WorldWideScience

Sample records for chronic alcohol abuse

  1. [Acute and chronic alcohol abuse and work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, L; Bordini, L

    2008-01-01

    A not moderate alcohol consumption or its abuse have relevant consequences not only on the health of the general population but also on the possibility to carry out any work in safety conditions. These behaviours have focused the attention of the institutions, which have promoted in the last years a growing number of preventive and informative actions and have adopted specific laws that have significantly involved the figure of occupational physician. Over the clinical implications, in fact, those behaviours, in the employment context, are associated with an increased risk of injuries (from 10 to 30% of total), an increase in the number of absences from work, with greater precariousness, with the possible interaction and/or strengthening of other occupational toxics and with the progressive reduction of working capacity. Diagnostic tools available for the detection of alcohol abuse or dependency consist, in acute cases by direct measuring of alcohol on blood, saliva and exhaled air, while in the chronic situations in addiction to the more traditional indicators (AST, ALT, GGT, MCV) there are recently introduced marker (CDT)--or in validation (ethyl glucuronide)--that representing, also with specific questionnaires (AUDIT, MAST, MALT, CAGE), useful integrated tools in the clinical-diagnostic path. The role and contribution of occupational medicine in the management of alcohol related problems is vital and relevant. Must be clear however that these are problems associated with a particular behaviour of the person and not with risks present on work-site. PMID:19288791

  2. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, C; Van den Brink, W; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large r

  3. Glutathione S-Transferase activity and total thiol status in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha S Muttigi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glutathione S Transferase (GST has been involved in detoxification process in the liver and its activity has been shown to be increased in alcohol abusers. In the current work we measured the GST activity, total thiol status, AST, ALT, and direct bilirubin in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Methods: Serum and urine GST activity and total thiol status were determined using spectrophotometric methods and serum transaminases were determined using clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: We found,significant increase in serum and urine GST (p<0.001, AST (p<0.001, ALT (p<0.001, and decrease in total thiol status (p<0.001 in chronic alcohol abusers. GST activity significantly decreased (p<0.001 and total thiol status were improved significantly (p<0.001 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary data to suggest the role of GST as prognostic indicator of alcohol abstinence with possible trend towards an improvement in liver function.

  4. Chronic alcohol abuse and endosseous implants: Linkage of in vitro osteoblast dysfunction to titanium osseointegration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone, and it is correlated with the increasing risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The negative effects of alcohol intake also influence bone repair processes and the osseointegration of implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapour (EE-OB), and sham-aged rats (SA-OB), when cultured on standard commercially pure Ti (cpTi). Osteoblast proliferation (WST-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen type I (CICP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured at 1, 7, and 14 days of culture. Our results showed a decrease in the cell viability and synthetic activity of osteoblasts exposed to ethanol when cultured on cpTi. Moreover, the release of local regulatory factors from osteoblasts was imbalanced: TGF-β1 production was reduced and TNF-α and IL-6 were up-regulated. These in vitro data suggest that alcohol abuse affects bone repair and decreases the ability to form bone around standard cpTi. Innovative surfaces and adjuvant therapies could be useful when implants are required in alcoholics

  5. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  6. Nutrición y alcoholismo crónico Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moreno Otero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Muchos pacientes con etilismo crónico presentan un cuadro clínico de malnutrición, ya sea porque reducen la ingestión habitual de nutrientes esenciales o porque el alcohol impide la adecuada digestión y absorción de los distintos principios inmediatos, vitaminas y minerales. Un ejemplo común es el déficit de vitamina A en estos enfermos. Además, los propios procesos metabólicos del etanol (vía de la ADH y sistema MEOS generan productos intermediarios tóxicos (acetaldehído, radicales libres que interfieren con el metabolismo normal de los principios inmediatos, principalmente lípidos, originando daño celular a través de fenómenos de preoxidación lipídica y alteraciones de la fluidez de membranas, depósitos grasos (esteatosis hepatocelular, inflamación secundaria a estrés oxidativo y síntesis de citoquinas proinflamatorias, activación de células estrelladas y fibrogénesis, etc. Los soportes nutricionales pueden ser eficaces para mejorar la enfermedad hepática alcohólica. Se aconseja el aporte de una dieta equilibrada, suplementos vitamínicos y tratamiento farmacológico con antioxidantes para reponer los depósitos de glutatión reducido exhaustos. Es imprescindible que estos pacientes tengan una aproximación clínica multidisciplinaria para solucionar su problema de dependencia del alcohol.Many patients with chronic alcohol abuse present a clinical picture of malnourishment either because of reduced usual intake of essential nutrients or because alcohol precludes an appropriate digestion and absorption of the different essential elements, vitamins, and minerals. A usual example is vitamin A deficiency in these patients. Besides, ethanol metabolic pathways themselves (through the ADH and the MEOS system generate toxic intermediate products (acetaldehyde, free radicals interfering with normal metabolism of essential elements, mainly lipids, leading to cellular damage through lipid peroxidation mechanisms and impairment

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  8. Erythromelalgia-like presentation of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy in a setting of past alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Dhand, Upinder K

    2016-02-01

    Erythromelalgia may be primary or secondary to an underlying medical condition. Association with small fiber neuropathy and axonal large fiber peripheral neuropathy has been described. Erythromelalgia in the setting of acquired demyelinating neuropathy has not been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman with severe erythromelalgia, pain and burning, progressive weakness, hyporeflexia and distal pan-sensory deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid protein was 219 mg/dL. Nerve conduction study revealed extreme (ten-fold) prolongation of distal motor latencies, markedly slow motor nerve conduction, reduced terminal latency index, reduced distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, possible conduction blocks, and distal denervation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, prednisone and azathioprine resulted in marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement. Our patient fulfills the diagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP); however, the unique electrodiagnostic features and presentation with erythromelalgia may represent a CIDP variant or a novel dysimmune neuropathy, or may partly be related to neurotoxic effects of prior alcohol abuse. PMID:26804376

  9. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  10. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  11. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  12. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia

  13. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia.

  14. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of sequelae of central pontine myelinolysis in chronic alcohol abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Kudo, Sho [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, 849-8501, Saga (Japan); Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Koga, Hiroshi [Center for Emotional and Behavional Disorders, Hizen National Hospital, 160 Mitsu, Higashisefuri, Kanzaki, 842-0192, Saga (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is one of the serious neurological complications of alcoholism. This study evaluated magnetic resonance images of sequelae of CPM. Approximately 600 alcoholic patients were examined by a 1.0-T magnetic resonance imaging device, and 11 patients were retrospectively found to have a central pontine lesion, a presumed sequela of CPM. The lesions had various shapes and most were cavitary. In 3 of the 11 patients bilateral symmetrical oval lesions were faintly visible in the middle cerebellar peduncles. These middle cerebellar peduncular lesions were diagnosed as having Wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tract secondary to CPM. (orig.)

  16. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  17. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R;

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...

  18. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  19. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form ... Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current ...

  20. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...

  1. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  3. Evolving therapeutic indications for N-type calcium channel blockers: from chronic pain to alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardetti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Clinical exploitation of the therapeutic potential of calcium channels has long been limited to L-type blockers for cardiovascular diseases. Recently, N-type blockers have been fully validated for the treatment of chronic pain, following approval of the intrathecally active ziconotide (Prialt(®)). This review describes the successful efforts to broaden the therapeutic scope of this mechanism to other major CNS indications, based on the discovery of N-type blockers orally active against pain. In animal models, the N-type blocker and pain-reducing NP078585 is efficacious against key elements of ethanol dependency, including self-administration and relapse. NP078585 moderately stimulates brain dopamine release without inducing reward or hyperlocomotion. N-type blockers may emerge as a novel class of 'dopamine stabilizers' for the treatment of drug dependency and other neuropsychiatric disorders without the side effects of current therapies. PMID:21426203

  4. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  5. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  6. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  7. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  8. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  10. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  11. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  12. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  14. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    patients admitted to surgery should be offered a health promoting dialogue with the surgeon, anaesthesiologist, general practitioner, or other health professionals, which focuses on alcohol among other risk factors in relation to the operative treatment, diagnosis and prognosis. A beneficial effect......Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...

  17. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  18. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  19. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  20. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  1. Youths and Alcohol Abuse: A Continuing Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Defines problem drinking and alcoholism, and differentiates normal drinking escapes from alcohol abuse by teenagers and other youths. Suggests teenagers consume alcohol for a myriad of reasons and this behavior often leads to alcohol dependence which can cause interference in normal relationships with others. (Author)

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  4. Alcohol abuse: medical effects of heavy drinking in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambert, S R

    1997-06-01

    As many as 15% of community-dwelling older persons are heavy drinkers, but their alcoholism is often hidden from their physicians. Depression, loneliness, and lack of social support are the most frequently cited antecedents to drinking for older alcoholics. Clinically, the same amount of alcohol once consumed with impunity may cause clinical symptoms in late life. Physiologic changes in volume of distribution make older patients susceptible to acute alcohol toxicity, with its CNS effects and metabolic disturbances. Liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, and impotence are consequences of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:9194788

  5. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  6. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  7. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  8. Alcohol Abuse: Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Alcohol Abuse | Taking Medicines Safely after Alcohol or Drug Abuse Recovery Why do I need to tell my doctor that I am in recovery? The decision to stop using alcohol or other drugs is very important to your ...

  9. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Gelbier; Peters, Timothy J.; Derek J. Cooper; Saman Warnakulasuriya; Harris, Colin K.; Dasanayake, Ananda P.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanatio...

  10. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for fa...

  11. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsu Endo; Juichi Sakamoto; Ken Sato; Miyako Takimoto; Koji Shimaya; Tatsuya Mikami; Akihiro Munakata; Tadashi Shimoyama; Shinsaku Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture.

  12. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  13. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  14. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  15. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  16. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  17. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  18. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD...

  19. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  20. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  1. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  3. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  4. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  5. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  6. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of...

  7. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism..., National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  9. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  10. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  11. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  12. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The.... Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes...

  14. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  15. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  17. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  19. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  20. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  1. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  2. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  3. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  4. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....gov . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...

  5. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  6. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  7. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  8. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  9. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  10. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  11. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  12. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  14. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  15. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 12-13, 2013. Closed: June 12, 2013. Time: 5:00 p.m. to 7:30...

  16. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  17. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  18. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  19. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  20. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  1. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  2. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The...: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  4. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  5. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  6. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  7. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  8. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B.; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despit...

  9. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The...: Abraham P. Bautista, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse &...

  10. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....C. App), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m....

  11. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  13. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  14. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  15. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  16. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  17. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  18. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  19. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  20. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 ... students, and their parents cope more effectively with alcohol abuse. Fast Facts About four out of five college ...

  1. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And those who also have conduct disorder ... with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and drugs may increase as they get older, ...

  2. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug...

  3. A general perspective of alcohol abuse among elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Karanja, Joseph; Lindroos, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This subject was chosen because alcohol abuse among elderly is a growing problem which is hidden and hasn’t been given enough attention. The purpose is to provide essential information about alcohol problems amongst the elderly, theories about causes and based best practices in alcohol problem treatment and rehabilitation. The study is intended to be of help in highlighting a practical help model of treatment for alcohol abusers. Research questions were: Why do elderly abuse alcohol? What are...

  4. Alcohol Advertising Bans and Alcohol Abuse: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect on alcohol abuse of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The effect of a ban cannot be studied using data from one country because the adoption of new advertising bans is an infrequent event and requires many years for adjustment. However, an international data set can be used since there is considerable variation in the use of advertising bans across countries. The data used in this study are a pooled time series...

  5. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  6. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Alcohol Research ] Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  7. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  8. Alcohol abuse and glycoconjugate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chojnowska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycoconjugate metabolism is complex and multidimensional. This review summarizes the advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the metabolic effects of alcohol on glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. We summarize the action of ethanol, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nonoxidative metabolite of alcohol — fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and the ethanol-water competition mechanism, on glycoconjugate biosynthesis, modification, transport and secretion, as well as on elimination and catabolism processes. As the majority of changes in the cellular metabolism of glycoconjugates are generally ascribed to alterations in synthesis, transport, glycosylation and secretion, the degradation and elimination processes, of which the former occurs also in extracellular matrix, seem to be underappreciated. The pathomechanisms are additionally complicated by the fact that the effect of alcohol intoxication on the glycoconjugate metabolism depends not only on the duration of ethanol exposure, but also demonstrates dose- and regional-sensitivity. Further research is needed to bridge the gap in transdisciplinary research and enhance our understanding of alcohol- and glycoconjugate-related diseases.

  9. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  10. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  11. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on...

  12. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599,...

  13. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with attendance limited to space... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30...

  14. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  15. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 21,...

  16. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18,...

  17. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards...

  18. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  19. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272,...

  20. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians;...

  1. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs;...

  2. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome And Stillbirth (PASS)...

  3. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... No. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18,...

  4. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed... of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  5. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 18, 2013. Carolyn...

  6. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National...

  7. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health,...

  8. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 7, 2013. Carolyn...

  9. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special... shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  10. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  11. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  12. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  13. Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Miriam Loewenthal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified.

  14. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  15. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  16. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  17. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  18. 76 FR 32978 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  19. 75 FR 37818 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  20. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special...

  1. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... 20892. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on...

  2. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on...

  3. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 1:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute of...

  4. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Spectrum Disorders in Young Children (U01), RFA AA-10-005. Date: March 2, 2010. Time: 2 p.m. to 6...

  5. Should we use carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker for alcohol abusers?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is one of the conventional markers for chronic alcohol consumption, is used by researchers and clinicians. A number of enzymes are affected by ethanol intake. The induction or inhibition of sialyl transferase and plasma sialidase may be involved in the CDT level elevation. An alteration of protein transport during post-translational modification could be a primary mechanism in the impairment of protein metabolism associated with chronic alcohol abuse. ...

  6. The Effects of Alcohol Regulation on Physical Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Michael Grossman

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the established relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of measures of the ease of obtaining alcohol, illegal drug prices, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the parent on the incidence of child abuse. ...

  7. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...

  8. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  9. Hospital resource utilization by American Indians/Alaska Natives for alcoholism and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisnanick, J J; Erickson, P M

    1993-01-01

    Previous work examining the issue of alcoholism and alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives can be broadly categorized as either descriptions of the consumption patterns and behaviors of specific tribes or mortality studies, focusing on deaths due to alcoholism, alcohol abuse, chronic liver disease, or cirrhosis. A major shortcoming of previous studies has been that they have not looked at the burden this problem has imposed upon the system of health care delivery for this minority population. By using an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification taxonomy of diagnostic codes developed by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) and the national Indian Health Service (IHS) inpatient database for direct and contract admissions, utilization patterns for 43 IHS facilities were investigated. The period of study was 1980-1988, and our case definition included any individual 14 years and older who had any mention upon discharge of an alcohol-related diagnosis (ARD). For the 9-year period under investigation, 43,302 adult inpatient admissions occurred at the 43 IHS facilities for ARD. These admissions accounted for an overall estimated per annum rate of 13.7% of the adult inpatient days. In addition, age and gender specific discharge rates for ARD were estimated and compared to reported ARD discharge rates of the United States civilian population prepared by the NIAAA using the National Hospital Discharge Survey over the period 1979-1988. In contrast, the IHS discharge rates for ARD were three times greater than reported ARD discharge rates for the United States civilian population. PMID:8213702

  10. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  11. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  12. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  13. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the 2-sial

  14. Alcohol Abuse and the Young Offender: Alcohol Education as an Alternative to Custodial Sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problem of how to address relationship between alcohol abuse and criminal offending. Suggests that Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) offer workable alternative to custodial sentencing. AECs offer various techniques that target abusive alcohol consumption level of the population, the problem of offending, or both. Asserts that evaluation…

  15. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Register on August 30, 2010, 75 FR DOC. 2010- 21663. Date and time was changed from 11/3/2010; 2 p.m. to 5... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2 p.m. to November 3, 2010, 5...

  16. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2304. This meeting will now be held at 5635 Fishers Lane, Rockville MD... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2012, 4 p.m. to March 29, 2012, 8 p.m.,...

  17. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  18. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2009-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I ...

  19. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Mao-Sheng; Jiang, Ying; YAN, XIAO-YUAN HU; Zhao, Qing-hua; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wen-zhi ZHANG; He, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, lab...

  20. Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in chronic heavy alcohol users

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Tom; Moss, Mark; Ling, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about its putative effects on everyday memory. This study looked at self-ratings of prospective memory (PM) (memory for future events). After controlling for other drug and strategy use, chronic heavy alcohol users showed global impairments in PM, when compared to matched controls. The underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  2. Biomarkers of chronic alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gonzalo,1 Sylvie Radenne,2 Sylvie Gonzalo31Laboratoire de Biochimie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France; 2Service d'Hépatologie-Gastroentérologie, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; 3Laboratoire Biomnis, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Biological markers of chronic alcoholism can be divided into two groups: direct and indirect markers. Direct markers (mainly blood or serum and urine ethanol, ethylglucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol directly track the intake of alcohol and vary in their sensitivity and kinetics of appearance and clearance. Indirect markers (mean corpuscular volume,γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin are biological parameters that are influenced by a steady and significant alcohol intake. We discuss the values of these tests and the relevance of their prescriptions for the clinical evaluation of heavy drinking. We indicate, when known, the pathophysiological mechanism of their elevations. We also discuss the amount and time of alcohol consumption required to give a positive result and the duration of abstinence required for the return to normal values. The forensic use of these biomarkers will not be considered in this review.Keywords: alcoholism, biomarker, CDT, relapse, alcohol-induced liver disease

  3. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Alcohol Abuse, Alcoholism, and Labor Market Outcomes: Looking for the Missing Link

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Renna

    2008-01-01

    There is puzzling evidence that alcohol abuse and alcoholism reduce labor earnings but have no effect on either hours worked or the hourly wage. This study revisits the link between problem drinking and earnings using data from the 1989 and 1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Questions about problem drinking were keyed to a table of symptoms for alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The author finds no effects associate...

  5. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  6. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  7. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  8. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  9. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  10. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol...

  11. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  12. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  13. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  14. Neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Emelyanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the present-day Russian and foreign literature on neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication. The most common manifestations of alcohol disease include alcoholic polyneuropathy (PNP and alcohol-induced skeletal muscle injury. The clinical polymorphism of alcoholic PNP is discussed. The paper considers a chronic sensory automatic form due to the direct toxic effects of ethanol and its metabolites during long-term alcohol intoxication, as well as acute/subacute sensorimotor neuropathy, the basis for the pathogenesis of which is B group vitamins, predominantly thiamine, deficiency that develops in the presence of drinking bouts concurrent with malnutrition and/or alcohol-related gastrointestinal tract diseases. In addition to nonuse of alcohol and a properly balanced diet, antioxidant therapy with alphalipoic acid and neurotropic B group vitamins is considered to be pathogenetic therapy for neuropathy. The most common and least studied clinicalform of alcohol-induced musculoskeletal injury is chronic alcoholic myopathy (AM, the diagnostic standard for which is morphometricand immunohistochemical examination of a muscle biopsy specimen. The morphological base for this form of myopathy is predominantly type 2 muscle fiber atrophy caused by impaired protein synthesis and a decreased regenerative potential of muscle fiber. The efficacy of antioxidants and leucine-containing amino acid mixtures in the treatment of chronic AM is discussed.

  15. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  16. Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Dervaux; Xavier Laqueille; Marie-Chantal Bourdel; Jean-Pierre Olié; Marie-Odile Krebs

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alc...

  17. Pavlovian sign-tracking model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Sharma, Nikyta

    2013-09-01

    While poorly controlled alcohol drinking is a prominent symptom of alcohol abuse, its environmental determinants remain poorly understood. The Sign-Tracking Model (STM), developed by Tomie and his associates, postulates that poorly controlled alcohol drinking is due to the development of signal-directed behaviors induced by Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures. In laboratory studies of animal learning, presentation of the lever (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the presentation of the food (unconditioned stimulus, US) induces sign-tracking conditioned response (CR) performance, wherein rats approach and contact, then express consummatory-like responses (i.e., licking, gnawing, and chewing) directed at the lever CS. The Pavlovian sign-tracking CR is an involuntary acquired reflexive response. It is poorly controlled and elicited by the presentation of the CS. STM proposes that poorly controlled alcohol drinking in humans may be due to repeated pairings of the alcohol sipper (e.g., cocktail glass) CS with alcohol's rewarding effects US, resulting in sign-tracking CR performance. The cocktail glass CS will elicit Pavlovian sign-tracking CR performance of reflexive and involuntary alcohol intake. This paper reviews evidence in the Pavlovian conditioning literature that in animals the positive contingency between the alcohol sipper CS and alcohol US induces sign-tracking of alcohol drinking. Also reviewed is evidence that in human beings alcohol drinking is a direct function of the positive contingency between a particular alcohol glassware CS and alcohol US. Implications of these findings for the Sign-Tracking Model (STM) are discussed.

  18. A common variant of PNPLA3 (p.I148M) is not associated with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendahl, J.; Tönjes, A.; Schleinitz, D.; Kovacs, P.; Wiegand, J.; Ruffert, C.; Jesinghaus, M.; Schober, R.; Herms, M.; Grützmann, R.; Schulz, H.U.; Stickel, F.; Werner, J.; Bugert, P.; Blüher, M.; Stumvoll, M.; Böhm, S.; Berg, T. van den; Wittenburg, H.; Mössner, J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Derikx, M.; Keim, V.; Witt, H.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease that in some patients leads to exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. In industrialized countries the most common aetiology is chronic alcohol abuse. Descriptions of associated genetic alterations in alcoholic CP are rare. However, a comm

  19. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  20. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  1. Psychological predictors of alcohol abuse among students in a South African University / Makgatswane Keebine

    OpenAIRE

    Keebine, Makgatswane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: the specific objectives of the study are identified as follows: 1) to determine the influence of impulsivity on alcohol abuse, (2) to determine the peer group influence on alcohol abuse, (3) To determine the interplay of gender on alcohol abuse and (4) to determine whether interaction between impulsivity, peer group influence and gender has any an effect on alcohol abuse. Method: data was collected from three hundred (300) student participants randomly selected. ...

  2. Huntington′s disease and alcohol abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoo S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine, glutamate and GABA systems are known to mediate the effects of alcohol on the movement disorders, though their exact roles are not clear. Thus, use of alcohol has implications for pathogenesis as well as management of the movement disorders. These implications are discussed citing a patient who had a strong family history of Huntington′s disease and in whom movement disorder and behavioral problems were manifest under alcohol use and withdrawal, but not while being abstinent.

  3. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of alcohol abuse patient records were initially...

  4. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  5. Pancreatic Stellate Cells and Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pancreatitis is a disease often characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain accompanied by progressive pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency [1] and it sometimes requires multiple hospitalizations. Obstructive jaundice, duodenal stenosis, left-sided portal hypertension, pseudocyst and mass formation, and pancreatic carcinoma may occur as complications of chronic pancreatitis. The disease is frequently the result of chronic alcohol abuse, even if other factors such as genetic alterations, autoimmune disorders, and obstructive disease of the biliary tract and the pancreas may cause the disease [2]. Medical therapy is the treatment of choice for most patients and it is based on substitutive therapy for either exocrine or endocrine insufficiency and on analgesics for pain control. In the presence of intractable pain, surgical management is the main option [3] even if, in recent years, other therapeutic options such as endoscopic therapy [4], thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy [5], and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy have been applied in clinical practice [6]. From a pathological point of view, chronic pancreatitis is characterized by irregular sclerosis with destruction and loss of the exocrine parenchyma, and complete replacement of acinar, ductal and endocrine tissue by fibrotic tissue. It has recently been reported that acute alcoholic pancreatitis develops in a pancreas already affected by chronic pancreatitis [7]. In 1982, Watari et al. [8] reported the presence of vitamin A-containing cells in the vitamin A-fed rat pancreas. These were later described and characterized as stellate cells in the rat and the human pancreas [9, 10]. Pancreatic stellate cells are morphologically similar to hepatic stellate cells. They bear long cytoplasmic processes and are situated close to the pancreatic acini. In the quiescent state, these cells contain lipid droplets, store vitamin A and express markers such as desmin, glial

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse: An Indexed Bibliography of the Behavioral Science Journal Literature, 1970-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorkey, Clayton T.

    This bibliography contains over 1200 behavioral science journal articles dealing with alcoholism and alcohol abuse. The articles were published between 1970 and 1980 in 116 English language journals. This bibliography is intended for administrators, planners, researchers, counselors, educators and students desiring ready access to recent…

  7. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended... Register on July 16, 2013, 78 FR 42530. The meeting notice is amended to change the date of the...

  8. Multifocal Osteonecrosis Secondary to Chronic Alcohol Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazu Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal osteonecrosis is a relatively rare disorder with an estimated incidence of around 3% among patients diagnosed as having osteonecrosis. Multifocal osteonecrosis is caused by the several conditions including corticosteroid treatment, coagulation disorders, connective tissue disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, inflammatory bowel disease, renal transplantation, and underlying malignancies. Alcohol abuse is one of the risk factors for osteonecrosis, and alcohol-induced osteonecrosis is 5% among all the osteonecrosis. Furthermore, the overall incidence of alcohol-induced multifocal osteonecrosis was approximately 6% among all the osteonecrosis induced by the alcohol. Therefore, here, we report an extremely rare case of alcohol-induced multifocal osteonecrosis involving three joints (two knees and one hip and review the related literature.

  9. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  10. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  11. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P;

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  12. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  13. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated [18F]N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of [18F]N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  15. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  16. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...

  17. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, T A

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  18. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  19. Love on the rocks: alcohol abuse and domestic violence in rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    What causes alcohol abuse and domestic violence and how can we stop them? These behaviors have multiple determinants, making the effects of changes in wife's and husband's income ambiguous. This paper estimates the effects of exogenous changes in wife's and husband's income on husband alcohol abuse and alcohol-induced violence using new data from rural Mexico. A long-lasting 20 dollar monthly increase in wife income decreases husbands' alcohol abuse by 15% and aggressive behavior by 21%; the ...

  20. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Leading to Spontaneous Muscle Hematoma: An Event Fraught with Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Mangla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with both potentiating and antagonizing hemostatic states. Liver cirrhosis is an independent causal factor for many bleeding complications. The long-term effects of alcohol abuse coupled with advanced liver cirrhosis are additive in favor of bleeding. We report the case of a patient with a history of alcohol abuse who presented with liver cirrhosis and nontraumatic muscle hematoma diagnosed as a spontaneous hematoma of the gastrocnemius muscle. He was managed conservatively with infusions of fresh frozen plasma and platelets, which resulted in resolution of the hematoma. The pathogenesis of ‘spontaneous' muscle hematoma remains anecdotal, but since it is reported in patients on anticoagulant therapy or with hemostatic disorders, it is hypothetically related to severely deranged coagulation. Here we review the relevant literature pertaining to the pathogenesis, presentation and treatment options available for treating this often fatal complication of bleeding diatheses.

  1. Erectile impotence in chronic alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E T; Johnson, R H; Lambie, D G; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1984-01-01

    Erectile impotence is a common complaint in alcoholics, but its mechanism is unknown. We have studied nocturnal penile erection in 13 alcoholics who complained of impotence. Seven had normal erections and their impotence was therefore psychogenic. Six were found to have diminished or absent nocturnal erections. Plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were elevated in this latter group, with the exception of one patient who had only raised FSH. They also had more evidence of neurological damage than the other seven alcoholics, and two had evidence of damage to the parasympathetic nervous system. Investigation of erection during sleep in alcoholic patients with impotence may be useful in differentiating clinically between patients with psychogenic causes and patients with organic causes of impotence.

  2. Studies on the Oxidative Stress in Alcohol Abusers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective In order to study the relationship between alcohol abuse and oxidative stress, and to identify oxidative damage of alcohol abuse in human bodies. Methods 80 cases of male alcoholics (AL) aged 40 years old and 80 cases of male healthy volunteers (HV) of the same age without drinking history were investigated by measuring concentrations of vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene (β-CAR) in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in RBC with spectrophotometric assays. Results Compared with the average values (AV) of the above biochemical parameters in the HV group, the average values of VC, VE and β-CAR in plasma and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in RBC in the AL group were significantly decreased (P = 0.0000). The findings in linear regression and correlation analysis for 80 alcoholics showed that with the prolonged drinking duration and increased daily drinking quantity, the values of VC, VE and β-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in RBC in the alcoholics were gradually decreased (P = 0.000), representing a respectively significant linear negative correlation. The analysis of stepwise regression and correlation revealed that the drinking duration had the closest correlation with the values of VE in plasma as well as CAT and GSH-Px in RBC, while the daily drinking quantity had the closest correlation with the values of VC, VE and β-CAR in plasma as well as SOD and GSH-Px in RBC. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggested that the oxidative stress in the alcoholics became pathologically intensified, leading to potential oxidative damages in their bodies. Therefore, alcoholics should abstain from alcohol drinking, and should take as supplements suitable dosage of antioxidants per day such as VC, VE, β-CAR and others to moderate potential oxidative damages in their bodies.

  3. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  4. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P;

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....

  5. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  6. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  7. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ayhan Acar; Mustafa Kalkan; Rıdvan Çetin; Erdem Çevik; Orhan Çınar

    2014-01-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psycho...

  8. Alcohol increases impulsivity and abuse liability in heavy drinking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R; Evans, Suzette M

    2012-12-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  9. Adolescent Drug Abuse and Alcoholism: Directions for the School and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extent of adolescent drug abuse and alcoholism, psychological factors that lead to drug abuse and drinking, and treatment approaches that have been used with young people. Focuses on drug-abusing family systems and the roles of the school and the community in combatting drug abuse. (Author/GC)

  10. Altered functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex in chronic heroin abusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinbao Qi; Xianming Fu; Ruobing Qian; Chaoshi Niu; Xiangpin Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity of the pre-frontal cortex in chronic heroin abusers using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that, compared with normal controls, in heroin abusers the left prefrontal cortex showed decreased functional connectivity with the left hippocampus, right anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. However, the right prefrontal cortex showed decreased functional connectivity with the left orbital frontal cortex and the left middle frontal gyrus in chronic heroin abusers. These alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortices of heroin abusers suggest that their frontal executive neural network may be impaired, and that this may contribute to their continued heroin abuse and relapse after withdrawal.

  11. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.

  12. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  13. Harm Reduction as "Continuum Care" in Alcohol Abuse Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-11-19

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  14. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.;

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion...... A compared with group C. The changes in water balance induced by chronic alcohol consumption were reversible within a few days when the rats received water instead of 15% alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic alcohol consumption has an antidiuretic effect in rats. The percentage of total ingested fluid leaving...... the body as hidden water loss increases after alcohol consumption by up to 25-26% over control values....

  15. Radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional changes found in radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes (n=82; AAWS) regressed to normal values with recovery from AAWS (during 4 days on the average) with the exception of the secretory value which increased to a maximum on the 7th day of observation, remaining approximately unchanged for the following 3 days and decreasing more gradually to a normal value on the 23rd day of observation. In various forms of AAWS the same functional changes in the radiohippuran renogram were observed. (author)

  16. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  17. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18-25 (N=268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood.

  18. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  19. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  20. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  1. Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Spanish Immigrant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Luis; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Pulido, Jose; Molist, Gemma; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Ruíz-García, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the immigrant population has substantially increased in Spain. However, there is a lack of information in the knowledge of alcohol abuse among Spanish immigrants. We describe the epidemiology of alcohol abuse among foreign-born immigrants versus Spanish natives. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the European Survey of Health on the General Population of Spain of 2009. A sample of 22,188 subjects was analyzed (of whom, 3,162 were foreign). Proxies of problematic alcohol consumption were the prevalence of excessive average consumption and the prevalence of excessive episodic consumption (binge drinking). Descriptive analysis of the population, determination of area of origin with major alcohol consumption and related factors for each kind of consumption, separating immigrant and native population, were performed. The immigrant profile was heterogeneous, though predominantly aged between 35 and 54, and were living with their family and working. 3.4% of immigrants and 3.2% of natives were considered excessive drinkers; 8.9% and 10%, respectively, reported binge drinking in the last year. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, and Latin America, Andean countries had significantly a higher report of frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking compared to native. On the contrary, born in Africa was a protective factor. Unemployment was the most relevant related factor, being more important in the immigrant population. The excessive alcohol consumption in immigrants is dissimilar; the interventions must be adapted to their social situation, environments and areas of origin. PMID:26132302

  2. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  3. The Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Pulmonary Alveolar-Capillary Barrier Function in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Ellen L.; Halkar, Raghuveer; Burks, Marsha; Moss, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a disorder characterized by abnormal alveolar-capillary permeability. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of alcohol abuse would have clinical evidence of abnormal alveolar-capillary permeability even in the absence of symptoms. This could contribute to their propensity for the development of this disorder. Methods: Thirty-three subjects with a history of alcohol abuse, but no other ...

  4. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker in persons suspected of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Sondermann, Rolf; Reich, Susanne E; Wiese, Andreas

    2004-06-15

    The coherence of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) as a biomarker of alcohol abuse was investigated with 15 conventional laboratory parameters, with the self-reported medical history and with clinical findings, all previously reported to be associated with chronic alcohol intake. In total, 100 male persons who were at least suspected of abusing alcohol were assessed. Medical history, clinical picture and physical examination were taken, and laboratory parameters regarding blood count, liver enzymes, serum lipids, iron balance, Ig A and uric acid were determined. These data were correlated with the CDT values, the daily ethanol intakes reported, and several findings from medical history and clinical examination. The mean CDT level (mean+/-S.D.) of the entire group was 29.4+/-19.7 U/l. Eighty-one patients admitted a daily ethanol intake of 60 g or more. The ratio AST/ALT (de Ritis ratio) appeared as the best conventional parameter correlated with both CDT and ethanol intake. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron, AST and red blood cell count also correlated significantly with CDT. CDT, AST and ferritin correlated significantly with the reported daily ethanol intake. It is concluded that CDT provides a reliable estimate of long-term alcohol intake.

  5. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa M.; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age and sex-stratified population survey of Olmsted County, MN residents (n=610), we developed a sexual abuse severity score (SASS). The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included: age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, sever...

  6. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  7. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette;

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...... investigated the role of pretreatment coping strategies in outcome of outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. The pretreatment coping strategies of 136 clients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse were examined as a predictor of drinking pattern after treatment. The pretreatment coping strategies...... treatment for alcohol abuse. Restraint coping was found predictive of a positive drinking pattern at follow-up while the use of alcohol to cope was found predictive of a negative drinking pattern. Furthermore, the results showed tendencies towards the possibility that some coping strategies co...

  8. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  9. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  10. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  11. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  12. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ailin Du; Hongbo Jiang; Lei Xu; Na An; Hui Liu; Yinsheng Li; Ruiling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deifcits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6%alcohol for 42 days. Endog-enous hydrogen sulifde content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were signiifcantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear mem-brane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin.

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss. PMID:27286935

  15. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR... by the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  16. CHRONIC ALCOHOL NEUROADAPTATION AND STRESS CONTRIBUTE TO SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR ALCOHOL CRAVING AND RELAPSE

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, George R.; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Major characteristics observed in alcoholics during an initial period of alcohol abstinence are altered physiological functions and a negative emotional state. Evidence suggests that a persistent, cumulative adaptation involving a kindling/allostasis-like process occurs during the course of repeated chronic alcohol exposures that is critical for the negative symptoms observed during alcohol withdrawal. Basic studies have provided evidence for specif...

  17. Studies on the Oxidative Stress in Alcohol Abusers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUJUN-FU; CHENPENG

    2001-01-01

    Objective:In order to study the relationship between alcoho abuse and oxidative stress,and to identify oxidative damage of alcoho abuse in human bodies.Methods:80 Cases of male alcoholics(AL) aged 40 years old and 80 cases of male healthy volunteers(HV)of the same age without drinking histroy were investigated by measuring concentrations of vitaminC(VC),vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene(β-CAR)in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalse(CAT) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)in RBC with spectrophotometri assays.Results:Compared with the average values(AV) of the above biochemical parameters in the HV group ,the average values of VC,VE and β-CAR in plasma and the activities of SOD,CAT and GSH-Px in RBC in the AL group were significantly decreased (P=0.0000),The findings in linear regression and correlation analysis for 80 alcoholics showed that with the prolonged drinking duration and increased daily drinking quantity,the values of VC,VE and β-CAR in plasma as well as SOD,CAT and GSH-Px in RBC in the alcoholics were gradually decreased(P=0.000),representing a respectively significant linear negative correlation.The analysis of stepwise regression and correlation rewvealed that the drinking duration had the closest correlation with the values of VE in plasma as well as CAT and GSH-Px in RBC,while the daily drinking quantity had the closest correlation with the values of VC,VE and β-CAR in plasma as well as SOD and GSH-Px in RBC,Conclusion :The findings of the present study suggested that the oxidative stress in the alcoholics became pathologically intensified,leading to potential oxidative damages in their bodies.Therefore,alcoholica should abstain from alcohol drinking,and should take as supplements suitable dosage of antioxidants per day such as VC,VE,β-CAR and others to moderate potential oxidative damages in their bodies.

  18. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...

  19. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223...

  20. Alcohol use and abuse in training conscripts of the Hellenic navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menoutis Vassilis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Alcohol abuse and addiction are big current problems of the developed world having multivariate causality and multiple effects. Alcohol abuse in young people is a matter of central importance due to its wide range long lasting effects, especially so in Greece where the problem has only recently started growing. The Hellenic Navy is interested in the complications of alcohol abuse in training conscripts. Because young conscripts will be placed in demanding positions, but also because in Greece the military service is obligatory and represents an important period for the socialization of young men. Methods In the present study, levels of alcohol use and abuse were measured in a sample of 650 male training conscripts of the Hellenic Navy. The tools used are: (a two questionnaires measuring frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption and psychosocial variables, (b the CAGE test, which is a questionnaire measuring hidden alcoholism. Results 38,1% conscripts were characterized problematic drinkers according the adolescents criteria. Additional psychological complications were related to alcohol use. Using the stricter criterion for adults (plus psychological complications 8.9% were found to be problematic drinkers. The use of CAGE questionnaire which is measuring hidden alcoholism, identified 16% of the total sample as hidden alcoholics. Discussion The findings regarding unregular levels of alcohol use and abuse are presented as well as their relation to psychosocial complications and to demographic characteristics. The results are discussed in the light of Creek and international bibliography.

  1. Neural mechanisms of pain and alcohol dependence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Neugebauer, Volker; Koob, George; Edwards, Scott; Levine, Jon D.; Ferrari, Luiz; Egli, Mark; Regunathan, Soundar

    2013-01-01

    An association between chronic pain conditions and alcohol dependence has been revealed in numerous studies with episodes of alcohol abuse antedating chronic pain in some people and alcohol dependence emerging after the onset of chronic pain in others. Alcohol dependence and chronic pain share common neural circuits giving rise to the possibility that chronic pain states could significantly affect alcohol use patterns and that alcohol dependence could influence pain sensitivity. The reward an...

  2. Job loss and alcohol abuse: a test using data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, R; Dooley, D; Wilson, G; Hough, R

    1993-09-01

    The hypothesis that job loss affects the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is tested using panel data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Results suggest that the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is greater among those who have been laid off than among those who have not. However, employed persons in communities in which total employment is unexpectedly low are at reduced risk of becoming alcohol abusers. The implications of the results for economic policy and for mental health services are discussed briefly. PMID:7989666

  3. Acute Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complicating Chronic Alcoholism and Mimicking Carcinoid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piercarlo Ballo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient’s condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

  4. Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

  5. The negative impact of the disturb of the use and abuse of the alcohol in the family coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de Miranda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The use and abuse of the alcohol progress in a slow and insidious way developing for chronic disease carting immeasurable problems in the individual's process health-disease and of the family all over the world. The present research study analyzed the negative impact in the family coexistence related to the upset of the use and alcohol abuse. It is treated of a field research with qualitative approach centered in the relatives' relieves uttered spontaneously in the act of the admission of a service of psychiatric urgency in the metropolitan area of Natal City/RN. The technician-methodological instrument of the data collection was based on the active listening research. Starting from the explanatory models where the relieves were contained, prevailing the morals associated to the ethical-legal. The discoveries reveal that the model explanatory morals of the use and abuse of alcohol is better explained by the relatives, although the moralize sense is also captured in the speeches that illustrate the other models. We verified one it refuses in accepting the patient condition, even if the relief of the current tensions of taking care of the alcoholic is the hospital. Many are the explanatory and therapeutic proposals for the problem, though we cannot lose of view the need to promote permanent educational actions that guarantee to the bearers and family a larger understanding of the lived problems and a better adaptation of the years lived adjusted the lost capacity by virtue of all the alterations happened in the continuation of the use and abuse of the alcohol in your process health-disease.

  6. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss.

  7. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance. 240.119 Section 240.119 Transportation Other... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not...

  8. Peer effects, unobserved factors and risk behaviours: an analysis of alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, José-Julián; Molina, José Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the factors which affect alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents. We propose a new theoretical specification in which alcohol abuse and truancy appear as derived demands, given that they condition peer group and family acceptance, and we introduce unobserved individual effects that can influence both behaviours. Empirically, our paper develops an analysis where, after controlling for the existence of unobserved individual factors affecting both de...

  9. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms Among Hospital Employees Exposed to a SARS Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fang, Yunyun; Fan, Bin; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Guan, Zhiqiang; Yao, Zhongling; Kong, Junhui; Lu, Jin; Litvak, Iva J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms among hospital employees exposed to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and the relationship between types of exposure to the SARS outbreak and subsequent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Methods: A survey was conducted among 549 randomly selected hospital employees in Beijing, China, concerning the psychological impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Subjects were assessed on sociodemographic factors a...

  10. Creating New Meaning Through Dialogue: A case story of chronic pain and sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Radomsky, Nellie A.

    1992-01-01

    Patients with chronic physical and psychiatric problems often have a history of sexual or physical abuse. This case illustrates the long-term effects of sexual abuse and the challenge physicians face in understanding complex clinical stories.

  11. Gut region-dependent alterations of nitrergic myenteric neurons after chronic alcohol consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária; Bagyánszki; Nikolett; Bódi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse damages nearly every organ in the body. The harmful effects of ethanol on thebrain, the liver and the pancreas are well documented. Although chronic alcohol consumption causes serious impairments also in the gastrointestinal tract like altered motility, mucosal damage, impaired absorption of nu-trients and inflammation, the effects of chronically consumed ethanol on the enteric nervous system are less detailed. While the nitrergic myenteric neurons play an essential role in the regulation of gastrointestinal peristalsis, it was hypothesised, that these neurons are the first targets of consumed ethanol or its metabolites generated in the different gastrointestinal segments. To reinforce this hypothesis the effects of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract was investigated in different rodent models with quantitative immunohistochemistry, in vivo and in vitro motility measurements, western blot analysis, evaluation of nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity and bio-imaging of nitric oxide synthesis. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption did not result significant neural loss, but primarily impaired the nitrergic pathways in gut region-dependent way leading to disturbed gastrointestinal motility. The gut segment-specific differences in the effects of chronic alcohol consumption highlight the significance the ethanol-induced neuronal microenvironment involving oxidative stress and intestinal microbiota.

  12. Development of country-wide strategies to reduce the alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikfarjam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

  13. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  14. 76 FR 47597 - Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Memorandum of Agreement Between U.S. Department of Health and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... the child abuse and neglect data provision in the MOA, tied to 25 U.S.C. 2434, did not appear to... comment on child abuse and neglect data, no change was made to the MOA itself in light of this comment... with alcohol or substance abuse problems. 10. Child abuse and neglect data: As provided in 25...

  15. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  16. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower

  17. Alcohol abuse and criminality : a cross-fostering study of gene-environment interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sigvardsson, Sören

    1982-01-01

    The subjects consists of all persons born out of wedlock in Stockholm during the years 1930 through 1949 and who were placed in non-related adoptive homes by the age of three years (N = 1 753, or 862 men and 913 women). Data are obtained from official records. Results. Alcohol abuse cannot be regarded as a homogeneous trait distributed in the population according to one single dimension — severity. Rather two types of alcohol abuse was demonstrated in this cohort. Type 1 abuse, accounting for...

  18. Culture and Environment as Predictors of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms In American Indian Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-01-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spiri...

  19. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  20. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  1. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick B. S. Brashier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata′s and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse,that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.

  2. Chronic alcohol ingestion exacerbates skeletal muscle myopathy in HIV-1 transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Margaux A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Findings Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed alcohol for 12 weeks. Catabolic signaling factors such as TGFβ1, TNFα, and phospho-p38/total-p38 were increased in all groups compared to controls. There was no effect on IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1, or ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF in control-fed, transgenic rats. However, the co-morbidity of chronic alcohol abuse and HIV-1-related protein expression decreased expression of the two anabolic factors, CT-1 and CNTF. Conclusions Consistent with previous reports, alcohol abuse accentuated skeletal muscle atrophy in an animal model of HIV/AIDS. While some catabolic pathways known to drive alcoholic or HIV-1-associated myopathies were also elevated in this co-morbid model (e.g., TGFβ1, consistent expression patterns were not apparent. Thus, specific alterations to signaling mechanisms such as the induction of the myostatin/activin IIB system or reductions in growth factor signaling via

  3. Understanding the Pathophysiological Basis of Alterations of Hematological Picture in Alcohol Abuse Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Maitra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse disorder is a major health related problem. Almost all organs is affected by the alcohol ingestion. Peripheral blood smear usually provides significant information regarding diagnosis and prognosis of a disease. Objective of our study was to determine impairment of hematological system in non cirrhotic alcohol abuse disorder patients compared to the normal subjects. Hematological parameters were investigated in 120 subjects including 30 normal control and 90 alcoholics. Study shows significant changes in WBC status. Total leukocyte count is significantly elevated in heavy drinkers. Significant increase in neutrophil count is observed in moderate (11% and high (18% alcohol intake group (p < 0.05. Lymphocytes and Monocytes decrease significantly in moderate to heavy drinkers. Our study shows that Eosinophil does not show significant changes among the groups. ESR was found to be increased significantly in alcoholics and shows a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.89 with hemoglobin.

  4. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students. PMID:26990389

  5. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  6. Greater than the Sum of its Parts: The Combined Effect of Early Alcohol Use and Violence on Alcohol Abuse and Violence in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Reingle, Jennifer; Livingston, Melvin D.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and violence are key contributors to leading causes of death among youth. Yet, the relationship between violence and alcohol use is complex and the developmental impact of this association merits further investigation. The current study used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate how violence and alcohol use coexist in adolescence and how this coexistence predicts alcohol abuse and violence in adulthood. ...

  7. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt.

  8. Health risks of chronic moderate and heavy alcohol consumption: how much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Bode, Christiane; Nixon, Sara Jo; de Bruin, Eveline A; Bode, J Christian; Seitz, Helmut K

    2005-07-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. Most of what we know about the deleterious effects of alcohol in vivo has been gleaned from studies in sober alcoholics recruited from substance abuse treatment programs. Little is known about effects of chronic drinking in the moderate or heavy range encountered in a much larger fraction of modern society. Extrapolation of information on the adverse effects of chronic drinking on organ function from clinical samples to social drinkers in the general population has to be met with great skepticism, as it may lead to wrong conclusions about the chronic effects of alcohol in social drinkers. Several recent studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption has certain beneficial health effects, whereas heavy social alcohol consumption has recently been associated with organ abnormalities and cognitive deficits. These social drinking effects have attracted great public interest; reports of benefits of moderate drinking have also inspired inappropriate publications by the media, including misleading advertisements by the alcohol producing and distributing industry. Although adverse effects of moderate to heavy drinking on heart, liver, and cancer development have attracted attention by clinicians and researchers for some time, its compromising effects on brain and cognition have only recently been studied. This symposium brought together researchers from different disciplines, who reviewed and presented new data on consequences of social drinking in the areas of clinical neuropsychology and behavior (Drs. Nixon and Meyerhoff), neurophysiology (Dr. Nixon, Ms. De Bruin), neuroimaging (Ms. de Bruin, Dr. Meyerhoff), hepatic disease (Dr. Bode), and cancer (Dr. Seitz). The symposium aimed to clarify both the potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption and risks of moderate and

  9. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Tønnesen, H; Kaas-Claesson, N;

    1989-01-01

    Data on menstrual pattern, gynecological disorders and infertility were obtained from 51 chronic alcoholic women aged 20--42 years attending an outpatient clinic for alcoholics, using 51 randomly drawn age-matched healthy women as controls. A higher variability (P less than 0.05) in the duration...... of both menstrual cycle and menstrual flow was recorded in the chronic alcoholic women during active alcoholism. A higher frequency (P less than 0.05) of menstrual disturbances (70% vs. 55%) and uterine curettages (38% vs. 16%) were found in the alcoholic women. The latter reported more abortions (63% vs....... 28%, P less than 0.001) and miscarriages (23% vs. 8%, P less than 0.05) than controls, but due to a higher number of pregnancies in the alcoholic group the proportion of abortions and miscarriages did not differ significantly. No differences existed between the groups regarding frequency of difficult...

  10. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  11. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication.

  12. Pathophysiology Review Series: Alcohol Abuse, the Alveolar Macrophage, and Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Guidot, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use, and misuse, has been a part of human culture for thousands of years. In the modern medical era a great deal of attention has been justifiably focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the psychological and biological addiction to alcohol. However, a significant percentage, if not the majority, of alcohol-related morbidity and mortality occurs in individuals who do not meet the formal diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders. For example, many serious medical consequen...

  13. A common variant of PNPLA3 (p.I148M is not associated with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rosendahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP is an inflammatory disease that in some patients leads to exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. In industrialized countries the most common aetiology is chronic alcohol abuse. Descriptions of associated genetic alterations in alcoholic CP are rare. However, a common PNPLA3 variant (p.I148M is associated with the development of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. Since, alcoholic CP and ALC share the same aetiology PNPLA3 variant (p.I148M possibly influences the development of alcoholic CP. METHODS: Using melting curve analysis we genotyped the variant in 1510 patients with pancreatitis or liver disease (961 German and Dutch alcoholic CP patients, 414 German patients with idiopathic or hereditary CP, and 135 patients with ALC. In addition, we included in total 2781 healthy controls in the study. RESULTS: The previously published overrepresentation of GG-genotype was replicated in our cohort of ALC (p-value <0.0001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.3. Distributions of genotype and allele frequencies of the p.I148M variant were comparable in patients with alcoholic CP, idiopathic and hereditary CP and in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of an association of PNPLA3 p.I148M with alcoholic CP seems not to point to a common pathway in the development of alcoholic CP and alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

  14. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. PMID:27034406

  15. Polysubstance abuse: alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines require coordinated engagement by society, patients, and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.

  16. Self concept and drinking problems of college students raised in alcohol-abused homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearden, J J; Markwell, B S

    1989-01-01

    To examine drinking problems and self concept of college students raised in homes where alcohol is abused, 148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the "Personal Self" section of The Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Students classified as children of alcoholics had a significantly lower self concept (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%) and lapses of memory after drinking bouts (62%) show an amount of drinking on college campuses that is truly alarming. PMID:2728960

  17. Genetic susceptibility factors for alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Ali A; Weiss, F Ulrich; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M; Simon, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas and frequently associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. Since only a small proportion of alcoholics eventually develop chronic pancreatitis genetic susceptibility factors have long been suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Smaller studies in ethnically defined populations have found that not only polymorphism in proteins involved in the metabolism of ethanol, such as Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, can confer a risk for developing chronic pancreatitis but also mutations that had previously been reported in association with idiopathic pancreatitis, such as SPINK1 mutations. In a much broader approach employing genome wide search strategies the NAPS study found that polymorphisms in the Trypsin locus (PRSS1 rs10273639), and the Claudin 2 locus (CLDN2-RIPPLY1-MORC4 locus rs7057398 and rs12688220) confer an increased risk of developing alcohol-induced pancreatitis. These results from North America have now been confirmed by a European consortium. In another genome wide approach polymorphisms in the genes encoding Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) non-secretor status and blood group B were not only found in association with higher serum lipase levels in healthy volunteers but also to more than double the risk for developing alcohol-associated chronic pancreatitis. These novel genetic associations will allow to investigate the pathophysiological and biochemical basis of alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis on a cellular level and in much more detail than previously possible. PMID:26149858

  18. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C.; Hong, Kwangik A.; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  19. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders.

  20. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. The authority to enter into contracts shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such...

  1. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract....

  2. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.

  3. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among High-Risk Youth: Computer-Based Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Ozanian, Alfred J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a CD-ROM intervention to prevent alcohol abuse among high-risk youths. Youths from 41 community-based agencies in greater New York City participated in a randomized trial of a skills-based interactive CD-ROM. Outcome data were collected on 489 early adolescents in these agencies before and after a randomized subset of youths interacted with a 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program on CD-ROM. Compared to control participants, youths in the interventi...

  4. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  5. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers. PMID:12940500

  6. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL ABUSE IN A RURAL AREA OF PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: “Drug abuse” is defined as self - administration of a drug for non - medical reasons, in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individual’s ability to function effectively and which may result in social, physical, or emotional harm. About 190 million people all over the world consume one drug or the other. Drug abuse causes immense human distress and the illegal production and distribution of drugs have spawned crime and violence worldwide. According to World Drug Report (2009 there were 25,71,52582 alcohol users , alcohol dependents were 8,22,88826 . Cannabis users were 82,28,883 and Opiate users were 2,057,221 in India. Alcohol is one of the leading causes of death and disability globally. Overall, 3.5% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for as much death and disability as tobacco and hypertension. As lot of changes have occurred in the last two decades and variations in consumption patterns is present in different regions, thus the findings of studies conducted earlier and at distant places may not be of much interest in the present scenario. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Ludhiana, Punjab. OBJECTIVES: a To find out the prevalence of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab; b To assess pattern of alcohol abuse in a rural area of Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study done in t he field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana (i.e. Rural Health Training Center (RHTC located at village Pohir, Block Dehlon, District Ludhiana, Punjab. One thousand seven hundred thirty two study subjects of fifteen years and above were part of study. Primary tools in this study were predesigned and pretested interview schedule and Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test V3 (ASSIST V3 questioner, to collect

  7. Cyclic vomiting and compulsive bathing with chronic cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepyala, Pavan; Olden, Kevin W

    2008-06-01

    Cannabis is commonly recognized for its antiemetic properties. However, chronic cannabis use can lead to paroxysmal vomiting. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern identical to cyclic vomiting syndrome. Interestingly cyclic vomiting syndrome has been associated with compulsive bathing which patients report can relieve their intense feelings of nausea and lessen their vomiting intensity. We report a case of a patient with chronic cannabis use who developed symptoms similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome who also engaged in compulsive bathing behavior as observed by members of the medical and nursing staff. The patient reported that frequent hot showers would prevent him from vomiting and also relieve his concomitant abdominal pain. Previous hospitalizations at our hospital for the same complaint also noted similar showering behavior. During the hospital stay, the patient agreed to engage in a outpatient drug rehabilitation program which he subsequently completed. Abstinence from cannabis use caused the patients vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain to disappear completely. Likewise, his compulsive showering behavior also ceased. Other investigators have reported similar findings in patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome who initially used cannabis to treat their vomiting episodes but subsequently found that it contributed to their vomiting. Our patient has lead us to conclude that in patients seen for chronic severe vomiting and abdominal pain which has no obvious structural or chemical etiology and which is accompanied by compulsive showering and/or bathing behavior a diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome with concomitant cannabis abuse needs to be considered. PMID:18456571

  8. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  9. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    OpenAIRE

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Sarikhani, Yaser; Javanmardi, Kazem; Akbary, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Tabrizi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers. Methods This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran. Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the day. The data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some...

  11. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  12. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  13. Chronic manganese toxicity due to substance abuse in Turkish patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Koksal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manganese toxicity may lead to a levodopa-resistant akinetic-rigid syndrome. Pathological changes occur mostly in the pallidium and stratium. Materials and Methods: We report seven patients with a new form of chronic manganese toxicity due to long-term intravenous use of a solution consisting of ephedrine, acetylsalicylic acid and potassium permanganate as a psycho-stimulant, popularly known as "Russian Cocktail". Results: The age of the patients ranged between 19 and 31 years, and the duration of substance abuse was between nine and 106 months. The onset of symptoms from first use ranged seven to 35 months. The initial symptom was impaired speech followed by gait disturbance and bradykinesia. In addition to these symptoms, choreic movements, ataxia presenting as backward falls and dystonia were also seen. Serum and urine samples revealed high levels of manganese. Hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were seen in bilateral basal ganglia and brainstem, dentate nuclei, features consistent with manganese intoxication. Conclusion: Manganese toxicity, which may cause a distinctive irreversible neurodegenerative disorder, can be seen frequently with "Russian Cocktail" abuse, a substance which can be accessed very easily and at a low cost.

  14. Alcoholic pancreatitis:Lessons from the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dahn; L; Clemens; Katrina; J; Mahan

    2010-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for over 100 years. Despite the fact that this association is well recognized, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse leads to pancreatic tissue damage are not entirely clear. Alcohol abuse is the major factor associated with pancreatitis in the Western world. Interestingly, although most cases of chronic pancreatitis and many cases of acute pancreatitis are associated with alcohol abuse, only a small percentage of individuals w...

  15. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    OpenAIRE

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I.; Michael M. Halassa; Haydon, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5...

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in chronic polidrug abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure to cocaine and other drugs are in clear association with a variety of medical complications, involving many organ systems. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is particularly sensitive to such exposures: permanent behavioral, psychiatric and neurological complications are common in this group of patients. Regional cerebral blood perfusion (rCBF) analysis has been used to study these conditions with PET and SPECT for a long time. According to the literature, it is clear that drug exposure (particularly cocaine) does produce significant changes over rCBF, nevertheless the vast majority of SPECT and some PET studies are difficult to reproduce because they were analyzed using subjective (visual) and/or ROI's to address the changes. Aim: To study the pattern of rCBF change of chronic cocaine and other drugs (polidrug) users/abusers population using brain SPECT and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Material and Methods: From a population of 163 addicted patients, 55 chronic cocaine and other drugs users/abuser were selected. A pre-treatment brain SPECT under basal conditions was performed in all of them. 99mTc-ECD was used as rCBF tracer and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) as a framework to address statistically significant rCBF variations of change. The whole group was compared with a population of normal patients (both sexes, aged between 20 and 40 y.o., no history of trauma, drug exposure, neurological or psychiatric disorders). Results: Significant areas of reduced (hypoperfusion) and increased (hyperperfusion) rCBF were identified in the patients group. The hypoperfusion areas involve mainly the left insula region and the surrounding frontal and temporal lobe and a smaller area in the anterior and inferior portion of the right frontal lobe. The increased perfusion areas were identified at the left thalamus and the right fronto-parietal cortical region. Conclusion: Our results suggest that chronic cocaine exposure produce activation/damage to

  17. Alcohol Use and Abuse in a Rural School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello-Linden, Mary Frances

    Student responses were elicited in classroom discussions about alcohol use in their own rural community. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires and interviews concerning various aspects of alcohol consumption as part of the local lifestyle. Students gave reasons for drinking such as ethnic and religious acceptance in the local community,…

  18. Synaptic adaptations by alcohol and drugs of abuse: changes in microRNA expression and mRNA regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eMost

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local translation of mRNAs is a mechanism by which cells can rapidly remodel synaptic structure and function. There is ample evidence for a role of synaptic translation in the neuroadaptations resulting from chronic drug use and abuse. Persistent and coordinated changes of many mRNAs, globally and locally, may have a causal role in complex disorders such as addiction. In this review we examine the evidence that translational regulation by microRNAs drives synaptic remodeling and mRNA expression, which may regulate the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use.MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that control the translation of mRNAs in the cell and within spatially restricted sites such as the synapse. MicroRNAs typically repress the translation of mRNAs into protein by binding to the 3’UTR of their targets. As ‘master regulators’ of many mRNAs, changes in microRNAs could account for the systemic alterations in mRNA and protein expression observed with drug abuse and dependence. Recent studies indicate that manipulation of microRNAs affects addiction-related behaviors such as the rewarding properties of cocaine, cocaine-seeking behavior and self-administration rates of alcohol. There is limited evidence, however, regarding how synaptic microRNAs control local mRNA translation during chronic drug exposure and how this contributes to the development of dependence.Here, we discuss research supporting microRNA regulation of local mRNA translation and how drugs of abuse may target this process. The ability of synaptic microRNAs to rapidly regulate mRNAs provides a discrete, localized system that could potentially be used as diagnostic and treatment tools for alcohol and other addiction disorders.

  19. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse....

  20. Polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin sponge particle embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating chronic alcoholic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Song Guan; Long Sun; Xiang-Ping Zhou; Xiao Li; Ze-Jun Fei; Xiao-Hua Zheng; Qing He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of and complications associated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin sponge particles embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.METHODS: A 42-year-old man with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis was admitted. We used PVA and gelatin sponge partides embo lization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm by superselective embolization techniques.RESULTS: The splenic artery pseudoaneurysm was successfully controlled with splenic embolization. The patient was discharged in 9 d with complete recovery. CONCLUSION: This case confirms that superselective transcatheter embolization by PVA and gelatin sponge particles may represent an effective treatment for pseudoaneurysm caused by chronic alcoholic pancreatitis in the absence of other therapeutic alternatives.

  1. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  2. Water metabolism in rats subjected to chronic alcohol administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Pohl, C.; Bode, J.C.;

    2004-01-01

    AIM: While the diuretic action of acute ingestion of alcohol has been studied extensively, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the balance of water intake and excretion...... and certain renal functions in rats during a period of 12 months. ANIMALS AND STUDY DESIGN: Male Wistar rats received either alcohol (15% v/v; group A, n = 65) or tap water (group C, n = 35) as drinking fluid. Urine and faeces were collected from 6 rats of each group during 7 days, at monthly intervals......-protein/high-fat diet. The reduced urine excretion was not due to lower liquid consumption and the pattern of daily excretion of faeces was comparable with that observed for urine excretion. Both sodium and potassium excretion and the diuretic response to an acute water load were significantly reduced in group...

  3. Corporal Punishment of Adolescents by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    1994-01-01

    Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…

  4. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  5. Training Needs of Rehabilitation Counselors concerning Alcohol and Other Drugs Abuse Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lee Za; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih Chin

    2007-01-01

    Forty-two rehabilitation counselors participated in a study regarding perceived training needs concerning alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) treatment and assessment. Participants reported that 85% of consumers with whom they worked had AODA issues, yet over half rated their graduate training in AODA treatment and assessment as poor, and their…

  6. Gentle knights: masculinity, teetotalism and aid for alcohol abuse c. 1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Blok

    2012-01-01

    Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance Movement

  7. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.H.D.A.; Kendler, K.S.; Moor, de M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; Vink, J.M.; Berg, van den S.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AA

  8. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  9. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  10. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  12. Getting a grip on drinking behavior: training working memory to reduce alcohol abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Houben; R.W. Wiers; A. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse disrupts core executive functions, including working memory (WM)—the ability to maintain and manipulate goal-relevant information. When executive functions like WM are weakened, drinking behavior gets out of control and is guided more strongly by automatic impulses. This study investig

  13. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  14. Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis: A quality of life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Carla BENINCÁ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the quality of life between patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis and controls, and between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, correlating clinical, sociodemographic, and nutritional factors with their quality of life scores. Methods: Forty-three outpatients of the pancreas and biliary tract clinic diagnosed with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis were assessed. Quality of life was measured by the Brazilian version of the Short Form-36. The control group consisted of 43 healthy companions. Nutritional status was classified according to body mass index and triceps, biceps, suprailiac, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, using the appropriate methods. The percentage of body fat was given by adding the four skinfold thicknesses and by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The statistical tests included the Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman's correlation tests, with the significance level set at p<0.05. Results: The sociodemographic variables of the case and control groups did not differ. Quality of life was lower in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients than in controls. The only quality of life domain that differed between diabetics and non-diabetics was functional capacity, lower in diabetics (p=0.022. Smoking duration, alcohol intake in grams, and time since pancreatic surgery correlated negatively with the quality of life of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients. Old age, skinfold thicknesses, and percentage of body fat correlated positively with quality of life. Conclusion: Quality of life is low in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis patients because of the negative influence of certain factors, such as smoking duration, amount of alcohol consumed, and time since pancreatic surgery.

  15. SOME PERSONALITY FEATURES AS PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Butorac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other behavioural disorders, models of drug and alcohol abuse stem from interaction of several factors such as social settings, biological and psychological configuration, individual’s personality dimensions as well as psychoactive effect of drug. To-date research predominantly targeted consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, treatment, rehabilitation and the explanation of dependent person’s behaviour. Much less effort and research addressed the issue of personality as a potent predisposition risk factor and its effect on this phenomenon. Although personality does not develop as a separate entity, drug abuse, amongst other factors, is initiated by different personality traits, cognitive processes, person’s expectancies and psychopathology. In the light of that, this article contains results of psychological research which indicate risk factors and their interactive relationships within general personality construct. These findings therefore relevantly contribute to the development of effective prevention programmes, risk groups identification and early treatment interventions.

  16. Central pontine myelinolysis with meticulous correction of hyponatraemia in chronic alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Konark; Ortega, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disorder that arises due to osmolar disturbances in the cerebral microenvironment characterised by loss of the myelin sheath of neurons. The diffusion-weighting imaging sequence of MRI is the most sensitive diagnostic imaging modality for myelinolysis. The rapid correction of hyponatraemia by >20-25 mmol/L/48 h has been known for a long time as a prime cause of osmotic demyelination. Various other comorbidities in hyponatraemic patients are well known that can lead to osmotic demyelination such as alcoholism, hypoxaemia, severe liver disease, malignancy, burns, liver transplantation and malnutrition. Chronic alcohol abusers with additional liver disease and malnutrition have altered osmotic equilibrium at baseline that predisposes them to osmotic demyelination. We suggest a more cautious and meticulous approach should be followed in these patients to avoid the dreaded complication. PMID:23813514

  17. The diagnosis and pathogenesis of chronic alcoholic myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kazantseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuromuscular apparatus lesion is a common complication of chronic alcohol intoxication. Alcohol-induced skeletal muscle diseaseis least studied now. A comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, and morphological examination was made in 42 patients with chronic alcoholintoxication during this study. All the patients underwent skeletal muscle biopsy followed by muscle fiber morphometry. There was both selective type 2 muscle fiber atrophy and diffuse types 1 and 2 muscle fiber atrophic changes. The clinical manifestations of skeletal muscle disease corresponded to the degree of an atrophic process. There was impairment in the main components of protein synthesis at both intracellular and systemic regulation levels.

  18. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  19. The effects of housing costs on polydrug abuse patterns: a comparison of heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, N M

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated how price of housing affects hypothetical purchasing decisions. Participants (26 heroin, 28 cocaine, and 15 alcohol abusers, and 25 controls) were exposed to 4 conditions in which they "purchased" drugs, food, housing, and entertainment. Whereas income remained constant, housing prices varied across conditions. Except for 23% of heroin abusers, participants purchased housing regardless of cost, so that income increased as housing cost decreased. Demand for food was income inelastic, whereas demand for entertainment was income elastic. Each group showed income elastic demand for their drug of choice. Hypothetical choices were reliable; drug choices were correlated with urinalysis results, and willingness to forgo housing in the simulation was correlated with time spent homeless in real life. This study shows that changes in housing prices may affect choices for drug and nondrug reinforcers. PMID:11519635

  20. Conditional Responding is Impaired in Chronic Alcoholics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Brokate, B.; Hoffmann, E.; Kröger, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Bechara (2003) describes a model for disturbances in executive functions related to addiction. This model involves deficits in decision-making and in suppressing pre-potent representations or response patterns. We tested this model in 29 individuals with longterm heavy alcohol dependency and compare

  1. The sexual abuse of young people with a disability or chronic health condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, M.

    2011-01-01

    For several reasons, children and youth with a disability or chronic health condition are at an increased risk of sexual abuse. Health care providers, along with parents and caregivers, need to maintain a high level of suspicion concerning possible sexual abuse of this population. Physicians especially need to advocate for policies to prevent or detect abuse in hospitals, schools and other institutional settings. Such policies include the thorough screening and monitoring of employees and vol...

  2. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  3. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...

  4. Use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guly, Hr

    2013-03-01

    During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, there was much discussion on the role of alcohol. The explorers expected to be able to consume alcohol, and the expeditions were supported by companies producing alcoholic beverages that used the Antarctic connection in their advertising. On the other side, it was said (incorrectly) than Fridjof Nansen, perhaps the most famous of the Arctic explorers, had taken no alcohol and this was used in the arguments against alcohol by the temperance movement. In general, alcohol consumption was low but it was felt that alcohol played an important role in maintaining the psychological welfare of the participants. A number of them had alcohol problems, and participation in an expedition was thought to be of benefit in that it would remove the temptation to consume alcohol. However, there were episodes of drunkenness on the ships and in the Antarctic. Cocaine was taken as one of a number of tonics but only one explorer is thought to have abused drugs, though another is said to have done so. PMID:24572800

  5. [Women in outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse: sociodemographic and clinical characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Corradi-Webster, Clarissa Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative and descriptive study aimed to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse. Data were collected from medical records of women with alcohol-related disorders who were treated at a psychiatric outpatient service We performed a reading and descriptive analysis of such data. The sample was composed of 27 medical records, the average age of women was 50 years, mostly married (59.6%), not working (70.4%) with incomplete primary education (70.4%), with an alcoholic family (81.5%) and other psychiatric diagnoses (70.3%). Losses physical, social and emotional was the most common symptoms resulting from alcohol withdrawal syndrome (66.7%), family conflicts (72%) and "sadness" (79.2%). Family violence was recorded in 11 records (40.7%). There was low education, unemployment, psychiatric comorbidities and the presence of other family members with alcohol abuse as common characteristics. We emphasize the importance of professional knowledge about the peculiarities of female alcoholism for health activities more effective. PMID:24015467

  6. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  7. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  8. Epigenetic modulation of brain gene networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Sean P; Harris, Robert A; Ponomarev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS). Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq) and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) events (ChIP-Seq) revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B/DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7/VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction. PMID:26041984

  9. Epigenetic Modulation of Brain Gene Networks for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Farris

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS. Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 events (ChIP-Seq revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B / DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7 / VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction.

  10. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  11. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  12. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  13. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  14. Estudo comparativo das habilidades sociais de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool Comparative study of social skills among alcohol abusers and non abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Patrício Aliane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar e comparar diferenças nas habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool. Foram pesquisados 80 sujeitos, entre dependentes e não-dependentes, usuários do SUS, e usados dois instrumentos para coleta dos dados: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS e AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Foi realizado um estudo comparativo das HS entre os grupos de dependentes e não-dependentes de álcool e álcool e outras drogas (AOD. Os resultados obtidos mostraram não existir diferença no escore do IHS entre dependentes e não-dependentes. Os homens obtiveram maior média nas habilidades de conversação e desenvoltura social e autocontrole da agressividade que as mulheres e, na amostra masculina, dependentes de álcool apresentaram maior média na habilidade de autocontrole da agressividade que dependentes de AOD. Apesar de a literatura sobre o tema discutir os déficits de HS entre dependentes, este estudo não confirmou esta hipótese.This research aims to evaluate and compare differences in Social Skills of alcohol abusers and non-abusers. Eighty people were interviewed, among alcohol abusers and non-abusers, patients of a Health Care Center (SUS. Two instruments were used to collect the data: Social Skills Inventory (ISS and AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A Comparative study between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers including other drugs was carried out. The results showed that there is no difference between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers ISS scores. Men showed a better score in conversation and social abilities also in self-control of the aggressiveness than women did. In addiction, men addicted to alcohol showed a better score in self-control of the aggressiveness than men addicted to alcohol and other drugs. Although literature about this topic shows that the alcohol abuse have an decrease of these social skills, this research does not

  15. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  16. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  17. Sexual Abuse and its Relation to Chronic Pain among Women from a Methadone Maintenance Clinic versus a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of sexual abuse history on chronic pain and its relation to opioid addiction and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), we studied current women MMT patients, and women patients from a sexual abuse treatment center with no history of opioid addiction. Questionnaires included Chronic Pain, Chronic Severe Pain, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (complex-PTSD). Chronic severe pain was most prevalent among sexually abused women with no history of opioid addiction (64% of 25), followed by sexually abused MMT women (30.9% of 68), and MMT women with no history of sexual abuse (25% of 8, p = 0.01). Pain severity correlated with dissociation and complex-PTSD scores. The sexually abused non-MMT women had higher rates of high dissociation scores (DES ≥ 30) and complex-PTSD, but fewer obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scored ≥16) than the MMT sexually abused women. Chronic pain was found to be highly prevalent among sexually abused women, independent of being methadone-maintained with an addiction history. The high known prevalence of chronic pain among MMT patients, which may be attributable to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, may partially reflect the sexual abuse history, and should be targeted in future studies evaluating pain indices. PMID:27430532

  18. Epidemiology and health service resource allocation policy for alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Regier, D A; S. Shapiro; Kessler, L G; Taube, C A

    1984-01-01

    Data from the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study in Baltimore, Md., are used to illustrate the association between alcohol, drug abuse, and mental disorder diagnoses with health service use. A probability sample of 3,481 adult (age 18 and over) residents of a geographically defined Baltimore City population of 175,000 was found to have a 23.4 per 100 population, 6-month prevalence of 13 specific alcohol, drug, and mental disorders. Of this population, 7.1 percent sought outpatient ...

  19. Hyperhidrosis and sympathetic skin response in chronic alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, V; Eleopra, R; De Grandis, D

    1999-02-01

    Palmoplantar hyperhidrosis is frequently observed in patients with a clinical history of chronic abnormal alcoholic intake. It can be related to peripheral or central mechanisms such as abnormal spontaneous activity in peripheral damaged fibres; receptor hypersensitivity; compensatory incremented activity in segmentary anhidrosis; or impairment of central sweat control. With the aim of quantifying this phenomenon and of identifying its possible origin, sympathetic skin response (SSR) analysis was performed in 20 chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diffuse acral hyperhidrosis, compared with 30 normal subjects and 2 patients affected by primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (PPH). SSRs were recorded by disc electrodes place on the hands and feet, simultaneously. At the hand level two recording sites were selected: palm-dorsum proximally and ventral-dorsal tip of the third finger distally. Attention was paid to the number of SSR after a single endogenous or exogenous stimulus. The alcoholic patients were divided into two groups, with and without mild polyneuropathy. Both patient groups showed synchronous SSR at recording sites, with the same pattern and the normal delay between upper and lower arms. In the control group one response was generally related to a single stimulus; if more responses were elicited an evident adaptation was shown; in the two groups of patients an increase of the waves was observed in all the recording sites without any adaptation. The SSR profile described in alcoholic patients was observed also in PPH. The pattern of SSR waves in alcoholic patients seems to suggest a possible central origin of this type of hyperhidrosis. PMID:10212744

  20. Identifying the Causal Effect of Alcohol Abuse on the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence by Men Using a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Averett, Susan L.; Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread among women, with substantial and long-lasting negative consequences. Researchers have documented a strong positive correlation between alcohol abuse and IPV. Yet prior researchers have struggled with the problem of the potential endogeneity of alcohol abuse. In this paper, we deal with this problem by exploring a unique instrumental variable - the September 11 terrorist attack (9/11) - in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ...

  1. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  2. Clinical and psychopatological features of organic depressive disorder in the individual abusing alcohol (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirina I.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of organic depressive disorder in the personality who sustained a traumatic brain injury and who abused alcohol, with distinguishing number of clinical and psychopathological features. Depressed mood, slowed thinking process, sleep disturbances, low self-esteem, hypochondriacal tendencies allowed to diagnose depressive disorder. Clinical history on sustained brain concussion, as well as inertness of nervous and mental processes revealed in psychodiagnostic study testified to organic genesis of the disease. Alcohol abuse by the person having an adverse organic background contributed to appearance of psychotic symptoms in clinical picture. Hallucinatory and delusional inclusions relatively quickly stopped on a background of antipsychotic treatment; this testified that they are secondary to the affective (depressive symptoms.

  3. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either perioper......BACKGROUND: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either......, smoking status and alcohol abuse with the primary outcome, being a composite of SSI, anastomotic leak, wound dehiscence, burst abdomen and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 21% of patients receiving dexamethasone versus 28% of patients not receiving dexamethasone...... was not significantly associated with SSI or other wound-related complications. Conversely, smoking and alcohol abuse were both significant predictors of the primary outcome consisting of wound-related complications and mortality....

  4. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  5. The Relationship among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Alcoholism, Family Environment and Suicidal Behavior in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yama, Mark F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among childhood sexual abuse and parental alcoholism, retrospective reports of family functioning, and having had a history of either suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Subjects (n=420) were drawn from a sample of undergraduate college women. Results indicate the experiences of childhood sexual abuse and parental…

  6. The Genetic Predisposition and Its Impact on the Diabetes Mellitus Development in Patients with Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Madro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP is alcohol abuse. The aim of the present study was to identify patients with genetic predisposition to CP abusing alcohol. The question posed was whether CP manifests at a younger age and diabetes mellitus develops earlier in individuals with genetic predisposition. The study encompassed 79 patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP and control group (100 persons. The following mutations were determined: R122H and N29I of PRSS1 and N34S of SPINK1 as well as E366K and E288V of SERPINA 1. No R122H and N291 mutations were observed in the group of ACP patients and in controls. Moreover, there was no E288V mutation. In 79 ACP patients, six SPINK 1 (N34S/wt mutations were observed. In the control group, one heterozygous SPINK 1N34S gene mutation was found (P=0.0238. Two PiZ mutations were identified in patients with ACP and one analogical mutation in controls. Amongst patients with ACP as well as SPINK1 and PiZ mutations, the onset of disease was observed earlier and developed earlier. The prevalence of SPINK1 mutation is higher in patients with ACP than in healthy populations. This mutation together with the effects of alcohol accelerates the development of ACP and of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Chronic alcohol consumption promotes hepatocarcinogenesis in mice through activation of beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is the most common cause of liver cancer in the United States, Although alcohol effects within the liver have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which alcohol causes liver cancer is complex. One mechanism involves speeding up tumor growth (promotion) by increasing the number of...

  8. Comparison of Alcohol Abusers Who Seek Traditional Treatment Versus Those Who Use An Online Program

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Suena W.; Lieberman, Daniel Z.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of individuals with alcohol use disorders do not receive treatment. Access to treatment for substance abuse disorders is limited, and practical strategies are needed to expand opportunities for individuals to receive effective interventions. A recently developed online program was designed to increase users’ motivation for change and offer treatment options. Utilization of the unique strengths of the Internet allowed a hidden, currently untreated population to be reached.

  9. Incorporating Motives into the Theory of Planned Behavior: Implications for Reducing Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ryan Christopher

    2011-01-01

    College alcohol abuse continues as a major public-health concern. Theory-driven research is necessary to address the severe negative consequences of this college drinking. One theory that offers particular promise is the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This theory posits that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and intentions are the causal underpinnings of behavior. The current research investigates the utility of this theory in predicting college-student drinkin...

  10. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi AM; Sherra KS; Al-Habeeb AA; Qureshi NA

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  11. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  12. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  13. Exploring the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin N. Glozah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  14. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  15. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Claudia S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  16. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icro Maremmani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  17. Mixed Abuse of Alcohol and Drugs in Teenagers in Sweden vs. a Group from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzell, Sture

    1995-01-01

    Examined the subsequent life and development of teenagers under probation who abused alcohol and drugs. Suggests that regardless of the social environment in which they grow up, children, both boys and girls, are in a risk zone if they use alcohol and drugs, and there is an enormous gap in their social adjustment compared with children that do…

  18. Gentle Knights: Masculinity, Teetotalism and Aid for Alcohol Abuse c. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Blok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1830 there have been Dutch organisations that were concerned with fighting alcohol abuse. The Drink Law of 1881, the result of their lobby, limited the sale of drink and made the punishment of public drunkenness obligatory. Around 1900 there was renewed fervour in the Dutch Temperance Movement: teetotallers came to dominate the movement and created a system for the care of drunkards. This change from a repressive approach to a focus on treatment was accompanied by two differing variants on ‘chivalrous’ masculinity. Nineteenth century campaigners put their idea of masculinity – controlled, militant, protective of women and children – in the service of state politics. The chivalry of the teetotallers was more personal. They showed their solidarity with problematic drinkers by completely abstaining from alcohol and attempted to save drunkards by setting a good example. The battle against King Alcohol became a fight, man to man, in civil society.

  19. Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Cystitis Resulting from Chronic Ketamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Huy Tran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine associated urinary dysfunction has become increasingly more common worldwide. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS is an established modality for diagnosing hydronephrosis in the emergency department. We describe a case of a young male ketamine abuser with severe urinary urgency and frequency in which POCUS performed by the emergency physician demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis and a focally thickened irregular shaped bladder. Emergency physicians should consider using POCUS evaluate for hydronephrosis and bladder changes in ketamine abusers with lower urinary tract symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is discontinuing ketamine abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:382-384.

  20. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  1. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...

  2. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J. K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models f...

  3. Childhood Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Use and Abuse Across the Lifespan in Alcohol-Dependent Men

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Laura B.; Haber, John Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between childhood religious affiliation and alcohol use across the lifespan. A sample of 931 men (average age of 51) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, which includes an over-representation of alcohol-dependent men, completed the Lifetime Drinking History interview, which assessed drinking across the lifespan. Childhood religious affiliation was obtained from the men’s spouse/partner. Affiliations were subdivided into four categories: non-religious...

  4. Managing Chronic Pain in Special Populations with Emphasis on Pediatric, Geriatric, and Drug Abuser Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; Young, Erin E; Starkweather, Angela R; Guite, Jessica W; Russell, Beth S; Manworren, Renee C B

    2016-01-01

    In the adult population chronic pain can lead to loss of productivity and earning potential, and decreased quality of life. There are distinct groups with increased vulnerability for the emergence of chronic pain. These groups may be defined by developmental status and/or life circumstances. Within the pediatric, geriatric, and drug abuser populations, chronic pain represents a significant health issue. This article focuses on known anatomic, physiologic, and genetic mechanisms underlying chronic pain in these populations, and highlights the need for a multimodal approach from multiple health care professionals for management of chronic pain in those with the most risk.

  5. Managing Chronic Pain in Special Populations with Emphasis on Pediatric, Geriatric, and Drug Abuser Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; Young, Erin E; Starkweather, Angela R; Guite, Jessica W; Russell, Beth S; Manworren, Renee C B

    2016-01-01

    In the adult population chronic pain can lead to loss of productivity and earning potential, and decreased quality of life. There are distinct groups with increased vulnerability for the emergence of chronic pain. These groups may be defined by developmental status and/or life circumstances. Within the pediatric, geriatric, and drug abuser populations, chronic pain represents a significant health issue. This article focuses on known anatomic, physiologic, and genetic mechanisms underlying chronic pain in these populations, and highlights the need for a multimodal approach from multiple health care professionals for management of chronic pain in those with the most risk. PMID:26614727

  6. Study on Alcoholic Withdrawal Score, with Questionnaire Based Session Conducted on Acute and Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi Navyatha; Pragada Sneha Pallavi; S. Purna Divya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol liver disease is damage to the Liver and its function due to alcohol abuse. It occurs after years of heavy drinking and by through which cirrhosis can occur and which leads to the final phase of Alcoholic liver disease. It not only occurs in heavy drinkers but also there is a chance of getting liver disease go up the longer of been drinking and more alcohol consumption. A study was observational, prospective and descriptive; and was carried out one hundred and nine patients [n=109] wh...

  7. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  8. [Effect of phenibut on the behavior of experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Borodkina, L E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phenibut on the locomotor and orientation-research activity, as well as on the alcohol and food motivation, was studied on experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism. Phenibut decreased the manifestations of alcohol-induced behavioral disorders and reduced alcohol motivation. PMID:16047680

  9. Antisocial Psychopathy and HIV Risk among Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While the consensus is that HIV prevalence has remained low among adolescent offenders, the prevalence of STDs and HIV transmission risk behaviors is alarming, particularly for those abusing alcohol and other drugs and those displaying antisocial or conduct disorder characteristics. In the current study, 269 male and 110 female inner city, culturally diverse alcohol and other drug (AOD abusing adolescent offenders completed measures of (a psychopathy, using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI (b HIV transmission risk behavior, (c prevention skills and attitudes and (d social desirability. Results showed that those with high levels of psychopathy reported more AOD use, overall unprotected sex and more sexual activity when influenced by alcohol and/or marijuana. High psychopathy adolescent offenders also reported lower self-efficacy and sexual response-efficacy, less favorable safer sex and condom attitudes and less favorable intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors, when controlling for social desirability. Data suggest that adolescent offenders, who are either in court-ordered treatment or detention, should be assessed for psychopathy and provided with tailored risk reduction interventions, geared toward attitudinal and behavioral change. A discussion of integrating neurobiological measures to improve the next generation of tailored interventions for this risk group is offered in conclusion.

  10. Study on Alcoholic Withdrawal Score, with Questionnaire Based Session Conducted on Acute and Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Navyatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol liver disease is damage to the Liver and its function due to alcohol abuse. It occurs after years of heavy drinking and by through which cirrhosis can occur and which leads to the final phase of Alcoholic liver disease. It not only occurs in heavy drinkers but also there is a chance of getting liver disease go up the longer of been drinking and more alcohol consumption. A study was observational, prospective and descriptive; and was carried out one hundred and nine patients [n=109] who were with suffering from an Alcoholic liver disease, to determine the alcohol withdrawal score and there symptoms involved after they were kept on alcohol withdrawal therapy. An observational, prospective and randomized study was conducted in the hospital from March 2014-March 2016. Questionnaire based session with 10 scaled questions were framed according to CIWA (assessment and management of alcohol withdrawal and the score was noted with their symptoms occurrence after the alcohol cessation plan. CIWA score with moderate severity were found to be highest. 7 patients out of 33 patients in severe category of CIWA score were admitted in the hospital with alcohol withdrawal syndrome and psychological disturbances. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA helps clinicians assess and treat potential alcohol withdrawal.

  11. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  12. Depression, Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse in a Gastroenterology Intensive Care Unit: Prevalence and Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, G.; Alexandre, J; Rosa, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Gastroenterology ICU, and the level of its detection by the staff. Method: All patients consecutively admitted to the ICU during a six-month period, 18 or above, and staying ≥ 24 hours, were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the CAGE. Doctors and nurses assessed the type and severity of patients’ morbidity. Data were analyzed with Student’s t-test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations for ordin...

  13. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; De Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by self-report questionnaires for 8,398 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register aged between 15 and 32 years. Longit...

  14. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of umbelliferone in chronic alcohol-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Mi-Ok; Lee, Hae-In; Ham, Ju Ri; Seo, Kwon-Il; Kim, Myung-Joo; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inflammation is associated with various types of acute and chronic alcohol liver diseases. In this study, we examined whether umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin, UF) ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory response and the antioxidant system. METHODS Rats were fed a Liber-Decarli liquid diet containing 5% alcohol with or without UF (0.05 g/L) for 8 weeks, while normal rats received an isocaloric carbohydrate liquid diet. RESULTS Chronic ...

  16. Buprenorphine/naloxone as a promising therapeutic option for opioid abusing patients with chronic pain: reduction of pain, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and abuse liability of oral oxycodone.

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Perrine; Sullivan, Maria,; Cohen, Julien; Fugon, Lionel; Jones, Jermaine,; Vosburg, Suzanne,; Cooper, Ziva; Manubay, Jeanne,; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    International audience Few studies have examined abuse of prescription opioids among individuals with chronic pain under buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) maintenance. The current 7-week inpatient study assessed oral oxycodone self-administration by patients with chronic pain who had a history of opioid abuse. Participants (n=25) were transitioned from their preadmission prescribed opioid to Bup/Nx. All of the participants were tested under each of the sublingual Bup/Nx maintenance doses (2/...

  17. Reversible loss of reproductive fitness in zebrafish on chronic alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewari, Pooran Singh; Ajani, Funmilola; Kushawah, Gopal; Kumar, Damera Santhosh; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2016-02-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent diseases in society and causes significant health and social problems. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is reported to cause adverse effects on the physical and psychological growth of the fetus. However, the direct effect of chronic alcohol consumption on reproductive fitness has not been tested. In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a versatile model system to study the effects of alcohol on behavior and embryonic development. We utilized the zebrafish model system to address the effect of chronic alcohol exposure (0.5% alcohol in the holding tank for 9 weeks) on reproductive capacity. We found a dramatic decrease in fecundity, measured by counting the number of eggs laid, when at least one of the parents is subject to chronic alcohol exposure. Interestingly, a 9-week alcohol withdrawal program completely restored the reproductive capacity of the treated subjects. In agreement with observations on fecundity, the chronic alcohol exposure leads to increased anxiety, as measured by the novel-tank diving assay. Conversely, the withdrawal program diminished heightened anxiety in alcohol-exposed subjects. Our results highlight the adverse effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the reproductive capacity of both males and females, and underscore the utility of the zebrafish model system to understand the biology of chronic alcoholism. PMID:26781213

  18. In vitro and in vivo models of acute alcohol exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Dolganiuc; Gyongyi Szabo

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a global problem due to the financial burden on society and the healthcare system. While the harmful health effects of chronic alcohol abuse are well established, more recent data suggest that acute alcohol consumption also affects human wellbeing. Thus, there is a need for research models in order to fully understand the effect of acute alcohol abuse on different body systems and organs. The present manuscript summarizes the interdisciplinary advantages and disadvantages of currently available human and non-human models of acute alcohol abuse,and identifies their suitability for biomedical research.

  19. 乙醇与肺部疾病的研究进展%Study Progress of Alcohol Abuse in Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世彬

    2011-01-01

    慢性酗酒可以引起多器官和系统的功能障碍.近年来,乙醇性肺损害逐步被重视,乙醇的代谢特点及挥发性使呼吸道上皮处于高乙醇浓度下.长期处于这种环境下可以造成呼吸道和肺组织发生相应的变化,包括呼吸道的防御机制及肺功能,导致一系列相关的呼吸系统疾病,如哮喘、慢性阻塞性肺疾病、间质性肺病及急性呼吸窘迫综合征等.%Chronic alcohol abuse can cause dysfunction of multiple organ and systems. In recent years,lung injury suffering from alcohol has heen taken attention gradually. The metabolism and volatility of alcohol made airway epithelium in high ethanol concentration. In this environment chronically, can change the defense of airway, lung function and induce a series of related respiratory system diseases, including asthma,chronic ohstructive pulmonary disease , interstitial lung disease and acute respiratoty distress syndrom.

  20. Sexual abuse and alcohol use among women in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil: a general population study

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Barbosa de Oliveira; Florence Kerr-Corrêa; Maria Cristina Pereira Lima; José Manoel Bertolote; Adriana Marcassa Tucci

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at estimating the prevalence of lifetime sexual abuse among women and at investigating its association with alcohol consumption. METHOD: Population-based survey conducted through a representative and stratified cluster sample of metropolitan São Paulo. GENACIS questionnaire was used. Sample unit was the home, and all residents aged 18 years and over were interviewed. The outcome was lifetime sexual abuse. The univariate statistical analysis used the Rao-Scot...

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p < 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p < 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  3. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  4. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siva P Sontineni; Sanjay Chaudhary; Vijaya Sontineni; Stephen J Lanspa

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a common drug of abuse that is associated with various long-term and short-term adverse effects.The nature of its association with vomiting after chronic abuse is obscure and is underrecognised by clinicians. In some patients this vomiting can take on a pattern similar to cyclic vomiting syndrome with a peculiar compulsive hot bathing pattern, which relieves intense feelings of nausea and accompanying symptoms. In this case report, we describe a twentytwo year-old-male with a history of chronic cannabis abuse presenting with recurrent vomiting, intense nausea and abdominal pain. In addition, the patient reported that the hot baths improved his symptoms during these episodes. Abstinence from cannabis led to resolution of the vomiting symptoms and abdominal pain. We conclude that in the setting of chronic cannabis abuse, patients presenting with chronic severe nausea and vomiting that can sometimes be accompanied by abdominal pain and compulsive hot bathing behaviour, in the absence of other obvious causes, a diagnosis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome should be considered.

  5. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  6. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  7. Baboon alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes: phenotypic changes in liver following chronic consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R S; VandeBerg, J L

    1987-01-01

    According to the nomenclature of Vallee and Bazzone [1983] for mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes, baboon ADHs comprise three major classes of activity, which were distinguished according to the following properties: Class I ADHs. These isozymes exhibited low-Km characteristics with ethanol as substrate, high isoelectric points (8.5-9.3), and sensitivity to 5 mM 4-methyl pyrazole inhibition, and were the major liver (ADH-2) and kidney (ADH-1) isozymes in the baboon. Class II ADHs. These isozymes showed high-Km values for ethanol, neutral isoelectric points (7.7 for the liver ADH-4 [pi-ADH] and 7.2 for the major stomach ADH [ADH-3], respectively), and were insensitive to inhibition with 5 mM 4-methyl pyrazole. Class III ADH. This enzyme was characterized by its inactivity with ethanol as substrate (up to 0.5 M), insensitivity to 4-methyl pyrazole inhibition, preference for medium-chain-length alcohols as substrate (trans-2-hexen-1-ol was routinely used in this study), and an isoelectric point (6.5) similar to that of the human liver chi-ADH (pI 6.4). Major activity variation of the liver pi-ADH (ADH-4) isozyme was observed among the 114 liver samples examined, with 34 percent exhibiting a null (or low-activity) phenotype. An electrophoretic variant phenotype for the major class II stomach isozyme (ADH-3) was also found in the population studied. The baboon was used as a model for studying alcohol-induced changes in liver ADH phenotype following chronic alcohol consumption. Prepuberal male baboons were pair-fed nutritionally adequate liquid diets containing ethanol (50 percent of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrates, and liver ADH isozyme patterns from biopsy samples were monitored for 20 weeks. Dramatic decreases in class II liver ADH activity (ADH-4, or pi-ADH) were observed within 4 weeks after the start of alcohol feeding, and a shift in liver class I isozymes was found during the later stages of alcohol consumption. These changes during chronic

  8. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol.

  9. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2.Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  10. Central nervous system effects of chronic solvent abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen organic solvent abusers (13 men and 2 women) were examined by magnetic resonace imaging (MRI) and singl photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Three patients had neurological findings, such as ataxia of the upper extremities and walking disorder, and 2 of these had localized signal abnormality on MRI. T2-weighted imaging showed high signal intensities in the cerebral white matter, endocyst posterior shank, pars ventralis, and cerebellar white matter. These seemed to be attributable to demyelination. Two patients who showed locally abnormal MRI findings had begun to abuse organic solvents. There was a significant correlation between the age at the time of beginning inhalation and behavioral IQ (r=0.84). This suggested the importance of age at the time of beginning inhalation. When SPECT images were visually interpreted in 11 patients, 5 patients had a decreased blood flow in the bilateral frontal lobes (n=2), the right frontal lobe (n=2), and the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere (n=2). In the other 6 patients, blood flow was normal. There was a negative correlation between blood flow in the left frontal lobe and the score for the third Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) item. (N.K.)

  11. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection have additive effects on frontal cortex function as measured by auditory evoked potential P3A latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, G; Biggins, C A; MacKay, S

    1995-02-01

    Both alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to produce central nervous system (CNS) morbidity in frontal brain regions. The degree to which the CNS morbidity in HIV infection, as it affects frontal cortex function, may be preferentially increased by alcohol abuse was examined using the auditory P3A evoked potential. The P3A indexes an orienting response, maximal over frontal cortex that occurs when novel nontarget stimuli are presented in the midst of a target detection paradigm. Four groups of subjects were compared: HIV+ alcohol abusers, HIV+ light/nondrinkers, HIV- alcohol abusers, and HIV- light/nondrinkers. The alcohol abuser and light/nondrinker HIV+ groups were matched on percent CD4 lymphocytes, insuring that the results reflected specific CNS effects and were not a result of differences between the groups in the degree of systemic immune suppression. Alcohol abuse and HIV infection had at least additive effects on P3A latency, consistent with alcohol abuse worsening the effect of HIV disease on frontal cortex function. Post-hoc analyses suggested that concomitant alcohol abuse results in the effects of HIV infection on P3A latency becoming manifest earlier in the HIV disease process. PMID:7727627

  12. The Healing Power of Play: Therapeutic Work with Chronically Neglected and Abused Children

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser Brown

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns a therapeutic intervention with a group of abandoned children living in a Romanian pediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one to ten years old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear the other abused children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The art...

  13. Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera;

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use...... chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non...... individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral...

  14. Screening for mutations of the cationic trypsinogen gene: are they of relevance in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    TEICH, N; MOSSNER;, J; Keim, V

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In hereditary pancreatitis mutations of exons 2 (N21I) and 3 (R117H) of the cationic trypsinogen gene have been described. 
AIMS—To investigate whether the same mutations can also be found in patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. 
METHODS—Leucocyte DNA was prepared from 23 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, 21 with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, 34 individuals from seven independent families with hereditary pancreatitis, and 15 healthy controls. DNA...

  15. Perceptions of Drinking among Hispanic College Students: How Qualitative Research Can Inform the Development of Collegiate Alcohol Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…

  16. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  17. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  18. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paying for Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Safety » Abuse Text size: A A A Special Situations First Responders Traveling In a Disaster Abuse Find your local Chapter ...

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  20. The Factor Structure and Severity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms in Psychiatric Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure and estimated severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in a sample of treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. Participants (n = 1027, 51.2% women) met the screening criteria for the lifetime assessment of alcohol use disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I/P; First et al., 1995) and as a result completed an assessment of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The average a...

  1. Effects of Puerariae Radix Extract on Endotoxin Receptors and TNF-α Expression Induced by Gut-Derived Endotoxin in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu (Pueraria lobata is one of the earliest medicinal plants used to treat alcohol abuse in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a millennium. However, little is known about its effects on chronic alcoholic liver injury. Therefore, the present study observed the effects of puerariae radix extract (RPE on chronic alcoholic liver injury as well as Kupffer cells (KCs activation to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced by gut-derived endotoxin in rats and macrophage cell line. RPE was observed to alleviate the pathological changes and lipids deposition in liver tissues as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT activity. Meanwhile, RPE inhibited KCs activation and subsequent hepatic TNF-α expression and downregulated the protein expression of endotoxin receptors, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 in chronic alcohol intake rats. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that RPE inhibited the expression of TNF-α and endotoxin receptors, CD14 and TLR4, induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that RPE mitigated liver damage and lipid deposition induced by chronic alcohol intake in rats, as well as TNF-α release, protein expression of endotoxin receptors in vivo or in vitro.

  2. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  3. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  4. Polysomnographic Findings in a Cohort of Chronic Insomnia Patients with Benzodiazepine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Marano, Giuseppe; Di Nicola, Marco; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Di Blasi, Chiara; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Lapenta, Leonardo; Brunetti, Valerio; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate sleep modifications induced by chronic benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse. Methods: Cohort study, comparison of sleep measures between BDZs abusers and controls. Drug Addiction Unit (Institute of Psychiatry) and Unit of Sleep Disorders (Institute of Neurology) of the Catholic University in Rome. Six outpatients affected by chronic BDZ abuse were enrolled, (4 men, 2 women, mean age 53.3 ± 14.8, range: 34-70 years); 55 healthy controls were also enrolled (23 men, 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0, range: 27-76 years). All patients underwent clinical evaluation, psychometric measures, ambulatory polysomnography, scoring of sleep macrostructure and microstructure (power spectral fast-frequency EEG arousal, cyclic alternating pattern [CAP]), and heart rate variability. Results: BDZ abusers had relevant modification of sleep macrostructure and a marked reduction of fast-frequency EEG arousal in NREM (patients: 6.6 ± 3.7 events/h, controls 13.7 ± 4.9 events/h, U-test: 294, p = 0.002) and REM (patients: 8.4 ± 2.4 events/h, controls 13.3 ± 5.1 events/h, U-test: 264, p = 0.016), and of CAP rate (patients: 15.0 ± 8.6%, controls: 51.2% ± 12.1%, U-test: 325, p < 0.001). Discussion: BDZ abusers have reduction of arousals associated with increased number of nocturnal awakenings and severe impairment of sleep architecture. The effect of chronic BDZ abuse on sleep may be described as a severe impairment of arousal dynamics; the result is the inability to modulate levels of vigilance. Citation: Mazza M; Losurdo A; Testani E; Marano G; Di Nicola M; Dittoni S; Gnoni V; Di Blasi C; Giannantoni NM; Lapenta L; Brunetti V; Bria P; Janiri L; Mazza S; Della Marca G. Polysomnographic findings in a cohort of chronic insomnia patients with benzodiazepine abuse. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):35-42. PMID:24426818

  5. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI by multiple logistic regression. Results: Seventy-six (60.8% patients with HIV, 40 (32% patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2% patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%, with up to 8 years of formal education (56%, and unemployed (81.6%. The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71 (56%, agoraphobia (n=65 (52%, major depressive episode (n=56 (44.8%, and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43 (34.4% predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75 and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61. Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75, unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34, and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44. Conclusion: Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  7. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Serraillier; Jamison, Robert N.; Edward Michna

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patie...

  8. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use)...

  9. The importance of assessing for abuse and neglect in children with chronic health conditions referred for neuropsychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic childhood illnesses have been demonstrated to negatively impact family functioning by introducing new or additive stress on all members of the family system, as well as by increasing financial burden and social isolation. Although these factors have not necessarily been shown to have a direct causal effect on increased rates of abuse in children with chronic illnesses, these children have nonetheless been demonstrated to be at greater risk for neglect and physical and sexual abuse. Children with chronic health care needs are increasingly likely to be referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Thorough assessment of maltreatment would be a valuable addition to all neuropsychological evaluations of children presenting with chronic health conditions.

  10. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui, E-mail: hzhang@wsu.edu; Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  11. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Luqman; van den Berg Matthijs; Hamberg-van Reenen Heleen H; van Gils Paul F; de Wit G Ardine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic e...

  12. Examination of genetic variation in GABRA2 with conduct disorder and alcohol abuse and dependence in a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melroy, Whitney E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Kamens, Helen M.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hewitt, John K.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown associations between SNPs in GABRA2 and adolescent conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol dependence in adulthood, but not adolescent alcohol dependence. The present study was intended as a replication and extension of this work, focusing on adolescent CD, adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD), and adult AAD. Family based association tests were run using Hispanics and non-Hispanic European American subjects from two independent longitudinal samples. Although the analysis provided nominal support for an association with rs9291283 and AAD in adulthood and CD in adolescence, the current study failed to replicate previous associations between two well replicated GABRA2 NPs and CD and alcohol dependence. Overall, these results emphasize the utility of including an independent replication sample in the study design, so that the results from an individual sample can be weighted in the context of its reproducibility. PMID:24687270

  13. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595356

  15. It’s the Algorithm! Why Differential Rates of Chronicity and Comorbidity are Not Evidence for the Validity of the Abuse-Dependence Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés, Alvaro; Steinley, Douglas; Trull, Timothy J.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the abuse/dependence distinction within alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been increasingly questioned on psychometric and conceptual grounds. Two types of findings are often cited as support for the validity of this distinction: (1) dependence is more persistent than abuse, and (2) dependence is more highly comorbid with other Axis I and Axis II disorders than is abuse. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we examine...

  16. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between testosterone (T and cortisol (C levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV. Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV.

  17. Intra-household evaluations of alcohol abuse in men with depression and suicide in women: A cross-sectional community-based study in Chennai, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A.; Priya, B.; J. Williams; M. Sharma; R. Gupta; Jha, DK; Ebrahim, S.; Dhillon, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background Harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented for drinkers, and adverse effects are also reported for the physical and emotional well-being of family members, with evidence often originating from either drinkers or their families in clinic-based settings. This study evaluates intra-household associations between alcohol abuse in men, and depression and suicidal attempts in women, in community-based settings of Chennai, India. Methods This community-based cross-sectional stud...

  18. Drinking to ease the burden: a cross-sectional study on trauma, alcohol abuse and psychopathology in a post-conflict context

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, ch...

  19. Drinking to ease the burden: a cross-sectional study on trauma, alcohol abuse and psychopathology in a post-conflict context

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, childh...

  20. A new approach to quantitate carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in alcohol abusers: partial iron saturation in isoelectric focusing/immunoblotting and laser densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, P; Peter, J B

    1993-12-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (Tf) represents a significant advance over previous markers of alcohol abuse. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) analysis of affinity-purified Tf, under conditions of total iron saturation, identifies a major isoform at pI 5.4 in both normal consumers and alcohol abusers; three additional Tf isoforms (pI 5.6, 5.7, and 5.8) are associated with alcohol abuse. Under conditions of partial iron saturation, IEF analysis of affinity-purified Tf reveals up to seven isoforms (pI range 5.3-6.0) common to normal consumers and alcohol abusers; three additional transferrin isoforms (pI range 6.1-6.3) are present in 68% (15/22) of the alcohol abuser specimens, but in only 8% (1/12) of the specimens from normal consumers and in none of the three specimens from abstainers. These three diagnostic bands comigrate with a set of defined Tf isoforms: human iron-free Tf containing two sialic acid residues, human sialic acid-free Tf with one iron molecule, and human sialic acid-free, iron-free Tf. Serum specimens from normal consumers and alcohol abusers, analyzed for Tf isoforms by an IEF-immunoblot method under conditions of partial iron saturation, expressed Tf isoforms similar to those found using affinity-purified Tf in standard IEF. Visual examination of the immunoblots reveals the diagnostic bands in 67% (32/48) of patients with histories of sustained alcohol abuse compared with only 17% (8/48) of the normal consumers. Scanning densitometry and volume integration analysis of the immunoblots representative of normal consumer and alcohol abuser populations results in mean (+/- SE) values of 4.1 +/- 0.8 and 19.3 +/- 3.6 units, respectively (p < 0.0002).

  1. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2

    OpenAIRE

    Graw, Jan A.; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated wi...

  2. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  3. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN CARBONYL LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOLICS AND EVALUATION TOGETHER WITH OTHER PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    YALCIN, Serap

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the impact of oxidative stress, of which chronic alcohol consumption is an important indicator, on proteins and lipids. In this study, in order to evaluate oxidative damage, blood samples of 40 alcoholic patients, lying in the psychiatry clinic of Ankara University with the diagnosis of alcoholism, and 20 healthy people have been worked with spectrophotometric method. Malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation product, and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels observed as statisticall...

  4. Role of anuloma viloma pranayama in reducing stress in chronic alcoholics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite improved clinical care, heightened public awareness and wide spread use of health innovations, alcoholism remains a leading cause of death in many parts of the world. Chronic alcoholics suffer from stress and multitude of symptoms. The progressive addiction to alcohol will gradually nullify all other interests in the patient's life so that a deterioration of the physical, psychological, social, cultural and religious values takes place. The role of yoga in healing asthma, arthritis and other disorders has been known. Methods: Breathing technique (Anuloma Viloma Pranayama) was taught to chronic alcoholics. Using galvanic skin resistance, stress levels were measured before and after anuloma viloma yoga in controls and chronic alcoholics. Results: Reduced stress levels were noted using the galvanic skin resistance in both controls and chronic alcoholics after yogic breathing. Conclusion: There is a promising effect of simple yoga techniques in organising effective rehabilitation and treatment programmes to reduce stress in chronic alcoholics. This study would help to chart out a better management programme for enhancing relapse and alleviate the symptoms. (author)

  5. [Correlation between QT interval, ventricular arrhythmias and left ventricular function in chronic alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, G; Gribaldo, R; Bellavere, F; Lupia, M; Sale, F; Rugna, A; Costa, L; Molfese, G

    1986-04-01

    Prolonged QT interval and arrhythmias have been reported to occur in chronic alcoholics. To investigate the role of chronic alcohol consumption in the onset of arrhythmias and the development of the preclinical left ventricular dysfunction, in a group of 12 asymptomatic chronic alcoholics with no clinical evidence of heart disease, with histologically proven hepatic damage, after a week of abstinence from alcohol, the following investigations were performed: measurements of the corrected QT interval (QTc), 24-hours Holter monitoring, systolic time intervals, M-mode echocardiograms. The results were compared to those of 10 normal subjects. Our data suggested no difference in QTc interval between chronic alcoholics and normal persons. The distribution of arrhythmias was not statistically different in the two groups, particularly frequent and complicated arrhythmias occurred in only one subject in each group. Preejection period corrected for heart rate (PEPI) was significantly longer in alcoholics (132 +/- 16 vs 119 +/- 11, p less than 0.05). All echocardiographic parameters examined were not significantly different in the two groups. On the basis of our results, our impression is that the arrhythmogenic role of alcohol, not under acute ingestion, is relatively unimportant and further studies are needed to become a definitive conclusion about subclinical alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:3743931

  6. Environmental properties of long-chain alcohols. Structure-activity Relationship for Chronic Aquatic Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefers, Christoph; Sanderson, Hans; Boshof, Udo;

    2009-01-01

    Daphnia magna reproduction tests were performed with C10, C12, C14 and C15 alcohols to establish a structure-activity relationship of chronic effects of long-chain alcohols. The data generation involved substantial methodological efforts due to the exceptionally rapid biodegradability of the test...

  7. The link between conduct disorder and adult antisocial behaviour is partially mediated by early onset alcohol abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, Najat Rasool

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to clarify the nature of the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA), some other externalizing-related constructs and adult violent antisociality (VA). It addressed two key questions: (i) whether EOAA mediated the link between CD and VA; and (ii) whether the effects of EOAA on VA were, in turn, mediated by impulsiveness, ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vm-PFC) dysfunction and social deviance as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revis...

  8. Recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Chinese rural sample: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yu; Hu, Mi; Liu, Zi-wei; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Liang ZHOU; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Under-utilization of mental health services is a global health issue. Recognition of mental disorders, as the first step to seeking help from professional sources, has been well studied in developed countries, yet little is known about the situation in rural areas of developing countries like China. The purpose of the study is to understand the recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse and its predictive factors in a Chinese rural sample Methods Face-to-face interviews ...

  9. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Jamison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no “gold standard” for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management.

  10. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis after Chronic Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher-Ming Liou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3–4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day. After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse.

  11. Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after chronic cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Cher-Ming; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Ting, Hua; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse. PMID:24722570

  12. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis after Chronic Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Cher-Ming Liou; Shiow-Chwen Tsai; Chia-Hua Kuo; Hua Ting; Shin-Da Lee

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3–4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TU...

  13. Polymorphism of mitochondria in rat auriclar contractive cardiomyocites under the chronic alcoholic intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunaev A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of the questions related to the reactions of mitochondrial apparatus of atrial cardiomyocites under the chronic alcoholization were dissolved in this study. The purpose of the study was to analyze morphological reactions of mi-tochondrial apparatus of atrial contractive cardiomyocites in rats on the chronic alcoholic poisoning. Modeling of the chronic alcoholic poisoning in rats was realized by daily introduction of ethyl alcohol per os in dosage 2-3,5 mg/g of rat weight dur-ing 30 days. Morphological research comprised both light and electronic microscopy of myocardium of right and left atria, right and left auricles, and also interatrial septum. Stereological estimation of several indexes was carried out: the compact-ness of mitochondria, numeral compactness of mitohondria, surface area of external mitochondrial membrane, compactness of mitochondrial cristae, number of mitochondrial cristae, surface area of internal mitochondrial membrane, degree of cristae orientation, coefficient of mitochondrial sphericity, volume of mitochondrium, quantitative correlation of types of mitochon-dria. It was shown that the reaction of different types of mitochondria on development of chronic alcoholization in atrial con-tractive cardiomyocites depends on the structural-metabolic type of mitochondria. Under the chronic alcoholic poisoning the moderate diffuse reduction of mitochondrial apparatus of contractive cardiomyocites takes place that is accompanied by the prolonged renewal of high-energy mitochondria and causes energetical limitation of contractive function of atrial myocar-dium.

  14. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  15. Long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine prescriptions in veteran patients with PTSD: influence of preexisting alcoholism and drug-abuse diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermos, John A; Young, Melissa M; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Rosenbloom, David; Fiore, Louis D

    2007-10-01

    Databases from the New England Veterans Integrated Service Network were analyzed to determine factors associated with long-term, high-dose anxiolytic benzodiazepine prescriptions dispensed to patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and existing alcoholism and/or drug abuse diagnoses. Among 2,183 PTSD patients, 234 received the highest 10% average daily doses for alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, or lorazepam, doses above those typically recommended. Highest doses were more commonly prescribed to patients with existing drug abuse diagnoses. Among patients with PTSD and alcoholism, younger age, drug abuse, and concurrent prescriptions for another benzodiazepine and oxycodone/acetaminophen independently predicted high doses. Results indicate that for veteran patients with PTSD, alcoholism alone is not associated with high-dose benzodiazepines, but existing drug abuse diagnoses do increase that risk.

  16. Effects of acamprosate on attentional set-shifting and cellular function in the prefrontal cortex of chronic alcohol-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei

    Background: The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inhibits impulsive and compulsive behaviors that characterize drug abuse and dependence. Acamprosate is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Whether acamprosate can modulate executive functions that are impaired by chronic ethanol exposure is unknown. Here we explored the effects of acamprosate on an attentional set-shifting task, and tested whether these behavioral effects are correlated with modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and intrinsic excitability of mPFC neurons. Methods: We induced alcohol dependence in mice via chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in vapor chambers and measured changes in alcohol consumption in a limited access 2-bottle choice paradigm. Impairments of executive function were assessed in an attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate was applied subchronically for 2 days during withdrawal before the final behavioral test. Alcohol-induced changes in cellular function of layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons, and the potential modulation of these changes by acamprosate, were measured using patch clamp recordings in brain slices. Results: Chronic ethanol exposure impaired cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task. Acamprosate improved overall performance and reduced perseveration. Recordings of mPFC neurons showed that chronic ethanol exposure increased use-dependent presynaptic transmitter release and enhanced postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Moreover, CIE-treatment lowered input resistance, and decreased the threshold and the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) of action potentials, suggesting chronic ethanol exposure also impacted membrane excitability of mPFC neurons. However, acamprosate treatment did not reverse these ethanol-induced changes cellular function. Conclusion: Acamprosate improved attentional control of ethanol exposed animals

  17. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  18. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  19. RELIGIOUS MORAL BELIEFS AS MENTAL HEALTH PROTECTIVE FACTOR OF WAR VETERANS SUFFERING FROM PTSD, DEPRESSIVENESS, ANXIETY, TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL ABUSE IN COMORBIDITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanović, Mevludin; Pajević, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate is there association between level of religious moral beliefs and severity of PTSD symptoms, depresiion symptoms, anxiety and severity of alcohol abuse we tested 152 war veterans on presence of PTSD, depression symptoms, anxiety, alcohol misuse and level of religious moral belifes. Subject and Methods: we used Harvard trauma questionnarie (HTQ), Hopkins Check Scale SBCL 25, check list for alcohol misuse MAST. Subjects were assessed with regard to t...

  20. Depressive Symptoms in People with and without Alcohol Abuse: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Across Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilie Skule; Pål Ulleberg; Hilde Dallavara Lending; Torkil Berge; Jens Egeland; Tim Brennen; Nils Inge Landrø

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- ...

  1. Chronic alcoholism and general anesthesia%慢性酗酒与全身麻醉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维维; 王常松; 李恩有

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increasing proportion of chronic alcoholism in surgical patients, anesthesiologists should pay attention to the treatment of alcoholism with general anesthesia.Objective To investigate the effects of chronic alcoholism on general anesthesia and provide theories for clinical application.Content Review the impacts of chronic alcoholism on the body systems and general anesthesia treatment of alcoholism.Trend A more secure and reliable general anesthesia method for chronic alcoholism should be searched.%背景 随着外科手术中慢性酗酒患者比例的增加,酗酒患者的全身麻醉管理受到麻醉医师的关注. 目的 探讨慢性酗酒对全身麻醉的影响,为临床工作提供依据. 内容 综述慢性酗酒对全身系统的影响和酗酒患者的全身麻醉管理. 趋向 寻找安全、可靠的慢性酗酒者的全身麻醉方法.

  2. Targeting central melanocortin receptors: a promising novel approach for treating alcohol abuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eOlney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC peptides are produced centrally by propiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and act through five seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled melanocortin receptor (MCR subtypes. The MC3R and MC4R subtypes, the most abundant central MCRs, are widely expressed in brain regions known to modulate neurobiological responses to ethanol, including regions of the hypothalamus and extended amygdala. Agouti-related protein (AgRP, also produced in the arcuate nucleus, is secreted in terminals expressing MCRs and functions as an endogenous MCR antagonist. This review highlights recent genetic and pharmacological findings that have implicated roles for the MC and AgRP systems in modulating ethanol consumption. Ethanol consumption is associated with significant alterations in the expression levels of various MC peptides/protein, which suggests that ethanol-induced perturbations of MC/AgRP signaling may modulate excessive ethanol intake. Consistently, MCR agonists decrease, and AgRP increases, ethanol consumption in mice. MCR agonists fail to blunt ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC4R, suggesting that the protective effects of MCR agonists are modulated by the MC4R. Interestingly, recent evidence reveals that MCR agonists are more effective at blunting binge-like ethanol intake in mutant mice lacking the MC3R, suggesting that the MC3R has opposing effects on the MC4R. Finally, mutant mice lacking AgRP exhibit blunted voluntary and binge-like ethanol drinking, consistent with pharmacological studies. Collectively, these preclinical observations provide compelling evidence that compounds that target the MC system may provide therapeutic value for treating alcohol abuse disorders and that the utilization of currently available MC-targeting compounds- such as those being used to treat eating disorders- may be used as effective treatments to this end.

  3. Alcohol and HCV Chronic Infection Are Risk Cofactors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Balbi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development. To study this relationship, we enrolled 465 HCC patients compared with 618 Cirrhotic cases and 490 Controls. The prevalence of DM2 is significantly higher in HCC patients with an Odds Ratio of 3.12 versus Controls. In HCC cases with alcohol abuse, the frequency of DM2 is the highest. In our HCC patients, when HCV infection is associated with alcohol abuse, the liver cancer develops earlier. In addition, multivariate analysis shows that alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for HCC more relevant than HCV infection.

  4. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester AJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arie J Wester,1 Judith C van Herten,2 Jos IM Egger,2–4 Roy PC Kessels1,2,5 1Korsakoff Clinic, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 3Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; 4Behavioral Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Purpose: To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3 as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods: An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test's diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results: Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005. The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02, but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion: The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment

  5. Cytochrome P450 2E1 high activity polymorphism in alcohol abuse and end-organ disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark T Cartmell; Hans-Ulrich Schulz; Derek A O'Reilly; Bing-Mei Yang; Volker Kielstein; Simon P Dunlop; Walter Halangk; Andrew G Demaine; Andrew N Kingsnorth

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a possible role for a recently identified polymorphism in the gene of cytochrome P450 2E1, the presence of which is associated with high activity of the enzyme. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-nine alcohol consumers, ICD 10.1/.2 (ALC), and 208 normal controls were studied. PCR amplification of the CYP2E1 gene region was performed to assess polymorphic variation. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the data.RESULTS: Twelve normal controls (5.8%) possessed the insertion. Five ALC (2.1%) had the insertion; of these 2 of 144 with,alcohol induced chronic pancreatitis, none of 28 with alcoholic liver disease and 3 of 67 without endorgan disease had the polymorphism. A significantly Lower frequency of subjects possessed the insertion than normal controls [P = 0.049 (genotype analysis P = 0.03)]. To further assess, if there was a relationship to alcohol problems per se or end-organ disease, we compared patients with alcohol induced end-organ disease vs alcoholic controls without end-organ disease vs normal controls which again showed a significant difference [P = 0.045 (genotype analysis,P = 0.011)], further sub-group analysis did not identify which group(s) accounted for these differences.CONCLUSION: We have shown the frequencies of this high-activity polymorphism in alcohol related patient groups for the first time. The frequency is significantly less in alcoholics than normal controls, as with high activity polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase. The biological significance, and whether the relevance is solely for alcoholism or is there a relationship to end-organ disease,would benefit from the assessment in the populations with a greater frequency of this polymorphism.

  6. Preventing Alcohol Abuse: An Examination of the "Downward Spiral" Game and Educational Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuchry, Michael; Sia, Tiffiny L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, college students (N=178) either played Downward Spiral, a board game that illustrates the dangers of continued substance abuse, or watched educational videos on substance abuse. Results show that students who played Downward Spiral had somewhat higher levels of consumer satisfaction. However, results also show that both videos and…

  7. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  8. [Treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis with a new acid-resistant pancreatin product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempelen, I; Szilárd, M

    1995-09-17

    The authors summarised pathophysiology and therapy possibility of the chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. They introduce a new product of pancreatin use for treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this prospective study was to asses the efficacy of this new drug in the treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The treatment was carried out by new pancreatin product containing 10,000 FIP U lipase, 9000 FIP U amylase, and 500 FIP E protease. During the study 30 patients--suffering from alcoholic pancreatitis--were treated. They received, two tablets three times daily in a period of two weeks. The following parameters were observed and compared before and after the period of treatment: complaints of the patients, the characteristics of the stool (daily weight, frequency, fat contents, consistency) the change of the body weight and degree of abdominal pain. These parameters were compared using a score-system, before and after the period of treatment. The authors could analyse the data of 21 patients. It was proved that there was a significant decrease in frequency, daily weight and fat contents of the stool and in abdominal pain. There was not significant change in the body weight. The authors concluded that this new product is a good pancreatin preparation which is useful and suitable for effective treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, if the patient keeps abstinence. PMID:7566938

  9. Committee opinion no. 633: Alcohol abuse and other substance use disorders: ethical issues in obstetric and gynecologic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol abuse and other substance use disorders are major, often underdiagnosed health problems for women, regardless of age, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, and have resulting high costs for individuals and society. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, defines substance use disorder as a pathologic pattern of behaviors related to the use of any of 10 separate classes of substances, including alcohol and licit and illicit substances. In order to optimize care of patients with substance use disorder, obstetrician-gynecologists are encouraged to learn and appropriately use routine screening techniques, clinical laboratory tests, brief interventions, and treatment referrals. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to propose an ethical framework for incorporating such care into obstetric and gynecologic practice and for resolving common ethical dilemmas related to substance use disorder.

  10. The Interface between Substance Abuse and Chronic Pain Management in Primary Care: A Curriculum for Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erik W.; Coffin, Phillip O.; Chang, Nancy; Polydorou, Soteri; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and assess a housestaff curriculum on opioid and other substance abuse among patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Methods: The two-hour, case-based curriculum delivered to small groups of medical housestaff sought to improve assessment and management of opioid-treated CNCP patients, including those with a substance…

  11. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  12. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    OpenAIRE

    Rognmo Kamilla; Torvik Fartein; Ask Helga; Røysamb Espen; Tambs Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may i...

  13. MRI in chronic toluene abuse: low signal in the cerebral cortex on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI may be helpful in showing brain toxicity associated with chronic toluene inhalation. We report clinical and MRI findings over 3 years in a man with gradual neurologic decline secondary to toluene abuse. Cerebral atrophy most prominently involved the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. On T2-weighted images, loss of gray-white matter contrast, diffuse supratentorial white matter high-signal lesions, and low signal in the basal ganglia and midbrain were seen. In addition, MRI showed abnormal labor cortical low signal on T2-weighted images, most prominent in the primary motor and visual cortex. This cortical T2 shortening, not previously described in this condition, may reflect iron deposition. (orig.)

  14. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures. PMID:26132299

  15. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B;

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...... circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP)....

  16. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B;

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate...... the circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP)....

  17. Different effects of a CD14 gene polymorphism on disease outcome in patients with alcoholic liver disease and chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Meiler; M Mühlbauer; M Johann; A Hartmann; B Schnabl; N Wodarz; G Schmitz; J Sch(o)lmerich; C Hellerbrand

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clinical and experimental data suggest that gut-derived endotoxins are an important pathogenic factors for progression of chronic liver disease. Recently, a C-T (-159)polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD14 gene was detected and found to confer increased CD14 expression and to be associated with advanced alcoholic liver damage. Here, we investigated this polymorphism in patients with less advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD)and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: CD14 genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis in (a) 121 HCV patients, (b) 62 patients with alcohol-associated cirrhosis (Alc-Ci), (c) 118 individuals with heavy alcohol abuse without evidence of advanced liver damage (Alc-w/o Ci), and (d) 247 healthy controls.Furthermore, serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and transaminases were determined.RESULTS: The TT genotype was significantly more frequent in Alc-Ci compared to Alc-w/o Ci or controls (40.3% vs 23.7% or 24.0%, respectively). In Alc-w/o Ci,serum levels of transaminases did not differ significantly between patients with different CD14 genotypes. In HCV patients, TT-homozygotes had significantly higher sCD14 levels and sCD14 serum levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. However,no association was found between CD14 genotypes and histological staging or grading.CONCLUSION: Considering serum transaminases as surrogate markers for alcoholic liver damage, the CD14 polymorphism seems to exhibit different effects during the course of ALD. Differences in genotype distribution between cirrhotic HCV patients and alcoholics and the known functional impact of this polymorphism on CD14 expression levels further indicate differences in the pathophysiological role of CD14 and CD14-mediated lipopolysaccharides signal transduction with regard to the stage as well as the type of the underlying liver disease.

  18. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...

  19. Comparison of Hair Fatty Alcohols by N-Alkylpyridinium Isotope Quaternization and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorptionl ionization Mass Spectrometry for Drug Abuse Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪航; 王昊阳; 张立; 张菁; 卓先义; 黄懿; 郭寅龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on our previous report on N-alkylpyridinium isotope quaternization (NAPIQ) for the analysis of alcoholic and α,β-unsaturated ketone compounds, we have further applied NAPIQ method in the screening of hair lipids in drug abusers. Relative isotopic quantification was used for comparison of fatty alcohols between normal and drug abuse group, The NAPIQ strategy was proven to be a high-throughput method in the metabolic comparison studies of different group samples. The attached N-cationic pyridinium significantly improved the detection sensitivity for these fatty alcohols in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric (MALDI-FTMS) analysis. The experimental results showed that the levels of fatty alcohols in the hair of heroin abuse group decreased significantly compared with the normal groups, which may be the results of the inducing of peroxidation enzyme. NAPIQ was proven to be an effective and alternative method in the research of fatty alcoholic metabolism for drug abuse monitoring.

  20. Integrative epigenetic profiling analysis identifies DNA methylation changes associated with chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism has always been a major public health concern in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal communities. Emerging evidence supports the association between DNA methylation and alcoholism, though very few studies have examined the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the epignome. Since 1986, we have been following up on the mental health conditions of four major aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. The 993 aboriginal people who underwent the phase 1 (1986) clinical interviews were followed up through phase 2 (1990-1992), and phase 3 (2003-2009). Selected individuals for the current study included 10 males from the phase 1 normal cohort who remained normal at phase 2 and became dependent on alcohol by phase 3 and 10 control subjects who have not had any drinking problems throughout the study. We profiled the DNA methylation changes in the blood samples collected at phases 2 and 3. Enrichment analyses have identified several biological processes related to immune system responses and aging in the control group. In contrast, differentially methylated genes in the case group were mostly associated with susceptibility to infections, as well as pathways related to muscular contraction and neural degeneration. The methylation levels of six genes were found to correlate with alcohol consumption. These include genes involved in neurogenesis (NPDC1) and inflammation (HERC5), as well as alcoholism-associated genes ADCY9, CKM, and PHOX2A. Given the limited sample size, our approach uncovered genes and disease pathways associated with chronic alcohol consumption at the epigenetic level. The results offer a preliminary methylome map that enhances our understanding of alcohol-induced damages and offers new targets for alcohol injury research. PMID:25555412

  1. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early

  2. Mulberry Fruit Mitigates Alcohol Neurotoxicity and Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To date, the therapeutic strategy efficacy against memory impairment induced by alcohol intoxication is still limited. The novel therapeutic strategy which is easy to approach, less toxic and less cost is required. Based on the role of oxidative stress in memory impairment induced by alcohol, the neuroprotective effect of substance possessing antioxidant has gained much attention. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Morus alba fruits, substance possessing antioxidant, on spatial memory and brain damage in hippocampus. Approach: Male Wistar rats were induced alcoholism by increasing the alcohol concentration in drinking water gradually increased to 30% within 15-week period. Then, the alcoholic rats were orally given mulberry fruits powder at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 14 days. The memory was assessed using Morris water maze after single administration and every 7 days until the end of the experimental period and at the end of experiment, hippocampus was isolated and determined the neuron density. In addition, the evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA level were also performed. Results: Our results showed that all doses of mulberry fruits enhanced spatial memory and neurons density in hippocampus. The suppression of both AChE activity and MDA level were also observed. These results suggested that the neuroprotection of mulberry fruits might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress damage while the cognitive enhancing effect might occur partly via the increased hippocampal neuron density and the suppression of AChE activity. Conclusion: Mulberry fruits can protect against brain damage and memory impairment induced by alcoholism. Therefore, mulberry fruits may be served as natural resource for developing food supplement against alcoholism. However, further researches about possible active ingredient and pharmacokinetic are required before moving forward

  3. Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of developing chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sarah H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Rimm, Eric B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Joosten, Michel M.

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of associations between alcohol consumption and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To investigate this further, we studied 5476 participants aged 28-75 years in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective population-based cohort, who

  4. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and...

  5. Chronic alcohol ingestion increases mortality and organ injury in a murine model of septic peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyam P Yoseph

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with alcohol use disorders have increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine how chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to sepsis in mice. METHODS: Mice were randomized to receive either alcohol or water for 12 weeks and then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively or followed seven days for survival. RESULTS: Septic alcohol-fed mice had a significantly higher mortality than septic water-fed mice (74% vs. 41%, p = 0.01. This was associated with worsened gut integrity in alcohol-fed mice with elevated intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased crypt proliferation and shortened villus length. Further, alcohol-fed mice had higher intestinal permeability with decreased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression in the intestinal tight junction. The frequency of splenic and bone marrow CD4+ T cells was similar between groups; however, splenic CD4+ T cells in septic alcohol-fed mice had a marked increase in both TNF and IFN-γ production following ex vivo stimulation. Neither the frequency nor function of CD8+ T cells differed between alcohol-fed and water-fed septic mice. NK cells were decreased in both the spleen and bone marrow of alcohol-fed septic mice. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and BAL levels of G-CSF and TFG-β were higher in alcohol-fed mice. Pancreatic metabolomics demonstrated increased acetate, adenosine, xanthine, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and betaine in alcohol-fed mice and decreased cytidine, uracil, fumarate, creatine phosphate, creatine, and choline. Serum and peritoneal cytokines were generally similar between alcohol-fed and water-fed mice, and there were no differences in bacteremia, lung wet to dry weight, or pulmonary, liver or splenic histology. CONCLUSIONS: When subjected to the same septic insult, mice with chronic alcohol ingestion have increased mortality

  6. Symptoms and signs of acute alcoholic hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Basra, Gurjot; Basra, Sarpreet; Parupudi, Sreeram

    2011-01-01

    Although there is not one specific sign or symptom related to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), a constellation of symptoms and signs can help make the diagnosis of AH with reasonable accuracy. Documentation of chronic and active alcohol abuse is paramount in making a diagnosis of AH. Clinical presentation after abstinence for more than 3 m should raise doubts about the diagnosis of AH and dictate the need for considering other causes of liver disease, decompensation of alcoholic cirrhosis, sepsis an...

  7. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Myocardial Insulin Resistance and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shi-Yan; Gilbert, Sara A. B.; Li, Qun; Ren, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake leads to insulin resistance and alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which appears to be a result of the complex interaction between genes and environment. This study was designed to examine the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgenic overexpression on alcohol-induced insulin resistance and myocardial injury. ALDH2 transgenic mice were produced using chicken β-actin promoter. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 mice were fed a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 wks. Cell shorteni...

  8. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  9. Development of an Abuse- and Alcohol-Resistant Formulation Based on Hot-Melt Extrusion and Film Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, Nicole; Schrank, Simone; Fischer, Johannes M; Breinhälter, Karlheinz; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the development of flexible (i.e., deformable) multiple-unit pellets that feature (i) a prolonged drug release, (ii) drug abuse deterrence, and (iii) a minimal risk of alcohol-induced dose dumping (ADD). Deformable pellets were prepared via an advanced continuous one-step hot-melt extrusion (HME) technique, with the drug (i.e., antipyrine and codeine phosphate) fed as an aqueous solution into the molten matrix material (i.e., cornstarch, gum arabic, and xanthan). Formulations that had suitable mechanical characteristics (i.e., high compression strength) were coated with a flexible Aquacoat(®) ARC film to ensure prolonged release and to avoid ADD. The pellets were characterized in terms of their mechanical properties and in vitro drug release behavior in alcoholic media. All formulations were abuse deterrent: they had a high compression strength and grinding the pellets into powder was impossible. Since the pellets comprising gum arabic and xanthan as a matrix did not remain intact during dissolution testing, they had a very fast drug release rate. Cornstarch-based pellets that swelled but remained intact in the dissolution media had a slower drug release. Coated cornstarch-based pellets had a prolonged release over 8 h and resistance to dose dumping in 20 and 40% ethanol. Our results indicate that cornstarch-based pellets manufactured via the advanced HME process followed by coating are a promising formulation that makes tampering difficult due to a high compression strength combined with robustness in alcoholic media. PMID:26206403

  10. Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Adewale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21 st century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion or obesity (US$133 billion. Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol.

  11. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  13. Reduced limbic metabolism and fronto-cortical volume in rats vulnerable to alcohol addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Alessandro; Agosta, Federica; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Bifone, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with long-term reductions in fronto-cortical volume and limbic metabolism. However, an unanswered question in alcohol research is whether these alterations are the sole consequence of chronic alcohol use, or contain heritable contributions reflecting biological propensity toward ethanol addiction. Animal models of genetic predisposition to alcohol dependence can be used to investigate the role of inborn brain abnormalities in the aetiology of alcoholism. Here we us...

  14. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  15. Project Self-Esteem: A Parent Involvement Program for Improving Self-Esteem and Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse, K-6. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sandy; Bielen, Peggy

    This guide presents Project Self-Esteem, a program for improving self-esteem and preventing drug and alcohol abuse in kindergarten through grade 6. Chapter I presents the team leader's guide and discusses introducing the program to the principal, school staff, and parents. Chapter II focuses on kindergarten and includes lessons on being a friend…

  16. Carnitine: function, metabolism and value in hepatic failure during chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the most frequent dependences among people, leading to damage of the liver and death of the person. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with carnitine metabolism and citric acid cycle activity. Block in activity of the citric acid cycle caused by alcohol and its metabolites is partially compensated by increased ketone body production, which results in ketosis. Chronic administration of alcohol induces liver injury, inflammation, cirrhosis, focal necrosis and steatosis.L-carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-N, N, N-trimethylaminebutyric acid is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism, which plays a major role in transport of activated long-chain fatty acids to sites of β-oxidation in mitochondria. Carnitine also stabilizes cell membranes by removing long-chain acyl-CoA and excess of the acyl group from the body. L-carnitine can be a useful and safe drug in the liver pathology induced by chronic ethanol exposure.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging structural alterations in brain of alcohol abusers and its association with impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Samuel; Morales, Julia L; Senabre, Isabel; Romero, Maria J; Beltran, Miguel A; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Barcia, Jorge M; Romero, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the suggestion that impulsivity plays a central role in the transfer from a recreational drug use to a substance use disorder, very few studies focused on neurobiological markers for addiction. This study aimed to identify volumetric alterations in a sample of patients with mild alcohol use disorder with a short history of alcohol use, compared with a control group, and also focused on its association with impulsivity levels. Most magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on severe alcohol use disorder, formerly called alcohol-dependent patients, showing alcohol-related structural alterations and their association with alcohol use history variables but not with personality parameters like impulsivity. Our hypothesis is that our group of alcohol users may already display structural alterations especially in brain regions related to inhibitory control like medial-prefrontal regions, and that those structural alterations could be more associated to personality traits like impulsivity than to drug use variables. Our results clearly demonstrate that our population showed lower regional grey and white matter volumes in the medial-prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, as well as higher regional white matter volume in the ventral striatum and the internal capsule. Volumetric alterations were associated to the Barratt's impulsivity score: the more impulsive the subjects, the lower the medial-prefrontal cortex grey matter volume. PMID:25988724

  18. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels Among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, Olalekan; Hottor, Tete; Mehta, Ashish; Lichtveld, Maureen; McCaskill, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D3] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D3]) and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OH)D3), active vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3), cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced (P vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system.

  19. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  20. Efficiency of a combined peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavarin therapy in intravenous opiate substances abusers with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most important ethiology factor of chronic liver disease that progresses into terminal insufficiency is hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Intravenous (iv drug abuse is the main cause for spreading HCV. Thus the therapy for such patients is of extreme importance in reducing the incidence of the disease. The aim of the study was to establish efficacy of a combined therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in iv opiate substances abusers having chronic HCV infection in relation to sex, age, genotype and level of fibrosis and duration of HCV infection before the treatment. Methods. Thirty one iv opiate substances abusers with chronic hepatitis C (HHC were enrolled in the examination. The patients were divided according to the genotype into two groups. The patients with genotypes 1 and 4 (n = 18 were treated for 48 weeks, while those with genotypes 2 and 3 (n = 13 for 24 weeks. PCR HCV RNA, genotype determination and liver biopsy were done to each patient. Results. A stabile virological response was achieved in 93.5% of the patients, so the therapy demonstrated statistically significant efficacy i. v. opiate substances abusers with HHC (p < 0.001. There was no statistically significant difference in therapeutic response among patient groups formed according to the genotype, sex, duration of the disease and level of fibrosis (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Therapy of of iv opiate substances abusers with HHC has its specificities, and these patients need special treatment. Efficacy of the therapy was equivalent in patient groups formed according to the sex, genotype, level of fibrosis and duration of HCV infection. A combined therapy with peginterferon alfa 2a and ribavirin has high level of success in the treatment of these patients.