt“, objavljenom u prethodnom broju časopisa Vojnotehnički glasnik. Predmet obrade ovog rada je ekonomska analiza, kao logički nastavak prethodnog rada. Zbog toga se na brojne oznake tabela, uključenih u sadržaj finansijske analize (1-–5, nadovezuju (prema hronološkom redu oznake tabela koje pripadaju ekonomskoj analizi (6–8 Sprovođenje ekonomske analize ostvaruje se prema određenoj, dosta složenoj proceduri, a završava se utvrđivanjem kriterijuma ekonomske (društvene isplativosti projekta. U radu su obrađeni osnovni pokazatelji ekonomskog (društvenog prinosa projekta,  kao što su: neto sadašnja vrednost novčanih tokova i cost-benefit koeficijent.

  9. High resolution anoscopy may be useful in achieving reductions in anal cancer local disease failure rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, P; Morrison, V; Fearnhead, N; Davies, J; Wilson, C; Jephcott, C; Sterling, J; Crawford, R

    2015-05-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon, with an incidence rate of 0.5-1.0 per 100,000 of the population but incidence rates have been steadily increasing over the last 3 decades. Biological and epidemiological evidence have been mounting and demonstrate that anal cancer has many similarities to cervical cancer, especially in regard to its aetiology. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) of the anal region – analogous to colposcopy of the cervix, is a technique that is not well-known in the medical and surgical fraternity. Evidence to support the use of HRA for detection and treatment in the surveillance of AIN exists and strongly suggests that it is beneficial, resulting in reduced rates of cancer progression. Pilot data from our study showed a local disease failure rate of 1.73 per 1000 patient-months compared with a published rate of 9.89 per 1000 patient-months. This demonstrates a 5.72-fold reduction in local disease failure rates of patients with T1-T3 tumours; the data therefore suggests that use of HRA for detection and treatment in surveillance of anal cancer patients will help prevent local regional relapse at the anal site. There is an urgent need for a large, randomised controlled clinical trial to definitively test this hypothesis. PMID:24373061

  10. Chronic proctalgia and chronic pelvic pain syndromes: New etiologic insights and treatment options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Chiarioni; Corrado Asteria; William E Whitehead

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders.

  11. Análise do filme lacrimal e sua relação com a largura da fenda palpebral e a exoftalmia na oftalmopatia de Graves Tear film analysis and its relation with palpebral fissure height and exophthalmos in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vitoria Oliveira Moura Brasil

    2005-10-01

    54 eyes of 27 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, either in the inflammatory or in the chronic phase of the disease. The evaluation consisted of tear film qualitative analysis by rose bengal staining using the van Bijsterveld grading scale, tear film stability analysis by breakup time, measurement of palpebral fissure height and exophthalmometry. Qui square test was used to perform statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among 27 studied patients, 77.8% were females and 22.2% males. Mean age was 44.26 years (SD 12.67. Mean disease time was 5.85 years (SD 4.47 and mean ophthalmopathy time was 5.81 years (SD 5.37. Among 54 studied eyes, 37% had positive test by van Bijsterveld's grading scale, 33.3% tear film breakup time lower than 5 seconds, 57.4% palpebral fissure height greater than 11 mm and 55.6% exophthalmometry greater than 19 mm. When relating tear film breakup time lower than 5 seconds with palpebral fissure height greater than 11 mm we found an odds ratio of 11.2 (p=0.0008. The remaining relationships did not show statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Dry eye diagnosed by rose bengal staining and tear film breakup time occurs frequently in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Palpebral fissure height correlates with tear film breakup time in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Its increase may lead to tear film instability.

  12. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  14. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruanpeng, Darin; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Supindham, Taweewat; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Wongthanee, Antika

    2016-01-01

    Background Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV) related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) using Papanicolau (Pap) screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors. Methods Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification. Results Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18–54). Overall, 86 (43.0%) had ASIL: 28 (14.2%) with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 1 (0.5%) with atypical squamous cells—cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 56 (28.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 1 (0.5%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05) with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women), rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002) and HIV infection (p = 0.01). Conclusions ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA), not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population

  15. Characterization and modelling of fluid flows in fissured and fractured media. relation with hydrothermal alterations and paleo-stress quantification; Caracterisation et modelisation des ecoulements fluides en milieu fissure. relation avec les alterations hydrothermales et quantification des paleocontraintes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausse, J.

    1998-10-15

    In all materials (rocks, concretes, ceramics,...), the presence of fractures at different scales implies high permeability and often oriented fluid flows. These fluid circulations in fractures induce more or less intense fluid-rock interactions with mineral crystallisation and/or dissolution. These phenomena directly depend on the nature of the fluids and the rocks, the physical and chemical properties of the media and the rate of fluid renewal (permeabilities). Usually, the development of such alterations leads to a massive sealing of the fractures (vein alterations) and of the fissures (fluid inclusion planes and microcracks, pervasive alteration). Therefore, their study brings us precious indications for the understanding of the mechanisms of fluid migrations in fossil systems. A geometrical study of the fracture systems at micro or macroscopic scales, based on the spatial distribution of sealing minerals, is applied to two different granites: the Soultz-sous-Foret granite (Bas-Rhin, France) and the Brezouard granite (Vosges, France). At the macroscopic scale, a new graphical method is proposed in order to study drilling data (Soultz granite). It allows to identify the presence of three independent mineral associations (quartz - illite, calcite-chlorite and hematite) in independent fracture systems characterised by a specific 3D geometry and hydraulic properties. These three types of vein alteration correspond to distinct and non contemporaneous fluid percolations. At the microscopic scale, the reconstitution of crack opening - fluid percolation - crack sealing stages is delicate. However, the study of their geometrical characteristics (orientations, radius, volume densities) and thereby the quantification of their porosities, exchange surfaces and permeabilities, allow to identify their respective roles in the fluid propagation. These microstructures, which are very numerous in granites, imply high but variable matrix permeabilities. This has been confirmed by

  16. Locality-dependent descending reflex motor activity in the anal canal-cholinergic and nitrergic contributions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radomir RADOMIROV; Christina IVANCHEVA; Dimitar ITZEV; Polina PETKOVA-KIROVA

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Since the distal part of the intestine is targeted by a wide range of pathogens, the motility of the recto-anal region has been the object of many experimental and clinical observations. In this study, we investigated descending motor responses in the anal canal as a measure of the activation of autonomic reflex pathways underlying evacuatory recto-anal activity. Methods: The partitioned organ bath method was used to register motor responses of the anal canal as induced by balloon distension of the rectum in isolated rat recto-anal preparations. Results: Distension-induced descending responses of the anal canal comprised contractions (with distension at a distance of 15 mm), initial contractions and secondary relaxations (at 10 mm) and short contractions followed by deep relaxations (at 3-5 mm). Decreas-ing the distance between the distension stimulus and the anal canal resulted in a decreased contraction response and increased relaxation. Tetrodotoxin (0.1 μmol/L) inhibited these responses. Atropine (0.3 μmol/L) decreased contraction and did not change the relaxation response. N~G-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) enhanced contraction in both the absence and presence of atropine. L-arginine (0.5 mmol/L) inhibited contraction and extended relaxation in atropine-pretreated preparations. The actions of N~G-nitro-L-arginine and L-arginine were more pronounced in the aboral direction. ChAT-positive nerve fibers were observed in myenteric ganglia of the rectum and the anal canal. The density of NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons was higher in the anal canal region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that locality-dependent activation of the descending reflex neuromuscular communications underlie evacuatory activity in the recto-anal region. This activation response involves long excitatory cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways along the rectum and short inhibitory nitrergic pathways located predominantly in the anal canal region.

  17. Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Palates Through Oral Fissure%经口裂超声扫查诊断胎儿腭裂的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹春林; 罗琼秀; 刘燕飞; 贺新兰; 黄金娟; 康秋香; 杨引洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the two dimensional ultrasonic diagnosis of fetus cleft palates through the oral fissure. Methods Every fetus was scaned the hard palate and soft palate through oral fissure and submaxilla triangle except the detailed rountine ultrasound sacn. Results The display rates of hard palate and soft palate is 94. 82%(238/ 251) and 91. 63% (230/251)respectively by the sound beam through oral fissure, and the display rates of hard palate and soft palate is 13. 15%(33/251) ,14. 34% (36/251)respectively by the sound beam through submaxilla triangle. The results demonstrated that display rates of hard palate and soft palate be significantly higher by the sound beam through oral fissure than that through submaxilla triangle. Conclusions The examination of cleft palate through the fetal oral fissure can improve the display rates of the hard palate and soft palate, and provide definitive diagnosis and degree of cleft palate.%目的 探讨二维超声经胎儿口裂扫查诊断腭裂的价值.方法 对胎儿完成超声系统检查后,分别经胎儿口裂及颌下三角扫查硬腭及软腭.结果 经口裂扫查法胎儿硬腭显示率94.82% (238/251)、软腭显示率91.63% (230/251).经颌下三角扫查法胎儿硬腭显示率13.15% (33/251)、软腭显示率14.34% (36/251).结果显示经口裂扫查法对软硬腭的显示率显著高于经颌下三角扫查法.结论 经口裂扫查法能提高硬腭及软腭的显示率,明确有无腭裂及其程度,能提高腭裂的产前检出率.

  18. 裂隙对压实膨胀土渗气性影响试验%The influences of fissure on gas permeability of the compacted expansive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊平; 张锋; 王启贵; 丁巍

    2014-01-01

    A series of gas permeability tests were carried out in order to study its permeability on expansive soil with artificial fissures using self-designed and made apparatus. The results show that Darcy's law expresses the gas flow in the compacted expansive soil. When the soil sample is cut up completely, there is still a penetrated fissure within it that makes the permeability coefficient doubles. The fissures change the original gas flow path providing a convenient channel for it flows, consequently the “gas preferential flow” phenomenon could be observed in the fissured expansive soil. Comparing the theoretical analysis results of Darcy with that of non-Darcy, it is indicated that the non-Darcy theory is better than Darcy theory to analyze the gas permeability when there are artificial fissures in the soil.%为了研究裂隙膨胀土渗气规律,采用自行设计加工的气体渗透测试装置,对人工制备裂隙膨胀土试样进行渗气试验。结果表明:压实膨胀土中气体渗透符合达西定律;试样完全切开且未夹纸条时,试样中仍然存在贯通裂隙,此时气体渗透系数相比压实膨胀土试样中的渗透系数提高了1倍;土中裂隙的存在为气体运移提供便利通道,改变气体原有运移路径,形成“优势流”现象;对比达西理论和非达西理论分析结果,土体中出现贯通人工裂隙时,采用非达西理论分析更合适。

  19. Long head of biceps femoris flap in anal fistula treatment: anatomical study and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, F X; Leonard, D; Chateau, F

    2015-01-01

    In case of complex anal fistulae, the treatment can include muscular flaps. The gracilis transposition flap is the gold-standard in perineal reconstructive surgery, with wide use during the past decades. However, in some cases, this flap is too short to reach difficult locations such as the posterior perineum. The long head of the biceps femoris, which has already been studied in the electrically stimulated neosphincter formation, could be more appropriate in such clinical situations. Furthermore, its potential advantages, amongst which an excellent functional outcome, would be to allow persistent prone position, during both treatment and reconstruction, as well as a more favorable intramuscular vascularisation. We report the case of a 39-year-old man with a complex recurrent transphincteric posterior anal fistula with an external orifice in the right buttock and complicated with a severe cellulitis, treated with an endo-anal flap combined with a long head of biceps femoris pediculised flap. PMID:26021955

  20. MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN SQUAMOUS-CELL ANAL CANCER RADIOTHERAPY PLANNING AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tkachev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous-cell anal cancer is a rare disease that requires a comprehensive approach in treatment and skilled professionals. Modern diagnostics is important for rational choice of treatment tactics. Radiotherapy is the cornerstone of sphincter-sparing anal cancer treatment. Radiotherapy dose, volume and duration are the key factors affecting treatment efficacy and toxicity.3D-conformal radiotherapy is a priority treatment allowing exact reproduction of treatment conditions, controlled by OBI (on-board imager and kV X-Ray and cone-beam CT analysis. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT is a next-generation treatment with improved technologies, allowing better protection of normal tissues.Our experience with 21 squamous-cell anal cancer patients treated with IMRT during Nov 2011 – March 2013 is presented in this article.

  1. Validación de métodos analíticos no cuantitativos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Sánchez R.; María Elena Tejeda R.; Wolfhard Koch; José Luis Alfredo Mora G.; Rubén Marroquín S.; Vicente Hernández A.; Valentín Islas P.; Elizabeth Guadalupe Sánchez G.; Alfredo De León V.

    2010-01-01

    En las ciencias farmacéuticas es bien conocida la metodología para validar métodos analíticos cuantitativos, sin embargo no es muy abundante la información sobre la metodología a seguir para validar un método analítico cualitativo o no cuantitativo. En este artículo se describen los aspectos importantes sobre los métodos de análisis cualitativos, se definen los principales parámetros de calidad y se describe una metodología de trabajo, soportada matemáticamente, para validar un método analíti...

  2. O terapêutico e o analítico em Freud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Anciães Darriba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo investigar, na obra de Freud, a demarcação que se institui entre o terapêutico e o analítico. Tal investigação enfoca, primeiramente, a passagem da hipnose à associação livre e o direcionamento do autor à questão da causa, o que estabelece uma visada para a cura analítica em confluência com o que se desdobra da exploração do campo do inconsciente e da consideração de um domínio pulsional. Delimitados por esta via os objetivos terapêuticos e analíticos, interroga-se, em seguida, como a dimensão do terapêutico se veria reintroduzida nos termos da nova direção de cura proposta por Freud.

  3. Apontamentos sobre a psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto faz uma introdução à Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung: define o conceito de Psicologia Analítica, traz uma biografia resumida de Carl Gustav Jung, indica as principais diferenças entre a Psicologia Analítica e a Psicanálise, descreve a estrutura e o funcionamento da psique e, por fim, apresenta sinteticamente as características dos tipos de personalidades traçadas por Jung. The text makes an introduction to the Analytical Psychology of the psychologist and swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung: it defines the concept of Analytical Psychology, brings a summarized biography of Carl Gustav Jung, indicates the main differences between Analytical Psychology and the Psychoanalysis, describes the structure and the functioning of psyche and, finally, presents synthetically the characteristics of the types of personalities traced by Jung.

  4. Problemas de geometría analítica y diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Usunáriz Balanzategui, Ubaldo; Usunáriz Sala, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Este libro, Problemas de Geometría Analítica y Diferencial, junto con otros dos, Problemas de Matemáticas y Problemas de Geometría, están dedicados a la presentación y resolución de problemas que se planteaban hace unas décadas, en la preparación para ingreso en las carreras de ingeniería técnica superior. Incluye 907 problemas, de los que 707 se refieren a la geometría analítica y 200 a la geometría diferencial. Los correspondientes a la geometría analítica se reparten entre la geometría del...

  5. Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Hansen, Mette Juel; Grandjean, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    survivors of anal cancer to resist and to manage potentially complex stressors encountered in the recovery from the disease. DESIGN: A qualitative, salutogenetic-oriented, phenomenological study was conducted based on audio-taped, semi-structured interviews. METHODS: Interviewee selection was carried out...... through purposeful sampling. Sixteen individuals (11 women and five men; average age 52 years), who had completed therapy for anal cancer (average 31 months ago), participated in the study. Transcripts from the audio-taped interviews were used for qualitative text condensation analysis, inspired by Giorgi......'s phenomenological methodology. FINDINGS: The analysis revealed two concepts, modesty and recognition, which describe the essence of the lived experience of anal cancer, and which each appear to be important resistance resources. While modesty is regarded as an enforced and necessary competence developed...

  6. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki;

    2014-01-01

    is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...

  7. Distinct Ecological Niche of Anal, Oral, and Cervical Mucosal Microbiomes in Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin C.; Zolnik, Christine P.; Usyk, Mykhaylo; Chen, Zigui; Kaiser, Katherine; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Peake, Ken; Diaz, Angela; Viswanathan, Shankar; Strickler, Howard D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Human body sites represent ecological niches for microorganisms, each providing variations in microbial exposure, nutrient availability, microbial competition, and host immunological responses. In this study, we investigated the oral, anal, and cervical microbiomes from the same 20 sexually active adolescent females, using culture-independent, next-generation sequencing. DNA from each sample was amplified for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and sequenced on an Illumina platform using paired-end reads. Across the three anatomical niches, we found significant differences in bacterial community composition and diversity. Overall anal samples were dominated with Prevotella and Bacteriodes, oral samples with Streptococcus and Prevotella, and cervical samples with Lactobacillus. The microbiomes of a few cervical samples clustered with anal samples in weighted principal coordinate analyses, due in part to a higher proportion of Prevotella in those samples. Additionally, cervical samples had the lowest alpha diversity. Our results demonstrate the occurrence of distinct microbial communities across body sites within the same individual.

  8. Treatment of Chronic Annal Fissure with Compound Carraghenates Cream mixed Nifedipine%太宁乳膏混合硝苯地平治疗慢性肛裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 房洁渝; 黄婉琳; 覃建章

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察比较太宁乳膏混合硝苯地平治疗慢性肛裂的临床疗效.方法 86例慢性肛裂患者随机分为两组,每组43例,观察组患者用太宁乳膏混合硝苯地平治疗2周,对照组患者用内括约肌切开术治疗.两组患者均通过复诊和电话随访3个月.结果 观测组患者治愈率为72.1%,复发率为19.4%,肛门失禁率为0;对照组患者治愈率为100%,复发率为4.65%,肛门失禁率为9.3%.结论 太宁乳膏混合硝苯地平治疗慢性肛裂疗效显著,其治愈率虽较对照组低,复发率也较对照组高,但没有肛门失禁的危险.所以慢性肛裂可以首选该疗法,对治疗无效或复发患者再考虑用手术治疗.

  9. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of prevention. High-resolution anoscopy is routinely used for the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in many centers but the medical literature is still deficient concerning the role of this diagnostic modality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy in comparison to histopathological results of anal biopsies performed in HIV-positive patients treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, AM, Brazil. To observe any possible association between some risk factors for the development of anal cancer and the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: A hundred and twenty-eight HIV-positive patients were submitted to anal canal cytological sampling for the detection of HPV infection by a PCR based method. High-resolution anoscopy was then performed after topical application of acetic acid 3% in the anal canal for 2 minutes. Eventual acetowhite lesions that were detected were recorded in respect to location, and classified by their tinctorial pattern, distribution aspect, relief, surface and vascular pattern. Biopsies of acetowhite lesions were performed under local anesthesia and the specimens sent to histopathological analysis. The patients were interviewed for the presence of anal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalences of anal HPV infection and of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population were, respectively, 79% and 39.1%. High-resolution anoscopy

  10. Chronic pain - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  11. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  12. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  13. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  14. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...

  15. Double decompression of presacral collection by heald anal stent and foley catheter combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Godfrey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate the effective drainage of presacral sepsis following low anterior resection surgery using the novel approach of both the Heald anal stent and a Foley catheter combined. The Heald stent was placed trans-anally without the need for anaesthetic and an 18Fr Foley was placed through this. A presacral collection was drained through the stent, allowing the patient to be discharged after a week without the need to return to the operating theatre. The Heald stent may be used to successfully drain a presacral collection by double decompression of the rectum and the presacral space.

  16. The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus among young HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huachun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.

  17. Modeling of human colonic blood flow for a novel artificial anal sphincter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZAN; Guo-zheng YAN; Hua LIU

    2008-01-01

    A novel artificial anal sphincter system has been developed to simulate the normal physiology of the human anorectum. With the goal of engineering a safe and reliable device, the model of human colonic blood flow has been built and the relationship between the colonic blood flow rate and the operating occlusion pressure of the anorectum is achieved. The tissue ischemia is analyzed based on constitutive relations for human anorectum. The results suggest that at the planned operating occlusion pressure of less than 4 kPa the artificial anal sphincter should not risk the vaseularity of the human colon.

  18. Spektrální analýza EEG signálu

    OpenAIRE

    Miklenda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Předložená bakalářská práce je zaměřena na analýzu signálu EEG pomocí rychlé Fourierovy transformace. Teoretická část se skládá z popisu EEG signálu, jeho vzniku a zvolené metody pro analýzu signálu. Praktická část představuje program pro nahrávání dat z EEG headsetu a zobrazení Fourierova spektra.

  19. Variation of the anal resting pressure induced by postexpiratory apnea effort in patients with constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Helena Benetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intestinal constipation - a common symptom among the general population - is more frequent in women. It may be secondary to an improper diet or organic or functional disturbances, such as dyskinesia of the pelvic floor. This is basically characterized by the absence of relaxation or paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and anal sphincter during evacuation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by manometric data, the anal pressure variation at rest, during evacuation effort by using the Valsalva maneuver and forced post-expiratory apnea in subjects with secondary constipation. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (19 females - 90.4% with a mean age of 47.5 years old (23-72 were studied. The diagnosis was performed using anorectal manometry, with a catheter containing eight channels disposed at the axial axis, measuring the proximal (1 and distal (2 portions of the anal orifice. The elevation of the pressure values in relation to the resting with the evacuation effort was present in all patients. The Agachan score was used for clinical evaluation of constipation. The variables studied were: mean anal pressure of the anal orifice for 20 seconds at rest, the effort of evacuation using Valsalva maneuver and the effort of evacuation during apnea after forced expiration, as well as the area under the curve of the manometric tracing at moments Valsalva and apnea. RESULTS: The analysis of the mean values of the anal pressure variation at rest evidenced difference between proximal and distal channels (P = 0.007, independent of the moment and tendency to differ during moments Valsalva and apnea (P = 0.06. The mean of values of the area under the manometric tracing curve showed differences between moments Valsalva and apnea (P = 0.0008, either at the proximal portion or at the distal portion of the anal orifice. CONCLUSION: The effort of evacuation associated with postexpiratory apnea, when compared with the effort associated with the Valsalva maneuver, provides

  20. Manejo dos portadores das neoplasias intraepiteliais anais Managment of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Roberto Nadal; Carmen Ruth Manzione

    2008-01-01

    Acredita-se que a neoplasia intraepitelial anal (NIA), provocada pelo HPV, seja a lesão precursora do carcinoma anal. Segundo a literatura, são encontradas entre 11% e 52% dos homens infectados pelo HIV, entre 6% a 20% dos homens e 1% a 2,8% das mulheres sem essa infecção. Entre 8,5% e 13% das NIA de alto grau evoluirão para carcinoma invasivo, indicando a necessidade do rastreamento e do seguimento desses doentes para prevenção. Não há tratamento satisfatório com baixos índices de morbidez e...

  1. Moderne analitičke tehnike u procjeni izvornosti meda iz Srbije

    OpenAIRE

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-01-01

    Izvornost hrane u širem smislu znači udovoljavanje kemijskim i fizikalnim kriterijima koji su propisani zakonodavstvom. U pogledu izvornosti meda, dva su ključna aspekta: proizvodni proces i označavanje proizvoda u smislu zemljopisnog i botaničkog podrijetla. Pouzdana procjena izvornosti meda, koja uobičajeno uključuje korištenje nekoliko kriterija i kemijskih markera te kombinaciju analitičkih i statističkih (kemometrijskih) metoda, već dugo vremena zaokuplja pozornost kemijskih analitičara....

  2. Evolution of dike opening during the March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Orr, Tim R.; Yun, Sang-Ho; Fielding, Eric; Liu, Zhen; Tanaka, Akiko; Szeliga, Walter; Hensley, Scott; Owen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The 5–9 March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption along the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, followed months of pronounced inflation at Kīlauea summit. We examine dike opening during and after the eruption using a comprehensive interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data set in combination with continuous GPS data. We solve for distributed dike displacements using a whole Kīlauea model with dilating rift zones and possibly a deep décollement. Modeled surface dike opening increased from nearly 1.5 m to over 2.8 m from the first day to the end of the eruption, in agreement with field observations of surface fracturing. Surface dike opening ceased following the eruption, but subsurface opening in the dike continued into May 2011. Dike volumes increased from 15, to 16, to 21 million cubic meters (MCM) after the first day, eruption end, and 2 months following, respectively. Dike shape is distinctive, with a main limb plunging from the surface to 2–3 km depth in the up-rift direction toward Kīlauea's summit, and a lesser projection extending in the down-rift direction toward Pu`u `Ō`ō at 2 km depth. Volume losses beneath Kīlauea summit (1.7 MCM) and Pu`u `Ō`ō (5.6 MCM) crater, relative to dike plus erupted volume (18.3 MCM), yield a dike to source volume ratio of 2.5 that is in the range expected for compressible magma without requiring additional sources. Inflation of Kīlauea's summit in the months before the March 2011 eruption suggests that the Kamoamoa eruption resulted from overpressure of the volcano's magmatic system.

  3. Dental depth profilometric diagnosis of pit and fissure caries using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated laser luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Raymond J.; Mandelis, Andreas; Sanchez, Victor; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2004-07-01

    Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659-nm and 830-nm laser sources to detect artificial and natural sub-surface defects in human teeth. Fifty-two human teeth were examined with simultaneous measurements of PTR and LUM with the 659-nm laser and compared to conventional diagnostic methods including continuous (dc) luminescence (DIAGNOdent), visual inspection and radiographs. To compare each method, sensitivities and specificities were calculated by using histological observations as the gold standard. With the combined criteria of four PTR and LUM signals (two amplitudes and two phases), it was found that the sensitivity of this method was much higher than any of the other methods used in this study, whereas the specificity was comparable to that of dc luminescence diagnostics. Therefore, PTR and LUM, as a combined technique, has the potential to be a reliable tool to diagnose early pit and fissure caries and could provide detailed information about deep lesions with its depth profilometric character. Also, from the experiments with the teeth having natural or aritficial defect, some depth profilometric characteristics were confirmed. The major findings are (i) PTR is sensitive to very deep (>5 mm) defects at low modulation frequencies (5 Hz). Both PTR and LUM amplitudes exhibit a peak at tooth thicknesses ca. 1.4 - 2.7 mm. Furthermore the LUM amplitude exhibits a small trough at ca. 2.5~3.5 mm; (ii) PTR is sensitive to various defects such as a deep carious lesion, a demineralized area, and a crack while LUM exhibits low sensitivity and spatial resolution.

  4. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient (inland seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eBorgonie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface, central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and discovered, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, the DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. . Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine Bacteria were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing.

  5. Avaliação da qualidade de vida na incontinência anal: validação do questionário FIQL (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Evaluation of quality of life in anal incontinence: validation of the questionnaire FIQL (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ahlaim Ibrahim Yusuf

    2004-09-01

    avaliação da qualidade de vida na incontinência anal em nossa população.BACKGROUND: Anal incontinence causes physical and psychological incapacity, determining impact on quality of life. However, there are no specific tools to quantify this impact in our population. AIM: The evaluation of quality of life in anal incontinence, through validation of the FIQL ("Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale". FIQL is a questionnaire composed of 29 questions, grouped into four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression and embarrassment. For each question, the scale ranges from 1 to 4, except questions 1 and 4, which ranges from 1-5 and 1-6, respectively. MATERIAL AND METHOD: FIQL scale underwent both translation and cultural adaptation processes, giving rise to a final Portuguese version. This version was then used in a validation study to test measurement properties (reproducibility and validity. The reproducibility was tested through application of FIQL questionnaire by two observers in 50 patients with anal incontinence. After a period of 7 to 10 days, the questionnaire was applied again by one of the observers. The constructive validity was assessed by correlating the FIQL questionnaire results with both, a generic questionnaire for quality of life (SF-36 and the Jorge-Wexner incontinence score results. The discriminative validity was evaluated comparing the results of the FIQL to incontinence group with two other groups: healthy volunteers and patient with chronic idiopathic constipation. RESULTS: The correlation among results domains of FIQL questionnaire and results of short form-36 and the incontinence score were statistically significant. The quality of life is impaired in all of domains of FIQL for incontinent patients: lifestyle: 2.4 behaviour:2.0, depression:2.5 and embarrassment:1.9, when compared to healthy volunteers (3.9, 3.9, 4.1 and 4.0, and patients with chronic constipation (3.7, 3.8, 3.6 and 3.8, respectively. CONCLUSION: The FIQL questionnaire is

  6. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  7. Per anal balloon dilatation of a post-necrotizing enterocolitis stricture of the sigmoid colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfrew, D.L.; Smith, W.L.; Pringle, K.C.

    1986-05-01

    Per anal balloon dilatation of a sigmoid colon stricture caused by necrotizing enterocolitis allowed identification of a more proximal lesion which would otherwise have gone radiographically undetected. Repeated dilatations at two weeks and four weeks following the initial dilatation of the stricture resulted in relief of the stricture and obviated the need for surgical treatment of this lesion.

  8. Vene valimiste analüüs viitab totaalsele võltsimisele / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2008-01-01

    Matemaatikute analüüsi tulemus näitab, et Venemaa uuele riigipeale kirjutati valimistel juurde kuni kolmandik hääli, tõenäoliselt toetas Dmitri Medvedevit tublisti alla poole valimistel osalenutest. Lisa: Medvedevile anti null häält Kiziljurtis

  9. ¿que es una función analítica?

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Alonso

    2012-01-01

    1. El plano complejo Si designamos por ℝ el conjunto de los números reales entonces el plano cartesiano o plano de la geometría analítica es el conjunto ℝ2 = {(x,y): x ϵ ℝ , y ϵ ℝ}. Es bien conocida su representación

  10. Estudo comparativo de planeamentos dosimétricos em carcinoma de canal anal

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Ana Cravo; Santos, João; Gaspar, João; Monsanto, Fátima; Faria, Jorge; Coelho, Carina Marques; Cortina, Juan

    2010-01-01

    O estudo pretende avaliar, sob o ponto de vista dosimétrico, a eficácia da técnica da estrela na redução da dose nos órgãos de risco face à técnica convencional, sem comprometer a dose tumoricida nos volumes alvo, em carcinoma de canal anal.

  11. Acceptable results using plug for the treatment of complex anal fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Hagen, Kikke; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The management of complex fistula-in-ano remains a surgical challenge. Previously published studies on the treatment of fistula-in-ano with the anal fistula plug (AFP) have reported a success rate reaching 35-87%. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the AFP procedure in a group of...

  12. Treatment of anal human papillomavirus-associated disease: a long term outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, M; Hickey, N; Mayuranathan, L; Vowler, S L; Singh, N

    2008-07-01

    Treatment for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal canal disease has been unsatisfactory. The objective of our study was to determine the treatment outcome in our cohort with anal HPV disease. Overall, 181 patients were evaluated over a median period of 19.1 months (range = 2.8-125.5). Eighty-eight patients (48.6%) with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 82 patients (45.3%) with low-grade AIN underwent treatment. One hundred and forty-one patients (77.9%) received laser ablative treatment as an outpatient procedure. The treatment yielded cure, defined as a disease-free state at 12 months after treatment, in 63.0% (114/181). Median time to cure for the cohort was 31.5 months (95% confidence interval: 23.0-40.0). Treatment outcome showed no evidence of being affected by age, sexual preference, history of smoking or presence of high-grade disease. Median time to cure was significantly affected by a positive HIV status (P = 0.02) and the extent (volume) of the disease (P = 0.01). Contrary to the current view that treatment of HPV-related anal disease is difficult, unrewarding due to recurrences and may lead to substantial morbidity, we demonstrate that effective treatment is possible for both low- and high-grade AIN. These findings should help with the general desire to introduce screening for AIN for at-risk groups. PMID:18574114

  13. New treatment for ileal pouch-anal or coloanal anastomotic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, S; Panis, Y; Berdah, S; Hautefeuille, P; Valleur, P

    1998-07-01

    Persistent anastomotic stricture following ileal pouch-anal or coloanal anastomoses can be treated by transanal resection using a stapler or a more complex procedure, such as transanal pouch advancement with neoanastomosis. We propose an easier and faster technique, which does not require any particular device. Its long-term functional results are satisfactory in most patients. PMID:9678384

  14. Laevade erinevate soetamisviiside kommertstingimuste võrdlev analüüs / Ain Eidast, Allan Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eidast, Ain, 1939-2013

    2005-01-01

    Laevade erinevate soetamisviiside analüüs näitab, et ühtse, kõikidele osapooltele vastuvõetavate tingimuste väljatöötamine ja rakendamine ei ole tehniliselt võimalik ning majanduslikult õigustatud. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  15. Schenker laseb kliendil analüüsida teenuse võtmenäitajaid / Toomas Udu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Udu, Toomas

    2005-01-01

    Logistikaettevõtte Schenker IT- ja arendusdirektor tutvustab klientidele mõeldud veebipõhist analüüsitööriista KPI (Key Performance Indicator - soorituse võtmenäitajad), mille abil on võimalik jälgida saadetise kohaletoimetamise tähtaegadest kinnipidamist. Ekraanipildid

  16. New approach to anal cancer: Individualized therapy based on sentinel lymph node biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola De Nardi; Michele Carvello; Carlo Staudacher

    2012-01-01

    Oncological treatment is currently directed toward a tailored therapy concept.Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal could be considered a suitable platform to test new therapeutic strategies to minimize treatment morbidity.Standard of care for patients with anal canal cancer consists of a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.This treatment has led to a high rate of local control and a 60% cure rate with preservation of the anal sphincter,thus replacing surgical abdominoperineal resection.Lymph node metastases represent a critical independent prognostic factor for local recurrence and survival.Mesorectal and iliac lymph nodes are usually included in the radiation field,whereas the inclusion of inguinal regions still remains controversial because of the subsequent adverse side effects.Sentinel lymph node biopsies could clearly identify inguinal node-positive patients eligible for therapeutic groin irradiation.A sentinel lymph node navigation procedure is reported here to be a feasible and effective method for establishing the true inguinal node status in patients suffering from anal canal cancer.Based on the results of sentinel node biopsies,a selective approach could be proposed where node-positive patients could be selected for inguinal node irradiation while node-negative patients could take advantage of inguinal sparing irradiation,thus avoiding toxic side effects.

  17. A case of anal canal cancer which developed fournier's syndrome after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier's syndrome is an acute necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum which progresses rapidly, resulting in poor prognosis if not treated appropriately at an early stage. Here we report a case of anal canal cancer which developed Fournier's syndrome after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A 79-year-old man with anal canal cancer received a double-barrel sigmoid colostomy followed by concurrent CRT (50.4 Gy) with S-1 (100 mg/body). Although the patient was discharged after CRT, he developed a fever at 10 days after discharge and visited our hospital complaining of pain in the anal region. He was hospitalized with a diagnosis of Fournier's syndrome. Extensive drainage, administration of antibiotics, additional drainage and continuous irrigation of the affected region improved the symptoms of Fournier's syndrome. Multiple liver metastases were found on a CT scan at 3 months after onset of Fournier's syndrome, and the patient was transferred to another hospital for systemic chemotherapy. There have been no reports on the onset of Fournier's syndrome after CRT for rectal cancer with anal canal involvement; we report this case with a review of the literature. (author)

  18. Dialoogiaktid ja suhtlusstrateegiad : eesti dialoogikorpuse analüüs / Liina Eskor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eskor, Liina

    2005-01-01

    Artikkel põhineb autori magistritööl, mille eesmärgiks oli kohandada soome arvutilingvisti Kristiina Jokineni suhtlusstrateegiate teooriat eestikeelse infodialoogiga ning leida ja analüüsida strateegiate ja dialoogiaktide seoseid. Tutvustatakse ka eesti dialoogikorpust ja dialoogiaktide tüpoloogiat

  19. Tehnoloogia aitab varusid juhtida ja analüüsida / Aleksei Dobrõshman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dobrõshman, Aleksei

    2005-01-01

    Autor tutvustab logistikavaldkonnas kasutatavaid uusi tarkvaralahendusi: marketingi- ja CRM-süsteemi, elektrooniliste dokumentide vahetamise süsteemi, juhtimise ja analüüsi süsteemi, täiustatud veebitellimuste süsteemi, kliendihaldussüsteemi liikuvatele töötajatele. Lisa: Veebilahendus on mugavam

  20. Forenzní analýza sítě Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Drozda, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Táto diplomová práca sa zaoberá problematikou realizácie forenznej analýzy v sieti Bitcoin. Hlavným cieľom práce bolo navrhnúť a následne implementovať prototyp nástroja forenznej analýzy v sieti Bitcoin. Teoretická časť práca je venovaná popisu siete Bitcoin. Následne sú v rámci práce porovnávané existujúce nástroje a špecifikované požiadavky na nástroje forenznej analýzy. Zvyšok práce je zameraný na popis návrhu a implementácie nástroja forenznej analýzy. Nástroj je implementovaný vo for...

  1. Loovutatava isiku õigused loovutamismenetluses. Kohtupraktika analüüs / Marje Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Marje, 1989-

    2013-01-01

    Euroopa vahistamismääruse alusel toimuvast loovutamismenetlusest. Loovutatava isiku õiguste kaitse probleemidest. Artikkel põhineb autori 2013. a. Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas kaitstud magistritööl "Loovutatava isiku õigused loovutamismenetluses - kohtupraktika analüüs"

  2. Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate quality of life (QOL) and outcome of patients with anal carcinoma treated with short split-course chemoradiation (CRT). From 1991 to 2005, 58 patients with anal cancer were curatively treated with CRT. External beam radiotherapy (52 Gy/26 fractions) with elective groin irradiation (24 Gy) was applied in 2 series divided by a median gap of 12 days. Chemotherapy including fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C was delivered in two sequences. Long-term QOL was assessed using the site-specific EORTC QLQ-CR29 and the global QLQ-C30 questionnaires. Five-year local control, colostomy-free survival, and overall survival were 78%, 94% and 80%, respectively. The global QOL score according to the QLQ-C30 was good with 70 out of 100. The QLQ-CR29 questionnaire revealed that 77% of patients were mostly satisfied with their body image. Significant anal pain or fecal incontinence was infrequently reported. Skin toxicity grade 3 or 4 was present in 76% of patients and erectile dysfunction was reported in 100% of male patients. Short split-course CRT for anal carcinoma seems to be associated with good local control, survival and long-term global QOL. However, it is also associated with severe acute skin toxicity and sexual dysfunction. Implementation of modern techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) might be considered to reduce toxicity

  3. Parlamentide info- ja analüüsiteenistuste koostöövõrgud / Aare Kasemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasemets, Aare, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa parlamentide teabe- ja analüüsiteenistused ning raamatukogud teevad koostööd mitmes võrgustikus, millest kaks suuremat on Euroopa Parlamendiuuringute ja -dokumentatsiooni Keskus (ECPRD) ning Rahvusvaheline Raamatukoguühingute ja -institutsioonide Liidu (IFLA) parlamendisektsioon. Ülevaade koostöövõrgustikest. Tabel: ECPRD seminarid 2002. ja 2003. aastal

  4. Acceptable results using plug for the treatment of complex anal fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, Jakob; Hagen, Kikke; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The management of complex fistula-in-ano remains a surgical challenge. Previously published studies on the treatment of fistula-in-ano with the anal fistula plug (AFP) have reported a success rate reaching 35-87%. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the AFP procedure in a group...

  5. Fibrin glue in the treatment of anal fistula: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covarelli Piero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sphincter-saving approaches have been applied in the treatment of perianal fistula in order to avoid the risk of fecal incontinence. Among them, the fibrin glue technique is popular because of its simplicity and repeatability. The aim of this review is to compare the fibrin glue application to surgery alone, considering the healing and complication rates. Methods We performed a systematic review searching for published randomized and controlled clinical trials without any language restriction by using electronic databases. All these studies were assessed as to whether they compared conventional surgical treatment versus fibrin glue treatment in patients with anal fistulas, in order to establish both the efficacy and safety of each treatment. We used Review Manager 5 to conduct the review. Results The healing rate is higher in those patients who underwent the conventional surgical treatment (P = 0,68, although the treatment with fibrin glue gives no evidence of anal incontinence (P = 0,08. Furthermore two subgroup analyses were performed: fibrin glue in combination with intra-adhesive antibiotics versus fibrin glue alone and anal fistula plug versus fibrin glue. In the first subgroup there were not differences in healing (P = 0,65. Whereas in the second subgroup analysis the healing rate is statistically significant for the patients who underwent the anal fistula plug treatment instead of the fibrin glue treatment (P = 0,02. Conclusion In literature there are only two randomized controlled trials comparing the conventional surgical management versus the fibrin glue treatment in patients with anal fistulas. Although from our statistical analysis we cannot find any statistically significant result, the healing rate remains higher in patients who underwent the conventional surgical treatment (P = 0,68, and the anal incontinence rate is very low in the fibrin glue treatment group (P = 0,08. Anyway the limited collected data do

  6. Role of Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in the Management of Anal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano, E-mail: mistrangelo@katamail.com [Digestive and Colorectal Surgical Department, Centre of Minimal Invasive Surgery, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital, Turin (Italy); Pelosi, Ettore [PET Center IRMET spa, Turin (Italy); Bello, Marilena [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Milanesi, Enrica [Oncological Centre for Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Cassoni, Paola [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Baccega, Massimo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Filippini, Claudia [Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Racca, Patrizia [Oncological Centre for Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Lesca, Adriana [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Munoz, Fernando H. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Fora, Gianluca [Oncological Centre for Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Skanjeti, Andrea [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital (Italy); Cravero, Francesca; Morino, Mario [Digestive and Colorectal Surgical Department, Centre of Minimal Invasive Surgery, University of Turin, Molinette Hospital, Turin (Italy)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Pre- and post-treatment staging of anal cancer are often inaccurate. The role of positron emission tomograpy-computed tomography (PET-CT) in anal cancer is yet to be defined. The aim of the study was to compare PET-CT with CT scan, sentinel node biopsy results of inguinal lymph nodes, and anal biopsy results in staging and in follow-up of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three consecutive patients diagnosed with anal cancer underwent PET-CT. Results were compared with computed tomography (CT), performed in 40 patients, and with sentinel node biopsy (SNB) (41 patients) at pretreatment workup. Early follow-up consisted of a digital rectal examination, an anoscopy, a PET-CT scan, and anal biopsies performed at 1 and 3 months after the end of treatment. Data sets were then compared. Results: At pretreatment assessment, anal cancer was identified by PET-CT in 47 patients (88.7%) and by CT in 30 patients (75%). The detection rates rose to 97.9% with PET-CT and to 82.9% with CT (P=.042) when the 5 patients who had undergone surgery prior to this assessment and whose margins were positive at histological examination were censored. Perirectal and/or pelvic nodes were considered metastatic by PET-CT in 14 of 53 patients (26.4%) and by CT in 7 of 40 patients (17.5%). SNB was superior to both PET-CT and CT in detecting inguinal lymph nodes. PET-CT upstaged 37.5% of patients and downstaged 25% of patients. Radiation fields were changed in 12.6% of patients. PET-CT at 3 months was more accurate than PET-CT at 1 month in evaluating outcomes after chemoradiation therapy treatment: sensitivity was 100% vs 66.6%, and specificity was 97.4% vs 92.5%, respectively. Median follow-up was 20.3 months. Conclusions: In this series, PET-CT detected the primary tumor more often than CT. Staging of perirectal/pelvic or inguinal lymph nodes was better with PET-CT. SNB was more accurate in staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  7. Extraction and analysis of ground fissures from airborne LiDAR data%利用机载LiDAR数据提取与分析地裂缝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春蕾; 郭兆成; 张宗贵; 李迁; 尚博譞; 吴芳

    2014-01-01

    机载激光扫描可获取植被茂密地区的数字地形模型( DTM),但将其用于茂密植被覆盖区地裂缝提取方法的研究还不多见。以湖南冷水江市浪石滩为试验区,基于机载LiDAR的激光点云数据,研究了植被覆盖区地裂缝的提取方法,分析了地裂缝的微地貌特征。首先对离散的三维激光点云数据依次进行基于不规则三角网滤波、高程滤波及回波信息强度滤波提取地面点,以保留完整的微地貌微特征;然后构建不规则三角网,反距离加权内插生成数字高程模型( DEM),提取地裂缝识别参数,同时基于最小曲率对地裂缝进行线性探测,提取地裂缝的长度信息,且利用地裂缝剖面信息分析其微特征,结合识别参数分析地裂缝的稳定性。研究结果表明:利用机载LiDAR点云数据提取的地裂缝识别参数,能够确定地裂缝的位置、坡度坡向、长度和深度信息,有助于判定地裂缝的稳定性;在植被较为茂密、地面点密度稀疏的区域,保留一定的低矮植被所提取到的DEM能更好地保留地裂缝的微地貌特征。%Airborne laser scanning ( ALS) data have been used to construct the digital terrain model under dense vegetation, but its reliability for recognition ground fissures in the tropics remains unknown. In this paper, Langshitan located in Lengshuijiang City was selected as the study area, and the method for extracting ground fissures and analyzing micro-topography features based on airborne LiDAR point cloud data in the dense vegetation were studied. First, the point clouds were separated into ground points and non-ground points through adaptive TIN filter method, elevation filter, echo intensity difference filter, to ensure that the bare-earth reserved micro-topography features in the dense vegetation. Second, on the basis of ground data, triangulated irregular network was built to generate digital elevation models by

  8. 3种窝沟封闭剂微渗漏的实验研究%Experimental Study on Microleakage of Three Different Fissure Sealants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海亮; 赵玉宏; 欧晓艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide experimental evidence by study on microleakage of three different fissure sealants. Methods: Forty human maxillary premolars,caries -free for orthodontic reasons were collected and randomly divided into five groups. Fissures were respectively sealed with conventional pit and fissure sealant (Helioseal F) ? Glass ionomer cement(GC Fuji VII), GC Fuji VII plus saliva contamination, wetbond sealant(Embrace WetBond), Embrace WetBond plus saliva contamination. Six teeth in each group were stained with 50% silver nitrate for 2 hours, then were sectioned for evaluation of microleakage. Two other teeth in each group were used to observe the marginal adaptability of fissure sealants and interface condition by scanning electronic microscope. Results: Without saliva contamination, there were significantly differences concerning the microleakage results among three different sealants. Helioseal F was fully penetrated into the bottom of the fissure by SEM, together with the enamel completely. While with saliva contamination, GC Fuji VII and Embrace WetBond had a poor sealing ability, the interface between sealants and enamel appeared significant micro-gap. Conclusion: The pit and fissure sealant Helioseal F had a excellent marginal adaptation. The new glass ionomer sealant GC Fuji VII and wet -bond sealant Embrace WetBond only needed a technology with lower difficulty, and could achieve a acceptable marginal adaptation, their sealing abilities needed further clinical trials.%目的:比较3种窝沟封闭剂的微渗漏情况,为选择操作技术难度低且具良好边缘密合性的窝沟封闭剂提供实验依据.方法:收集正畸减数的上颌前磨牙40颗,随机分为5组,每组8颗.即:Helioseal F组、GC Fuji Ⅶ组、GC Fuji Ⅶ+唾液污染组、Embrace WetBond组、Embrace WetBond+唾液污染组,每组中6颗用50%硝酸银染料浸润2h,切片于体视显微镜下观察微渗漏情况,余下2颗用扫描电镜观察窝沟封闭剂与牙

  9. Chronic Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Ms. F, a 42-year-old divorced woman, presents for evaluation of chronic insomnia. She complains of difficulty falling asleep, often 30 minutes or longer, and difficulty maintaining sleep during the night, with frequent awakenings that often last 30 minutes or longer. These symptoms occur nearly every night, with only one or two “good” nights per month. She typically goes to bed around 10:00 p.m. to give herself adequate time for sleep, and she gets out of bed around 7:00 a.m. on work days and...

  10. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, strontium, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method based on autoradiography was developed to determine the diffusion of radionuclides into the rock matrix. To investigate the diffusion the samples, which has been in contact with radioactive tracer solution up to 6 months, were splitted by sawing. From the autoradiograms of the cross sections the penetration depths of radionuclides were determined and the apparent diffusion coefficient Dsup(a) calculated. The filled and unfilled natural fissure surfaces chosen to this study were bars of drilling cores and drill core cups of tonalite, mica gneiss and rapakivi granite. After contact time of 3 months the highest penetration depths of cesium were observed for natural fissure surface sample of rapakivi granite up to 2.5 mm and of mica gneiss up to 3.7 mm. For strontium the penetration depths of 6 mm and 11 mm for unfilled and filled natural fissure samples of rapakivi granite were found. Dsup(a)-values for cesium varied between 1.5 x 10-15 and 3.2 x 10-14, for strontium between 3.5 x 10-14 and 2.1 x 10-13 m2/s. D-value obtained for cobalt (drill core cup sample, tonalite) was 5.4 x 10-17 m2/s. 241Am was only sorbed on the surface of the sample and thus no apparent diffusion coefficient could be calculated. Filling materials, chlorite and secondary minerals in tonalite and rapakivi granite increased diffusion into the mother rock. Radionuclides were sorbed both into the filling material and through fillers into the rock matrix. Cs and Sr penetrated though calcite filling material in mica gneiss into the mother rock. Calcite didn't influence on diffusion of radionuclides. Penetration depths of Cs and Sr were about the same for filled and unfilled samples

  11. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  12. CHARACTERISTIC AND MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF GROUND FISSURES IN LONGYAO ,XINGTAI%邢台市隆尧地裂缝发育特征及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继山; 彭建兵; 马学军; 马润勇; 杨旭东; 封绍武; 安海波

    2012-01-01

    The ground fissures in Longyao County are the typical surface disaster in North China region. They not only caused eroding, collapsing, extension fracturing, faulting, cracking and other geological disasters on the earth's surface, but also caused severe economic losses in the local agricultural production, engineering construction and the lives of the people. This paper aims to reveal their genetic nature. It is based on geological investigation, monitoring and measuring, trenching, physical exploration. It studies the development characteristics of the Longyao ground fissures. They include the planes, profiles, deep and activity aspects. The paper summarizes the laws of ground fissures. Finally the ground fissure mechanism is analyzed from their crack-pregnant environment, crack-opening conditions and cracking process, the study concludes that: (1) Longyao ground fissures expose in a dozen villages of more than 30km long. They extend towards NWW and NEE which are concordant with the direction of Longyao fault system. Their periodicities are consist of opening, closing, slowly cracking and suddenly cracking periods. (2) Longyao ground fissures are controlled by the faults zone. The conditions such as deep structure, faulted structure and structural landform provide the ground fissures with crack-pregnant environment in the area. The crack-pregnant environment has through three stages; stress accumulation and fractured zone formation. (3) Faulting is the foundation of ground cracking. The groundwater exploitation and surface infiltration also are the important factors. (4) the process of Longyao ground fissures is heterogenous temporally and spatially. From the present investigation and study, the ground fissures are in active period in the area.%隆尧地裂缝在华北地区是典型表生灾害,不仅对地表造成了潜蚀、塌陷、张裂、错断、龟裂等地质灾害,而且给当地的农业生产、工程建设、人民生活造成严重经济损失.

  13. Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome and Ophthalmoplegia Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus with No Skin Eruption in a Patient Treated with Tumor Necrosis Alpha Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helene; Thomsen, Sidsel Thorup; Hansen, Stine Scott; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Lindelof, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia after symptomatic chicken pox infection, usually in childhood. If the virus reactivates in the trigeminal ganglia, it can cause varicella zoster ophthalmicus, which can have severe ocular complications. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman in severe immunosuppression due to treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, glucocorticosteroids and a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. The reactivation caused superior orbital fissure syndrome, which has only rarely been described in relation to varicella zoster virus reactivation. In our case, the syndrome was seen along with severe encephalitis. PMID:26600786

  14. Caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on permanent teeth: An update of systematic review evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Yengopal Veerasamy; Mickenautsch Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This article constitutes a partial update of the original systematic review evidence by Yengopal et al. from 15 January 2008 (published in the Journal of Oral Science in 2009) with primary focus on research quality in regard to bias risk in trials. Its aim is to update the existing systematic review evidence from the English literature as to whether caries occurrence on pits and fissures of teeth sealed with either GIC or resin is the same. Methods In addition to the 12 tr...

  15. 大同-西安高铁沿线地裂缝成因分析%Cause Analysis of the Ground Fissures Along Datong-Xi'an High-speed Railway Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振平; 李强

    2011-01-01

    通过地面调查、钻探和地震勘探,在临汾盆地内查明与大同-西安高铁线路相交或隐伏相交的地裂缝(群)共有7条12处,其成因类型有构造型和非构造型两种.构造型地裂缝主要受隐伏断裂控制,非构造型地裂缝主要受古地貌或古地形控制.这些地裂缝形成的本质条件是由断裂或古地貌边界控制的两侧地层差异,该区地下水的开采活动和水位下降是地裂缝超常活动的促发因素,雨水和渠水的入渗和渗漏也可诱发和加剧地裂缝的发生,湿陷性土层的存在使得地裂缝灾害更加突出和明显.通过对地裂缝成因分析,进而为大同-西安高铁沿线采取相应的综合工程防治措施提供依据.%Seven ground fissures and fissure groups were found along Datong-Xi'an high-speed railway line in Linfen basin through field survey, boring and seismic prospecting. There are twelve sites where the railway line crosses the ground fissures and two types of causes for the fissures, namely the tectonic cause and non-tectonic cause. The tectonically-caused lissures are determined by underground faults and the non-tectonic fissures by paleotopographical factors. The essential condition for the ground fissures is soil variation among fault bolts or along the boundaries of paleotopographical layers. The process can be precipitated by overexploitation of underground water causing lowered watertable or rain and ditch water penetration which can both cause and accelerate the formation of ground fissures. Areas with collapsible wet soil usually suffer from amplified ground fissure hazard. Through analyzing the causes for the fissures, the paper expects to provide corresponding preventive and corrustive measures for the comprehensive construction projects around Datong-Xi'an high-speed railway line.

  16. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... 2012_CKD_GL.pdf . McCullough PA. Interface between renal disease ... patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med . 2010;362(14):1312- ...

  17. Efficacy of low-dose epidural anaesthesia in surgery of the anal canal--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausalya, R; Jacob, R

    1994-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare in terms of patient comfort, surgical requirements and anaesthetic safety, the difference between epidural and general anaesthesia in patients undergoing surgery of the anal canal. The study was undertaken on 50 adult patients undergoing anal surgery. By random allocation 25 were given a general anaesthetic while 25 were given a low-dose epidural using 0.375% bupivacaine. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods were noted in the study. It was concluded that low-dose epidural is a more effective means of providing analgesia, while maintaining adequate sphincter tone for surgery on the anal canal, than general anaesthesia. PMID:8210019

  18. Manejo dos portadores das neoplasias intraepiteliais anais Managment of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a neoplasia intraepitelial anal (NIA, provocada pelo HPV, seja a lesão precursora do carcinoma anal. Segundo a literatura, são encontradas entre 11% e 52% dos homens infectados pelo HIV, entre 6% a 20% dos homens e 1% a 2,8% das mulheres sem essa infecção. Entre 8,5% e 13% das NIA de alto grau evoluirão para carcinoma invasivo, indicando a necessidade do rastreamento e do seguimento desses doentes para prevenção. Não há tratamento satisfatório com baixos índices de morbidez e a recidiva é comum. Em geral, as formas de tratamento podem de ser divididas em tópicas, entre elas, ácido tricloroacético, podofilina, podofilotoxina, imiquimod, terapia fotodinâmica, e ablativas, ou seja, excisão cirúrgica, ablação pelo LASER, coagulação pelo infravermelho e eletrofulguração. Há, ainda, os que consideram aceitável a conduta expectante. O tratamento tópico se justifica pelo caráter multifocal da lesão e os ablativos têm taxas de complicação e recidiva muito semelhantes. De qualquer forma, doentes com qualquer anormalidade histológica necessitam de seguimento adequado, principalmente com colposcopia e citologia anal.Anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN, provoked by HPV, is considered as an anal cancer precursor. Some articles noticed that it occurred among 11% and 52% of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV and, among seronegatives, from 6% to 20% of men and from 1% to 2.8% of women. From 8.5% to 13% of high grade AIN will evolve to invasive carcinoma, needing follow-up and screening for prevention. There is no satisfactory treatment with low morbidity and recurrence is frequent. There are two main forms of treatment: topics (trichloroacetic acid, podophylin, podophylotoxin, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy and ablatives (chirurgical excision, LASER, infrared, eletrocautery. Others consider acceptable an expectant management. Topical therapy is justified because of multifocal presentation of HPV

  19. A manometria anorretal (método do balão no diagnóstico diferencial da doença de Hirschsprung Effectiveness of anorectal manometry using the balloon method to identify the inhibitory recto-anal reflex for diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Batista de Morais

    2005-12-01

    chronic constipation. METHODS: Results of 372 anorectal manometries performed consecutively in children with chronic constipation were evaluated. The equipment (Proctosystem Viotti has two channels for pressure registration by the balloon method and is connected to a computer using specific software. Absence of the inhibitory recto-anal reflex was considered suggestive of Hirschsprung's disease and diagnosis was confirmed by traditional diagnostic methods. RESULTS: Absence of the inhibitory recto-anal reflex was found in 14 (3.8% of the 372 anorectal manometry examinations. Diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease was confirmed in 9 out of 14 patients by characterization of aganglionosis upon rectal biopsy. In the other 5 patients, rectal biopsy was not performed in view of a satisfactory evolution with the clinical treatment for constipation. In 4 out of the 5 patients the inhibitory recto-anal reflex was demonstrated with a second anorectal manometry examination. CONCLUSIONS: The equipment used for anorectal manometry presented a satisfactory performance. Diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease was discarded in 86.5% of the patients with chronic constipation because the inhibitory recto-anal reflex was detected. Manometric evaluation also made possible the identification of a small group of patients in which more than half had Hirschsprung's disease.

  20. Effect of the application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste and adhesive systems on bond durability of a fissure sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Catelan, Anderson; Sasaki, Robson Tetsuo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the previous application of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste (MI Paste, MI) and adhesive systems on the bond durability of a fissure sealant. Ninety-eight enamel blocks were obtained from proximal surfaces of erupted third molars. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n = 7) according to the previous application of MI (with and without) and the adhesive systems used (no adhesive system; hydrophobic resin of a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system; etch-and-rinse single-bottle adhesive system; all-in-one adhesive system; two-step self-etching adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and all-in-one adhesive system; additional phosphoric acid conditioning and two-step self-etching adhesive system). A fissure sealant (Fluroshield) was applied and photoactivated for 20 s. Beams (~0.7 mm(2)) were prepared for the microtensile bond strength test, which was executed after 24 h or 6 months of water storage. Fractured specimens were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures/Tukey's test (P adhesive systems presented higher means than those groups where MI was not applied. Higher frequency of cohesive failures was observed for groups with MI. Applying a CPP-ACP containing paste on enamel before adhesive systems was an effective method to increase bond durability of the sealant tested.