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Sample records for chronic affective disorders

  1. Major affective disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Juthamas InchaiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs have significant impacts on quality of life including psychomotor domain.Purpose: To evaluate three major affective disorders in subjects with COPD compared with other CRDs and nonill population.Materials and methods: The Thai version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used as a diagnostic instrument for three major affective disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and panic disorder by face-to-face interview in assessing patients with CRDs [COPD, asthma, rhinasthma, all asthma (asthma and rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis], and nonill subjects. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relation between major affective disorders and CRDs adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity.Results: Major affective disorders were more prevalent in CRDs than nonill groups (adjusted OR =2.6 [95% CI, 1.8-3.9], P<0.001. COPD patients had significantly more generalized anxiety and panic disorder (adjusted OR =4.0 [95% CI, 1.4-11.9], P=0.011, and 4.4 [95% CI, 1.1-18.1], P=0.038, respectively but not major depressive disorder (adjusted OR =2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.0, P=0.105] than nonill group. Comparing with all asthma, COPD patients had lower occurrence of major depressive and panic disorders (adjusted OR =0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.4], P=0.002, and 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.9], P=0.043, respectively. There was no difference in major mood disorders in COPD, rhinasthma, and chronic rhinitis patients. Major affective disorders were not increased by disease severity in COPD.Conclusion: Major affective disorders were significantly higher in CRDs than nonill

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, M; Levine, S M; Terman, J S; Doherty, S

    1998-09-28

    This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS. Instruments included the Personal Inventory for Depression and SAD (PIDS) and the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Effects (SAFTEE), which catalogs the current severity of a wide range of somatic, behavioral, and affective symptoms. Data sets from 110 CFS patients matched across seasons were entered into the analysis. Symptoms that conform with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of CFS were rated as moderate to very severe during the winter months by varying proportions of patients (from 43% for lymph node pain or enlargement, to 79% for muscle, joint, or bone pain). Fatigue was reported by 92%. Prominent affective symptoms included irritability (55%), depressed mood (52%), and anxiety (51%). Retrospective monthly ratings of mood, social activity, energy, sleep duration, amount eaten, and weight change showed a coherent pattern of winter worsening. Of patients with consistent summer and winter ratings (n = 73), 37% showed high global seasonality scores (GSS) > or = 10. About half this group reported symptoms indicative of major depressive disorder, which was strongly associated with high seasonality. Hierarchical cluster analysis of wintertime symptoms revealed 2 distinct clinical profiles among CFS patients: (a) those with high seasonality, for whom depressed mood clustered with atypical neurovegetative symptoms of hypersomnia and hyperphagia, as is seen in SAD; and (b) those with low seasonality, who showed a primary clustering of classic CFS symptoms (fatigue, aches, cognitive disturbance

  3. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnoses among electroconvulsive therapy patients with chronic affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Dam, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    investigated. A standardized schema for basic anamnesis and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic and Affective Illness (OPCRIT) were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical affective disorder ICD-10 diagnoses and the formal agreement between clinical...

  4. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57 ± 8 years) and/or diabetic (age: 53 ± 8 years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p = 0.001, and 53%, p = 0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p = 0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  5. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  6. Substance P at the Nexus of Mind and Body in Chronic Inflammation and Affective Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, research has demonstrated that chronic diseases characterized by dysregulation of inflammation are particularly susceptible to exacerbation by stress and emotion. Likewise, rates of depression and anxiety are overrepresented in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory disease. In recent years, substance P has been implicated in…

  7. A prospective, descriptive study of hour-to-hour and day-to-day temperature variability of skin affected by chronic venous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; McNeil, Rebecca B

    2008-04-01

    Evidence suggests that skin temperature is elevated in the lower legs of individuals with the most severe stages of chronic venous disorder-related skin inflammation. Fifteen (15) patients (average age 67.7 years) with several chronic health conditions, chronic venous disorders, and a history of leg ulcers volunteered to participate in a prospective, descriptive, two-part (hourly and daily) study to test two hypotheses: 1) that skin temperature variations of chronically inflamed skin of lower legs affected by chronic venous disorders exhibit no differences in hour-to-hour and day-to-day rhythmic patterns associated with sleep and activities such as walking, exercise, or compression stocking use among four selected skin sites (two per leg) or between the legs of individuals with chronic venous disorders; and 2) that the difference in temperature between sites is unequal between legs. All study participants were at high risk for developing venous ulcers (CEAP stage 4 and 5). Skin temperature was obtained at sites with highest temperatures and/or areas of healed ulcers and mapped hourly over a 2-day period with a data logger and daily for 30 days with an infrared thermometer. No consistent, visually detectable effects due to caffeine use, eating, activity, or other variables assessed were found; only sleeping resulted in a consistent increase in skin temperature. Difference in skin temperature between measurement sites was found to be dependent on the leg on which the sites were located (P=0.1127). Because skin temperature variability could not be explained by the variables assessed, a temperature change could suggest the presence of a pathological process such as an infection or increased inflammation. Future studies to determine whether variability of skin temperature over sites affected by chronic venous disorders heralds further skin impairment are warranted. PMID:18480503

  8. The Clinical Significance of Single Features of Borderline Personality Disorder: Anger, Affective Instability, Impulsivity, and Chronic Emptiness in Psychiatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, William D; Rosenstein, Lia; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Although dimensional models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are consistent with findings showing that minimal levels of pathology are associated with substantial increases in psychosocial impairment, it is still unclear whether different individual BPD criteria are each clinically significant on their own. The current study uses semistructured interview data from 1,870 adults presenting for outpatient psychiatric treatment to investigate whether the BPD criteria of impulsivity, affective instability, emptiness, and anger are each related to psychosocial morbidity when met in the absence of the other eight criteria. Analyses showed that each of these criteria was associated with dysfunction in comparison with a control group meeting zero BPD criteria, but only the emptiness criterion was a marker of impairment on all indices of psychosocial morbidity: suicidality, history of suicide attempts and psychiatric hospitalizations, social and work dysfunction, Axis I comorbidity, and global functioning. Implications for the study of borderline pathology are discussed. PMID:25893552

  9. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  10. Mood and affect disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

  11. Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SAD. These two chemicals help regulate a person's sleep-wake cycles, energy, and mood. Shorter days and longer ... doctor. People who have another type of depressive disorder, skin that's sensitive to light, or medical conditions ...

  12. Personality disorders do not affect treatment outcomes for chronic HCV infection in Spanish prisoners: the Perseo study

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Andrés; Antón, José J.; Trujols, Joan; Saíz de la Hoya, Pablo; Juan, José; Faraco, Inmaculada; Caylà, Joan A; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and personality disorders (PD) has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of HCV treatment in prisoners with and without PD. Methods We performed a prospective multicentre study in inmates from 25 Spanish prisons who had been treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin in 2011. PD diagnosis was based on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. We calculated adju...

  13. Psychiatric disorders in chronic periodic haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The progress in Medical and Nursing Science has contributed significantly to the lengthening of life expectancy regarding several categories of ill people with chronic diseases. However, when the quality of life depends on the periodic correction of biological parameters, as with people with chronic renal failure, this situation affects both the patient and the environment. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of psychiatric disorders which are presented in haemodialysis patients as well as the influence of these disorders on their quality of life. Material and method: Review of relative bibliography was made in electronic basis of Medline (1980‐2009 using as key words haemodialysis, chronic renal failure, quality of life, psychiatric disorders. Complementary bibliography was found through other electronic search engines. Results: The chronic character and the frequency of renal failure, the possible dysfunction in the movement as well as the necessary long treatment cause problems, which extend the disease beyond the medical area offering socioeconomic dimensions, which complicate the associated psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: These patients suffer from the disease as well as from the treatment and at the same time they are faced with the number of the accompanying and interrelated problems, which come up in their everyday living and prescribe restrictively their way of life.

  14. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

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    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  15. Circadian polymorphisms associated with affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Joo, EJ; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Kelsoe, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical symptoms of affective disorders, their response to light treatment, and sensitivity to other circadian interventions indicate that the circadian system has a role in mood disorders. Possibly the mechanisms involve circadian seasonal and photoperiodic mechanisms. Since genetic susceptibilities contribute a strong component to affective disorders, we explored whether circadian gene polymorphisms were associated with affective disorders in four complementary studies.Methods:...

  16. Alexithymia in Chronic Pain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tella, Marialaura; Castelli, Lorys

    2016-07-01

    This review proposes a critical discussion of the recent studies investigating the presence of alexithymia in patients suffering from different chronic pain (CP) conditions. The term CP refers to pain that persists or progresses over time, while alexithymia is an affective dysregulation, largely observed in psychosomatic diseases. Overall, the examined studies showed a high prevalence of alexithymia, especially difficulties in identifying feelings, in all the different CP conditions considered. However, the association between alexithymia and pain intensity was not always clear and in some studies this relationship appeared to be mediated by negative effect, especially depression. The role of alexithymia in CP should be clarified by future studies, paying particular attention to two aspects: the use of additional measures, in addition to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, to assess alexithymia, and the analysis of the potential differences in the evolution of different CP conditions with reference to the presence or absence of alexithymia. PMID:27215759

  17. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-01-01

    Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as re...

  18. Sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Stephanie C; El Sara, Ammar; Chapman, Cherylle; Cohen, Danielle; Cukor, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders have a profound and well-documented impact on overall health and quality of life in the general population. In patients with chronic disease, sleep disorders are more prevalent, with an additional morbidity and mortality burden. The complex and dynamic relationship between sleep disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain relatively little investigated. This article presents an overview of sleep disorders in patients with CKD, with emphasis on relevant pathophysiologic underpinnings and clinical presentations. Evidence-based interventions will be discussed, in the context of individual sleep disorders, namely sleep apnea, insomnia, restless leg syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness. Limitations of the current knowledge as well as future research directions will be highlighted, with a final discussion of different conceptual frameworks of the relationship between sleep disorders and CKD. PMID:27152260

  19. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  20. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; L. Peters; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristics (concerning course, control and possible stressful consequences), physical quality of life indicators and social and relationship problems. Panel data from the Dutch national Panel of Patients w...

  1. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and ...

  2. Affective Disorders (Depression and Mania) in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kutcher, Stanley P.

    1986-01-01

    Affective disorders in adolescents are common and can be clearly differentiated from the “growing up process”. Basic questions about etiology, pathophysiology, psychobiology and treatment of these disorders remain to be answered. Current knowledge suggests that close co-operation between primary care physicians and psychiatrists with specialized training in adolescent psychiatry is necessary for optimum identification and management of these disorders.

  3. Chronic pain: Model of psychosomatic disorder (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernus N.P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a detailed review on epidemiology, pathogenesis and interrelation of serotonin neuromedia-tor metabolism in the central nervous system in state of chronic pain and depression. It has been demonstrated that neurophysiological conditions serve as psychological defense of an individual. That mechanism has been proved to «transform» serious emotions onto the inner level (body and it assists in the development of psychosomatic disorderschronic pain syndrome

  4. Positive affect regulation in anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Although individual differences exist in how people respond to positive affect (PA), little research addresses PA regulation in people with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to provide information about responses to PA in people with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The tendency to dampen PA and the ability to savor PA were examined in an undergraduate sample. Analyses examined the unique links...

  5. Ventricular enlargement in patients with affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventricular enlargement was determined using linear measurement on MR images in a total of 71 patients with affective disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (41) and depression (30). Fourty-one healthy persons served as controls. Evans ratio, Huckman number and minimum distance of caudate nuclei (MDCN) were used as indices for ventricular enlargment. No significant difference in Evans ratio was observed between both the group of bipolar affective disorder and the group of depression and the control group. Nor did it correlate with age in any of the groups. Huckman number was significantly higher in the group of bipolar affective disorder than the other two groups. It positively correlated with age in the group of depression. MDCN was significantly increased in the group of bipolar affective disorder, as compared with the control group; and there was a positive correlation between MDCN and age in both the group of dipolar affective disorder and the group of depression. In conclusion, ventricular enlargement was dependent upon aging in affetive disorder patients. This tendency was more noticeable in the group of depression. In addition, atrophy of the caudate nuclei was likely to be severer in the group of dipolar affective disorder than the group of depression. (N.K.)

  6. [Comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful. PMID:17037812

  7. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamedali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient.

  8. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  9. Premenstrual mood changes in affective disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadirian, A. M.; Kamaraju, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    Mood changes during the premenstrual phase have been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Although there has been significant progress in the diagnosis and etiology of major affective disorders, the relation between these disorders and menstrual changes remains controversial. There have been contradictory reports and speculations on women's susceptibility to psychiatric disorders during the premenstrual phase. We describe three patients with a history of mood swings associated ...

  10. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research. PMID:26401297

  11. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), somatoform disorder (SoD), comorbid BPD+SoD, and a psychiatric comparison group (PC) to provide a baseline against which to compare the hypothesized elevations in dysfunctional self and affect regulation....

  12. Chronic cough in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K K Y; Ing, A J; Laks, L; Cossa, G; Rogers, P; Birring, S S

    2010-02-01

    Chronic cough can be the sole presenting symptom for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. We investigated the prevalence, severity and factors associated with chronic cough in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We invited 108 consecutive patients who had been referred for evaluation of SDB to complete a comprehensive questionnaire on respiratory and sleep health, which included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (cough specific quality of life; LCQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Mayo Clinic gastro-oesophageal questionnaire. Chronic cough was defined as cough for a duration of >2 months. 33% of patients with SDB reported a chronic cough. Patients with a chronic cough had impaired cough related-quality of life affecting all health domains (mean+/-sem LCQ score 17.7+/-0.7; normal = 21). Patients with SDB and chronic cough were predominantly females (61% versus 17%; p<0.001) and reported more nocturnal heartburn (28% versus 5%; p = 0.03) and rhinitis (44% versus 14%; p = 0.02) compared to those without SDB. There were no significant differences in ESS, respiratory disturbance index, body mass index, or symptoms of breathlessness, wheeze, snoring, dry mouth and choking between those with cough and those without. Chronic cough is prevalent in patients with SDB and is associated with female sex, symptoms of nocturnal heartburn and rhinitis. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on cough associated with SDB to explore the mechanism of this association. PMID:20123846

  13. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for

  14. Affective Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder - Comorbidity or Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The association between bipolar disorder and borderline personality has been studied by several researchers. Comorbidity has been emphasized by some authors which observe a prognostic impairment of bipolar disorder because the delay of the diagnostic. Symptoms related with alcohol and drugs abuse, suicidary behaviour and impulsivity, often present in borderline patients, make the treatment difficult. Other authors consider these symptoms as being part of the bipolar disease, proposing a continuum between the two entities. In this case, borderline personality would be a mild form of an affective disorder. We will discuss different opinions and their cli- nical and therapeutic consequences.

  15. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Movement Disorders: Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, Apameh; Tator, Charles H; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-05-01

    Association of repetitive brain trauma with progressive neurological deterioration has been described since the 1920s. Punch drunk syndrome and dementia pugilistica (DP) were introduced first to explain symptoms in boxers, and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been used to describe a neurodegenerative disease in athletes and military personal with a history of multiple concussions. Although there are many similarities between DP and CTE, a number of key differences are apparent especially when comparing movement impairments. The aim of this review is to compare clinical and pathological aspects of DP and CTE with a focus on disorders of movement. PMID:27021775

  16. On the chronobiology of seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne Mara

    2002-01-01

    Chronobiological hypotheses about the pathogenesis of affective disorders have a long history. According to the modern variants, abnormalities of either a sleep-wake cycle dependent process S, or a circadian pacemaker related process C, or an abnor-mal interaction between these two processes underli

  17. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS...

  18. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references

  19. Vestibular testing in patients with panic disorder and chronic dizziness

    OpenAIRE

    TEGGI, R.; D. Caldirola; BONDI, S.; Perna, G.; L. Bellodi; BUSSI, M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between chronic dizziness and vestibular function in patients with panic disorder, in the present study neurotologic findings in 15 patients with panic disorder and chronic dizziness were compared with those in 15 patients with chronic dizziness, without panic disorder. All underwent neurotologic screening for spontaneous, positional and positioning nystagmus with head-shaking and head-thrust tests, an audiometric examination and electronystagmography ...

  20. Affective disorders among women during post partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Juliana Orejarena Serrano

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Women, in general, present a high rate of prevalence of affective disorders, mainly depressive ones, during their lives. This is even more evident during their puerperal time, were depression is quite common. This is, probably, due to the fact of a highest physical and emotional needs during this difficult period, for both the mother and the family,as well. This clinical condition will increase both the mobility and mortality rates among puerperal women and will increase the risk for new episodes of depression on future pregnancies. Since we all know that during puerperium, both mother and child are usually attended by the Health System, this is a good time to detect these disorders. Therefore, we will try to review the pertinent medical literature regarding this probem, in order to provide the psychiatrist and another physicians with new, effective tools, that will allow them to recognize earlier, patients with this disorder, handle them properly to avoid all negative consequences.

  1. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Bains; Alka Dogra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive...

  2. Anxiety Disorders and the Family: How families affect psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsley, John

    1991-01-01

    Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  3. Comorbid Bipolar Affective Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Childhood: A Case Study and Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Amlan K.; Samir Kumar Praharaj; Vinod Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, w...

  4. TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IS IMPORTANT IN TREATING BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Reddy; B Deepika; Harish, S

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder along with hypothyroidism is well documented. There are few studies regarding hypothyroidism in patients with bipolar affective disorder. Here our main motto is to report such a case who was presented with bipolar affective disorder along with hypothyroidism as a co-morbidity & to provide a brief information regarding association of hypothyroidism in bipolar affective disorder. Treatment approaches in such co-morbid conditions.

  5. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  6. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for 3 weeks. Since rats are social animals we hypothesised that ‘social support’ might reduce the adverse effects of chronic stress. To test this hypothesis, male and female rats were housed individua...

  7. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  8. [The adolescent with a chronic somatic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettschart, W

    1992-01-25

    Adolescence, a period of psychic reorganization which allows for new adjustments in order to face future life and reorganize the experience of the past, is one of the critical phases of existence. It is described as a "new birth", a successful achievement of individuation and separation processes. For the adolescent with an infirmity or chronic illness, and for his family, there exist specific problems in addition to those encountered by a healthy adolescent. The painful realization of social, professional and relational barriers is reactivated. The feeling of failure and helplessness, the impairment of self-esteem, and anger at being the victim of the unfairness of destiny, represent a supplementary affective burden for the adolescent and his family. This results in a risk of deterioration, either towards affective and social withdrawal expressed by overadaptation and weakening of psychic functions, or towards autoaggressive acting-out or various forms of marginalization. Preventive and therapeutic action by the individual and the family are discussed in the light of the case history of an adolescent suffering from a facial malformation. PMID:1734504

  9. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  10. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dekker, J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G P

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. METHODS : Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n = 758, ages 12-25 years), were each compared with a population-based control group in a multicentre study using a cross-sectional design. Social position was assessed by a mailed questionnaire measur...

  12. Oral disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. Narrative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF is one of the best known renal diseases. It is characterized by a deterioration in the overall renal function and is associated with other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, uropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis and autoimmune diseases. Patients with CRF show alterations of the masticatory system that are specific to the disease and other type of disorders as a result of treatment. Oral health in dialysis and transplant patients tends to be poor, which makes them more likely to develop pathological conditions in the oral cavity, potentially increasing morbidity, mortality and affecting the quality of life of patients. Among the lesions we can find dysgeusia, periodontitis, candidiasis, gingival bleeding, petechiae, and joint alterations. Gingivitis and xerostomia associated to long-term use medications can cause oral lesions. Children with CRF show two oral conditions of interest: high incidence of dental anomalies and low caries activity. In patients receiving a kidney transplant, previous dental treatment is critical because the immune status of the patient will be affected not only by the toxemia, but by the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent organ rejection. Therefore, the dentist plays an important role in training parents and/or guardians, doctors and paramedics on the treatment of oral lesions in these patients.

  13. Burnout in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementz, Gunilla; Borsbo, Bjorn; Norrbrink, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess burnout and its relation to pain, disability, mood and health-related quality of life in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Forty-five patients with chronic WAD ([greater than or equal to] 3 months) referred to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation centre were included. A questionnaire…

  14. [Pathogenetic correction of metabolic disturbances in chronic liver affections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsov, M G; Petrov, A Iu; Aleksandrova, L N; Sukhanov, D S; Kovalenko, A L

    2012-01-01

    The available drugs for the treatment of chronic liver affections (the adequate model is chronic hepatitis C) include agents of metabolic therapy, whose efficacy is not always enough, that required the search for original mitochondrial substrates on the basis of succinate. Such agents were composed as a pharmaceutical group named "Substrates of Energetic Metabolism" or "Substrate Antihypoxants". The review presents the description of the pharmacological effects of remaxole and cytoflavin, evident from lower levels of active metabolites of oxygen that increases the clinical efficacy of the therapy. Their role in the metabolic reactions in chronic liver affections is exclusive and rather actual. PMID:23700935

  15. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo; Francisco Aboitiz; Pablo Fuentealba

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral response...

  16. Recovery from chronic factitious disorder (Munchausen's syndrome): a personal account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Christopher; Taylor, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This case report provides an account by a patient (with permission) of chronic factitious disorder and the factors that led to recovery. Such accounts are extremely rare in the literature. This account also throws into sharp focus current controversies in the classification of factitious disorders. PMID:24343927

  17. Methylphenidate in Treatment of ADHD and Comorbid Chronic Tic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children (ages 6-12 years with Tourette's syndrome (96% or chronic motor tic disorder (4% were evaluated at State University of New York, Stony Brook.

  18. Chronic pain disorders in HIV primary care: clinical characteristics and association with healthcare utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jocelyn M; So, Eric; Jebakumar, Jebakaran; George, Mary Catherine; Simpson, David M; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is common in HIV, but incompletely characterized, including its underlying etiologies, its effect on healthcare utilization, and the characteristics of affected patients in the HIV primary care setting. These data are needed to design and justify appropriate clinic-based pain management services. Using a clinical data warehouse, we analyzed one year of data from 638 patients receiving standard-of-care antiretroviral therapy in a large primary care HIV clinic, located in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. We found that 40% of patients carried one or more chronic pain diagnoses. The most common diagnoses were degenerative musculoskeletal disorders (eg, degenerative spinal disease and osteoarthritis), followed by neuropathic pain and headache disorders. Many patients (16%) had multiple chronic pain diagnoses. Women, older patients, and patients with greater burdens of medical illness, and psychiatric and substance use comorbidities were disproportionately represented among those with chronic pain diagnoses. Controlling for overall health status, HIV patients with chronic pain had greater healthcare utilization including emergency department visits and radiology procedures. In summary, our study demonstrates the high prevalence of chronic pain disorders in the primary care HIV clinic. Colocated interventions for chronic pain in this setting should not only focus on musculoskeletal pain but also account for complex multifaceted pain syndromes, and address the unique biopsychosocial features of this population. Furthermore, because chronic pain is prevalent in HIV and associated with increased healthcare utilization, developing clinic-based pain management programs could be cost-effective. PMID:26683238

  19. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  20. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  1. Affective disorders in children and adolescents: The dysthymic disorder dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, S.; M. Moretti; Haley, G.; Marriage, K.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the use of psychiatric ratings and self-report information in distinguishing major depression and dysthymic disorders from each other and from other disorders. 60 adolescent psychiatry patients (mean age 13.05 yrs) completed the Children's Depression Scale and a children's depression inventory, and the results were compared with those from diagnostic interviews using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria. Findings suggest that diagnostic ratings...

  2. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  3. Oral disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. Narrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is one of the best known renal diseases. It is characterized by a deterioration in the overall renal function and is associated with other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, uropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis and autoimmune diseases. Patients with CRF show alterations of the masticatory system that are specific to the disease and other type of disorders as a result of treatment. Oral health in dialysis and transplant patients tends to be poor, wh...

  4. Therapy for depression in bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of different therapy regimens for depression in relation to the clinical type of bipolar affective disorders (BAD and to choose optimal treatment regimens for depression in BAD type I (BADI and BAD type II (BADII.Patients and methods. A total of 65 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI and 37 with BADII, were examined. 212 depressive episodes were analyzed in BAD patients, of them there were 74 with BADI and 138 with BADII. The patients with BADI took a combination of an antidepressant (AD and a normothymic (NT, NT and a neuroleptic (NL, AD, NT and NL. Those with BADII received monotherapy with AD or NL, a combination of AD + NT, AD + NL. The patients' status was clinically evaluated using a specially designed questionnaire and the MADRS and CGI psychometric scales at baseline and then at the end of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks of therapy.Results. The AD-containing regimens used to treat patients with BADI proved to be more effective; this therapy led to a more marked reduction in depressive symptoms (55.73% in the AD + NT-treated patients; 54.07% in the AD + NT + NL group versus 33.64% in the NT + NL-treated patients, a higher response to therapy, and a larger number of remissions by the end of the investigation (80.0, 72.7, and 33.3%, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of transient hypomanic symptoms did not significantly differ in these groups (20.0, 27.3, and 8.3%, respectively. The depressive patients with BADII generally responded better to different therapy regimens (the reduction in depressive symptoms was 52.08, 58.82, 58.40, and 53.98% in the AD, NL, AD + NT, and AD + NL groups; the remission index by the end of the investigation was 60.6, 92.9, 77.8, and 69.2%, respectively; these patients were seen to have less frequently symptoms of an antipole during their treatment (18.2, 7.1, 0.0, and 15.4%, respectively.Conclusion. The incorporation of AD into a therapy regimen in BAD patients

  5. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  6. Psychiatric co-morbidity in chronic pain disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with chronic pain disorder in hospital setting. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Okara from June 2011 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 400 patients (males=117; females=283) gathered from pain clinic and other outpatient departments of the hospital and were interviewed in detail and Present State Examination was carried out. Demographic variables were scored using descriptive statistics and results were analyzed using correlation methods. Results: It was revealed that psychiatric illness in overall sample prevailed among 266 participants (67%). Among which 164 participants (62%) were diagnosed with depression, 67 patients (25.2%) of chronic pain were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 28 patients (11%) with adjustment disorder and 1.5% and 1.1% diagnosed with drug dependence and somatization disorder, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity especially the incidence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders were high amongst patients suffering from chronic pain disorder. (author)

  7. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2006-01-01

    -Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality...... might be due to the genetic liability to affective disorder. These findings need to be replicated in future family studies.......BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High...

  8. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    . Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory...... on language processing and episodic memory. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that discrete cognitive impairment is present before the onset of the affective disorder and is genetically transmitted was supported. Thus, cognitive function may be a candidate endophenotype for affective disorders.......BACKGROUND: Patients may present with cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of affective disorder, but it is unclear whether the impairment is prevalent before onset of the illness. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that genetic liability to affective disorder...

  9. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.j.o.; Otte, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing a

  10. Clinical features associated with an early onset in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Francois; Daghfal, Roula; Rouleau, Guy A; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain

    2015-12-30

    In chronic tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS), tics often appear between 4 and 8 years but they can also appear in early childhood, a period in which symptom expression may be affected by early brain development. The present study examined whether symptom expression in early-onset TS was distinct from that observed in TS with a later onset. We compared the clinical characteristics in children with TS who developed tics before age 4 or after age 6. Early-onset TS was significantly associated with an increased rate of stuttering and other speech disfluencies as well as an increased rate of oppositional defiant disorder, symptoms that often appear before age 4. Early-onset TS was also linked to maternal transmission of tics. Early-onset TS was not significantly associated with tic severity, obsessive-compulsive behavior or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results suggest that an early onset affects symptom expression in tic disorders. PMID:26596364

  11. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    measures (such as a physician exam generally failed to find a relationship. Among studies that examined the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes, there was more consistent evidence that PTSD affects the perception of respiratory symptom burden and management. In addition, methods for measuring an important confounder (smoking were generally lacking.Conclusion: There is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD. There was stronger evidence implicating PTSD as an important comorbidity impacting COPD management. Further research is needed to: 1 determine whether or not COPD and PTSD are likely to be comorbid, and 2 further elucidate the mechanisms connecting PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. Keywords: chronic lung disease, nonproductive cough, WTC cough syndrome, posttraumatic stress disorder, Veterans

  12. Cesarean Section and Chronic Immune Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the...... development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We...... studied childhood diseases with a suspected relation to a deviant immune-maturation and a debut at young age. The effect of cesarean delivery on childhood disease incidences were estimated by means of confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained in Poisson regression...

  13. Cognitive therapy of obsessive compulsive disorder with chronic tic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Hebbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard of therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder, exposure with response prevention, may not be suitable to obsessional sub-type. Live exposure is not possible and response prevention is difficult. These obsessions (sexual, religious or aggressive are repugnant and resisted. Negative attitude against obsessions leads to treatment refusal or dropout from therapy. In Cognitive therapy (CT these attitudes can be corrected and exposure can be administered in the form of behavioral experiments (using behavioral tasks to change the dysfunctional attitudes. Such a case is treated with CT, weaned off medications and remains improved at 9 months.

  14. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

  15. Urbanicity during upbringing and bipolar affective disorders in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    disorder. Conclusions: We found no evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity at birth (and during upbringing) and the risk of bipolar affective disorders in Denmark, but found some evidence that the diagnostic practices used in Aarhus differed from the rest of Denmark...

  16. Macrolides in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef A. Alzolibani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of anti-inflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed to assess the usefulness of macrolides in other inflammatory diseases including skin and hair disorders, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bullous pemphigoid, and pityriasis lichenoides. This paper summarizes a collection of clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of macrolides antibiotics in the treatment of selected dermatoses which have primarily been classified as noninfectious and demonstrating their potential for being disease-modifying agents.

  17. Personality traits in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, M; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, E L; Kessing, L V

    2007-01-01

    multivariate analyses, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was not significantly associated with neuroticism but correlated to sex, minor psychopathology and recent life events. CONCLUSION: A high genetic liability to affective disorder showed an association with neuroticism, but the association......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a high genetic liability to develop affective disorder is associated with specific personality traits. METHOD: A cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study. Through nation-wide registers, healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (high-risk twins) and...... without (the control group/low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified. Personality traits were compared for a total of 211 high-risk and low-risk twins. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, the high-risk twins had a higher level of neuroticism than the control twins (P = 0.03). In...

  18. Does chronic exposure to mobile phones affect cognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Mamta; Khaliq, Farah; Panwar, Aprajita; Vaney, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones form an integral part of our modern lifestyle. Following the drastic rise in mobile phone use in recent years, it has become important to study its potential public health impact. Amongst the various mobile phone health hazards, the most alarming is the possible effect on the brain. The aim of the present study was to explore whether chronic exposure to mobile phones affects cognition. Ninety subjects aged 17–25 years with normal hearing were recruited for the study and divided ...

  19. Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compliment previous studies identifying negative states present in borderline personality disorder by investigating the presence of positive affective and cognitive states. Ninety-six patients with criteria-defined borderline personality disorder and 24 axis II comparison participants completed the Positive Affect Scale, a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be characteristic of borderline patients (and axis II comparis...

  20. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  1. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  2. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  3. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

  4. Sleep disorders in pediatric chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, Stella; Papadimitriou, Eleni; Printza, Nikoleta; Dotis, John; Papachristou, Fotios

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of sleep disorders during childhood has been estimated to range from 25 to 43 %. The aim of this review is to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders and possible associations with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with CKD. An electronic systematic literature search for sleep disorders in children with CKD in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library Databases identified seven relevant articles for review, all of which reported an increased prevalence of sleep disorders in children with CKD. Five studies included children with CKD undergoing dialysis, and two studies included only non-dialysis patients. In all studies the presence of sleep disturbances was assessed by questionnaires; only one study compared the results of a validated questionnaire with laboratory-based polysomnography. The prevalence of any sleep disorder ranged from 77 to 85 % in dialysis patients, to 32-50 % in transplanted patients and 40-50 % in non-dialysis patients. The most commonly studied disorder was restless legs syndrome, which presented at a prevalence of 10-35 %. Three studies showed significant associations between presence of sleep disorders and HRQOL. We found consistent evidence of an increased prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with CKD, and these seemed to play a critical role in HRQOL. PMID:26482250

  5. Associations between chronic pelvic pain and psychiatric disorders and symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    ANA CAROLINA FRANCO CARVALHO; OMERO BENEDITO POLI NETO; JOSÉ ALEXANDRE DE SOUZA CRIPPA; JAIME EDUARDO CECÍLIO HALLAK; FLÁVIA DE LIMA OSÓRIO

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a complex condition wich is associated with emotional factors, specially depression and anxiety. Objectives To make a systematic review to provide a detailed summary of relevant literature on the association between CPP and different psychiatric disorders/symptoms. Methods A systematic review of articles in the international literature published between 2003 and 2014 was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO using th...

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yochai Adir; Davide Elia; Sergio Harari

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major complication of several haematological disorders. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPDs) associated with pulmonary hypertension have been included in group five of the clinical classification for pulmonary hypertension, corresponding to pulmonary hypertension for which the aetiology is unclear and/or multifactorial. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenic mechanism and treatment approaches of the more common forms of pulmon...

  7. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  8. Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis compared to normal control subjects. Design: !"",include sickle cell disease patients with chronic renal fa"# $%& ' ", i ,nclude ( # #"# $%&'", , ,( #&'", i 9nclude the normal *+&*+' All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen, s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using #,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of - .Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than $/%- .% 0( # #cell disease have significantly. Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with 12( # * 3 &4 !4! '#"#"patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis , presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v. Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis, correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

  9. Bipolar affective disorder and Parkinson's disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognized association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, A; Spissu, A; Floris, G L; Congia, S; Saddi, M V; Melis, M; Mascia, M M; Pinna, F; Tuveri, A; Solla, P; Milia, A; Giagheddu, M; Tacconi, P

    2002-09-01

    Five patients (4 women) with Parkinson's disease (PD) and primary major psychiatric disorder (PMPD) meeting DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) were studied. Four patients had early onset PD. Four developed a severe psychiatric disorder a few years after starting dopaminergic therapy in presence of a mild motor disability and a mild cognitive impairment, with no evidence of cerebral atrophy at CT or MRI. Two patients developed a clear manic episode; the other three presented a severe depressive episode (in one case featuring a Cotard syndrome). None showed previous signs of long term L-dopa treatment syndrome (LTS), hallucinosis or other minor psychiatric disorders. The two manic episodes occurred shortly after an increase of dopaminergic therapy and in one case rapid cyclic mood fluctuations were observed. At the onset of psychiatric symptoms, all patients had an unspecific diagnosis of chronic delusional hallucinatory psychosis (CDHP). PMID:12548347

  10. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  11. Role of chronic health disorders in perimenopausal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huopio, Jukka; Honkanen, Risto; Jurvelin, Jukka; Saarikoski, Seppo; Alhava, Esko; Kröger, Heikki

    2005-11-01

    Only a few studies have examined the risk of individual chronic health disorders on perimenopausal (i.e., around menopause) fractures in a single study. We evaluated the effect of chronic illnesses on fracture rate in a prospective cohort study of 3,078 women. These women were a stratified sample from the population base of 14,220 women aged 47-56 years and residing in the province of Kuopio in eastern Finland in 1989. Data on physician-diagnosed chronic diseases were collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1989. For certain diseases, questionnaire information of self-reported chronic disorders were compared with drug reimbursement data provided by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Axial bone mineral density (BMD) measurements from the femoral neck and lumbar spine were performed in 1989-91. Two hundred sixty-five (265) women experienced at least one fracture during the follow-up period of 3.6 years (SD+/-0.78). The first fracture during the follow-up period was taken to be the end-point event. The risk of follow-up fracture for an individual health disorder was estimated with the Cox's proportional hazards model. Several chronic health disorders increased the fracture risk in perimenopausal women. However, hypertension was a statistically significant (p=0.018) risk factor for fracture (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.9), especially in overweight and obese (body mass index > or =28) women (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). In addition, coronary heart disease (adjusted HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.13-2.76), hyperthyroidism (adjusted HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), epilepsy (adjusted HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.6), alcoholism (adjusted HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.5) and chronic hepatic disease (adjusted HR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7-16.4) predicted fracture. BMD was either normal or even elevated in disease groups. However, women with a fracture during the follow-up usually had decreased bone density, although the difference was statistically significant

  12. Cyclothymia reloaded: A reappraisal of the most misconceived affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Hantouche, Elie; Vannucchi, Giulia; Pinto, Olavo

    2015-09-01

    Data emerging from both academic centers and from public and private outpatient facilities indicate that from 20% to 50% of all subjects that seek help for mood, anxiety, impulsive and addictive disorders turn out, after careful screening, to be affected by cyclothymia. The proportion of patients who can be classified as cyclothymic rises significantly if the diagnostic rules proposed by the DSM-5 are reconsidered and a broader approach is adopted. Unlike the DSM-5 definition based on the recurrence of low-grade hypomanic and depressive symptoms, cyclothymia is best identified as an exaggeration of cyclothymic temperament (basic mood and emotional instability) with early onset and extreme mood reactivity linked with interpersonal and separation sensitivity, frequent mixed features during depressive states, the dark side of hypomanic symptoms, multiple comorbidities, and a high risk of impulsive and suicidal behavior. Epidemiological and clinical research have shown the high prevalence of cyclothymia and the validity of the concept that it should be seen as a distinct form of bipolarity, not simply as a softer form. Misdiagnosis and consequent mistreatment are associated with a high risk of transforming cyclothymia into severe complex borderline-like bipolarity, especially with chronic and repetitive exposure to antidepressants and sedatives. The early detection and treatment of cyclothymia can guarantee a significant change in the long-term prognosis, when appropriate mood-stabilizing pharmacotherapy and specific psychological approaches and psychoeducation are adopted. The authors present and discuss clinical research in the field and their own expertise in the understanding and medical management of cyclothymia and its complex comorbidities. PMID:26005206

  13. Breast cancer risk among women with psychiatric admission with affective or neurotic disorders: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, Karen Margrete; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Keiding, Niels; Sawitz, Allen Ronald; Olsen, J.H.; Mortensen, P.B.; Jørgensen, Torben

    neoplasm breast, aetiology, affective disorder, neurotic disorders, alcohol abuse, non-specified abuse......neoplasm breast, aetiology, affective disorder, neurotic disorders, alcohol abuse, non-specified abuse...

  14. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the...... function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical...... effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used...

  15. Predictors of recurrence in affective disorder - analyses accounting for individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2000-01-01

    affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity......affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity...

  16. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening inst...

  17. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross......-sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low......-Risk twins. The 109 High-Risk twins had significantly higher evening cortisol levels than the 81 Low-Risk MZ twins, also after adjustment for age, sex, and the level of subclinical depressive symptoms. No significant difference was found in awakening cortisol levels between High-Risk and Low-Risk twins. In...

  18. Affect School for chronic benign pain patients showed improved alexithymia assessments with TAS-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alexithymia is a disturbance associated with psychosomatic disorders, pain syndromes, and a variety of psychiatric disorders. The Affect School (AS based on Tomkins Affect Theory is a therapy focusing on innate affects and their physiological expressions, feelings, emotions and scripts. In this pilot study we tried the AS-intervention method in patients with chronic benign pain. Methods The AS-intervention, with 8 weekly group sessions and 10 individual sessions, was offered to 59 patients with chronic non-malignant pain at a pain rehabilitation clinic in Sweden 2004-2005. Pre and post intervention assessments were done with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain assessment (VAS-pain, the European Quality of Life health barometer (EQoL and the Stress and Crisis Inventory-93 (SCI-93. After the group sessions we used Bergdahl's Questionnaire for assessing changes in interpersonal relations, general well-being and evaluation of AS. Results The AS intervention was completed by 54 out of 59 (92% patients. Significant reductions in total TAS-20 post-test scores (p = 0.0006 as well as TAS-20 DIF and DDF factors (Difficulties Identifying Feelings, and Difficulties Describing Feelings were seen (p = 0.0001, and p = 0.0008 while the EOT factor (Externally Oriented Thinking did not change. Improvements of HAD-depression scores (p = 0.04, EQoL (p = 0.02 and self-assessed changes in relations to others (p Conclusions This pilot study involving 59 patients with chronic benign pain indicates that the alexithymia DIF and DDF, as well as depression, social relations and quality of life may be improved by the Affect School therapeutic intervention.

  19. Affective responses across psychiatric disorders-A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Held-Poschardt, Dada; Wittmann, André; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Between-group differences were assessed with full-factorial ANOVAs, with age, gender and smoking habits as covariates. Self-ratings of depressed mood and anxiety were correlated with activation clusters showing significant stimulus-evoked fMRI activation. Furthermore, we examined functional connectivity with the amygdala as seed region during the processing of aversive pictures. During the presentation of pleasant stimuli, we observed across all subjects significant activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus, while a significant activation of the left amygdala and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was found during the presentation of aversive stimuli. We did neither find any significant interaction with diagnostic group, nor any correlation with depression and anxiety scores at the activated clusters or with amygdala connectivity. Positive and aversive IAPS-stimuli were consistently processed in limbic and prefrontal brain areas, irrespective of diagnostic category. A dimensional correlate of these

  20. Associations between chronic pelvic pain and psychiatric disorders and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CAROLINA FRANCO CARVALHO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a complex condition wich is associated with emotional factors, specially depression and anxiety. Objectives To make a systematic review to provide a detailed summary of relevant literature on the association between CPP and different psychiatric disorders/symptoms. Methods A systematic review of articles in the international literature published between 2003 and 2014 was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, LILACS, and SciELO using the terms (chronic pelvic pain AND (psychiatry OR psychiatric OR depression OR anxiety OR posttraumatic stress OR somatoform. The searches returned a total of 529 matches that were filtered according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 18 articles were selected. Results The investigations focused mainly on the assessment of depression and anxiety disorders/symptoms, with rather high rates (17-38.6%. Depression and anxiety symptoms were more prevalent among women with CPP compared to healthy groups. Comparisons between groups with CPP and with specific pathologies that also have pain as a symptom showed that depression indicators are more frequent in CPP. Depressive symptoms tend to be more common in CPP and have no particular association with pain itself, the core feature of CPP. Discussion Other aspects of CPP seem to play a specific role in this association. Anxiety and other psychiatric disorders require further investigation so that their impact on CPP can be better understood.

  1. Genetic studies of bipolar affective disorder in large families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, D H; Visscher, P M; Muir, W J

    2001-06-01

    Background Genetic factors are known to be important in the aetiology of bipolar disorder. Aims To review linkage studies in extended families multiply affected with bipolar disorder. Method Selective review of linkage studies of bipolar disorder emphasising the gains and drawbacks of studying large multiply-affected families and comparing the statistical methods used for data analysis. Results Linkage of bipolar disorder to several chromosome regions including 4p, 4q, 10p, 12q, 16p, 18q, 21q and Xq has first been reported in extended families. In other families chromosomal rearrangements associated with affective illnesses provide signposts to the location of disease-related genes. Statistical analyses using variance component methods can be applied to extended families, require no prior knowledge of the disease inheritance, and can test multilocus models. Conclusion Studying single large pedigrees combined with variance component analysis is an efficient and effective strategy likely to lead to further insights into the genetic basis of bipolar disorders. PMID:11388952

  2. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  3. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and...

  4. Symptom dimensions of affective disorders in migraine patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M. A.; Pijpers, J. A.; Wardenaar, K. J.; van Zwet, E. W.; van Hemert, A. M.; Zitman, F. G.; Ferrari, M. D.; Penninx, B. W.; Tervvindt, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A strong association has been established between migraine and depression. However, this is the first study to differentiate in a large sample of migraine patients for symptom dimensions of the affective disorder spectrum. Methods: Migraine patients (n = 3174) from the LUMINA (Leiden Univ

  5. Maternal Affective Disorder and Children's Representation of Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, Adriane; Murray, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of family relationship are related to their later emotional and social adjustment. This is of particular relevance in the context of family stressors such as maternal affective disorder. This study investigated the effects of maternal postnatal depression and anxiety on children's family representations. In our sample of…

  6. Electronic monitoring of patients with bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...

  7. Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Lessons from a Rare Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, B H; Veys, P.; Malech, H; Cowan, M J

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with x-linked or autosomal recessive inheritance involving defects in genes encoding phox proteins which are the subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. This results in failure to produce superoxide anion and downstream antimicrobial oxidant metabolites and to activate antimicrobial proteases. Affected patients are susceptible to severe, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and excessive inflammation character...

  8. Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Hong, L; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:10414613

  9. Individualizing Opioid Use Disorder (OUD Treatment: Time to Fully Embrace a Chronic Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gustin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current opioid epidemic in the United States is changing our perceptions of the face of addiction. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD has become pervasive and is affecting all ethnicities, races, socioeconomic classes, the young and the old. In 2015, 46 people will lose their life each day to a chronic brain disease that is going unnoticed and undertreated. Over the last five decades, numerous scientific and clinical breakthroughs have allowed for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying addiction, and the development of medications that can help support a patient’s long-term recovery. All of those that have contributed to these advancements have aided in redefining addiction as a primary, chronic disease of the brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry; however, our treatment strategies have not necessarily advanced to the same extent as our current understanding of the disease. This commentary will explore how personal philosophies can bias treatments strategies and definitions of treatment success, and prevent adoption of chronic disease treatment models that would significantly improve the quality of life of those suffering with OUD. This is a challenge to consider how our views and stigma can impact a patient’s recovery. We are currently losing a battle with a disease that is taking the lives of 46 individuals daily; it is time to fully embrace a chronic disease model which comprises an integrated pharmacopsychosocial approach for treating the biopsychosocial disorder that is addiction to reverse these trends.

  10. A Comparative Study of Affective Bipolar Disorder with Schizoaffective Disorder from a Longitudinal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna Milin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years there is a great interest for the theory of the “psychotic continuum”, which accepts that there is a transition between schizophrenia and affective pathology, including bipolar disorder with psychotic interferences and the recently introduced diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. There are few studies that analyze bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychosis. The purpose of this study was to observe the way in which the interference of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms can influence the long term evolution of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and the similarities that exists between this type of pathology and schizoaffective disorder. Material and methods: Sixty subjects were selected, who are now diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. All cases have at least 15 years of evolution since the first episode of psychosis and were analyzed in term of their age of onset and longitudinal evolution. Results: The results showed that bipolar patients who had mood incongruent psychotic symptoms had an earlier age of onset and a higher rate of hospitalizations in their long term evolution compared to bipolar patients without psychotic features, which brings them closer to patients with schizoaffective disorder in term of their pattern of evolution. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the interference of mood-incongruent psychosis with bipolar disorder determines a worse prognosis of this disease, very similar with the evolution of patients with schizoaffective disorder

  11. Thought suppression mediates the relationship between negative affect and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lejuez, Carl W; Lynch, Thomas R

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among negative affect, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), thought suppression, and diagnostic symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a community sample (n=127). Findings suggest that the temperamental variable negative affect intensity/reactivity was a stronger predictor of BPD symptoms than CSA. In addition, results indicated that higher thought suppression mediated the relationship between negative affective intensity/reactivity and BPD symptoms, after controlling for a history of CSA. Overall, findings suggest that (a) negative affectivity may be a better predictor of BPD symptoms than CSA, and (b) chronic efforts to suppress unpleasant thoughts may be a regulation strategy underlying the relationship between intense negative emotions and BPD symptoms. PMID:16005704

  12. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  13. Lymphocytic Bronchiolitis as Presenting Disorder in an Undiagnosed Adult Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Tabarsi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD is a rare primary immunodeficiency disease. Although the most affected patients are diagnosed in childhood, there are several reports of the disease presenting in adult patients. Here we present a 40 years old man who was admitted in hospital due to respiratory symptoms and ground glass pattern in high resolution computed tomography of lung. Open lung biopsy revealed lymphocytic bronchiolitis. Because of past medical history of granulomatous lesion in lung and recurrent abscesses of skin and soft tissue, NBT test was conducted which its result revealed that the disorder was compatible with CGD and then it was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry.

  14. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding ...

  15. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Kelly J. Rohan; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  16. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Emma S J Robinson

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like b...

  17. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that

  18. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gebauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments.

  19. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Hørlyck, Lone; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT) adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments. PMID:25379450

  20. A locus for bipolar affective disorder on chromosome 4p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, D H; He, L; Morris, S W; McLean, A; Whitton, C; Thomson, M; Walker, M T; Woodburn, K; Sharp, C M; Wright, A F; Shibasaki, Y; St Clair, D M; Porteous, D J; Muir, W J

    1996-04-01

    The main clinical feature of bipolar affective disorder is a change of mood to depression or elation. Unipolar disorder, also termed major depressive disorder, describes the occurrence of depression alone without episodes of elevated mood. Little is understood about the underlying causes of these common and severe illnesses which have estimated lifetime prevalences in the region of 0.8% for bipolar and 6% for unipolar disorder. Strong support for a genetic aetiology is found in the familial nature of the condition, the increased concordance of monozygotic over dizygotic twins and adoption studies showing increased rates of illness in children of affected parents. However, linkage studies have met with mixed success. An initial report of linkage on the short arm of chromosome 11 (ref. 4) was revised and remains unreplicated. Reports proposing cosegregation of genes found on the X chromosome with bipolar illness have not been supported by others. More recently bipolar disorder has been reported to be linked with markers on chromosomes 18, 21, 16 and a region on the X chromosome different from those previously suggested. We have carried out a linkage study in twelve bipolar families. In a single family a genome search employing 193 markers indicated linkage on chromosome 4p where the marker D4S394 generated a two-point lod score of 4.1 under a dominant model of inheritance. Three point analyses with neighbouring markers gave a maximum lod score of 4.8. Eleven other bipolar families were typed using D4S394 and in all families combined there was evidence of linkage with heterogeneity with a maximum two-point lod score of 4.1 (theta = 0, alpha = 0.35). PMID:8630499

  1. Chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghimire SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shree Ram Ghimire,1 Sarita Parajuli2 1Department of Psychiatry, National Medical College, Birgunj, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Kathmandu National Medical College, Anamnagar, Kathmandu, Nepal Abstract: Chronic organophosphate (OP-induced neuropsychiatric disorder is a rare condition following prolonged exposure to OP compounds. Due to the lack of valid diagnostic tools and criteria, very few cases are seen in clinical practice and are often misdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment that may increase the risk of morbidity or suicidality. In this paper, we present the case of a 35-year-old male who needed support in breathing from a mechanical ventilator and developed neuropsychiatric behavioral problems following ingestion of OP compounds, which lead to suicidality. The patient was treated by the psychiatric team with antipsychotic and antidepressants and improved following the regular use of medication. Keywords: COPIND, mood liability, suicidal thoughts

  2. Autoinflammatory bone disorders with special focus on chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrich, Christian M.; Hofmann, Sigrun R.; Pablik, Jessica; Morbach, Henner; Girschick, Hermann J.

    2016-01-01

    Sterile bone inflammation is the hallmark of autoinflammatory bone disorders, including chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) with its most severe form chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). Autoinflammatory osteopathies are the result of a dysregulated innate immune system, resulting in immune cell infiltration of the bone and subsequent osteoclast differentiation and activation. Interestingly, autoinflammatory bone disorders are associated with inflammation of the skin and/or...

  3. Peer Victimization in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Samuel H.; Conelea, Christine A.; Glew, Gwen M.; Woods, Douglas W.; Budman, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome have negative impact across multiple functional domains. We explored associations between peer victimization status and tic subtypes, premonitory urges, internalizing symptoms, explosive outbursts, and quality of life among youth with chronic tic disorders, as part of the internet-based omnibus…

  4. Telemedical Wearable Sensing Platform for Management of Chronic Venous Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruya; Nie, Baoqing; Zhai, Chengwei; Cao, Jennifer; Pan, Jian; Chi, Yung-Wei; Pan, Tingrui

    2016-07-01

    Enabled by emerging wearable sensors, telemedicine can potentially offer personalized medical services to long-term home care or remote clinics in the future, which can be particularly helpful in the management of chronic diseases. The wireless wearable pressure sensing system reported in this article provides an excellent example of such an innovation, whereby periodic or continuous monitoring of interface pressure can be obtained to guide routine compression therapy, the cornerstone of chronic venous disorder management. By applying a novel capacitive, iontronic sensing technology, a flexible, ultrathin, and highly sensitive pressure sensing array is seamlessly incorporated into compression garments for the monitoring of interface pressure. The linear pressure sensing array assesses pressure distribution along the limb in a real-time manner (up to a scanning rate of 5 kHz), and the measurement data can be processed and displayed on a mobile device locally, as well as transmitted through a Bluetooth communication module to a remote clinical service. The proposed interface pressure measuring system provides real-time interface pressure distribution data and can be utilized for both clinical and self-management of compression therapy, where both treatment efficacy and quality assurance can be ascertained. PMID:26530542

  5. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities. PMID:26901806

  6. Chronic contamination with 137Cesium affects Vitamin D3 metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years after Chernobyl disaster, many people are still chronically exposed to low dose of 137Cs, mainly through the food consumption. A large variety of diseases have been described in highly exposed people with 137Cs, which include bone disorders. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of a chronic exposure to 137Cs on Vitamin D3 metabolism, a hormone essential in bone homeostasis. Rats were exposed to 137Cs in their drinking water for 3 months at a dose of 6500 Bq/l (approximately 150 Bq/rat/day), a similar concentration ingested by the population living in contaminated territories in the former USSR countries. Cytochromes P450 enzymes involved in Vitamin D3 metabolism, related nuclear receptors and Vitamin D3 target genes were assessed by real time PCR in liver, kidney and brain. Vitamin D, PTH, calcium and phosphate levels were measured in plasma. An increase in the expression level of cyp2r1 (40%, p 137Cs-exposed rats. However a significant decrease of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)D3) plasma level (53%, p = 0.02) was observed. In brain, cyp2r1 mRNA level was decreased by 20% (p 137Cs contamination. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that chronic exposure with post-accidental doses of 137Cs affects Vitamin D3 active form level and induces molecular modifications of CYPs enzymes involved its metabolism in liver and brain, without leading to mineral homeostasis disorders

  7. Disorders of Iron Metabolism and Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulated iron homeostasis plays a central role in the development of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a major contributor toward resistance to treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology requires an in-depth understanding of normal iron physiology and regulation. Recent discoveries in the field of iron biology have greatly improved our understanding of the hormonal regulation of iron trafficking in human beings and how its alterations lead to the development of anemia of CKD. In addition, emerging evidence has suggested that iron homeostasis interacts with bone and mineral metabolism on multiple levels, opening up new avenues of investigation into the genesis of disordered iron metabolism in CKD. Building on recent advances in our understanding of normal iron physiology and abnormalities in iron homeostasis in CKD, this review characterizes how anemia related to disordered iron metabolism develops in the setting of CKD. In addition, this review explores our emerging recognition of the connections between iron homeostasis and mineral metabolism and their implications for the management of altered iron status and anemia of CKD. PMID:27475656

  8. Undiagnosed mood disorders and sleep disturbances in primary care patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The study aims to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed comorbid mood disorders in patients suffering chronic musculoskeletal pain in a primary care setting and to identify sleep disturbances and other associated factors in these patients, and to compare the use of health services by chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with and without comorbid mood disorders. Design. Cross-sectional study. Subjects. A total of 1,006 patients with chronic musculoskele...

  9. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology in a neurodegenerative disorders brain bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Kevin F; Ross, Owen A; Cormier, Kerry A; Walton, Ronald L; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra; Johnston, Amelia E; DeSaro, Pamela; Boylan, Kevin B; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Rademakers, Rosa; Boeve, Bradley F; McKee, Ann C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2015-12-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder linked to repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau at the depths of sulci. We sought to determine the presence of CTE pathology in a brain bank for neurodegenerative disorders for individuals with and without a history of contact sports participation. Available medical records of 1721 men were reviewed for evidence of past history of injury or participation in contact sports. Subsequently, cerebral cortical samples were processed for tau immunohistochemistry in cases with a documented history of sports exposure as well as age- and disease-matched men and women without such exposure. For cases with available frozen tissue, genetic analysis was performed for variants in APOE, MAPT, and TMEM106B. Immunohistochemistry revealed 21 of 66 former athletes had cortical tau pathology consistent with CTE. CTE pathology was not detected in 198 individuals without exposure to contact sports, including 33 individuals with documented single-incident TBI sustained from falls, motor vehicle accidents, domestic violence, or assaults. Among those exposed to contact sports, those with CTE pathology did not differ from those without CTE pathology with respect to noted clinicopathologic features. There were no significant differences in genetic variants for those with CTE pathology, but we observed a slight increase in MAPT H1 haplotype, and there tended to be fewer homozygous carriers of the protective TMEM106B rs3173615 minor allele in those with sports exposure and CTE pathology compared to those without CTE pathology. In conclusion, this study has identified a small, yet significant, subset of individuals with neurodegenerative disorders and concomitant CTE pathology. CTE pathology was only detected in individuals with documented participation in contact sports. Exposure to contact sports was the greatest risk factor for CTE pathology. Future

  10. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschampa, Henriette J.; Greschus, Susanne; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Bonn (Germany); Sassen, Robert; Bien, Christian G. [University of Bonn, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  11. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  12. Endocrinological disorders affecting neurosurgical patients: An intensivists perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of critically ill neurosurgical patients is often complicated by the presence or development of endocrinological ailments which complicate the clinical scenario and adversely affect the prognosis of these patients. The anatomical proximity to the vital centers regulating the endocrinological physiology and alteration in the neurotransmitter release causes disturbances in the hormonal homeostasis. This paves the way for development of diverse disorders where single or multiple hormones may be involved which can have deleterious effect on the different organ system. Understanding and awareness of these disorders is important for the treating intensivist to recognize these changes early in their course, so that appropriate and timely therapeutic measures can be initiated along with the treatment of the primary malady.

  13. Skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara T; Sato N; Awaji H; Sakamoto H; Nakata R

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we conducted a questionnaire survey to examine the relationship between dietary habits and menstrual disorders in young women. Subjects were recruited from 315 college students and were classified as: Group I, eating breakfast; Group II, skipping breakfast; Group III, not eating fast foods; Group IV, eating fast foods; Group V, not eating processed foods; and Group VI, eating processed foods. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was scored using three grades. All participants were further divided into groups based on having regular or irregular menstruation, having premenstrual symptoms or not, and self-perception of good or poor general health. General health was poor in Groups II and VI, and dysmenorrhea scores were high in Groups II, IV and VI. The incidence of irregular menses was also high in Group II. However, there was no apparent relation between premenstrual symptoms and dietary habits. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

  14. Gender Difference in Associations between Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders and General Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yoon Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD is known to have strong correlations with psychological factors and to display gender disparity. However, while chronic TMD is known to affect quality of life, large-scale studies investigating the influence on quality of life by gender are scarce.This cross-sectional study assessed the data of 17,198 participants aged ≥19 years who completed chronic TMD and EuroQol-5 Dimension sections in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009. We adjusted for covariates (health behavior, sociodemographic factors in regression analysis for complex sampling design to calculate regression coefficients and 95% CIs for gender difference in the association between chronic TMD and quality of life. We also evaluated which covariates of somatic health, mental health, health behavior, and sociodemographic factors weakened the relationship between TMD and EQ-5D.Prevalence of chronic TMD was 1.6% (men 1.3%, women 1.8%, and chronic TMD persisted to negatively impact quality of life even after adjusting for confounding variables. Low sociodemographic factors and health behavior had a negative effect on quality of life. Somatic health and mental health were most affected by chronic TMD. As for quality of life, women were affected to a greater extent than men by TMD. Women were more affected by osteoarthritis and general mental health (stress, depressive symptoms, and thoughts of suicide, and men by employment.These results imply that chronic diseases and psychological factors are important in chronic TMD, and that there may be physiological and pathological gender differences in TMD.

  15. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD and somatoform disorders (SoD, remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method: BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC, PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results: No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation most commonly found in BPD, and

  16. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intraoral fistula to allow passive administration of solutions. In the first study, taste reactivity was tracked throughout chronic vehicle or nicotine (12 mg/kg/day) infusion via osmotic minipumps and spontaneous withdrawal following removal of minipumps. In the second study, the endocannabinoid CB1-receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 3 and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or vehicle was acutely administered before taste reactivity measurement during chronic nicotine administration. Chronic nicotine treatment and spontaneous withdrawal did not influence taste reactions to sucrose or quinine. AM251 decreased positive reactions to sucrose and increased negative reactions to quinine. The effects of AM251 were respectively attenuated and enhanced in nicotine infused mice. These results suggest chronic nicotine exposure and withdrawal has no apparent affective sequelae, as probed by taste reactivity, and thus may not explain the difficulty tobacco-users have in achieving abstinence. In contrast, endocannabinoids elevate affective state in drug-naïve animals and changes in endogenous endocannabinoid tone may underlie compensations in affective state during chronic nicotine exposure. PMID:19540830

  17. Family Health and Characteristics in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Emotional Disorders of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Luiza; Garralda, M. Elena; Jeffs, Jim; Rose, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare family health and characteristics in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and emotional disorders. Method: Parents of 28 children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with CFS, 30 with JRA, and 27 with emotional disorders (i.e., anxiety and/or depressive disorders) were…

  18. METABOLIC SYNDROME - THE CONSEQUENCE OF LIFELONG TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duška; Graovac, Mirjana; Žarković Palijan, Tija

    2010-01-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing ...

  19. Psychophysiological ambulatory assessment of affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W; Welch, Stacy S; Grossman, Paul; Reisch, Thomas; Linehan, Marsha M; Bohus, Martin

    2007-04-15

    Many experts now believe that pervasive problems in affect regulation constitute the central area of dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, data is sparse and inconclusive. We hypothesized that patients with BPD, in contrast to healthy gender and nationality-matched controls, show a higher frequency and intensity of self-reported emotions, altered physiological indices of emotions, more complex emotions and greater problems in identifying specific emotions. We took a 24-hour psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring approach to investigate affect regulation during everyday life in 50 patients with BPD and in 50 healthy controls. To provide a typical and unmanipulated sample, we included only patients who were currently in treatment and did not alter their medication schedule. BPD patients reported more negative emotions, fewer positive emotions, and a greater intensity of negative emotions. A subgroup of non-medicated BPD patients manifested higher values of additional heart rate. Additional heart rate is that part of a heart rate increase that does not directly result from metabolic activity, and is used as an indicator of emotional reactivity. Borderline participants were more likely to report the concurrent presence of more than one emotion, and those patients who just started treatment in particular had greater problems in identifying specific emotions. Our findings during naturalistic ambulatory assessment support emotional dysregulation in BPD as defined by the biosocial theory of [Linehan, M.M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guildford Press, New York.] and suggest the potential utility for evaluating treatment outcome. PMID:17321599

  20. Insight in bipolar disorder: a comparison between mania, depression and euthymia using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Assis da Silva; Daniel C Mograbi; Evelyn V. M. Camelo; Jaqueline Bifano; Mayra Wainstok; Luciana Angélica Silva Silveira; Elie Cheniaux

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether having general insight into bipolar disorder and its symptoms is affected by the mood state of the patient, using the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders, a hetero-application scale for people with mood disorders.Methods: Ninety-five patients with bipolar disorder were evaluated and divided into different groups according to the mood state presented during assessment (i.e., euthymia, mania and depression). Sociodemographic and clinical data (Hamilton Depressio...

  1. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use 'reverse translation' to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. PMID:24467454

  2. Superposição entre depressão atípica, doença afetiva sazonal e síndrome da fadiga crônica Overlap between atypical depression, seasonal affective disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Francisco Juruena

    2007-05-01

    reduced secretion of corticotropin releasing factor may result in pathological hypoarousal and an enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal negative feedback. Patients with atypical depression, seasonal affective disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome fall in this category. METHOD: The literature data on the overlap between the key-words were reviewed, summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Many studies suggest that these conditions themselves overlap biologically, showing hypofunction of central corticotropin releasing factor neuronal systems. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, in the real world of clinical practice, patients often present in a grey area between classical idiopathic fatigue and early chronic atypical depression and/or seasonal depression. This underscores the potential common biological links underpinning common sympton clusters not only between depression (atypical and seasonal and chronic fatigue syndrome, but also other conditions characterized by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mainly diminished the corticotropin realising factor activity.

  3. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Patient Affected by Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poggi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV is pegilated interferon α (IFN α plus ribavirin. Despite the numerous benefits of this therapy, there is an increasing concern regarding his tolerance. Among the most common side effects, interferon may trigger the onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. When chronic hepatitis C coexists with an autoimmune disorder, it is not clear whether using interferon is better than avoiding it. We evaluated the disease state of a 55-year old female affected by sistemic sclerosis (SSc, during and after therapy with IFNα pegilated plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. We were worried about the potential worsening of the autoimmune disease during the therapy, but we were confident that we would give our patient a short course of peginterferon and ribavirin. A mild, asymptomatic worsening of lung SSc was observed during IFN administration, without life threatening symptoms. After 24 months follow up we observed the maintenance of the virological response and a good control of the rheumatological disease. Thus, in liver disease at high risk of progression and concomitant SSc, the antiviral therapy with IFNα is a feasible approach.

  4. [Chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with hairy cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussard, Xavier; Cornet, Édouard

    2015-01-01

    The standardized blood smear examination is the first step in the diagnosis of a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and can guide further investigations. In the laboratory, the identification of hairy cells on blood smear is a matter of daily practice. Hairy cell proliferations represent heterogeneous entities and their respective diagnoses can be difficult. If hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) represent separate entities, the variant form of HCL (HCLv) and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) remain provisional entities in the 2008 WHO classification. We discuss the main clinical and biological characteristics of these four entities and appropriate means to characterize, identify and distinguish from each other; standardized blood smear examination, multiparameter flow cytometry analysis, analysis of the repertoire of immunoglobulins heavy chains genes and their mutational status (mutated or unmutated profile), molecular analyses: BRAF gene V600E mutation in HCL and MAP2K1 gene mutations in HCLv. We also discuss the main therapeutic aspects with emphasis on the new targeted drugs that enter into force in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:25858127

  5. Attitudes antecedent to transition to self-management of a chronic genetic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, E; Bernhardt, B A; Pyeritz, R E

    2008-10-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is the exemplar of chronic genetic disorders that require multiorgan system management by health care providers (HCPs) and lifelong self-management by affected individuals. This article describes the ways to facilitate transition to self-management (TSM) by the adolescent with MFS. This thematic content analysis uses data collected for a larger grounded theory investigation of TSM of a chronic genetic disorder in adolescents and focuses on the system issues related to transition. A total sample of 107 included three groups of participants: parents (n = 39), adolescents (n = 37, ages 14-21 years) and young adults (n = 16, ages 22-34 years) with MFS, and HCPs (n = 15), including physicians, genetic counselors, and nurses. Data were derived from 180 transcripts of audiotaped interviews and a sociodemographic survey. Frames of mind that are antecedent to transition were belief in the diagnosis, wanting to understand and appreciate the cause and effect of MFS, and willing to share responsibility in problem solving. These frames of mind occurred primarily within the context of the family relationship. Parents taught children self-surveillance as 'listening to one's body'. The parent's fears and need to stay involved in the child's health care slowed the child's independent work on self-management responsibilities. A systematic, institutionalized transition program for adolescents might involve parents and the child soon after diagnosis and incrementally build acknowledgment, understanding, and rapport. PMID:18616734

  6. Chronicity factors of temporomandibular disorders: a critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Soares GUI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial pain often persists long after any identifiable organic pathology has healed. Moreover, in a subgroup of patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD, no treatment is effective. Knowledge of factors associated with persistent pain in TMD could help identify personalized treatment approaches. Therefore, we conducted a critical review of the literature for the period from January 2000 to December 2013 to identify factors related to TMD development and persistence. The literature findings showed that chronic TMD is marked by psychological distress (somatization and depression, affective distress, fear of pain, fear of movement, and catastrophizing and characteristics of pain amplification (hyperalgesia and allodynia. Furthermore, these factors seem to interact in TMD development. In addition, our review demonstrates that upregulation of the serotonergic pathway, sleep problems, and gene polymorphisms influence the chronicity of TMD. We conclude that psychological distress and pain amplification contribute to chronic TMD development, and that interactions among these factors complicate pain management. These findings emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary assistance in TMD treatment.

  7. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioural repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioural adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o and its modulation of m1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signalling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial. recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behaviour and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone.

  8. Insights from ERPs into Emotional Disorders: An affective neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Campanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Affective neuroscience disposes of complementary imaging tools, some identifying which neural regions are involved in a specific cognitive function, others defining the temporal sequences of these activations with an optimal temporal resolution. The aim of the present manuscript is to show how event-related potentials (ERPs may help us to enhance our understanding of psychopathological conditions. To do so, three experiments from our laboratory will be presented. An emotional oddball design was used, in which participants are confronted with frequent stimuli (neutral faces and deviant stimuli (emotional faces which they have to detect as quickly as possible. These studies address anxiety, the long-term consequences of ecstasy consumption and schizophrenia. Our main purpose is to show that, if previous studies have shown for generalised anxiety disorder, as well as for drug abuse or schizophrenia, P300 alterations, the impaired processes leading to such an identical disturbance are different from one population to the other.

  9. Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziwota Ewelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD. Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.

  10. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care. PMID:26888573

  11. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  12. Frequency of posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) among flood affected individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship of exposure to a traumatic event and the subsequent onset of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the population exposed to floods in Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and duration of study: Individuals exposed to the 2010 flood in district Shadadkot, Sindh from April 2012 to September 2012. Methodology: Sample of the study comprised of 101 individuals from the flood affected areas in Pakistan. Age range of the participants was 15 to 50 years (M=27.73, SD = 7.19), with participation of both males and females. PTSD was assessed by using the self report measure, impact of Event Scale (IES) and the subjective and objective experience to flood was assessed through Flood Related Exposure Scale (FRES) devised by the authors. Results: The prevalence rate of PTSD among the flood affected population was 35.5%. Trauma had significant positive relation with objective flood exposure and subjective flood exposure (r=.27 and r =.38) respectively. Inverse relation appeared between age and PTSD (r=-.20). PTSD was higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: Understanding the prevalence of PTSD helps the mental health professionals in devising intervention strategies. A longitudinal study design is recommended that may be developed for better understanding of trajectories of trauma response across time span. Our findings may help identify populations at risk for treatment research. (author)

  13. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine...... the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation....

  14. Diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia spectrum disorders among chronic patients with functional psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K D; Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, J; Werge, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether diagnostic agreement across different diagnostic systems improves in a sample of chronic patients suffering from functional psychosis compared to first-admitted patients. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Among 353 patients with a history of functional psychosis, a subset of...... 100 individuals (35 women and 65 men) were randomly sampled and assessed using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness and Affective Illness (OPCRIT). Based on the OPCRIT diagnoses the subjects suffering from schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders according to seven...... diagnostic systems were identified. Diagnostic agreement was assessed using unweighted kappa-statistics and pairwise concordance rates (CR). RESULTS: High diagnostic agreement of schizophrenia was observed across the ICD-10 and DSM systems (CR >0.70, kappa >0.70), which all had a significantly lower...

  15. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A H; Barter, C. E.; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

    1985-01-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and...

  16. Affective processing bias in youth with primary bipolar disorder or primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Puzia, Megan E; Weissman, Alexandra B; Galvan, Thania; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-11-01

    High rates of comorbidity and overlapping diagnostic criteria between pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) contribute to diagnostic and treatment confusion. To advance what is known about both disorders, we compared effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with primary BD, primary ADHD and typically developing controls (TDC). Participants included 7-17 year olds with either "narrow-phenotype" pediatric BD (n = 25), ADHD (n = 25) or TDC (n = 25). Groups were matched on participant age and FSIQ. The effect of emotional stimuli on response control was assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Affective Go/No-Go task (CANTAB AGN). We found a group by target valence interaction on commission errors [F(2,71) = 5.34, p ADHD, but not TDC participants, made more errors on negative than positive words [t(24) = -2.58, p ADHD and TDC participants. Between-subjects effects showed that ADHD participants made more errors than TDC, but not BD participants. Our main finding advances what is known about the effect of emotional stimuli on response control in children with ADHD. Our results suggesting a positive affective processing bias in children with ADHD compliment emerging literature show that difficulties with emotional processing and regulation may be core features of ADHD. Further, given the observed pattern of results in children with ADHD compared to BD children, our behavioral results suggest the importance of examining differences in the brain-behavior mechanisms involved in affective processing in children with ADHD compared to BD children. PMID:25724546

  17. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  18. Association of Mental Disorders With Subsequent Chronic Physical Conditions World Mental Health Surveys From 17 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Kate M.; Lim, Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Kawakami, Norito; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is clear that mental disorders in treatment settings are associated with a higher incidence of chronic physical conditions, but whether this is true of mental disorders in the community, and how generalized (across a range of physical health outcomes) these associations are, is less cl

  19. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence...

  20. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Victoria C.; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intra-oral fi...

  1. Chronic irradiation as an ecological factor affecting genetic population structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure of two Centaurea scabiosa L. populations was studied by frequency distribution of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) locus genotypes. The experimental population has been growing under conditions of chronic irradiation, with the dose per generation amounting to 1.2 to 25.5 Gy. In it, mutational variants are observed with a frequency of 5.4.10(-3)-4.5.10(-2) per generation (as compared to control population frequency at 5.4.10(-4)). Indexes for heterozygosity, mean number of genotypes, and effective number of alleles were higher in the experimental population. Segregation analysis revealed no differences in viability in the control population, and all genotypic combinations were found to be nearly neutral. In the experimental population, however, significant differences in relative viability of the genotypes were disclosed. The relative viability of heterozygotes for mutant allele C' was nearly maximum, while heterozygotes for other mutant alleles showed minimum viability. We reach the conclusion that the differences in genetic structure of the populations under investigation can be explained by the chronic irradiation factor that brought out differences in adaptability of both normal and mutant genotypes. The suggestion is that intra-locus interactions of the C' allele with normal alleles determine plant resistance to a wide range of unfavorable environmental conditions

  2. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  3. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  4. History of Affective Disorders Historia de los trastornos afectivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The group of conditions called ‘affective disorders’ resulted from the convergence of certain words, concepts, and behaviors that took place during the early part of the twentieth century. The word ‘affective’ has itself a long and noble history and is part of a panoply of terms which include emotion, passion, sentiment, feeling, mood, dysthymia, cyclothymia, etc. Although these terms name overlapping subjective states, each has a different history and etymology. The semiology of affect disorders has never achieved the richness of the psychopathology of perception and cognition. This resulted from a long-term neglect and also from the obscurity of the subject matter itself. Our current notions of depression and mania date from the second half of the nineteenth century and emerged from the transformation of the old notions of melancholia and mania. The new clinical versions of them combined the new concept of alternating, periodic, circular, or double form insanity. This process culminated with Kraepelin’s concept of ‘manic-depressive insanity’ which included most forms of affective disorder under the same umbrella. Finally, the overinclusive kraepelinian concept was fragmented by the works of Wernicke, Kleist, and Leonhard, capped with the proposal of Angst and Perris to differentiate between unipolar and bipolar psychoses, accepted since 1980 by the DSM-III.El grupo de los denominados “trastornos afectivos” surge de la convergencia, ocurrida al inicio del siglo XX, de ciertos términos (afecto y sus derivados, conceptos (nociones teóricas sobre las experiencias relacionadas con el estado de ánimo y conductas (cambios observables en el discurso y la acción. La propia palabra afectivo tiene una dilatada e ilustre historia, y forma parte de una “panoplia” de vocablos como emoción, pasión, sentimiento, ánimo, afecto, distimia, ciclotimia o disforia, que denominan experiencias subjetivas superpuestas con etimología y

  5. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Rébecca Robillard; Rico S C Lee; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Django White; Bradley Whitwell; Scott, Elizabeth M; Ian B Hickie

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disord...

  6. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  7. Disability and borderline personality disorder in chronic pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; J David Sinclair; Wiederman, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined the relationship between disability and borderline personality symptomatology, and, among those that have, findings have been inconsistent. In the present study, the relationship between medical disability and borderline personality symptomatology was examined in a sample of chronic pain patients.METHODS: In a consecutive insured sample of male and female chronic pain patients (n=117), who were being initially evaluated by an outpatient pain...

  8. Chronic pain as a variant of depressive disease: the pain-prone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, D; Heilbronn, M

    1982-07-01

    Review of the literature shows that the common syndrome of chronic pain of uncertain origin appears to be perpetuated by central mechanisms. No plausible neurological theory has been proposed. While the alternative concept of chronic pain as a psychogenic disorder has remained a vague entity, there is strong support to view chronic pain as the prime expression of a muted depressive state. This form of masked depression, however, tends to be associated with a number of characteristic traits. Our studies of patients with chronic pain have led to the identification of a well defined psychobiological disorder with characteristic clinical, psychodynamic, biographic, and genetic features. This syndrome is termed the pain-prone disorder and is viewed as a variant of depressive disease. It proves a distinct entity when compared with a group of patients whose pain can be related to a well defined somatic disease. The chronicity of the disorder appears partially related to the practice of protracted, costly, and futile physical procedures, focusing on a phantom peripheral source of the pain-- a practice commonly pursued by patients and physicians. Recognition of the disorder allows for early, rational, and more effective treatment approaches. PMID:7086394

  9. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon

  10. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER:CO-MORBIDITY IN MANIC PHASE OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Harish; Tandon, Rajul; Saluja, Bharat; Mohan, Indra

    2002-01-01

    Comorbidity is known to occur among various psychiatric disorders. About the third of the patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder but coexistence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with mania is rare to see. Here we report a case of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder where manic phase was accompanied by obsessions of contamination and pathological doubts along with cleaning rituals and spitting rituals.

  11. Depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer singhal; Pankaj Banode; Nitish Baisakhiya

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India. Various studies done in past have shown that prevalence of depression in diabetes and hypertension is around 40%-57%. Few studies have been done to screen depression in chronic respiratory disorders. This study was conducted in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India to find out prevalence of depression in indoor patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: Total 68 patients were evaluated for depression. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders (total duration of illness >3 months) were evaluated using Prime MD Questionnaire. Patients suffering from diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, having past history of psychiatric illness, drug abusers, having lack of social support and suffering from chronic upper respiratory tract infections were excluded from this study. Questionnaire was asked when treatment for acute phase of illness is over. Results: Out of 68 patients evaluated, 36 (53%) were found out to be suffering from depression. Female gender (80%) was more prone to depression, inspite of the fact that all alcoholics were male. 39% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were suffering from depression in comparison to 65% for pulmonary tuberculosis and 44% for other chronic respiratory illness. 54% of patients suffering from depression are 60 yrs of age, suggesting that age has no relation with depression. No association was seen between alcoholism and depression. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression in patients of chronic respiratory illness is very high, like in cases of diabetes and hypertension. Further community and hospital based studies are needed to find out exact prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory illnesses.

  12. Identification and management of prodromal symptoms in bipolar affective disorder: the role of individual, disorder, and treatment-related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadon, Lisa Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traditional psychosocial treatments have been adapted for use with individuals with bipolar affective disorders due to the limited prophylactic nature of pharmacotherapy and the recognition of the role of psychosocial factors in the course of this disorder. Psychosocial interventions that include a prodromal monitoring and management component have been empirically shown to be an effective adjunct to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Aims: There i...

  13. Cognitive, affective and behavioural characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...

  14. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  15. Hypothyroidism and bipolar affective disorder: Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder has received less attention as compared with that in depressive disorder. Aims: To study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and compare it with a population norm. Settings and Design: The setting was the psychiatry inpatient unit of a tertiary care hospital. The design was retrospective and observational. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed, referring to the case records of 84 cases of bipolar disorder admitted to the Department of Psychiatry in a Tertiary Referral Center during the year 2010-2012. The prevalence of hypothyroidism both subclinical as demonstrated by elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels (cut-off value 4.2 μU/ml and overt hypothyroidism (fasting T4 4.2 μU/ml was calculated. This was compared with the population prevalence of hypothyroidism as determined by an epidemiological study carried out in the year 2009, in the same region. The correlation between hypothyroidism, gender, lithium prophylaxis and family history of mood disorder was computed. Statistical Analysis: Percentage prevalence of hypothyroidism in the sample was calculated and compared to a population norm. The correlation between hypothyroidism, gender, lithium prophylaxis and family history of mood disorder was computed using the odds ratio (OR. Results: The total prevalence of hypothyroidism in both males and females in the bipolar group was comparable with that in the general population. There is a significant association between family history of mood disorder in first degree relatives and patients having hypothyroidism (OR 5.504 and P = 0.012. There were no statistically significant associations between thyroid abnormalities and age, duration of illness and lithium prophylaxis. Conclusions: There is no significant association between hypothyroidism and bipolar disorder

  16. Anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is one of the most prevalent symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety and depression are common in dizzy adult patients, but there is scarce information about comorbidity between vestibular disturbances and psychiatric disorders in the aged. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin. METHODS: Transversal study that used the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 to assess anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly patients (≥60 years old with chronic dizziness. RESULTS: Most of the 44 patients included in the study were female (88.6% with a mean age of 71 years (±7.5, 68.1% had experienced dizziness for 1 year or more. The most prevalent diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (52.3%. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobias during life were 29.5% and 22.7%, respectively, and, in the last 12 months, 18.2% and 15.9%. There was no patient with panic disorder, agoraphobia or social phobia. The prevalence of depressive disorder during life was 45.4%, and, in the last 12 months, were 11.3%. CONCLUSION: Aged patients with chronic dizziness had high prevalence of some mental disorders.

  17. Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affect dysregulation. We evaluated the relationship of retrospectively recalled childhood traumatization by primary caretaker(s (TPC and affect dysregulation in 472 adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, somatoform disorder (SoD, both BPD and SoD, or disorders other than BPD or SoD, using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, the self-report version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP and the Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced childhood TPC, ranging from approximately 50% of patients with SoD or other psychiatric disorders to more than 75% of patients with comorbid BPD + SoD. Underregulation of affect was associated with emotional TPC and TPC occurring in developmental epoch 0–6 years. Over-regulation of affect was associated with physical TPC. Childhood trauma by a primary caretaker is prevalent among psychiatric patients, particularly those with BPD, and differentially associated with underand over-regulation of affect depending on the type of traumatic exposure.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  18. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As ...

  19. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in schizophrenia and affective disorders and the correlated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠玲

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the seropositivity rates of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and animal contact history between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods Six hundred cases with schizophrenia and 600 with affective disorders were recruited. The serum IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) .And the patients’

  20. Association of microsatellite instability and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder in isocyanate-exposed population of Bhopal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protiti Bose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Survivors of the Bhopal gas disaster still suffer from various respiratory ailments. We examined the effects of exposures among a cross-section of current residents suffering from COPD by ISSR-PCR. Aims: Molecular screening of the gas-affected population of Bhopal with COPD for microsatellite instability due to exposure of MIC. Settings and Design: The isocyanate-exposed population of Bhopal city suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Materials and Methods: Inter-(SSR analysis was used to characterize microsatellite instability in 52 MIC victims of Bhopal, suffering from COPD using (CA 8 RG and (CA 8 R[Y-Q] primer. Statistical Analysis Used: Association analyses were performed using regression analysis. Results: The study on the MIC-affected population in Bhopal showed weak association between microsatellite instability and age (r = + 0.37; exposure distance from site (r = −0.44; and smoking status(r = + 0.12; while regression analysis of the above parameters displayed supporting evidence. Conclusions: The high prevalence of smoking coupled with aging and poor living habits threatens, to further increase COPD incidences among this population, highlighting the need for enhanced screening efforts.

  1. Epistatic Interactions between CREB and CREM Variants in Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesa, Alberto; Marsano, Agnese; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Pae, Chi-Un; Serretti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the existence of epistatic interactions possibly influencing psychotropic agents' response between rs6740584 within Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding (CREB) and rs12775799 within cAMP response element-modulator (CREM) variants in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). All BD and MDD patients were administered with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline a...

  2. The prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii among patients with different chronic pulmonary disorders in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Aboualigalehdari; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Mahnaz Fatahinia; Esmaeil Idani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a chronic fungal infection that caused by P. ji- rovecii. Disease is more prevalent among the HIV-infected patients. The colonization of pneumocystis in human respiratory system is associated with the airway inflammation and obstruction. The current study was conducted to identify the preva- lence of P. jirovecii among the patients with chronic pulmonary disorders in Ahvaz, Iran.Materials and Methods: In the present study, 1...

  3. The Relationship Between Chronic Inflammation and Glucidic-Lipidic Profile Disorders in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Tarța I.D.; Căldăraru Carmen Denise; Gliga Mirela; Huțanu Adina; Bajko Z; Carașca E; Dogaru G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic inflammation has a proven role in atherogenesis, lipid profile parameters being related to cytokine production. In kidney transplant recipients, interleukin 6 (IL-6) is significantly associated with graft-related outcomes and also alterations of cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammation and glucidic-lipidic metabolism disorders in a group of patients with kidney transplantation as renal...

  4. Cognitive bias in healthy participants with symptoms of depression or seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspers-Fayer, Fern

    2007-01-01

    Exaggerated cognitive bias is observed in affective disorder patients, and is often probed using the Emotional Stroop (eStroop) task. Few studies of the eStroop have employed Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). Here, High-density ERPs were recorded while healthy subjects with and without sub-syndromal Depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) performed eStroop variations containing disorder-congruent words. RTs did not reliably differentiate between groups. Emotional relative to neutral w...

  5. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies ar...

  6. Negative Affective Experiences in Relation to Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at ...

  7. Paraneoplastic disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction: Myastenia gravis associated with paraneoplastic syndrome - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonovska Joveva, Elena; Karakolevska Ilova, Marija; Serafimov, Aleksandar; Petrovski, Stefan; Skenderi, Viollca

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders can affect any part of the nervous system. Rarely, the motor neuron or motor axons may be affected in patients with cancer , leading to clinical signs and symptoms that resemble ALS. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prototypic autoimmune disorder of the nervous system. In most cases ,MG is an idiopathic disorder, and the events leading to the production of acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies are not known. About 15% of the patients have a paraneoplastic for...

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient......, with its associated increased fracture risk, vascular calcification, and accelerated mortality fracture risk. Peritoneal dialysis, however, bears a lower risk than hemodialysis (HD). The approach to CKD-MBD prophylaxis and treatment in the elderly PD patient is similar to other CKD patients, with some...... to other dialysis patient groups, physicians should be aware of the special problems of the elderly group....

  9. Anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Toledo Piza Peluso; Maria Inês Quintana; Fernando Freitas Ganança

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is one of the most prevalent symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety and depression are common in dizzy adult patients, but there is scarce information about comorbidity between vestibular disturbances and psychiatric disorders in the aged. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin. METHODS: Transversal study that used the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnosti...

  10. Chronic Non-Social Stress Affects Depressive Behaviors But Not Anxiety in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Sang Ho; Kim, Byung-Hak; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of most psychiatric disorders is still incompletely understood. However, growing evidence suggests that stress is a potent environmental risk factor for depression and anxiety. In rodents, various stress paradigms have been developed, but psychosocial stress paradigms have received more attention than non-social stress paradigms because psychosocial stress is more prevalent in humans. Interestingly, some recent studies suggest that chronic psychosocial stress and social isolation...

  11. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBelvindrah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  12. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  13. LIPID METABOLISM DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Tkachenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To study lipid metabolism in chronic hepatitis C and to assess its impact on the formation of insulin resistance, steatosis and progression of liver fibrosis.Materials and methods. The study included 205 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Conducts research, depending on the genotype C, viral load and body mass index (BMI of the patients.Results. CHC patients revealed a combined hyperlipoproteinemia on the background of op-pression synthesis of apolipoproteins A1 and B. Formation of hepatic steatosis was associated with HCV genotype 3 virus-induced viral load at ≥ 6 log10 IU/ml and metabolic in VL < 6 log10 IU/ml. In patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1, high viral load leads to inhibition of protein synthesis conveyor ApoA1 and increased synthesis of cholesterol, accompanied by abdominal obesity and the formation of insulin resistance. CHC patients with BMI < 25 kg/m2 viral load ≥ 6 log10 ME/ml was associated with dyslipidemia IV type on D. Fredriskson (1970, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and diabetes. The advanced stage of liver fi brosis (F ≥ 3 on a scale METAVIR and non-response to treatment were associated with a decrease in HDL cholesterol below normal. With an increase in viral load > 5 log10 ME/ml signifi cantly increased the risk of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

  14. Diabulimia: how eating disorders can affect adolescents with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer

    2014-09-16

    Adherence to self-management and medication regimens is required to achieve optimal blood glucose control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Non-adherence places adolescents at serious risk of short and long-term health complications. Adherence difficulties may be exacerbated by concurrent eating disorders. Diabulimia is a term used to describe the deliberate administration of insufficient insulin to maintain glycaemic control for the purpose of causing weight loss. This article explores the concept of diabulimia and the compounding complications of an eating disorder on maintaining self-management regimens in adolescents with diabetes. PMID:25204951

  15. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Vivian S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012 and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32% were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each. Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%, followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%. Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population.

  16. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  17. Religious convictions in patients with epilepsy-associated affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Kondziella, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy often have different mood symptoms and behavioral trait characteristics compared to the non-epileptic population. In the present prospective study, we aimed to assess differences in behavioral trait characteristics between acutely admitted, psychiatric in-patients with epil...... characteristics at admission or in clinical history should alert the psychiatrist and lead to closer examination for a possible convulsive disorder....

  18. MMPI-2 F Scale as a Predictor of Acute Versus Chronic Disorder Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Reardon, Maureen Lyons; Donohue, Keith F.; Joiner, Jr., Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between elevation of the infrequency (F) scale on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the classification of psychological disorders as chronic or acute in an outpatient mental health setting. MMPI-2 and clinician rating data at time of intake were considered for 158 adult patients from an…

  19. Exploring the Impact of Chronic Tic Disorders on Youth: Results from the Tourette Syndrome Impact Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Zinner, Samuel H.; Budman, Cathy; Murphy, Tanya; Scahill, Lawrence D.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that chronic tic disorders (CTD) are associated with functional impairment across several domains. However, methodological limitations, such as data acquired by parental report, datasets aggregated across child and adult samples, and small treatment-seeking samples, curtail interpretation. The current study explored…

  20. Treating co-occurring chronic low back pain & generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Kristina; Peters-Watral, Brenda

    2016-01-16

    The complex, bidirectional correlation between chronic low back pain (CLBP) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), common ailments in primary care, can increase the risk of inadequate treatment. This article will review the relationship between CLBP and GAD and provide optimal management strategies for NPs caring for individuals with this dyad. PMID:26642348

  1. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams TE; Blevins A; Vander Weg MW

    2015-01-01

    Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust...

  2. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

  3. Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Julian D.; Courtois, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Complex PTSD (cPTSD) was formulated to include, in addition to the core PTSD symptoms, dysregulation in three psychobiological areas: (1) emotion processing, (2) self-organization (including bodily integrity), and (3) relational security. The overlap of diagnostic criteria for cPTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD) raises questions about the scientific integrity and clinical utility of the cPTSD construct/diagnosis, as well as opportunities to achieve an increasingly nuanced understa...

  4. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Epa, Roksana; Czyżowska, Natalia; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MAD...

  5. Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epa, Roksana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. Material and methods: 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and Young Rating Scale for Mania (YMRS. Profile of moral reasoning was defined on the basis of the results obtained in the Defining Issue Test (DIT by James Rest. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between bipolar disorder (and its phases and the profile of moral reasoning: bipolar patients significantly less often than healthy individuals chose answers indicating the postconventional thinking (p=0,000 – and more often – answers indicating stage 3 and those belonging to the anti-institutional thinking index (p=0,000. There was also a relationship shown between the development of moral reasoning and the phase of bipolar disorder: patients in mania less often than per- sons in euthymia chose answers indicating the final stage of moral thinking (p=0,050. There were no significant differences between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in mania and between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in euthymia. Conclusions: The results suggest that the psychological state of the individual may have an impact on the process of moral reasoning – bipolar disorder may to some extent influence the way of thinking about moral dilemmas. The collected data also seem to emphasize the specificity of the manic phase which is especially worth exploration when conducting further studies.

  6. Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dziwota Ewelina; Drapala Barbara; Gaj Magdalena; Skoczen Nikodem; Olajossy Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD). Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affe...

  7. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Fiori; Luigi Maria Giannetti

    2009-01-01

    Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular...

  8. [Interpersonal violence in the context of affective and psychotic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Hauth, I; Berger, M; Saß, H

    2016-01-01

    Some mental and neurobiological disorders are associated with an increased risk for violence against others. The stigmatization of people with mental illnesses essentially emerges from a distorted perception of this condition. This review article summarizes the available literature on the determinants, prevention, therapy and tools for prediction of serious interpersonal aggression in the context of people with mental disorders. The risks for violence against other people show substantial variation between the various diagnoses. Schizophrenia and mania carry a clearly increased risk particularly at the onset of the disorder but disease-specific pharmacological therapy can reduce these risks. The highest risk factors are in particular previous violence, misuse of alcohol and drugs, male gender and young age. Probabilistic predictions of subsequent aggression against others on an individual-specific basis are only feasible in enriched populations (especially persons with mental illnesses and a previous history of assaults). Valid individual-specific predictions of future violence in the general population or on the basis of diagnoses of mental illness are, however, currently not feasible with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26676656

  9. The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain and Disability Is Affected by Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Louisa; Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Teichtahl, Andrew J.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Pasco, Julie A.; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L.; Wluka, Anita E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) and obesity are major public health problems; however, the relationship between body composition and low back pain in men is unknown. This study aims to examine the association between body composition and LBP and disability in a population-based sample of men, as well as the factors that may affect this relationship. Nine hundred seventy-eight male participants from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study were invited to participate in a follow-up study in 2006. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics and health status. Low back pain was determined using the validated Chronic Back Pain Grade Questionnaire and the presence of an emotional disorder was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Of the 820 respondents (84% response rate), 124 (15%) had high-intensity low back pain and/or disability (back pain). Low back pain was associated with higher body mass index (28.7 ± 0.4 vs 27.3 ± 0.2 kg/m2, P = 0.02) and waist–hip ratio (0.97 ± 0.006 vs 0.96 ± 0.006, P = 0.04), with increased tendency toward having a higher fat mass index (8.0 vs 7.6 kg/m2, P = 0.08), but not fat-free mass index (P = 0.68). The associations between back pain and measures of obesity were stronger in those with an emotional disorder, particularly for waist–hip ratio (P = 0.05 for interaction) and fat mass index (P = 0.06 for interaction). In a population-based sample of men, high-intensity LBP and/or disability were associated with increased levels of obesity, particularly in those with an emotional disorder. This provides evidence to support a biopsychosocial interaction between emotional disorders and obesity with low back pain. PMID:27082599

  10. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P < 0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  11. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2008-01-01

    population (6.4% vs. 1.8%; P <0.0001). For schizophrenia (F20.x) the respective figures were 3.8% versus 1.1%; P = 0.0001. The variable degree of expressive language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in......The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall...

  12. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...

  13. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...... components of affect regulation by self-report measures than the comparison group of healthy subjects. Our results also provided partial support for the psychometric appropriateness and clinical relevance of the translated Danish version of affect regulation measures. CONCLUSION: The normative reference...

  14. Chronic polyarthritis in a patient affected by sarcoidosis and chronic HCV infection. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carcassi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that has a wide variety of clinical manifestation. Lung involvement may slowly undergo pulmonary fibrosis. Chronic sarcoid arthritis is a rare, usually non destructive arthropathy; may be a mono, oligo or polyarthritis. Knees, ankles, shoulders, wrists and small joint of the hands and feet may be involved. It can involve skin, eyes, exocrine glands such as salivary and lacrimal glands, and many other tissues. We describe the case of a 77 years old woman with a history of rhinopharyngitis with epistaxis and chronic laryngitis since youth; a dry mouth and throat, a erytematous, infiltrative skin lesion in the forehead and in the nape of the neck, a purple lesion of the left ear and nose, skin distrophy of the hands from 30 years before. She underwent an operation for a left femoral fracture with emotrasfusion 14 years ago. Then she developed a polyarthritis of the small joints of the hands (II, III and IV right DIP, I, III, e V left DIP; III and V bilateral PIP, knees, tarsi, toes and left elbow. An HCV chronic hepatitis was discovered 6 years before. She is affected by productive cough, dysphonia, dyspnea at rest, feveret, cephalea and asthenia for over 5 years. Laboratory examination revealed leukopenia, HCV hepatitis with anti HCV, HCV-RNA, transaminases elevated and cryoglobulinemia. HCV may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of rheumatic diseases, lung fibrosis and may moreover contribuite to the onset or progression of sarcoidosis; the possible pathogenesis is discussed.

  15. Major affective disorder in anorexia nervosa and bulimia. A descriptive diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessle, R G; Kittl, S; Fichter, M M; Wittchen, H U; Pirke, K M

    1987-12-01

    DSM-III lifetime diagnoses were assessed in 52 patients with a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa or bulimia by means of a standardised diagnostic interview. It was found that 44.2% had a lifetime diagnosis of DSM-III major affective disorder, with abstaining anorectics having a lower rate of depression than those with bulimic symptoms. In the great majority of cases, the onset of affective disorder post-dated the onset of the eating disorder by at least one year. In patients whose eating disorder was in remission, the rate of depressive symptoms was lower than in those in the acute stage of their illness. These findings, combined with recent studies on biological changes in eating disorders, and psychological theories of depression, suggest that in most cases in which the two conditions are associated, the depression is secondary to the eating disorder. PMID:3502805

  16. Behavioral disorders in rats with chronic myocardial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinskiy A.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of cardiologists and psychiatrists suggest that cardiovascular diseases and depression are the most common and frequent comorbid conditions. Therefore the aim of the study was to identify behavioral disorders in rats on the background of myocardial dysfunction in the experiment. Material of the research: 60 adult male rats of Wistar line, weighing 200-220 g, divided into 2 groups - control and experimental. Myocardial dysfunction was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin by 5 mg/kg of animal weight. To verify the model of myocardial dysfunction ECG and histological examination of the myocardium were performed. Evaluation of higher divisions of the CNS reactions was performed using the "open field" method by such indicators: vertical and horizontal motor activity (decreased by 71,4%, acts and defecation boluses (down by 85-88%, the number of burrows (decreased by 57-90%, grooming (decreased by 23%, all parameters were reliable (in p<0,05. There was a gradual decline of rats’ emotionality, CNS depression and increased anxiety. It was found that behavioral disorders in the experiment were typical for anxiety and depression states.

  17. Personality Profile of Women Affected with Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Hamid; Abedi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Ameli, Sedigheh Sadr; Samouei, Rahele

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study is to review the psychological profile of female patients with borderline personality disorder in the women referring to the Centers of Counseling and Psychological Services at Isfahan city based on MMPI-2 test and comparing them with ordinary women. Method: The present study is of the type of cause-comparative and the selection of examinees was done in form of random sampling with 50 women with the BPD and 50 ordinary women and through co...

  18. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  19. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder. PMID:26646576

  20. Homocysteine levels in schizophrenia and affective disorders – focus on cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Doaa H Hewedi; Eissa, Abeer M.; Dorota eFrydecka; Błażej eMisiak

    2014-01-01

    Although homocysteine (Hcy) has been widely implicated in the etiology of various physical health impairments, especially cardiovascular diseases, overwhelming evidence indicates that Hcy is also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. There are several mechanisms linking Hcy to biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. It has been found that Hcy interacts with NMDA receptors, initiates oxidative stress, induces apoptosis, triggers mitochondrial dys...

  1. Negative Affect Shares Genetic and Environmental Influences with Symptoms of Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Hart, Sara A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Taylor, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing disorders suggests that they may have common underlying vulnerability factors. Research has shown that negative affect is moderately positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders in children. The present study is the first to provide an examination of negative affect…

  2. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20562789

  3. Impairment of executive function and attention predicts onset of affective disorder in healthy high-risk twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk.......To investigate whether measures of cognitive function can predict onset of affective disorder in individuals at heritable risk....

  4. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  5. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jue; Zhen WANG; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating ...

  6. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bernegger; Klemens Kienesberger; Laura Carlberg; Patrick Swoboda; Birgit Ludwig; Romina Koller; Nestor D Kapusta; Martin Aigner; Helmuth Haslacher; Michaela Schmöger; Siegfried Kasper; Alexandra Schosser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted...

  7. Early parental death and risk of hospitalization for affective disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Charlotte Weiling; Johansen, Christoffer; Deltour, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    Early parental death is one of the most stressful childhood life events and may influence subsequent psychological health. We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood.......Early parental death is one of the most stressful childhood life events and may influence subsequent psychological health. We investigated the association between early parental loss and risk of hospitalization for an affective disorder in adulthood....

  8. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire; Barbosa Egberto Reis; Menezes Paulo Rossi; Miguel Filho Eurípedes C.

    1999-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the ro...

  9. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  10. Cognitive Disorders, Depressive Status and Chronic Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Mirela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Depression and cognitive disorders were reported more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Our aim was to analyze the association of cognitive disorders and depression association with chronic complications of DM in a group of Romanian patients. Materials and methods: The data was analyzed from 181 patients, with a mean age of 58,3 years to whom we applied the MMSE (Mini- Mental State Examination and MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale questionnaires. We also analyzed the presence of chronic DM complications, HbA1c and lipid profile. Results: Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM had mild cognitive impairment (92%, more common in the age group 50-59 years. Chronic macrovascular complications were present in 74.58%, while chronic microvascular complications were present in 61.87% of patients with T2DM who associated mild and moderate cognitive impairment (p = 0.013. The most common form of depression was mild depression (90.2%, present in most patients with DM, regardless of progression and type of treatment. MADRS depression test scores were statistically significant correlated with the presence of peripheral artery disease - PAD (p <0.001, ischemic heart disease - IHD (p <0.001 and chronic kidney disease - CKD (p =0.05. We did not find a statistically significant correlation with HbA1c and serum lipid values (p˃0,05. Conclusion: Chronic diabetes macrovascular complications (PAD, IHD and CKD were more frequently associated with cognitive disorders and depression in patients with T2DM independent of the degree of metabolic control.

  11. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and beha...

  12. Severity of Anxiety Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Safa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with chronic physical diseases sometimes show increased loss of function; such patients need more care. Anxiety is a well-known symptom that is prevalent among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients that can prolong and increase the risk of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety in the mentioned patients and to examine the presence of symptoms and appropriate treatment strategies to understand the role of psychological functions in physical patients.Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. One hundred forty- three patients entered into the project by accessible method and signed the informed consent; they filled demographic information and Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 .Results: Of the participants, 68% were above 60 years of age; 78% were male; 89% were married; and 38% were self-employed. Also, among the participants, 51% were illiterate; 72% had history of smoking; 46% had history of substance abuse; and 49% had moderate to severe anxiety disorder. Moreover, of the patients with severe anxiety, 41.3% had severe muscle spasms; and severe sleeplessness was found in 38.5% of those with severe anxiety disorder. Severe anxiety related symptoms were found in 20.3% of the patients with severe anxiety disorder. Depressed mood was found in 27.3% of the patients with severe anxiety disorder. Severe physical and muscular signs were found in 35.7% of those with severe anxiety disorder .Conclusion: According to our findings, many chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may contain anxiety and depression which result in vulnerability. Therefore, evaluation of anxiety in such patients is of importance for alleviating the disease.

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  14. History of Affective Disorders Historia de los trastornos afectivos

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Luque; Germán E Berrios

    2011-01-01

    The group of conditions called ‘affective disorders’ resulted from the convergence of certain words, concepts, and behaviors that took place during the early part of the twentieth century. The word ‘affective’ has itself a long and noble history and is part of a panoply of terms which include emotion, passion, sentiment, feeling, mood, dysthymia, cyclothymia, etc. Although these terms name overlapping subjective states, each has a different history and etymology. The s...

  15. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an under-recognized comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature supports the role of psychologic stress in urticaria; however, the comorbidity between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome, has received little attention. The underlying etiology of urticaria is not identifiable in about 70% of patients, possibly because of difficulties with identification of a direct cause-and-effect relationship between a potential causative factor and the onset of urticaria. The core features of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision [DSMIV-TR]) that are important in urticaria include (1) autonomic nervous system reactivity and state of sympathetic hyperarousal that can manifest as CIU, and (2) the persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic events in PTSD, which can manifest as urticaria or angioedema, or both, affecting a previously traumatized body region (eg, urticarial wheals affecting the body region where the patient had been stabbed years earlier). The following features of PTSD make it difficult to use the cause-and-effect model for the determination of causation: (1) PTSD may first emerge years after the initial trauma and is classified as PTSD with Delayed Onset (DSMIV-TR); and (2) the traumatic triggers that precipitate the PTSD symptoms may be unique and idiosyncratic to the patient and not even qualify as stressful or traumatic by standard criteria (eg, precipitating events for the PTSD may include smell of a certain cologne that was used by the perpetrator or witnessing a scene in a movie that was reminiscent of the location where the abuse occurred). Finally, in PTSD with Delayed Onset, patients may not make a conscious association between their recurrent urticaria and their earlier traumas because they can develop classically conditioned associations between stimuli that are reminiscent of the original abuse situation and their somatic reactions such as urticaria. The clinician

  16. Excess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    in the Danish Psychiatric Register between 1995 and 2008 with an ICD-10 diagnosis of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPDs; n = 4157), bipolar disorder (n = 3200) and schizophrenia (n = 4576). Results: A total of 232 patients (5.6%) with ATPDs, 172 (5.4%) with bipolar disorder and 233 (5......Objective: To investigate mortality and causes of death of short-lived psychotic disorders, by carrying out a comparison with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Method: Record linkage study to the official register of causes of death of all cases aged 15–64 years who were listed for the first time.......1%) with schizophrenia had died over a mean follow-up period of 6.6 years. The standardized mortality ratio for all causes, natural causes and unnatural causes was significantly high for the three conditions. Mortality of ATPDs was greater in men, with about two-thirds of all deaths resulting from natural...

  17. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments.Methods and results: We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments.Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models.Keywords: diagnostic criteria, body image, cognition, aesthetical treatments

  18. Effectiveness of family training and life skills on caring chronic mental disorders in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dareke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is semi-empirical study which is done to examiningthe effectiveness of family trainings and life skills on Caring Chronic Mental Disorders in Mashhad (Iran. 300 participants has been chosen in randomly from the families of chronic mental disorders who has been admitted in round the clock centers in Mashhad and who had been in waiting list and these participants has been divided to two groups of experiment and control randomly and we introduce family trainings and life skills to experiment group. There was no training to control group. These two groups were tested period to the beginning of trainings and post training with instruments such as California Social Adjustment Questionnaire; Families’ Attitude and Awareness about Life Skills and Family Trainings; Rosenberg Self-Esteem; General Health Questionnaire;and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results indicated that training had no effect on the attitude of families toward taking care of mental disorder, but family member،s attitudetoward mental disorder has been changed. This training has been influential on changing family member،s attitude toward life skills, social adjustment, self esteem, mental health increase and reducing mental disorders.

  19. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. PMID:26917961

  20. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. PMID:26917961

  1. Stereotyped distribution of proliferating keratinocytes in disorders affecting the epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the technique of autoradiography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) to evaluate keratinocyte proliferation in basal, epibasal, and other epidermal layers in 30 diseases affecting the epidermis. The number and proportion of 3H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes were counted in the different layers of the epidermis. Significant correlations were found between the proliferative indices of the different epidermal layers. Such links indicate that the epidermis responds in a rather stereotyped way to various pathological conditions. There exists some regulation in the distribution, number, and proportion of 3H-TdR-labeled keratinocytes in the various layers of the epidermis

  2. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements examples from research in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Danilo Arnone,1 Lindsey Marwood,1 Roland Zahn,1–3 Karen E Lythe,2,3 Allan H Young1 1Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, 2Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, School of Psychological Sciences, 3Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. Keywords: recruitment, affective disorders, advertising, depression, anxiety, bipolar

  3. Severity, affect, family and environment (safe) approach to evaluate chronic pelvic pain in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa Leena; Sharma J; Arora R; Malhotra M; Sharma S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic pain is common in adolescent girls in day-to-day practice. Severity, Affect, Family and Environment (SAFE) is a recent interview strategy to approach these patients and their families.. AIM: 1. To find the prevalence of pelvic pain in adolescent girls. 2. To find out the feasibility and acceptability of ′SAFE′ approach in evaluating chronic pelvic pain in adolescent girls. SETTINGS & DESIGN: 200 adolescent girls aged 13-23 years were selected at random ...

  4. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    John Williamson; Emi Isaki

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI).  The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills.  Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and ro...

  5. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Chaby, Lauren E; Michael J Sheriff; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Thomas B Fetherston; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory,...

  6. COMT genetic variation confers risk for psychotic and affective disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencz Todd

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in the COMT gene has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic, affective and anxiety disorders. The majority of these studies have focused on the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism and yielded conflicting results, with limited studies examining the relationship between other polymorphisms, or haplotypes, and psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that COMT variation may confer a general risk for psychiatric disorders and have genotyped four COMT variants (Val158Met, rs737865, rs165599, and a SNP in the P2 promoter [-278A/G; rs2097603] in 394 Caucasian cases and 467 controls. Cases included patients with schizophrenia (n = 196, schizoaffective disorder (n = 62, bipolar disorder (n = 82, major depression (n = 30, and patients diagnosed with either psychotic disorder NOS or depressive disorder NOS (n = 24. Results SNP rs2097603, the Val/Met variant and SNP rs165599 were significantly associated (p = 0.004; p = 0.05; p = 0.035 with a broad "all affected" diagnosis. Haplotype analysis revealed a potentially protective G-A-A-A haplotype haplotype (-278A/G; rs737865; Val108/158Met; rs165599, which was significantly underrepresented in this group (p = 0.0033 and contained the opposite alleles of the risk haplotype previously described by Shifman et al. Analysis of diagnostic subgroups within the "all affecteds group" showed an association of COMT in patients with psychotic disorders as well as in cases with affective illness although the associated variants differed. The protective haplotype remained significantly underrepresented in most of these subgroups. Conclusion Our results support the view that COMT variation provides a weak general predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease including psychotic and affective disorders.

  7. Heavy metal uranium affects the brain cholinergic system in rat following sub-chronic and chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a heavy metal naturally present in the environment that may be chronically ingested by the population. Previous studies have shown that uranium is present in the brain and alters behaviour, notably locomotor activity, sensorimotor ability, sleep/wake cycle and the memory process, but also metabolism of neurotransmitters. The cholinergic system mediates many cognitive systems, including those disturbed after chronic exposure to uranium i.e., spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle and locomotor activity. The objective of this study was to assess whether these disorders follow uranium-induced alteration of the cholinergic system. In comparison with 40 control rats, 40 rats drank 40 mg/L uranyl nitrate for 1.5 or 9 months. Cortex and hippocampus were removed and gene expression and protein level were analysed to determine potential changes in cholinergic receptors and acetylcholine levels. The expression of genes showed various alterations in the two brain areas after short- and long-term exposure. Nevertheless, protein levels of the choline acetyltransferase enzyme (ChAT), the vesicular transporter of acetylcholine (VAChT) and the nicotinic receptor β2 sub-unit (nAChRβ2) were unmodified in all cases of the experiment and muscarinic receptor type 1 (m1AChR) protein level was disturbed only after 9 months of exposure in the cortex (-30%). Acetylcholine levels were unchanged in the hippocampus after 1.5 and 9 months, but were decreased in the cortex after 1.5 months only (-22%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also unchanged in the hippocampus but decreased in the cortex after 1.5 and 9 months (-16% and -18%, respectively). Taken together, these data indicate that the cholinergic system is a target of uranium exposure in a structure-dependent and time-dependent manner. These cholinergic alterations could participate in behavioural impairments.

  8. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  9. Emotional lability and affective synchrony in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berghoff, Christopher R; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2016-07-01

    Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task). State ratings of SCE, anger, and anxiety were provided at 14 time points (before and after each laboratory task and resting period). Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that women with BPD reported greater mean levels of SCE and Anxiety (but not Anger), and greater lability of Anxiety. Women with BPD also exhibited greater variability in lability of all 3 emotions (suggestive of within-group differences in the relevance of lability to BPD). Results also revealed synchrony (i.e., positive relations) between each possible pair of emotions, regardless of BPD status. Follow-up regression analyses suggest the importance of accounting for lability when examining the role of synchrony in BPD, as the relation of SCE-Anger synchrony to BPD symptom severity was moderated by Anger and SCE lability. Specifically, synchronous changes in SCE and Anger were associated with greater BPD symptom severity when large shifts in SCE were paired with minor shifts in Anger. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362623

  10. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people affected depends on the specific disorder. Cushing’s Syndrome Cushing’s syndrome is uncommon, affecting about 10 to 15 out ... Related A-Z Topics Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) Cushing Syndrome Newborn Screening All related topics NICHD News and ...

  11. Negative affective experiences in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Dávila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with precl...

  13. The ecology of suffering: developmental disorders of structured stress, emotion, and chronic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2003-01-01

    'Punctuated equilibrium' models of cognitive process, adapted from the Large Deviations Program of probability theory, are applied to the interaction between immune function and emotion in the context of culturally structured psychosocial stress. The analysis suggests: (1) Chronic inflammatory diseases should be comorbid and synergistic with characteristic emotional dysfunction, and may form a collection of joint disorders most effectively treated at the individual level using multifa...

  14. Neurobiologically informed treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa: a novel approach to a chronic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Knatz, Stephanie; Wierenga, Christina E.; Murray, Stuart B.; Hill, Laura; Kaye, Walter H.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and debilitating disorder with significant medical and psychological sequelae. To date, there are no effective treatments for adults, resulting in high rates of chronicity, morbidity, and mortality. Recent advances in brain imaging research have led to an improved understanding of etiology and specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptoms. Despite this, there are no treatments focused on targeting symptoms using this empirically supported mechanisti...

  15. Imaging Chronic Pain and Inflammation : Positron Emission Tomography Studies of Whiplash Associated Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is on chronic neck pain after a rear impact car injury, so called whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Three empirical studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with different radioligands have been performed. The first study evaluated resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in WAD patients and in healthy, pain-free controls, by use of oxygen-15 labeled water. Patients had heightened resting rCBF bilaterally in the posterior parahippocampal and the posterior cingul...

  16. Elevated [11C]-D-Deprenyl Uptake in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Suggests Persistent Musculoskeletal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Fredrikson, Mats; Gordh, Torsten; Söderlund, Anne; Långström, Bengt; Engler, Henry

    2011-01-01

    There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer 11C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain...

  17. Personality Features and Personality Disorders in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, Urs M.; Jones, James F; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Maloney, Elizabeth; Reeves, William C; Heim, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Methods 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorders...

  18. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in sick listed chronic low back pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Tangen, Tone; Moe, Trygve; Eriksen, Hege Randi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous findings have shown a high degree of comorbid psychopathology in chronic low back pain (CLBP), but less is known about the broad range of comorbid psychiatric disorders. The prevalence is reported to be between 40%-100% depending on methods being used, sample or setting. Aims: To assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in a population of CLBP patients, using a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Methods: 565 patients sick listed between 2 and 10 m...

  19. IMPACT OF CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF WAR SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo-Mehmedbašić, Alma; Kučukalić, Abdulah; Džubur Kulenović, Alma; Suljić, Enra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research data from studies of functional neuroanatomy and neurochemistry indicate various dysfunctions in certain areas of the brain in individuals who suffer from chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. These abnormalities are involved in the evolution of symptoms of PTSD, deterioration of cognitive functions and decreased quality of life of the survivors. The intensity of these symptoms is in direct correlation with the degree of dysfunction in the central nervous system...

  20. Treatment of the depressive phase of bipolar affective disorder: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mood disorder which usually has its onset in adolescence and young adulthood. The disorder is typified by a remitting and relapsing course. While remissions are often partial in nature, relapses are frequent and manifested as manic, mixed, hypomanic and depressive episodes. Rapid cycling is a particularly disabling form of bipolar disorder, characterised by four or more episodes in a 12-month period. Bipolar disorder inevitably causes impairment in social and occupational functioning. Many patients experience severe hopelessness and suicidal ideation and the disorder is associated with one of the highest mortality rates of all psychiatric disorders. The treatment of bipolar depression is particularly challenging and numerous patients achieve incomplete benefit even with complex psychopharmacological strategies. In recent years, many new pharmacological options have become available for the treatment of bipolar depression and the field has seen significant progress. In order to achieve better outcome for the patients, it is mandatory that treating physicians have an up to date knowledge of recent advances in the management of this condition. (author)

  1. Probiotic foods: Can their increasing use in India ameliorate the burden of chronic lifestyle disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Hajela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Chronic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary artery disease, a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders with an immune basis, and some forms of cancer are increasing in incidence around the world and in India, and may be attributable in part to rapid changes in our lifestyle. There is considerable public interest in India in the consumption of probiotic foods. This brief review summarizes the background of the gut microbiota, the immunological reactions induced by these, the evidence linking the microbiota to health outcomes, and the evidence linking the use of probiotics for amelioration of chronic lifestyle diseases.

  2. [sup 123]I-OIH renoscintigraphy in children with chronic disorder of glomerulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Junichi; Oonishi, Hiroshi; Sanayama, Kazunori; Fukumoto, Yasuhiko (Narita Red Cross Hospital, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of [sup 123]I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH) renography, 31 patients with chronic disorder of glomerulus, from 5 years to 15 years old, were studied. In chronic glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome with resistance to steroid therapy, T[sub max] and T[sub 1]/[sub 2] of the time-activity curve were statistically prolonged. Most of the renograms (time-activity curves) of the patients showed the hypofunction pattern. In most of the patients, other laboratory data, including BUN, PSP test and creatine clearance, didn't show abnormal values. [sup 123]I-OIH scan was considered to be a sensitive and useful method to evaluate the renal function in pediatric patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. (author).

  3. PERSONALITY AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN WOMEN AFFECTED BY POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eScaruffi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(pathological personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 yrs were evaluated by antropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner's Comprehensive System (CS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to C.S. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders (4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive-aggressive and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive-compulsive and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0%, somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress.Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.

  4. The high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehraban

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a common disorder with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorder that imposes a worse prognosis on both conditions. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD is estimated to be the fourth most prevalent life time psychiatric disorder, but yet has gained less attention in chronic pain comorbidity researches.Ninety three heterogeneous chronic pain patients who attended a pain clinic in Tehran (Iran in an outpatient setting during three months were included in this study. Diagnosis was made by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID.The mean age of the patients was 46.37 (SD 15.005 years; of the patients, 66.7% were female and 33.3% were male. The mean duration of pain was 34.43 (SD 51.422 months. The mean pain severity on numerical pain scale was 5.82 (SD 1.950 from 10. The mean pain site number was 3.68 (SD 3.401 from the maximum of 27 places. Furthermore, 61.3% of the participants were diagnosed with lifetime OCD, 25.8% with subclinical OCD and 61.5 % with major depressive disorder (MDD. OCD diagnosis was not correlated with MDD or pain intensity. Female gender was associated with OCD (OD; 4.182, 95% CL (1.655-10.568. Pain intensity was correlated with MDD (P < 0.05.The high prevalence of OCD was comorbidity, independent of MDD and most pain characteristics. The high prevalence of OCD may be explained by the high rate of undiagnosed cause of pain as well as cultural and local factors. Using screening tests is suggested for tackling under diagnosis and under treatment of OCD and MDD.

  5. Escitalopram tolerability as mono- versus augmentative therapy in patients with affective disorders: a naturalistic study

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    Dell'Osso B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Dell’Osso, Chiara Arici, Cristina Dobrea, Giulia Camuri, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo AltamuraUniversity of Milan, Department of Psychiatry, Fondazione IRCSS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyBackground: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, widely used in the treatment of affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine its safety and tolerability, as mono- versus augmentative therapy, in a group of patients with affective disorders.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 131 patients suffering from different affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, who received escitalopram for at least 4 weeks. Data were analyzed on the basis of mono- versus augmentative therapy, as well as age, gender, mean daily dosage, and patterns of combination therapy.Results: Sixty-seven (51.1% patients were treated with monotherapy (mean dose of 11.76 mg/day and 64 (48.9% with augmentative escitalopram (mean dose of 12.81 mg/day. The mean duration of escitalopram treatment was 14 months. The most frequently combined compounds were: other antidepressants (36.5%, mood stabilizers (33.4%, and atypical antipsychotics (30.1%. Side effects were reported in 5.3% of the total sample and the most common were insomnia (2.3%, nausea (2.3%, and dizziness (0.8%. No significant difference, in terms of tolerability, in mono- versus augmentative therapy groups was found. In addition, neither age nor gender was significantly correlated with a greater presence of side effects. Finally, no significant correlation between dosage and side effects was observed.Conclusion: Over a 14-month observation period, escitalopram, either as monotherapy or an augmentative treatment, was found to be well tolerated in a large sample of patients with affective disorders, with an overall low rate of side effects.Keywords: affective disorders, escitalopram

  6. ACUTE STRESS DISORDER VERSUS CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: INHIBITION OF FEAR AS A FUNCTION OF TIME SINCE TRAUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Sakoman, Andrea Jambrošić; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica; Meštrović, Ana Havelka; Duncan, Erica J.; Davis, Michael; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that inhibition of fear is impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from both civilian and combat trauma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of learned fear in traumatized individuals diagnosed with either acute stress disorder (ASD) or PTSD. This is the first study to use a conditioned inhibition paradigm with traumatized individuals within a month of trauma exposure. We hypothesized that impaired fear inhibition would be evident in PTSD, but not ASD. Method Using established translational, psychophysiological methods including fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance, we examined fear acquisition, stimulus discrimination, and the transfer of learned safety in a Croatian population with ASD or PTSD. This cross-sectional study included three age-matched groups: healthy nontrauma controls (n = 27), a group with chronic PTSD (10 or more years since trauma exposure, n = 24), and a group with ASD (30 days or less since trauma exposure, n = 27). Results The presence of trauma-related psychopathology, whether acute or chronic, was associated with an impaired ability to transfer learned safety based on fear-potentiated startle measures, while healthy control subjects showed significant fear inhibition in the presence of the safety cue compared to the danger cue, F(1,26) = 12.64, P = .001. Conclusions These data expand our previously observed findings of PTSD-associated fear inhibition deficits by demonstrating that trauma-related impairments in safety learning are evident within 30 days of trauma exposure. PMID:22907890

  7. Improving Affect Regulation in Eating Disorders: The Case for Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Rogowski, Augustina

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from multiple studies suggests that regulation of emotions and intensity of affect may be relevant to understanding disordered eating. Emotion regulation concerns the ways in which emotions are managed in daily life, whereas Affect Intensity (Larsen et al., 1986) refers to individuals‟ typical emotional reactivity. The thesis examines emotion regulation and affect in females with eating pathology (subclinical as well as clinical), and looks at ways dysfunctional regulatory strategies...

  8. Sleep disorders and its related risk factors in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han; Li Xiaobei; Feng Sujuan; Zhang Guizhi; Wang Wei; Wang Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sleep disorders has been shown to be high in patients with chronic dialysis patients and may contribute to impaired quality of life and higher mortality in this population.However,there are few data on the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.Methods A total of 42 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were involved in this cross-sectional study.Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.And depression was assessed by Hamilton depression scale.General information and laboratory data were collected.Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 47.6% in the CAPD patients.According to the PSQI,the 42 CAPD patients were divided into sleep disturbance group and non-sleep disorders group.There were no significant differences in age,gender,dialysis duration,hemoglobin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,β2-microglobulin,parathyroid hormone,calcium,and phosphorus between CAPD patients with sleep disorders and those without sleep disorders.But the level of serum albumin (AIb) in CAPD patients with sleep disorders was significantly lower than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (31.3±1.4 vs.34.3±3.7,t=3.603,P=0.001).And the prevalence of RLS and depression was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (RLS:11/22 vs.1/20,x2=10.395,P=0.001; depression:7/22 vs.1/20,x2=4.886,P=0.027).In CAPD patients with RLS,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without RLS (11/22 vs.11/30,x2=10.395,P=0.001).And in CAPD patients with depression,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without

  9. Are the interpersonal and identity disturbances in the borderline personality disorder criteria linked to the traits of affective instability and impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, H W; Harvey, P D; Mitropoulou, V; New, A S; Goodman, M; Silverman, J; Serby, M; Schopick, F; Siever, L J

    2001-08-01

    This study examines the degree to which two putative biologically influenced personality traits, affective instability and impulsive aggression, are associated with some of the interpersonal and intrapsychic disturbances of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and with choice of defense mechanism. In a sample of 152 personality disorder patients, affective instability and impulsive aggression were measured. Defense mechanisms were assessed in 140 of these patients using the Defensive Style Questionnaire (DSQ). The correlations between the traits of affective instability and impulsive aggression and the eight DSM-III-R criteria for borderline personality disorder and 20 DSQ defenses were examined. Affective instability was significantly correlated with the DSM-III-R criteria of identity disturbance, chronic emptiness or boredom, inappropriate anger, suicidality, and the affective instability criteria. It also was associated with the defenses of splitting, projection, acting out, passive aggression, undoing, and autistic fantasy. Impulsive aggression was related to unstable interpersonal relationships, inappropriate anger and impulsiveness and with the defense of acting out. It was negatively correlated with the defenses of suppression and reaction formation. A number of the interpersonal and experiential disturbances and defense mechanisms that are features of BPD are associated with the traits of affective instability and impulsive aggression among patients with personality disorders. PMID:11556702

  10. Investigations of disorders of motility of the esophagus in chronic diseases. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic diseases of the esophagus impair the transport function of this organ. Esophageal scintigraphy investigates the transport function under physiological circumstances. Various test meals are radioactively labelled and swallowed by the patient. depending on the cause of a transport disorder the investigation lasts only 60s up to half an hour. Parametric imaging techniques like the so called condensed pictures give information about extent and peristalsis of transport disorders. The determination of transit times and/or percent of residuum in the eso-phagus allows for quantitating functional disorders. The use of multiple swallow technique or of various tracers during one investigation leads to high sensitivity in the detection of esophageal transport disorders, even in an early stage of a chronic disease, like morphea or sclero-derma. The documentation of successful therapeutical interventions is possible, for example in achalasia. In obscure complaints or in thoracic pain without coronary heart disease esophageal scintigraphy may confirm or exclude a disease of the esophagus. (author). 40 refs.; 5 figs

  11. Chronic mild stressors and diet affect gene expression differently in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuwen; Byers, Donna M; Irwin, Louis N

    2007-01-01

    While depression is reportedly more prevalent in women than men, a neurobiological basis for this difference has not been documented. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely recognized animal model, which uses mild and unpredictable environmental stressors to induce depression. Studies of chronic stress, mainly in males, have reported an increase in the relative intake of "comfort food" as a means of counteracting the effects of stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genes for certain neurotrophic factors, stress markers, and appetite regulators would be expressed differentially in male and female rats exposed to chronic, mild stressors with access to a preferred diet. Gene expression for neuropeptide Y was upregulated in females purely in response to stressors, whereas that for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in males and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in females responded primarily to diet. Genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AVP, and the cocaine-amphetamine regulator of transcription (CART) in males, and leptin in females, showed a significant response to the interaction between stressors and diet. Every affected gene showed a different pattern of expression in males and females. This study confirms the intimate relationship between dietary intake and response to stress at the molecular level, and emphasizes the sex- and gene-specific nature of those interactions. Therefore, it supports a neurobiological basis for differences in the affective state response to stress in males and females. PMID:17917078

  12. Internet-based adherence interventions for treatment of chronic disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bass AM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria M Bass,1 Michael E Farhangian,1 Steven R Feldman1–3 1Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Background: Treatment adherence is a ubiquitous challenge in medicine, particularly in the adolescent population with chronic disorders. Web-based adherence interventions may be particularly useful in adolescents, due to their familiarity with and frequent use of the Internet. Objective: To review web-based interventions used to improve adherence to medication in adolescent patients with chronic disorders. Methods: A PubMed search was performed for full-text, English, clinical trials in adolescents using keywords “adherence” or “compliance”, “Internet” or “web”, and “treatment” from inception until November 2014. Articles were selected if they involved using the Internet to provide support to adolescents to help improve their adherence to treatment, excluding those focused on solely providing medical services through the Internet and articles focusing on preventative care, rather than treatment of an illness. Results: Fourteen studies were found concentrating on chronic adolescent disorders. Interventions included online surveys, physician chat lines, monitoring programs, and interactive programs. All interventions experienced either greater improvement in adherence or another disease control measure or no statistically significant difference compared with the control group (in-clinic visits. Limitations: Few clinical trials studying web-based interventions to improve adherence in adolescents were found. Due to not having one standard outcome measured in all of the studies, it was also difficult comparing the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion: Web

  13. Association between pre- and perinatal exposures and Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder in the ALSPAC cohort†

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Background Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are heritable but aetiologically complex. Although environment plays a role in their development, existing studies of non-genetic risk factors are inconsistent. Aims To examine the association between pre- and perinatal exposures and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort. Method Relationships between exposures and Tourette syndrome/ch...

  14. Disease characteristics as determinants of the labour market position of adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Dekker, J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G P

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Job prospects can be problematic for young patients with chronic digestive disorders. OBJECTIVES: To compare the employment status and disease burden in young adult patients with several chronic digestive disorders with healthy controls, and to determine whether labour participation depends on disease characteristics, such as type of diagnosis and burden of disease. PARTICIPANTS: In total 622 patients categorized into five diagnostic groups--inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n=274...

  15. Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) and Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzan, Mathieu; Ko, Huaibin M; Mehandru, Saurabh; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are two of the well-characterized primary immune deficiencies with distinct pathologic defects. While CVID is predominantly a disorder of the adaptive immune system, in CGD, innate immunity is impaired. In both syndromes, the clinical manifestations include an increased susceptibility to infections and a number of non-infectious, inflammatory conditions including systemic autoimmunity, as well as organ-specific pathology. Among the organ-associated disorders, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are one of the most intractable. As such, non-infectious inflammatory disorders of the GI tract are clinically challenging as they have protean manifestations, often resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or celiac disease, are notoriously difficult to treat, and hence are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessing the pathogenesis and defining appropriate therapeutic approaches for GI disease in patients with CVID and CGD is imperative. PMID:26951230

  16. COMPARISON OF THE EXTENT AND PATTERN OF FAMILY BURDEN IN AFFECTIVE DISORDERS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subho; Raj, Lok; Kulhara, Parmanand; Avasthi, Ajit; Verma, Santhosh K.

    1995-01-01

    This study sought to compare the extent and pattern of burden experienced by relatives of two different patient groups, one with affective disorders and the other with schizophrenia. Cross-sectional assessment of family burden using the Pai and Kapur's Interview Schedule was done in 78 patients with either bipolar disorder or recurrent major depression and 60 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DSM-III. The inter-rater reliability of the interview schedule for burden was also u...

  17. Haloperidol induced obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS) in a patient with learning disability and bipolar affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ulhaq, Inam; Abba-Aji, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, a patient with severe learning disability and bipolar affective disorder developed de-nova obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS) with haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic medication and the OCS stopped with stopping haloperidol. Antipsychotics are recommended and used as augmentation therapy in resistant cases of obsessive compulsive disorder. Although second generation antipsychotics have been reported to have induced OCS but haloperidol, which is a first generation an...

  18. COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION, DISSOCIATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDERS IN REMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Kamaradova, Dana; Velartova, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorders are often associated with cognitive deficits, which have an influence on social functioning and the course of the illness. These deficits have an impact on occupational ability and social integration. Subjects and methods: To ascertain cognitive function, level of dissociation and quality of life and their interrelations in patients with bipolar affective disorder in remission. Data from D2 Attention Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Trial Making Test, Di...

  19. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  20. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Williamson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years traumatic brain injury (TBI.  The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills.  Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play.  Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication.  Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.               

  1. The effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders on quality of life across the lifespan: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joel; Seri, Stefano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-09-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and other chronic tic disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by the presence of tics and associated behavioral problems. Whilst converging evidence indicates that these conditions can affect patients' quality of life (QoL), the extent of this impairment across the lifespan is not well understood. We conducted a systematic literature review of published QoL studies in GTS and other chronic tic disorders to comprehensively assess the effects of these conditions on QoL in different age groups. We found that QoL can be perceived differently by child and adult patients, especially with regard to the reciprocal contributions of tics and behavioral problems to the different domains of QoL. Specifically, QoL profiles in children often reflect the impact of co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, which tend to improve with age, whereas adults' perception of QoL seems to be more strongly affected by the presence of depression and anxiety. Management strategies should take into account differences in age-related QoL needs between children and adults with GTS or other chronic tic disorders. PMID:26880181

  2. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Mirzaee, Jafar; Omidbeygi, Maryam; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD. Method Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal ...

  3. Variations in 5-HTTLPR: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, life events, neuroticism and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2009-01-01

    variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through......BACKGROUND: Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and stressful life events are associated with affective disorders. AIM: To investigate whether the distribution of the alleles of the 5-HTTLPR is associated with a genetic predisposition to affective disorder and whether these...... the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....

  4. Gait unsteadiness and fall risk in two affective disorders: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chung-Kang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In older adults, depression has been associated with increased fall risk, but the reasons for this link are not fully clear. Given parallels between major depression and Parkinson's disease, we hypothesized that major depression and related affective disorders would be associated with impairment in the ability to regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait cycle timing. Methods We measured stride-to-stride fluctuations of patients with two forms of mood disorders, unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder, and compared their gait to that of a healthy control group. The primary outcomes were two measures of gait unsteadiness that have been associated with fall risk: stride time variability and swing time variability. Results Compared to the control group, the two patient groups tended to walk more slowly and with decreased swing time and increased stride time. However, none of these differences was statistically significant. Compared to the control group, swing time variability was significantly larger in the subjects with bipolar disorder (p Conclusions Patients with MDD and patients with bipolar disorder display gait unsteadiness. This perturbation in gait may provide a mechanistic link connecting depression and falls. The present findings also suggest the possibility that measurement of variability of gait may provide a readily quantifiable objective approach to monitoring depression and related affective disorders.

  5. Functional connectivity of pain-mediated affect regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Affective instability and self-injurious behavior are important features of Borderline Personality Disorder. Whereas affective instability may be caused by a pattern of limbic hyperreactivity paired with dysfunctional prefrontal regulation mechanisms, painful stimulation was found to reduce affective arousal at the neural level, possibly underlying the soothing effect of pain in BPD.We used psychophysiological interactions to analyze functional connectivity of (para- limbic brain structures (i.e. amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex in Borderline Personality Disorder in response to painful stimulation. Therefore, we re-analyzed a dataset from 20 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and 23 healthy controls who took part in an fMRI-task inducing negative (versus neutral affect and subsequently applying heat pain (versus warmth perception.Results suggest an enhanced negative coupling between limbic as well as paralimbic regions and prefrontal regions, specifically with the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, when patients experienced pain in addition to emotional arousing pictures. When neutral pictures were combined with painful heat sensation, we found positive connectivity in Borderline Personality Disorder between (para-limbic brain areas and parts of the basal ganglia (lentiform nucleus, putamen, as well areas involved in self-referential processing (precuneus and posterior cingulate.We found further evidence for alterations in the emotion regulation process in Borderline Personality Disorder, in the way that pain improves the inhibition of limbic activity by prefrontal areas. This study provides new insights in pain processing in BPD, including enhanced coupling of limbic structures and basal ganglia.

  6. Affective disorders in patients with HIV infection: impact of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, affective disorders (such as depressed mood) were seen in a considerable number of HIV-1-infected individuals. These disorders were a result of the poor physical condition of the patients, brain involvement by the virus (e.g. encephalopathy) or a reaction to disadvantageous living conditions (losing friends, jobs, etc.). In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), mental illness related to physical weakness is declining, as is the incidence of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. However, depressed mood and fatigue caused by efavirenz (a standard component of HAART) is becoming increasingly important, particularly in individuals who are infected long-term with HIV-1. Whatever the cause of affective disorders, their presence has been shown to negatively influence adherence to HAART and HIV-1 disease progression. Specialist knowledge of HIV-1 infection, and HAART and its psychiatric complications (particularly in subgroups of patients such as drug abusers and older people), is needed to care adequately for patients. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to more fully differentiate between the various aetiologies of affective disorders seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS and to determine their incidence and prevalence. Such information is important to ensure that affective disorders are recognised and adequately treated, which will in turn improve the efficacy of HAART. PMID:16734500

  7. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  8. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  9. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J.; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. Aims To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Method Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. Results 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7–20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8–18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1–16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3–14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2–13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7–13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2–11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Conclusions Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging. PMID:26629535

  10. Risk markers for affective disorder, a seven-years follow up study of a twin cohort at low and high risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether: familial history of affective disorder, subclinical depressive symptoms and life events (LEs) are predictive of a later development of mood disorder (onset). In a high-risk study, 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin history...... baseline Hamilton 17 score (HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.48), Becks Depression Inventory 21 (HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.05-1.24) and neuroticism (HR = 1.08, 95% 1.02-1.12). Finally, the experience of LEs lifetime before baseline predicted onset (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and the experience of LEs during follow......-up also predicted onset (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11). These findings suggest that young individuals at familial risk of affective disorders are at enhanced risk of onset and at further risk when having female sex and more subclinical depressive symptoms at baseline. Further, they seem to experience more...

  11. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Pediatric Headache and Anxiety Disorders: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic pediatric headache disorders are pervasive, debilitating, and associated with high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders. The combination of headaches and anxiety presents unique challenges for clinicians. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising treatment for pediatric headache, however, available treatments fail to…

  12. The Efficacy of Supervised Home-based Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Candemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR programs can be carried out in hospital or home basis with a different organizational aspect and program content. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multidisciplinary supervised home-based PR program in patients with chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: Forty patients with chronic respiratory disorders who admitted to our center between September 2007 and May 2012 were enrolled. In all patients before and after PR, dyspnea was assessed with Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea scale, exercise capacity with Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT and Endurance Shuttle Walk Test (ESWT, health related quality of life with St. Geoerge Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, psychosocial evaluation with hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD, the body composition with bioelectrical impedance method. Ten patients did not complete home-based PR for various reasons. Results: In patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, dyspnea sensation (p=0.026, exercise capacity (p=0.001, quality of life (p=0.001, body composition (p=0.012, anxiety and depression score (p=0.001 improvements were statistically significant. In all patients with COPD and non-COPD perception of dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression score improvements were above minimal clinically important differences. Conclusion: In this study supervised home-based pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown as an effective and safe modality when applied by an experiencied and multidisciplinary team in selected severe COPD or non-COPD patients.

  13. [Mucolytics in acute and chronic respiratory tract disorders. II. Uses for treatment and antioxidant properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    In the first part of our editorial we reviewed the possible factors responsible for mucus hypersecretion in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. The present paper presents the results of studies proving, that mucolytics are useful in adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract disorders. Mucolytic agents such as Ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine are able to alter the secretion of mucus and its physical properties which results in improvement of mucociliary clearance. Current evidence indicate, that these drugs are effective, especially in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and acute bronchitis. They produce a modest improvement in symptom control and lung function. It has been demonstrated that there is a synergism between mucolytics and antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Moreover, they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Ambroxol is able to inhibit mediator release involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. As mucolytics are cheap and well-tolerated they are beneficial in the therapy of patients suffering from respiratory tract disorders. PMID:12053601

  14. Association of chronic hepatitis C with major depressive disorders: irrespective of interferon-alpha therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chessa Luchino

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety symptoms in chronic hepatitis C (CHC may be related to the patient awareness of the diagnosis and prognosis, to side effects induced by interferon (IFN-alpha treatment, as well as to substance abuse. However, the observation of metabolic alterations in patients with CHC has led to hypothesize a direct effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV on brain function. This study was aimed at elucidating whether CHC is associated with specific anxiety or mood disorders independently of confounding factors. Methods Patient cohort: consecutive patients, 135 with CHC and 76 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Exclusion criteria: previous treatment with IFN-alpha, co-infection with HCV and hepatitis B virus, infection with human immunodeficiency virus, drug or alcohol abuse, or malignancies. Controls: subjects without evidence of hepatitis randomly extracted from the database of a previous epidemiological study; they were divided into two groups of 540 (332 males and 304 (220 males as controls for patients with CHC and CHB, respectively. The psychiatric diagnosis was formulated by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Simplified carried out by a physician according to DSM-IV criteria. Results A higher lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD was observed among CHC compared to CHB or controls. The risk of MDD was not statistically different between CHB and controls. Both the CHC and CHB groups showed a significantly higher frequency of panic disorder when compared to controls. No statistical differences were observed in the prevalence of general anxiety disorder and social phobia when CHC or CHB were compared to controls. Conclusion The present study provides the first evidence of an association between CHC and MDD, diagnosed on the basis of well-defined international criteria. This association is independent of treatment with IFN-alpha and is not influenced by substance or alcohol abuse. By contrast

  15. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  16. The prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii among patients with different chronic pulmonary disorders in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aboualigalehdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP is a chronic fungal infection that caused by P. ji- rovecii. Disease is more prevalent among the HIV-infected patients. The colonization of pneumocystis in human respiratory system is associated with the airway inflammation and obstruction. The current study was conducted to identify the preva- lence of P. jirovecii among the patients with chronic pulmonary disorders in Ahvaz, Iran.Materials and Methods: In the present study, 115 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL specimens were collected from patients. Samples were subjected to Nested-PCR with specific primers. The second PCR products were used for sequencing analysis.Results: Our findings demonstrated that 31(27.0% of samples were positive for P. jirovecii. Nine patients (29% have tuberculosis (TB followed by, 1(3.2% HIV positive and 21(67.7% miscellaneous pulmonary disorders. Our results show that there was no significant differences between sex (male:female ratio, 17:14, TB, HIV and P. jirovecii in BAL samples (P>0.05.Conclusion: The current study is the first report from Ahvaz and it showed a relatively high frequency (27% of P. jirovecii among patients with different pulmonary disorders. In addition Nested-PCR might be reliable technique for diagnosis of P. jirovecii, while the Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS have a low sensitivity, which only two positive patients were identified. Keywords: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; HIV-infected patients; Tuberculosis, Ahvaz-Iran

  17. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and represent an additional burden for adolescents. The interaction between chronic disorders and various development issues is complex and two-way: the disease may affect development, and development may affect the disease. Developmental, psychosocial and family factors are of great importance in the treatment of adolescents with chronic disorders. Chronic disorders affect all aspects of adolescent life, including relations with peers, school, nutrition, learning, traveling, entertainment, choice of occupation, plans for the future. Physicians should keep in mind that chronic diseases and their treatment represent only one aspect of person's life. Adolescents with chronic diseases have other needs as well, personal priorities, social roles and they expect these needs to be recognized and respected. Adolescent health care should be adjusted to the life style of adolescents.

  18. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially affect induction of hippocampal LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sugihara, Toshimichi; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2008-05-23

    Using hippocampal slices, we found that chronic ethanol consumption by rats induces tolerance to the impairing effects of acute ethanol treatment on induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from pair-fed control rats, stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 25 or more pulses at 100 Hz, but not by tetanic stimulation of 15 pulses at 100 Hz, and LTP induction was blocked if the tetanus was delivered in the presence of 8.6 mM ethanol, 1 microM muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist, or 2.5 microM dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. In hippocampal slices from rats chronically fed a liquid diet containing ethanol, a tetanus consisting of 15 pulses at 100 Hz did induce stable LTP, indicating a decrease in the stimulation threshold for inducing LTP. Application of ethanol, muscimol, or AP5 did not affect LTP induction in these cells, suggesting that the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on LTP induction are mediated by a reduction in GABAergic inhibition or an increase in NMDA receptor activity in hippocampal CA1 neurons. PMID:18423576

  19. Identification of rare high-risk copy number variants affecting the dopamine transporter gene in mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise K; Duong, Linh T T; Ingason, Andrés;

    2015-01-01

    rare high-risk variants of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic screening for CNVs affecting SLC6A3 in 761 healthy controls, 672 schizophrenia patients, and 194 patients with bipolar disorder in addition to 253 family members from six large pedigrees affected by mental disorders...... affective disorders. Recently, copy number variants (CNVs) in SLC6A3 have been identified in healthy subjects but so far, the implication of CNVs affecting this gene in psychiatric diseases has not been addressed. AIMS: In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether CNVs affecting SLC6A3 represent...... sizes and two affected several genes in addition to SLC6A3. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that rare high-risk CNVs affecting the gene encoding the dopamine transporter contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and affective disorders....

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  1. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan G. Hofmann; Nicola Petrocchi; James Steinberg; Muyu Lin; Kohki Arimitsu; Shelley Kind; Adriana Mendes; Ulrich Stangier

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potent...

  2. Affective Spectrum Disorders in an Urban Swedish Adult Psychiatric Unit: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scharin, M.; Archer, T.; Hellström, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several studies have found that patients with affective-/anxiety-/stress-related syndromes present overlapping features such as cooccurrence within families and individuals and response to the same type of pharmacological treatment, suggesting that these syndromes share pathogenetic mechanisms. The term affective spectrum disorder (AfSD) has been suggested, emphasizing these commonalities. The expectancy rate, sociodemographic characteristics, and global level of functioning in Af...

  3. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  4. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  5. Systematic review of telemedicine services for patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Laura; Zanaboni, Paolo; Masella, Cristina; Ursini, Niccoló

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review focused on telemedicine services for patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In particular, it addresses (1) which telemedicine applications and related organizational models have been adopted for patients affected by COPD and (2) the impact of these applications. A computerized literature search was performed utilizing MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases, selecting articles published between 1996 and 2008 using the following combination of keywords: [COPD] AND [telemedicine OR telehealth OR ehealth OR telecare] and after exclusions, 40 articles were considered. The adoption of telemedicine inevitably resulted in the reconfiguration of the existing practices and sociomaterial relationships. These organizational changes must be understood and addressed. PMID:19919194

  6. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  7. Psychotic experiences co-occur with sleep problems, negative affect and mental disorders in preadolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    or definitely present. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) was used independently to diagnose DSM-IV-mental disorders. Puberty development and sleep disturbance were self-reported. The associations between PE (any lifetime hallucination and/or delusion) and various mental problems and disorders......-reported mental health difficulties in absence of a diagnosis (31.4%). The risk of delusions increased with onset of puberty. The risk of PE increased with emotional and neurodevelopmental disorders, subthreshold depressive symptoms, sleep problems and lack of sleep, regardless of whether PE were expressed...... as hallucinations and/or delusions. The highest correlations were seen for emotional and multiple disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotic experiences are particularly prevalent in the context of affective dysregulation and sleep disturbance, increase with onset of puberty and represent a trans-diagnostic marker...

  8. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram D Mul

    Full Text Available Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH. MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI, both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+ or pmch(-/- rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/- rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/- rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  9. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; den Boer, Johan; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    2003-01-01

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the cir

  10. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in f...

  11. LIGHT THERAPY FOR SEASONAL AFFECTIVE-DISORDER - THE EFFECTS OF TIMING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; JANSEN, JHC; BEERSMA, DGM; BOUHUYS, AL; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1995-01-01

    Background. Sixty-eight patients with seasonal affective disorder participated in a 10 000-lux light treatment study in which two questions were addressed: do response rates differ when the light is applied at different times of the day and does short-term rank ordering of morning and evening light

  12. Affective Modulation of the Startle Response among Children at High and Low Risk for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Glenn, Catherine R.; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Methods Nine-year-old children (N=144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Results Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation—even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early-emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders. PMID:25913397

  13. Resilience to affective disorders: A comparative validation of two resilience scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Beek, W.O. de; Lataster, J.; Jacobs, N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resilience to affective disorders in rehabilitating patients or in individuals with a severe disability is of special research interest. However, there is no gold standard for measuring resilience. We aimed to test the accuracy of the Dutch translation of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRSn

  14. Atypical Sensory Processing in Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Non-Affected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Atypical sensory processing is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specific profiles have been proposed in different age groups, but no study has focused specifically on adolescents. Identifying traits of ASD that are shared by individuals with ASD and their non-affected family members can shed light on the genetic underpinnings of ASD.…

  15. Sensory Clusters of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Affective Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Cermak, S. A.; Orsmond, G. I.; Tager-Flusberg, H.; Kadlec, M. B.; Carter, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show variability in their sensory behaviors. In this study we identified clusters of toddlers with ASDs who shared sensory profiles and examined differences in affective symptoms across these clusters. Method: Using cluster analysis 170 toddlers with ASDs were grouped based on parent…

  16. Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, Natalie J.; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J.; Cannon, Dara M.; Murray, Robin M.; McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its

  17. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  18. The model of rat lipid metabolism disorder induced by chronic stress accompanying high-fat-diet

    OpenAIRE

    Shaodong Chen; Jing Li; Haihong Zhou; Manting Lin; Yihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop an animal model of Lipid Metabolism Disorder, which conforms to human clinical characteristic. Methods: There were 24 male Wistar rats that were randomly divided into 3 groups with 8 rats in each. They were group A (normal diet), group B (high-fat-diet), group C (chronic stress+ high-fat-diet). Group A was fed with normal diet, while group B and C were fed with high-fat-diet, going on for 55 days. From the 35th day, group B and C received one time of daily chroni...

  19. Complex radionuclide evaluation of structural and functional kidneys disorders of children with chronic obstructive pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children's chronic obstructive pyelonephritis (COPN) is the most important and difficult among microbes-inflammatory kidney's deceases. Kidney's COPN functional disorders are evaluated generally by clinical and laboratory criteria which not always have high informativity. Scintigraphic kidney's examinations with nephrotropic radiopharmaceuticals (NRP) are more informative. Conclusion. The most informative are 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA for initial examinations, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-pyrophosphate for monitoring examinations

  20. Bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529

  1. Neurobiologically informed treatment for adults with anorexia nervosa: a novel approach to a chronic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knatz, Stephanie; Wierenga, Christina E.; Murray, Stuart B.; Hill, Laura; Kaye, Walter H.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe and debilitating disorder with significant medical and psychological sequelae. To date, there are no effective treatments for adults, resulting in high rates of chronicity, morbidity, and mortality. Recent advances in brain imaging research have led to an improved understanding of etiology and specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptoms. Despite this, there are no treatments focused on targeting symptoms using this empirically supported mechanistic understanding of the illness. Updated treatment approaches focused on targeting neurobiological mechanisms underlying core AN symptomatology are necessary to improve treatment out-comes for this population. Neurobiologically Enhanced With Family Eating Disorder Trait Response Treatment (NEW FED TR) is a neurobiologically informed treatment targeting key temperament constructs associated with the illness through the delivery of psychoeducation and skills training to patients and nominated carers. PMID:26246796

  2. The mevalonate pathway as a therapeutic target in the Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Riley, Caroline H

    2007-01-01

    The Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs) polycythaemia vera, essential thrombocytosis and idiopathic myelofibrosis are acquired stem cell disorders, which pathophysiologically are featured by clonal myeloproliferation and accumulation of myeloid cells, the latter being...... consequent to decreased apoptosis. Myelofibrosis and neoangiogenesis in the bone marrow and spleen are the histopathological hallmarks of idiopathic myelofibrosis but may develop in the other diseases as well. In patients with myelofibrosis elevated levels of circulating CD34+ cells are highly characteristic...... being partly explained by a proteolytic bone marrow mileu owing to excessive release of various proteases with ensuing extracellular matrix degradation and constitutive mobilisation of CD34+ cells into the peripheral blood. Thrombohaemorrhagic complications are major clinical problems contributing...

  3. What’s in a name? Compliance, adherence and concordance in chronic psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subho

    2014-01-01

    About half or more of the patients with chronic psychiatric illnesses, either do not take their medications correctly, or completely stop taking them. The problem of poor initial compliance or adherence is often compounded by a continued decline in compliance/adherence over time. The failure to take medicines, adversely affects the outcome of treatment, and places a huge burden of wasted resources on the society. Three terms have been used to describe medication-taking among patients with chr...

  4. Behavioral disorders and low quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Renata C; Soares, Cristina M Bouissou; Diniz, José Silvério S; Lima, Eleonora M; Silva, Jose Maria P; Canhestro, Monica R; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Melo, Carla Cristina D; Dias, Cristiane S; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Correa, Humberto; Oliveira, Eduardo A

    2011-02-01

    Recent years has seen an increasing interest in the quality of life (QOL) of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorders and to assess the health-related QOL (HRQOL) in 136 patients with CKD. To estimate the prevalence of behavior disorders and analyze HRQOL, we used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Pediatric Inventory of Quality of Life (PedsQL) Core Scales as assessment tools for both the patients and caregivers. When compared to healthy controls, the CKD group had significantly lower scores in almost all PedsQL domains. After adjustment, only absence of religion/other religions remained significantly associated with a lower global HRQOL score [odds ratio (OR) 6.2, P=0.009]. Among the parents, two factors remained significantly associated with a lower global HRQOL score: patients' age >10 years (OR 5.4, P=0.033) and absence of religion/other religions (OR 3.2, P=0.038). The CKD group demonstrated a higher proportion of behavioral and emotional disorders in all SDQ domains. There was a negative correlation between the presence of behavior and emotional disorders and HRQOL score (r= -0.552, Plife quality of this pediatric population. PMID:21110044

  5. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  6. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-05-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving. PMID:25915711

  7. Alpha oscillations and their impairment in affective and post-traumatic stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Levy, Jonathan; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Affective and anxiety disorders are debilitating conditions characterized by impairments in cognitive and social functioning. Elucidating their neural underpinnings may assist in improving diagnosis and developing targeted interventions. Neural oscillations are fundamental for brain functioning. Specifically, oscillations in the alpha frequency range (alpha rhythms) are prevalent in the awake, conscious brain and play an important role in supporting perceptual, cognitive, and social processes. We review studies utilizing various alpha power measurements to assess abnormalities in brain functioning in affective and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders. Despite some inconsistencies, studies demonstrate associations between aberrant alpha patterns and these disorders both in response to specific cognitive and emotional tasks and during a resting state. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations and future directions, and underscore the need for much further research on the role of alpha functionality in social contexts. As social dysfunction accompanies most psychiatric conditions, research on alpha's involvement in social processes may provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders. PMID:27435239

  8. Affective-sexual relationships and eating disorders in obesity context - a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Branco, Augusta; Pereira, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    In human intimacy, affective-sexuality (Ambler, 2012) is variable which promotes physical and emotional well-being in intimate relationships, in general (Brigitta, 2004), and in obese, in particular. Apart from obesity as a risk factor for chronic diseases there is clear correlation between obesity and negative emotional states and vice versa (Kadioglu, 2009; Larsen, 2007). Some studies present a correlation between these two variables, showing body image and self-percept...

  9. Differences in 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET perfusion imaging between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early differential diagnosis between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder is difficult but important because both the outcome and the treatment of these two childhood-onset diseases are distinct. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion imaging in distinguishing the two diseases, and characterized their different cerebral perfusion patterns. Twenty-seven children with Tourette's syndrome and 11 with chronic tic disorder (mean age 9.5 and 8.6 years, respectively) underwent brain SPET with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Visual interpretation and semi-quantitative analysis of SPET images were performed. On visual interpretation, 22 of 27 (82%) of the Tourette's syndrome group had lesions characterized by decreased perfusion. The left hemisphere was more frequently involved. None of the children with chronic tic disorder had a visible abnormality. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that, compared with children with chronic tic disorder, children with Tourette's syndrome had significantly lower perfusion in the left lateral temporal area and asymmetric perfusion in the dorsolateral frontal, lateral and medial temporal areas. In conclusion, using the visual approach, brain SPET perfusion imaging is sensitive and specific in differentiating Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder. The perfusion difference between the two groups, demonstrated by semi-quantitative analysis, may be related more to the co-morbidity in Tourette's syndrome than to tics per se. (orig.)

  10. Chronic diseases in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Rončević Nevenka; Stojadinović Aleksandra; Odri Irena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescence is constantly increasing, especially in the last two decades. Adolescence is a period of important changes: body growth and development, sexual development, development of cognitive abilities, change in family relations and between peers, formation of personal identity and personal system of values, making decisions on future occupation etc. Chronic diseases in adolescence. Chronic disorders affect all development issues and repr...

  11. [The White man's burden - a case study caught between bipolar affective disorder and Huntington's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowidi, K; Kunisch, R; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Meißner, D; Hennig-Fast, K; Weindl, A; Förster, S; Neuhann, T M; Falkai, P; Berger, M; Musil, R

    2013-06-01

    We report upon a case of a 55 year old patient with a bipolar affective disorder, presenting herself with a depressive symptomatology in addition to a severe motor perturbation. The main emphasis upon admittance was perfecting and improving her latest medication. Four weeks prior to her stay at our clinic a thorough neurological examination had taken place in terms of an invalidity pension trial which did not result in any diagnostic findings. Therefore a neurological disease seemed at first highly unlikely. Even though the prior testing was negative, the ensuing neurological examination at our clinic resulted in movement disorders very much indicative of Huntington's Disease. A detailed investigation in regards to the particular family history of the patient was positive for Huntington's Disease. However, whether the patient's mother had also been a genetic carrier of Huntington's Disease was still unknown at the time the patient was admitted to our clinic. It was nevertheless discovered that her mother had also suffered from a bipolar affective disorder. A genetic testing that followed the neurological examination of the patient proved positive for Huntington's Disease. Neuro-imaging resulted in a bicaudate-index of 2.4 (the critical value is 1.8). In a clinical psychological test battery the ensuing results were highly uncommon for patients with solely a bipolar affective disorder people. Under the medical regimen of Quetiapine, Citalopram and Tiaprid the patient's mood could be stabilized and there was some improvement of her motor pertubation. PMID:23612984

  12. An insight into light as a chronobiological therapy in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh JM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline M Walsh, Lynsey A Atkinson, Sarah A Corlett, Gurprit S Lall Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK Abstract: The field of chronobiology has vastly expanded over the past few decades, bringing together research from the fields of circadian rhythms and sleep. The importance of the environmental day–night cycle on our health is becoming increasingly evident as we evolve into a 24-hour society. Reducing or changing sleep times against our natural instincts to rest at night has a detrimental impact on our well-being. The mammalian circadian clock, termed "the suprachiasmatic nucleus", is responsible for synchronizing our behavioral and physiological outputs to the environment. It utilizes light transcoded by specialized retinal photoreceptors as its cue to set internal rhythms to be in phase with the light–dark cycle. Misalignment of these outputs results in symptoms such as altered/disturbed sleep patterns, changes in mood, and physical and mental exhaustion – symptoms shared by many affective clinical disorders. Key links to circadian abnormalities have been found in a number of disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder, nonseasonal depression, and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, therapies developed through chronobiological research have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of these conditions. In this article, we discuss the impact of circadian research on the management of affective disorders, giving evidence of how a misaligned circadian system may be a contributor to the symptoms of depression and how moderating circadian rhythms with light therapy benefits patients. Keywords: circadian, depression, SAD, nonseasonal, bipolar

  13. A register based epidemiological description of risk factors and outcomes for major psychiatric disorders, focusing on a comparison between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2006-01-01

    up against other models than the traditional Kraepelinian dichotomization of the disorders. In conclusion, the results suggest that schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder patients have a genetic vulnerability or predisposition towards the disorders (possibly at least overlapping), and......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the results from 3 cohort studies describing risk factors for and mortality of major psychiatric disorders with focus on comparison between schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, the results are evaluated in the context of the dichotomization of...... schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The studies were based on four Danish registers: the Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Cause of Death Register, and the Danish Medical Birth Register. From the registers, large population based cohorts were identified and...

  14. Chronic Exposure to Ambient Levels of Urban Particles Affects Mouse Lung Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauad, Thais; Rivero, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; de Faria Coimbra Lichtenfels, Ana Julia; Guimarães, Eliane Tigre; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Kasahara, David Itiro; de Siqueira Bueno, Heloisa Maria; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on children's lung growth. Objectives: We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to urban levels of particulate matter (PM) on selected phases of mouse lung development. Methods: The exposure occurred in two open-top chambers (filtered and nonfiltered) placed 20 m from a street with heavy traffic in São Paulo, 24 hours/day for 8 months. There was a significant reduction of the levels of PM2.5 inside the filtered chamber (filtered = 2.9 ± 3.0 μg/m3, nonfiltered = 16.8 ± 8.3 μg/m3; P = 0.001). At this exposure site, vehicular sources are the major components of PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5μm). Exposure of the parental generation in the two chambers occurred from the 10th to the 120th days of life. After mating and birth of offspring, a crossover of mothers and pups occurred within the chambers, resulting in four groups of pups: nonexposed, prenatal, postnatal, and pre+postnatal. Offspring were killed at the age of 15 (n = 42) and 90 (n = 35) days; lungs were analyzed by morphometry for surface to volume ratio (as an estimator of alveolization). Pressure–volume curves were performed in the older groups, using a 20-ml plethysmograph. Measurements and Main Results: Mice exposed to PM2.5 pre+postnatally presented a smaller surface to volume ratio when compared with nonexposed animals (P = 0.036). The pre+postnatal group presented reduced inspiratory and expiratory volumes at higher levels of transpulmonary pressure (P = 0.001). There were no differences among prenatal and postnatal exposure and nonexposed animals. Conclusions: Our data provide anatomical and functional support to the concept that chronic exposure to urban PM affects lung growth. PMID:18596224

  15. Clinical significance of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, T; Endo, A; Tajima, F; Ooi, S; Kawasaki, H

    1997-02-01

    Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were determined in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD): 18 with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase (CML in CP), seven with CML in accelerated phase (AP) or blastic crisis (BC), six with polycythemia vera (PV), eight with essential thrombocythemia (ET), one with primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and 50 controls. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) levels were higher in CMPD than in controls (CML in AP or BC, 2693 +/- 694 U/ml, P 2R levels than patients with ET (P 2R levels were positively correlated with WBC count and lactic dehydrogenase in CMPD, and in CML in CP. Serum sIL-2R levels in CMPD were negatively correlated with RBC and platelet counts. Serum sIL-2R levels were significantly lower in patients with CML in CP who showed a cytogenetic response after interferon (IFN) therapy than in those who showed no response (P 2R level reflects the leukocyte growth in CMPD and is useful both for differentiating CML from other CMPD and for predicting the response to IFN therapy in CML. PMID:9071816

  16. Intermittent targeted therapies and stochastic evolution in patients affected by chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, N.; Persano Adorno, D.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.

    2016-05-01

    Front line therapy for the treatment of patients affected by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is based on the administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, namely imatinib or, more recently, axitinib. Although imatinib is highly effective and represents an example of a successful molecular targeted therapy, the appearance of resistance is observed in a proportion of patients, especially those in advanced stages. In this work, we investigate the appearance of resistance in patients affected by CML, by modeling the evolutionary dynamics of cancerous cell populations in a simulated patient treated by an intermittent targeted therapy. We simulate, with the Monte Carlo method, the stochastic evolution of initially healthy cells to leukemic clones, due to genetic mutations and changes in their reproductive behavior. We first present the model and its validation with experimental data by considering a continuous therapy. Then, we investigate how fluctuations in the number of leukemic cells affect patient response to the therapy when the drug is administered with an intermittent time scheduling. Here we show that an intermittent therapy (IT) represents a valid choice in patients with high risk of toxicity, despite an associated delay to the complete restoration of healthy cells. Moreover, a suitably tuned IT can reduce the probability of developing resistance.

  17. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. PMID:26738981

  18. Radiologic alterations of the pelvis in patients affected with chronic renal insufficiency and undergoing periodic dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone alteration in the patients undergoing periodic dialysis represent a frequent and invaliding complication and cause the pattern called uremic osteodystrophy. In this study we have examined 173 pelvic X-rays of 73 patients affected with chronic renal insufficiency and undergoing periodic dialysis. The results indicate the presence of all the lesions characterizing uremic osteodystrophy. Arterial calcifications and osteoporosis are the most frequent patterns; with various incidence, osteomalacia, osteitis fibrosa, osteosclerosis and brown tumors are associated. In this group of patients, who were followed for many years, a non-univocal behavior was observed: next to patters of progressive aggravation, such as vascular calcifications, phases of stabilization/improvement were observed, e.g. in case of brown tumors and osteitis fibrosa

  19. Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne M; Kessing, Lars V; Munkholm, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with affective disorders experience cognitive dysfunction in addition to their affective symptoms. The relationship between subjectively experienced and objectively measured cognitive function is controversial with several studies reporting no correlation between subjective...... and objective deficits. Aims: To investigate whether there is a correlation between subjectively reported and objectively measured cognitive function in patients with affective disorders, and whether subjective complaints predict objectively measured dysfunction. Methods: The study included 45 participants; 15...... with bipolar disorder (BD), 15 with unipolar disorder (UD) and 15 healthy individuals. Participants' subjectively experienced cognitive function and objective cognitive function were assessed with the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ) and the Screen...

  20. A Case of ChroniC Mania in a Patient with A Double Diagnosis of Bipolar I and Delusional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Teles Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the case of a 62 year old woman without any significant personal or family psychiatric history prior to being 52, when after a minor head trauma occurring during worktime, she started showing delusional ideas of hypochondri- ac and somatic content believing to have developed a “problem in the head”. Two years later she was admitted to a Psychiatric inpatient unit and diagnosed with a delusional disorder of the somatic subtype. At discharge she maintained the delusional ideas, which, however, were encapsulated from her personality and quiescent, while exhibiting no insight into her psychopatho- logical state. Very shortly thereafter, at follow-up in the outpatient clinic, she stopped all drug therapy (oral antipsychotic drugs. One year later, she was readmitted to the inpatient unit upon worsening of the hypochondriac and somatic delusional ideas. The prescribed medication was switched to depot injection, which she also stopped shortly thereafter. Three years later, being 58 years of age, she began to show manic symptoms of crescendo severity (grandiose delusion-like ideas, elated mood, overactivity, disinhibition, acceleration of thinking, reduced need for sleep and increased pres- sure of speech. This clinical condition gets worse, with persecutory delusional ideas and complex auditory hallucinations and she was admitted to the inpatient unit once more. This time she presents a full manic episode and a Bipolar I affective disorder diagnosis was made. She had a hyperthymic pre-morbid temperament. For the next 4 years, the patient remained somewhat stable with elation of mood, grandiose ideas, increased pressure of speech, eccen- tric clothing and lack of insight to her psychopathological state. Since the beginning of follow up, the patient always kept poor treatment compliance. The authors discuss the evolution and clinical significance of a particular and infrequent type of Bipolar Disorder, chronic mania.

  1. Reciprocal effects of stable and temporary components of neuroticism and affective disorders : Results of a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Penelo, E.; de Rooij, M.; Penninx, B. W.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies show that neuroticism is strongly associated with affective disorders. We investigated whether neuroticism and affective disorders mutually reinforce each other over time, setting off a potential downward spiral. Method A total of 2981 adults aged 18-65 years, cons

  2. INFLUENCE OF BRONCHOLYTIC THERAPY ON VENTRICULAR RHYTHM DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Kh. Shugushev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate effects of broncholytic therapy on ventricular rhythm disorders and high resolution electrocardiogram indices in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Material and methods. 144 patients (54 women and 90 men; aged 47,1±1,5 y.o. with COPD and 35 patients of control group without respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (23 men and 12 women; aged 42,4±2,8 y.o. were examined. 24-hour ECG monitoring and high resolution ECG with time and spectral-time mapping of ventricular ECG complex were performed in patients additionally to routine examination.Results. Reduction of ventricular rhythm disorders rate was detected during therapy with extended-release theophylline or salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with moderate and severe COPD. This effect was more significant for salmeterol/fluticasone treatment. Treatment with extended-release theophylline led to increase of a number of ventricular extra systoles in patients with severe COPD. Salmeterol/fluticasone treatment did not influence number of ventricular extrasystoles. Broncholytic therapy had positive influence on processes of ventricular depolarization. It was shown by high resolution ECG indicators improvement and by late ventricular potential rate reduction.Conclusion. Salmeterol/fluticasone combination is more reasonable than extended-release theophylline for broncholytic therapy in patients with severe COPD and ventricular rhythm disorders.

  3. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Ihlebæk; Arit Ødegaard; John Vikne; Hege R. Eriksen; Even Lærum

    2009-01-01

     Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC) in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II) patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014). Resul...

  4. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not aff...

  5. Can different affect focus in early stages of therapy predict outcome for different personality disorders within cluster C?

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study compared how specific affect focuses in early stages of treatment predict outcome (SCL-90) for specific cluster C personality disorders. Method: The sample consisted of patients with cluster C personality disorders from a randomized controlled trial comparing 40-sessions of short-term dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy. Thirty-one patients had an avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), 17 patients had an obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and 10...

  6. STUDY ON EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN EUTHYMIC PHASE OF PATIENTS WITH BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijin Ammanamveetil Ummar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although classically conceptualised as a disorder of mood, a consensus is emerging that patients with bipolar disorder show cognitive deficits both during the acute phase of illness and during remission (Savitz et al., 2005. The cognitive dysfunction seen in bipolar disorder may also be a key to longterm disability, which in turn is likely to adversely affect psychosocial functioning, insight and treatment adherence. AIM To assess the executive functions in euthymic phase of bipolar affective disorder subjects and study the relationship between cognitive functions and illness variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 BPAD patients were assessed in the euthymic phase for executive dysfunction on four tests- verbal fluency, Trail making tests, Stroop colour word tests and Wisconsin card sorting tests and compared with controls. An intragroup analysis was then done to determine the effect of illness variables. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the bipolar group when compared to normal controls. On analysing the relation of executive dysfunction with illness variables, only number of episodes had a significant effect, that too on a subtest of Stroop. CONCLUSION The presence of executive dysfunction may be a trait marker of bipolar illness and its relation with progression of illness need to be assessed.

  7. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  8. Specificities of defense mechanisms in bipolar affective disorder: relations with symptoms and therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Perry, J Christopher; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-09-01

    Defense mechanisms as a central notion of psychoanalysis have inspired various levels of interest in research in psychotherapy and psychopathology. Defense specificities have only recently been investigated systematically with regard to several clinical diagnoses, such as affective and personality disorders. For the present study, 30 inpatients diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder I (BD) were interviewed. An observer-rater method, the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales (DMRS), applied to session-transcripts, of assessment of defenses was used. A matched, nonclinical control group was introduced. Defense specificities in BD encompass a set of 5 immature defenses, of which omnipotence is linked with symptom level. The level of the therapeutic alliance is predicted by mature defenses. These results are discussed with regard to the psychological vulnerability of BD, and treatment implications for psychodynamic psychotherapy with such challenging patients are evoked. PMID:19752647

  9. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K.;

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present da...... exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract....

  10. White matter abnormalities: Insights into the pathophysiology of major affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Gianluca; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) has been commonly associated with poor outcome in subjects with major affective disorders. Unfortunately, WMHs may be frequently confounded by the use of psychoactive medications and duration of illness. Although findings from the current literature are quite conflicting, we proposed that subjects with WMHs may be at higher suicidal risk when compared to other subgroups without. Based on the Fazekas modified scale, the severity of WMHs may ...

  11. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Beard John R; Galea Sandro; Vlahov David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a...

  12. High Prevalence of Affective Disorders among Adolescents Living in Rural Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Langhaug, Lisa F.; Pascoe, Sophie J.; Mavhu, Webster; Woelk, Godfrey; Sherr, Lorraine; Hayes, Richard J; Frances M Cowan

    2010-01-01

    Poor mental health accounts for considerable disease burden among young people globally. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of affective disorders among rural Zimbabwean youth in 2006. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among 1495 Zimbabwean youth aged 15–23 (median 18) from 12 rural communities in three provinces in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous screening tool for affectiv...

  13. Sodium Valproate induced priapism in an adult with bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetank Bansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is defined as a prolonged and persistent, painful erection of the penis without sexual stimulation or arousal. There have been a few case report of priapism resulting from the use of antipsychotics. In our case, a 48-year-old male patient with a bipolar affective disorder was experiencing recurrent priapism with sodium valproate. The condition was found to resolve on stopping sodium valproate. There are no known case reports of similar complication with sodium valproate alone.

  14. Correction of affective and cognitive disorders in epileptic patients and the value of lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Veniaminovich Kalinin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper characterizes an association of cognitive and affective disorders in epilepsy, which may be a cause of worse quality of life, social dysadaptation, and disability. In this connection, it is imperative to choose correct antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Groups of AEDs with different modes of action are considered, among which, lamotrigine that is noted for its unique profile of not only antiepileptic, but also psychotropic properties is given much attention.

  15. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  16. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers; Jill eHolley; Mary eDahlgren; Atilla eGonenc; Deborah eYurgelun-Todd; Staci eGruber

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to...

  17. Platelet [3H]imipramine binding in affective disorders: trait versus state characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet [3H]imipramine binding (Bmax) was determined in 67 patients with major affective illness (33 euthymic bipolar, 34 depressed unipolar) and 58 normal control subjects. Bipolar patients had significantly lower Bmax values than did control subjects. The mean Bmax in the unipolar patients was lower than in the control subjects, but the difference was not statistically significant. Dissociation constant (Kd) values did not distinguish patients in either category from control subjects. The significantly lower Bmax in euthymic bipolar patients and the apparent state independence of Bmax in some but not all unipolar patients suggest that platelet imipramine binding may be a trait marker in a subset of affective disorders

  18. The reliability of self-assessment of affective state in different phases of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2014-05-01

    Some studies have indicated that the capacity of self-assessment of affective state is more compromised during mania than during depression. In the present study, we investigated whether the reliability of self-assessment in bipolar disorder varies as a function of actual affective state (i.e., euthymia, mania, or depression). Sixty-five patients with a diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar disorder were evaluated with regard to the occurrence of an affective syndrome using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. In parallel, we applied the Analog Visual Mood Scale, a self-assessment tool to evaluate mood changes. The same individual prospectively completed the self-assessment scale in different affective states. During depression, the patients' evaluation was significantly different from when they were in manic or euthymic mood states. However, when in mania, the patients evaluated their mood state similarly to when they were euthymic. The bipolar patients in mania but not in depression did not reliably evaluate themselves with regard to their affective state. PMID:24727726

  19. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD: Role of lamotrigine augmentation to anti-depressant medication in winter depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic options have been evaluated and tried for seasonal affective disorder (SAD including bright light therapy (BLT, anti-depressants, beta-blockers and psychotherapy, but the data supporting use of mood-stabilizing agents is just handful in spite of this condition being understood most frequently to be associated with bipolar affective disorder II (BPAD II. So we planned to study role of Lamotrigine (Mood stabilizing agent in SAD. Materials and Methods: 30 patients of SAD who were prescribed lamotrigine in addition to antidepressant medications for a minimum of 8 weeks and were assessed for severity using HAM-D were selected retrospectively from the hospital records for this study. HAM-D scores at 2, 4 and 8 weeks were compared to baseline scores. Statistics Analysis: Single tailed t-test was used to study the difference of means to assess the therapeutic response and pre/post analysis of change. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Though no significant difference was seen in HAM-D Scores at 2 weeks of treatment compared to baseline, but results were statistically significant at 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with lamotrigine augmentation of antidepressant medications. Conclusion: We conclude that lamotrigine augmentation was found to be effective treatment strategy for managing winter depression phase of Seasonal Affective Disorder.

  20. The relationship between chronic whiplash-associated disorder and posttraumatic stress: attachment-anxiety may be a vulnerability factor

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Elklit, Ask; Vase, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Background: In more than 90% of whiplash accidents a good explanation regarding the association between trauma mechanism, organic pathology, and persistent symptoms has failed to be provided. Objective: We predicted that the severity of chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), measured as number of whiplash symptoms, pain duration, pain-related disability, and degree of somatisation would be associated with the number of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD). Secondly, we expected...

  1. Costs of Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Leah S. Kleinman; Ana Lowin; Emuella Flood; Gian Gandhi; Eric Edgell; Revicki, Dennis A

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic affective disorder that causes significant economic burden to patients, families and society. It has a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1.3%. Bipolar disorder is characterised by recurrent mania or hypomania and depressive episodes that cause impairments in functioning and health-related quality of life. Patients require acute and maintenance therapy delivered via inpatient and outpatient treatment. Patients with bipolar disorder often have contact with the s...

  2. Severity, affect, family and environment (safe approach to evaluate chronic pelvic pain in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa Leena

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pelvic pain is common in adolescent girls in day-to-day practice. Severity, Affect, Family and Environment (SAFE is a recent interview strategy to approach these patients and their families.. AIM: 1. To find the prevalence of pelvic pain in adolescent girls. 2. To find out the feasibility and acceptability of ′SAFE′ approach in evaluating chronic pelvic pain in adolescent girls. SETTINGS & DESIGN: 200 adolescent girls aged 13-23 years were selected at random from school and colleges nearby hospital campus. METHOD: A questionnaire method was adopted. Adolescent girls selected were divided into two groups, group I (with pain and group II (without pain. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: It was performed using chi-square and Fischer tests with significance of p value being taken at 0.05. RESULTS: Out of 200 adolescent girls selected for interview, prevalence of pelvic pain was found to be 37.0%. Dysmenorrhoea was also found to have significant relationship with pelvic pain. Depression and anxiety, school absences and loss of weight were found to have significant association with pain. Pelvic pain was found to be more in adolescent girls with large family size (> 4 members, single parent, both parents working, ongoing marital problems at home and was less reported when there was good parent - child communication about sex and when the teenager was well prepared for menarche by the parents and the association with the above mentioned factors was found to be significant. CONCLUSION: ′SAFE′ approach contributes in identifying health problems in adolescent girls with chronic pelvic pain.

  3. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  4. Do SF-36 summary scores work as outcome measures in chronic functional disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per

    Background SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summaries (PCS and MCS) are increasingly used as main measures of outcome in clinical trials. Yet, studies in different patient populations have demonstrated serious problems in interpreting these summary scores. We are conducting a randomised contro...... with interacting physical and mental health problems. One may benefit from using other scoring methods such as the RAND-36 HSI to validate the results.......Background SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summaries (PCS and MCS) are increasingly used as main measures of outcome in clinical trials. Yet, studies in different patient populations have demonstrated serious problems in interpreting these summary scores. We are conducting a randomised...... controlled trial on cognitive behavioural therapy in patients with severe and chronic functional disorders. Based on a pilot study and baseline data, we have assessed the performance of the summary scores. Aim To demonstrate problems in the orthogonal factor solution for PCS and MCS and to assess other...

  5. [Mucolytics in acute and chronic respiratory tract disorders. I. Pathophysiology and mechanisms of action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Mucus hypersecretion is a cardinal sign of both acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. Normally, mucus protects respiratory tract, but its overproduction leads to airway obstruction and promotes bacterial colonization. In the first part of our review we outlined the possible factors responsible for mucus hypersecretion and clinical consequences of this process. Mucolytic agents such as Ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine are able to alter the secretion of mucus and its physical properties which results in improvement of mucociliary clearance. Mechanisms of action and indications for use of mucolytics are presented. Mucolytics have been shown to have a role in improving lung functions and patients' quality of life. Undoubtedly they are useful as an adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract disorders. PMID:12053600

  6. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  7. Affective systems induce formal thought disorder in early-stage psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Breier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Although formal thought disorder (FTD) has been described since early conceptualizations of psychosis, its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests FTD may be influenced by affective and cognitive systems; however, few have examined these relationships-with none focusing on early-stage psychosis (EP). In this study, positive FTD and speech production were measured in sex- and race-matched EP (n = 19) and healthy control (n = 19) groups by assessing "reactivity"-a change in experimental compared with baseline conditions-across baseline, affective, and cognitive conditions. Relationships with functioning were also examined within each group. Three key findings emerged: (a) the EP group displayed large differences in positive FTD and speech production, (b) those with EP exhibited affective reactivity for positive FTD, and (c) positive FTD and affective reactivity were linked with poor real-world functioning in EP and these relationships did not considerably change when controlling for positive symptom (e.g., delusions, hallucinations) severity. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that affective, but not cognitive, systems play a critical role in positive FTD. Affective reactivity, in particular, may aid in predicting those with EP who go on to develop serious social impairments. Future work should focus on whether affective systems differentially influence those at separate points on the psychosis-spectrum in an effort to establish evidence-based treatments for FTD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26999283

  8. The Relationship Between Chronic Inflammation and Glucidic-Lipidic Profile Disorders in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarța I.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic inflammation has a proven role in atherogenesis, lipid profile parameters being related to cytokine production. In kidney transplant recipients, interleukin 6 (IL-6 is significantly associated with graft-related outcomes and also alterations of cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammation and glucidic-lipidic metabolism disorders in a group of patients with kidney transplantation as renal replacement therapy. Methods: A prospective observational study which enrolled thirtysix non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients was conducted in the Nephrology and Peritoneal Dialysis Department, County Clinic Hospital of Tirgu Mures. The study group was divided as following: recipients with serum IL-6 concentration higher than 3.8 pg/ml (group A and IL-6 within the normal range (group B. Results: Allograft recipients with higher serum IL-6 had significant higher erytrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR, p=0.0067. Patients with over-the-range levels of IL-6 had significant higher levels of serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol respectively (p=0.0242 and p=0.0081. Serum Apo-B was also significant higher in Group A than Group B. Protein excretion was significant higher in patients from group A (p=0.0013. No statistical significant relationship could be proven between elevated levels of IL-6 and hbA1c, insulin and glycosuria disturbances in the two groups. Also, we found no statistical significant association between resistivity and pulsatility indices (both hilum and intragraft or carotid intima media thickness. Conclusion: Serum interleukin 6 is related to lipid profile disorders and less to glucidic metabolism anomalies in non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

  9. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early foetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons’ expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or ‘expressive art’ therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion.

  10. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cognitive development and language learning in the second or third year, which lead to a diagnosis of ASD. The early signs relate to abnormalities that have been found in brain stem systems and cerebellum in the embryo or early fetal stage, before the cerebral neocortex is functional, and they have clear consequences in infancy when neocortical systems are intensively elaborated. We propose, with evidence of the disturbances of posture, locomotion and prospective motor control in children with autism, as well as of their facial expression of interest and affect, and attention to other persons' expressions, that examination of the psychobiology of motor affective disorders, rather than later developing cognitive or linguistic ones, may facilitate early diagnosis. Research in this area may also explain how intense interaction, imitation or "expressive art" therapies, which respond intimately with motor activities, are effective at later stages. Exceptional talents of some autistic people may be acquired compensations for basic problems with expectant self-regulations of movement, attention and emotion. PMID:23882192

  11. Chronic inflammation and estradiol interact through MAPK activation to affect TMJ nociceptive processing by trigeminal caudalis neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiro, A.; Okamoto, K.; Bereiter, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway plays a key role in mediating estrogen actions in the brain and neuronal sensitization during inflammation. Estrogen status is a risk factor in chronic temporomandibular muscle/joint disorders (TMJD); however, the basis for this relationship is not known. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen status acts through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway to alter TMJ nociceptive processing. Single TMJ-r...

  12. Antihypertensive therapy in patients on chronic lithium treatment for bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Reghin, Francesco; Padrini, Roberto; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic conditions treated with lithium, which exerts deleterious effects on the kidney, among which nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, tubular acidosis and ultimately chronic kidney disease. Conversely, drugs that alter renal function can modify its serum levels and lead to the potentially fatal lithium intoxication. A search in the main library databases from 1975 to 2015 to identify interactions between antihypertensive drugs and lithium using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome strategy provided only 30 reports of lithium intoxication. A regression analysis showed that the severity of lithium intoxication was significantly predicted by female, age, and use of certain classes of antihypertensive agents. A model including certain albeit not all diuretics and/or inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, but not age, serum lithium or creatinine levels at baseline and/or on admission to the hospital, predicted lithium toxicity. The true incidence of lithium intoxication is unknown but probably low, albeit underestimated. Nonetheless, in patients treated with lithium, monitoring of the serum lithium levels and clinical conditions is mandatory after the introduction of antihypertensive drugs, as diuretics and renin-aldosterone system inhibitors. PMID:26630207

  13. Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonnard, Marie; Gosseries, Olivia; Demertzi, Athena; Lugo, Zulay; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Habbal, Dina; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Summary Zolpidem has been reported as an “awakening drug” in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective open-label study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients. PMID:24598393

  14. Anatomical changes within the medullary dorsal horn in chronic temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, S L; Gustin, S M; Macey, P M; Peck, C C; Murray, G M; Henderson, L A

    2015-08-15

    Accumulated evidence from experimental animal models suggests that neuroplastic changes at the dorsal horn are critical for the maintenance of various chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. However, to date, no study has specifically investigated whether neuroplastic changes also occur at this level in humans. Using brain imaging techniques, we sought to determine whether anatomical changes were present in the medullary dorsal horn (spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis) in subjects with the chronic musculoskeletal pain. In twenty-two subjects with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and forty pain-free controls voxel based morphometry of T1-weighted anatomical images and diffusion tensor images were used to assess regional grey matter volume and microstructural changes within the brainstem and, in addition, the integrity of ascending pain pathways. Voxel based morphometry revealed significant regional grey matter volume decreases in the medullary dorsal horn, in conjunction with alterations in diffusivity properties, namely an increase in mean diffusivity, in TMD subjects. Volumetric and mean diffusivity changes also occurred in TMD subjects in regions of the descending pain modulation system, including the midbrain periaqueductal grey matter and nucleus raphe magnus. Finally, tractography revealed altered diffusivity properties, namely decreased fractional anisotropy, in the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve, the spinal trigeminal tract and the ventral trigeminothalamic tracts of TMD subjects. These data reveal that chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans is associated with discrete alterations in the anatomy of the medullary dorsal horn, as well as its afferent and efferent projections. These neural changes may be critical for the maintenance of pathological pain. PMID:25979666

  15. Bipolar affective disorders: Assessment of functional brain changes by means of Tc99m HMPAO neurospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affective Bipolar Disorder (ABD) is observed in all countries of the world with a prevalence fluctuating between 3 and 6.5%. The nature of its clinical manifestations and clinical evolution constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge even for the most experienced clinician. We have analysed by means of NeuroSPECT the neuro functional cortical and subcortical expression of a cohort of 44 eutimic patients with DSM IV criteria compatible with the diagnosis of ABD. The results were expressed in functional 3 dimensional images normalized for volume and compared to a normal data base matched for the age of the patient. Quantitative analyses considered the maximal regional perfusion in each Brodmann area with behavioral significance. The results were expressed in standard deviations with respect to the control population and we considered these findings as a continual variable susceptible to statistical analyses. In the cortex we report the presence of increased perfusion in subregions of areas 8, 9 and 10 of Brodmann (executive area) also in area 7 of Brodmann (posterior parietal lobe). We describe also relative decreased perfusion in areas 24 and 32 (internal frontal lobe), area 25 (affective area), area 21, 22 and 38 (temporal lobe). In subcortical structures we report increased perfusion in thalamus, caudate, and lentiform nucleous with values superior to 3 standard deviations above the normal controls. These findings can constitute neurofunctional markers of ABD that can be used as a clinical diagnostic tool. These findings suggest the participation of cortical/subcortical circuits as the probable etiologic substratum in affective bipolar disorders. Keys: Affective Bipolar Disorders (Au)

  16. Prevention of Congenital Disorders and Care of Affected Children: A Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Howson, Christopher P; Walraven, Gijs; Armstrong, Robert W; Blencowe, Hannah K; Christianson, Arnold L; Kent, Alastair; Malherbe, Helen; Murray, Jeffrey C; Padilla, Carmencita D; Walani, Salimah R

    2016-08-01

    As the Sustainable Development Goals are adopted by United Nations member states, children with congenital disorders remain left behind in policies, programs, research, and funding. Although this finding was recognized by the creation and endorsement of the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution in 2010 calling on United Nations member states to strengthen prevention of congenital disorders and the improvement of care of those affected, there has been little to no action since then. The Sustainable Development Goals call for the global health and development community to focus first and foremost on the most vulnerable and those left behind in the Millennium Development Goal era. To maximize the opportunity for every woman and couple to have a healthy child and to reduce the mortality and severe disability associated with potentially avoidable congenital disorders and their consequences for the children affected, their families and communities, and national health care systems, we propose priority measures that should be taken urgently to address this issue. PMID:27366873

  17. Impairment and Coping in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comparative Study with Other Paediatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garralda, M. Elena; Rangel, Luiza

    2004-01-01

    Background: Functional impairment is a key feature of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) of childhood. Aim: To compare impairment, illness attitudes and coping mechanisms in childhood CFS and in other paediatric disorders. Method: Participants were 28 children and adolescents with CFS, 30 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 27 with emotional…

  18. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, C; Van den Brink, W; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large r

  19. The water maze paradigm in experimental studies of chronic cognitive disorders: Theory, protocols, analysis, and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Minesh; Xu, Josie; Sakic, Boris

    2016-09-01

    An instrumental step in assessing the validity of animal models of chronic cognitive disorders is to document disease-related deficits in learning/memory capacity. The water maze (WM) is a popular paradigm because of its low cost, relatively simple protocol and short procedure time. Despite being broadly accepted as a spatial learning task, inference of generalized, bona fide "cognitive" dysfunction can be challenging because task accomplishment is also reliant on non-cognitive processes. We review theoretical background, testing procedures, confounding factors, as well as approaches to data analysis and interpretation. We also describe an extended protocol that has proven useful in detecting early performance deficits in murine models of neuropsychiatric lupus and Alzheimer's disease. Lastly, we highlight the need for standardization of inferential criteria on "cognitive" dysfunction in experimental rodents and exclusion of preparations of a limited scientific merit. A deeper appreciation for the multifactorial nature of performance in WM may also help to reveal other deficits that herald the onset of neurodegenerative brain disorders. PMID:27229758

  20. Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency and related venous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Om P

    2014-03-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological profile of Pycnogenol in the light of its use in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and related venous disorders such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), post-thrombotic syndrome, long haul air-travel-related leg oedema, venous ulcers and acute haemorrhoids. Pycnogenol is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilator activities, antithrombotic effects and collagen stabilizing properties make it uniquely able to target the multi facet pathophysiology of CVI and related venous disorders. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce oedema of the legs in CVI, reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis during long haul flights and enhance the healing of venous ulcers and haemorrhoidal episodes by topical application and/or oral administration. This review highlights clinical research findings on the safety, compliance and efficacy of Pycnogenol, including its use in combination products. PMID:23775628

  1. Elevated [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake in chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder suggests persistent musculoskeletal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Fredrikson, Mats; Gordh, Torsten; Söderlund, Anne; Långström, Bengt; Engler, Henry

    2011-01-01

    There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer (11)C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain after a rear impact car accident (Whiplash Associated Disorder grade II) and 14 healthy controls were investigated. Patients displayed significantly elevated tracer uptake in the neck, particularly in regions around the spineous process of the second cervical vertebra. This suggests that whiplash patients have signs of local persistent peripheral tissue inflammation, which may potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker. The present investigation demonstrates that painful processes in the periphery can be objectively visualized and quantified with PET and that (11)C-D-deprenyl is a promising tracer for these purposes. PMID:21541010

  2. Analysis of Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders Based on the Latest Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svechtarov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of the most common diagnoses observed in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders, based on the new diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD adopted in 2014. The previous Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD adopted in 1992, consisted of three main groups of eight diagnostic subgroups and is currently transformed into two main groups and twelve subgroups, respectively. All subgroups correspond to the nomenclature of the ICD-10. The new clinical diagnostic indices are also modified. The analysis showed a prevalence of Pain-Related TMD compared with that of intra-articular disorders in ratio 57.89% to 42.10%. In Pain-Related TMD arthralgia was represented in 55% of cases; local myalgia - in 12%, myofascial pain - in 18%, myofascial pain with referral - in 14%, headache attributed to TMD - in 1%. In Intra-articular TMD disc displacement with reduction was found in 23% of the cases, disc displacement with reduction with intermittent locking - in 3%, disc displacement without reduction with limited opening - in 25%, disc displacement without reduction and without limited opening - in 8%. Degenerative diseases were found in 14.28%, and hypermobility and subluxations - in 26.98%. These analyzes differ and can only partly be compared with previous analyzes based on RDC system. The changes in the diagnostic criteria require new clinical studies in order to refine the picture of temporomandibular pathology in accordance with the modern views on the matter.

  3. Elevated [11C]-D-deprenyl uptake in chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder suggests persistent musculoskeletal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer (11C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain after a rear impact car accident (Whiplash Associated Disorder grade II and 14 healthy controls were investigated. Patients displayed significantly elevated tracer uptake in the neck, particularly in regions around the spineous process of the second cervical vertebra. This suggests that whiplash patients have signs of local persistent peripheral tissue inflammation, which may potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker. The present investigation demonstrates that painful processes in the periphery can be objectively visualized and quantified with PET and that (11C-D-deprenyl is a promising tracer for these purposes.

  4. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  5. Affect Regulation and Purging: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study in Purging Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that affect may play an important role in the propensity to purge among women with Purging Disorder (PD). However, prior work has been constrained to cross-sectional or laboratory designs which impact temporal interpretations and ecological validity. This study examined the role of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in triggering and maintaining purging in PD using ecological momentary assessment. Women with PD (N=24) made multiple daily ratings of affect and behavior for two weeks. Multilevel models examined associations between affect and purging at different levels of analysis, including a novel analytic approach to address the specificity of changes in affect relative to purging behavior by comparing trajectories of change on purge versus non-purge days. For trajectories of affect over time, NA increased before purging and decreased following purging on purge days; however, only the decrease in NA following purging was significantly different from the trajectory of NA on non-purge days. Conversely, PA failed to increase before purging on purge days compared to a matched time-point on non-purge days. These findings suggest unique roles of PA in triggering and NA in maintaining purging in PD and support models in which purging functions to regulate affect. For comparisons of ratings before and after purging, NA increased and PA decreased after purging, highlighting how different analytic strategies produce different findings requiring integration into affect regulation models. These data provide insight into why women with PD purge after consuming normal amounts of food, a crucial first step for developing effective interventions. PMID:25688426

  6. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2016-05-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27022677

  7. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Andreotti, F.; Di Ricco, G.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Biagini, A.; Milne, E.N.; Giuntini, C.

    1988-07-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions.

  8. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions

  9. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  10. Impairments in Object Relations and Chronicity of Suicidal Behavior in Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katie C; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Wong, Philip S; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer; Tillman, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    While studies have demonstrated connections between impairments in object relations and self-destructive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), few have investigated whether these impairments relate to actual suicidal behaviors. The current study utilized the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Method to investigate object relational functioning and suicidal behaviors in 131 residential treatment patients. Cognitive but not affective aspects of internalized representations predicted past suicidal behavior in BPD subjects; no relationships were found between quality of object representations and suicide in other-PD subjects. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed. PMID:25710732

  11. Prediction of chronic disability in work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymp James F

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders is an increasingly serious societal problem. Although most injured workers return quickly to work, a substantial number do not. The costs of chronic disability to the injured worker, his or her family, employers, and society are enormous. A means of accurate early identification of injured workers at risk for chronic disability could enable these individuals to be targeted for early intervention to promote return to work and normal functioning. The purpose of this study is to develop statistical models that accurately predict chronic work disability from data obtained from administrative databases and worker interviews soon after a work injury. Based on these models, we will develop a brief instrument that could be administered in medical or workers' compensation settings to screen injured workers for chronic disability risk. Methods This is a population-based, prospective study. The study population consists of workers who file claims for work-related back injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS in Washington State. The Washington State Department of Labor and Industries claims database is reviewed weekly to identify workers with new claims for work-related back injuries and CTS, and these workers are telephoned and invited to participate. Workers who enroll complete a computer-assisted telephone interview at baseline and one year later. The baseline interview assesses sociodemographic, employment-related, biomedical/health care, legal, and psychosocial risk factors. The follow-up interview assesses pain, disability, and work status. The primary outcome is duration of work disability over the year after claim submission, as assessed by administrative data. Secondary outcomes include work disability status at one year, as assessed by both self-report and work disability compensation status (administrative records. A sample size of 1,800 workers with back

  12. Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS)-Induced Anxiety and Related Mood Disorders in a Zebrafish Model: Altered Brain Proteome Profile Implicates Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Sumana Chakravarty; Bommana R Reddy; Sudhakar, Sreesha R.; Sandeep Saxena; Tapatee Das; Vuppalapaty Meghah; Cherukuvada V Brahmendra Swamy; Arvind Kumar; Idris, Mohammed M.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are major chronic mood disorders, and the etiopathology for each appears to be repeated exposure to diverse unpredictable stress factors. Most of the studies on anxiety and related mood disorders are performed in rodents, and a good model is chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). In this study, we have attempted to understand the molecular basis of the neuroglial and behavioral changes underlying CUS-induced mood disorders in the simplest vertebrate model, the zebrafish, D...

  13. The FNS-based analyzing the EEG to diagnose the bipolar affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panischev, Yu; Panischeva, S. N.; Demin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Here we demonstrate a capability of method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) in analyzing the manifestation bipolar affective disorder (BAD) in EEG. Generally EEG from BAD patient does not show the visual differences from healthy EEG. Analyzing the behavior of FNS-parameters and the structure of 3D-cross correlators allows to discover the differential characteristics of BAD. The cerebral cortex electric activity of BAD patients have a specific collective dynamics and configuration of the FNS-characteristics in comparison with healthy subjects.

  14. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    = 70.393; P > 0.001 and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002.Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders.Keywords: children, functional articulation disorders, sensory integration dysfunction, speech therapy, efficacy

  15. Genetic adaptation of the human circadian clock to day-length latitudinal variations and relevance for affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Forni, D; Pozzoli, U; R. Cagliani; C. Tresoldi; G. Menozzi; Riva, S; F. Guerini; Comi, G; Bolognesi, E; Bresolin, N.; Clerici, M.; Sironi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The temporal coordination of biological processes into daily cycles is a common feature of most living organisms. In humans, disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly observed in psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and autism. Light therapy is the most effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and circadian-related treatments sustain antidepressant response in bipolar disorder patients. Day/night cycles represent a major circadian...

  16. Predicting chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in bereaved relatives: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Tina E; Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Palic, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to identify predicative risk factors for PTSD in bereaved people after a terminal illness. Fifty-four persons (mean age 60 years) participated in the study. Demographic, peritraumatic, and psychosocial factors were assessed in order to identify variables that affected PTSD severity. Six months after the loss, 21.6 % of the subjects had PTSD, an 8.6 % decrease from PTSD measured one month after the loss. Intake of medicine after the loss, place of death, not having a close intimate, negative affectivity, and the A2 criterion predicted 65 % of PTSD severity. A considerable number of the bereaved were still at great risk for developing PTSD six months after loss. PMID:23687214

  17. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains. PMID:27086230

  18. The Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale (BADDS – a dimensional scale for rating lifetime psychopathology in Bipolar spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current operational diagnostic systems have substantial limitations for lifetime diagnostic classification of bipolar spectrum disorders. Issues include: (1 It is difficult to operationalize the integration of diverse episodes of psychopathology, (2 Hierarchies lead to loss of information, (3 Boundaries between diagnostic categories are often arbitrary, (4 Boundaries between categories usually require a major element of subjective interpretation, (5 Available diagnostic categories are relatively unhelpful in distinguishing severity, (6 "Not Otherwise Specified (NOS" categories are highly heterogeneous, (7 Subclinical cases are not accommodated usefully within the current diagnostic categories. This latter limitation is particularly pertinent in the context of the increasing evidence for the existence of a broader bipolar spectrum than has been acknowledged within existing classifications. Method We have developed a numerical rating system, the Bipolar Affective Disorder Dimension Scale, BADDS, that can be used as an adjunct to conventional best-estimate lifetime diagnostic procedures. The scale definitions were informed by (a the current concepts of mood syndrome recognized within DSMIV and ICD10, (b the literature regarding severity of episodes, and (c our own clinical experience. We undertook an iterative process in which we initially agreed scale definitions, piloted their use on sets of cases and made modifications to improve utility and reliability. Results BADDS has four dimensions, each rated as an integer on a 0 – 100 scale, that measure four key domains of lifetime psychopathology: Mania (M, Depression (D, Psychosis (P and Incongruence (I. In our experience it is easy to learn, straightforward to use, has excellent inter-rater reliability and retains the key information required to make diagnoses according to DSMIV and ICD10. Conclusions Use of BADDS as an adjunct to conventional categorical diagnosis provides a

  19. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  20. A survey of children affected by ectomermal dysplasia syndromes shows an increased prevalence of atopic disorders and immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are rare genetic disorders that affect the development of tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Studies and anecdotal experience have indicated that atopic disorders (AD) and immune deficiencies (ID) may be associated with ED in children. Some ED genotypes ...

  1. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundLight severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).AimsTo compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception.MethodThis cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ).ResultsRespondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence of SAD...... compared with full sight controls, P<0.001. Light perception respondents were more vulnerable to seasonal change than both full sight and no light perception respondents.ConclusionsThe study showed a highly significant association between visual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters, supporting the...

  2. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2013-01-01

    of nucleic acid damage from oxidation were affected by stress. In contrast, cerebral DNA repair enzymes exhibited a general trend towards an induction, which was significant for hippocampal Nudt1. The results and their implications for stress sensitivity and resilience are discussed.......Increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) may be a common mechanism underlying accelerated aging in psychological stress states and mental disorders. In the present study, we measured the urinary excretion of corticosterone and markers of systemic oxidative stress on nucleic...... acids, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress. To reliably collect 24h urine samples, the full 3-week restraint stress paradigm was performed in metabolism cages. We further determined frontal...

  3. DNA methylation and affective disorder%DNA甲基化与情感障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪雨; 王振华; 王承敏; 施梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent years,epigenetics research mainly focused on DNA methylation.A growing body of research indicated that DNA methylation may play vital role in etiology of affective disorder.With brief introduction of DNA methylation molecular mechanisms and relevance of DNA methylation to affective disorder,this review focuses on some supporting evidence which are recently emerged in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder related gene DNA methylation.Methods We retrievaled related articles from databases,such as PUBMED,Foreign medical information resources retrieval platform,CNKI,Wanfang database,ect,from 2013-06 to 2015-01.Index strategy TI:[depression OR bipolar disorder OR affective disorder] AND All field:DNA methylation.Reading and narrowing the scope of the articles,the experimental design was understanded,such as DNA from either blood cell or brain parenchyma of sample,methods of methylation detection,gene detected and methylation position,etc.The articles included 168 in English and 32 in Chinese.The whole and retained the articles were red about MDD and bipolar disorder related gene DNA methylation in recent five years.Results Eventually,the article includes 29 articles and two of in Chinese.Most of them are receptor gene epigenetics research associated with disease.Conclusion MDD and bipolar disorder are associated with the higher of DNA methylation levels in multiple gene promoter region,such as GR,BDNF,5-HTR,SLC6A4 and the lower of COMT.This article only from the perspective of affective disorder reviewed the relationship between DNA methylation and diseases.None of other diseases epigenetics research,there is to be perfected in future.%目的 DNA甲基化成为近年来表观遗传学的研究热点.越来越多的研究表明DNA甲基化在情感障碍的发病中也扮演着重要角色.本文综述了DNA甲基化的分子机制,介绍了DNA甲基化与情感障碍的关系,并在此基础上对重性抑郁症与双相情感障碍相

  4. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  5. Mitochondrial genetic analyses suggest selection against maternal lineages in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R; Furlong, R A; Amos, W; Cooper, G; Rubinsztein, J S; Walsh, C; Paykel, E S; Rubinsztein, D C

    1999-08-01

    Previous reports of preferential transmission of bipolar affective disorder (BP) from the maternal versus the paternal lines in families suggested that this disorder may be caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. We have sequenced the mitochondrial genome in 25 BP patients with family histories of psychiatric disorder that suggest matrilineal inheritance. No polymorphism identified more than once in this sequencing showed any significant association with BP in association studies using 94 cases and 94 controls. To determine whether our BP sample showed evidence of selection against the maternal lineage, we determined genetic distances between all possible pairwise comparisons within the BP and control groups, based on multilocus mitochondrial polymorphism haplotypes. These analyses revealed fewer closely related haplotypes in the BP group than in the matched control group, suggesting selection against maternal lineages in this disease. Such selection is compatible with recurrent mitochondrial mutations, which are associated with slightly decreased fitness. Although such mismatch distribution comparisons have been used previously for analyses of population histories, this is, as far as we are aware, the first report of this method being used to study disease. PMID:10417293

  6. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Bradley S. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (...

  7. Radioaerosol lung scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a coordinated research project of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a multicentre joint study on radioaerosol lung scan using the BARC nebulizer has prospectively been carried out during 1988-1992 with the participation of 10 member countries in Asia [Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand]. The study was designed so that it would primarily cover chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the other related and common pulmonary diseases. The study also included normal controls and asymptomatic smokers. The purposes of this presentation are three fold: firstly, to document the usefulness of the nebulizer and the validity of user's protocol in imaging COPD and other lung diseases; secondly, to discuss scan features of the individual COPD and other disorders studied and thirdly, to correlate scan alterations with radiographic findings. Before proceeding with a systematic analysis of aerosol scan patterns in the disease groups, we documented normal pattern. The next step was the assessment of scan features in those who had been smoking for more than several years but had no symptoms or signs referable to airways. The lung diseases we analyzed included COPD [emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma and bronchiectasis], bronchial obstruction, compensatory overinflation and other common lung diseases such as lobar pneumonia, tuberculosis, interstitial fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, lung edema and primary and metastatic lung cancers. Lung embolism, inhalation bums and glue-sniffer's lung are separately discussed by Dr. Sundram of Singapore elsewhere in this book. The larger portion of this chapter is allocated to the discussion of COPD with a special effort made in sorting out differential scan features. Diagnostic criteria in individual COPD were defined for each category of disease and basic clinical symptoms and signs and pertinent laboratory data as well as radiographic manifestations are

  8. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Laura; Swoboda, Patrick; Ludwig, Birgit; Koller, Romina; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Aigner, Martin; Haslacher, Helmuth; Schmöger, Michaela; Kasper, Siegfried; Schosser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). Patients and Methods Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury). The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria). Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC), Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R), and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS) questionnaires. Results In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (phistory of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention) and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI) had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001) than the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma. PMID:26366559

  9. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  10. Chronic environmental exposure to lead affects semen quality in a Mexican men population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Martínez, Javier; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Morales-Vallarta, Mario; A. Heredia-Rojas, José; Bassol-Mayagoitia, Susana; Denys Betancourt-Martínez, Nadia; M. Cerda-Flores, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is affected by several factors. Lead is one of the heavy metals more bioavailable than usually modifies the sperm quality in humans. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the role of lead in semen quality in environmentally exposed men. Materials and Methods: Semen and blood samples were obtained from two groups: the exposed group (EG=20) and the non-exposed group (NEG=27). Two semen aliquots were used, one to evaluate spermatic quality and the other for lead determination. Blood (PbB) and semen lead (PbS) determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: The PbB concentration was significantly greater in the EG, 10.10±0.97 µgdL-1 than in the NEG, 6.42±0.38 µgdL-1 (p<0.01), as well as the PbS concentration, with 3.28±0.35 and 1.76±0.14µgdL-1 in the EG and NEG respectively (p=0.043). A significant correlation between PbS and PbB concentration in the EG was found (r=0.573, p=0.038). Overall, the spermatic quality was lower in the EG than in the NEG. Specifically, there were significant differences in the spermatic concentration [EG=43.98±6.26 and NEG=68.78±8.51X106 cellmL-1 (p<0.01)], motility [EG=49±7 and NEG=67±4% (p=0.029)], viability [EG=36.32±3.59 and NEG=72.12±1.91% (p<0.01)] and abnormal morphology [EG=67±18 and NEG=32±12% (p<0.01)]. In the immature germ cells (IGC) concentration differences were found only for A cells (EG=8.1±1.1x100 and NEG=3.2±1.9X100 spermatozoa) (p<0.01) and for Sab cells (EG=3.4±2.2x100 and NEG=1.1±1.0X100 spermatozoa) (p=0.041). Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic environmental exposure to low levels of lead adversely affect the spermatic quality. PMID:24639755

  11. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G. Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10, and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8, to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90, negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92, and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94. Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  12. Cognitive and affective components of Theory of Mind in preschoolers with oppositional defiance disorder: Clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-07-30

    The goal of the study was to examine the affective-cognitive components of Theory of Mind (ToM), in a community sample of 538 preschoolers, and more specifically in a subsample of 40 children diagnosed with ODD. The relationship between affective and cognitive ToM and some ODD clinical characteristics was examined. Children were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and dimensional measures of psychopathology, impairment and unemotional traits. A measure based on eye-gaze was used to assess ToM. Mixed analysis of variance compared the mean cognitive versus affective scale scores and the between-subjects factor ODD. The association between ToM-scores and clinical measures was assessed through correlation models. Execution and reaction time to emotional and cognitive components of ToM tasks are different at age 5 in normally developing children. Oppositional Defiant children had slower response time when performing the affective mentalizing condition than children without the disorder. The correlation matrix between ToM-scores and clinical measures showed specific associations depending on the impaired ToM aspect and the psychological domain. Results may have clinical implications for the prevention and management of ODD. PMID:27173657

  13. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Ryan Baskin-Sommers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interest (ROIs. Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusions: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness.

  14. Chronic orthostatic and antiorthostatic restraint induce neuroendocrine, immune and neurophysiological disorders in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenmacher, I.; Mekaouche, M.; Maurel, D.; Barbanel, G.; Givalois, L.; Boissin, J.; Malaval, F.; Ixart, G.

    rhythmicity of major physiological variables, the loss of normal correlations between ACTH and CORT, and inflammatory-immune hyperreactivity. These pathophysiological disorders may all be parts of a complex chronic stress syndrome.

  15. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with a...... polymorphism may present with an enhanced stress response. The presence of a specific genotype alone may not enhance the risk of developing an affective episode. Rather, the altered stress response may be expressed only in combination with other risk variants through interactions with the environment....... familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...

  16. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  17. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  18. Usefulness of Low Cardiac Index to Predict Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jeremy E; Auger, William R; DeYoung, Pamela N; Kim, Nick H; Malhotra, Atul; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-15

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) often have substantial right ventricular dysfunction. The resulting low cardiac index might predispose to sleep disordered breathing (SDB) by increasing ventilatory instability. The prevalence of SDB and potential association with impaired cardiac index was examined in patients with CTEPH. Patients referred for evaluation for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery were recruited. Subjects underwent a sleep study, unless already using positive airway pressure therapy. Hemodynamic data were obtained from contemporaneous right-sided cardiac catheterization. A total of 49 subjects were included. SDB-defined as ongoing positive airway pressure use or apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5/h-was found in 57% of subjects. SDB was generally mild in severity, with respiratory events mainly consisting of hypopneas. Cardiac index was found to be significantly lower in subjects with SDB than those without (2.19 vs 2.55 L/min/m(2); p = 0.024), whereas no differences were observed in other characteristics. Additionally, cardiac index was independently predictive of AHI. In a subgroup of subjects with an elevated percentage of central events, both cardiac index and lung to finger circulation time correlated with AHI. In conclusion, SDB is prevalent in patients with CTEPH and might decrease with treatments that improve cardiac index. PMID:26805659

  19. Calcimimetics in the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Aguilar, Armando; Baas, Juan; Reyes, Joselyne; Lloret, Maria-J; Farré, Neus; Olaya, Mayte; Canal, Cristina; Marco, Helena; Andrés, Enric; Trinidad, Pedro; Ballarin, José

    2009-02-01

    Mineral and bone disorders (MBD) are both an early and very common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is now accepted that they represent a significant risk factor, explaining the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients. During the last decade, we have been witnessing many advances in the nomenclature, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CKD and some of its complications, such as CKD-MBD. The identification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) involvement in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and the availability of a new class of drugs called calcimimetics are two outstanding examples. Cinacalcet, the only available calcimimetic, has been shown to be a very effective therapeutic tool in CKD-MBD. Many clinical trials with cinacalcet in hemodialysis patients with SHPT have shown a reduction in parathyroid hormone, calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and Ca x P product levels, allowing far greater success in reaching therapeutic goals as recommended by international guidelines. Additionally, some studies have shown that the use of cinacalcet may improve other aspects of CKD-MBD, reducing the risk of vascular calcification and parathyroidectomy, among others. Prospective studies on dialysis patients, with hard endpoint data, are currently underway. This review summarizes the most significant aspects of calcimimimetics based on both experimental and clinical results, underlining their possibilities not only for the treatment of isolated SHPT but also for other CKD-MBD related conditions. PMID:19363783

  20. Altered thermal sensitivity in facial skin in chronic whiplash-associated disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birgitta Haggman-Henrikson; Ewa Lampa; Erik Nordh

    2013-01-01

    There is a close functional relationship between the jaw and neck regions and it has been suggested that trigeminal sensory impairment can follow whiplash injury. Inclusion of manageable routines for valid assessment of the facial sensory capacity is thus needed for comprehensive evaluations of patients exposed to such trauma. The present study investigated facial thermal thresholds in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) with both a qualitative method and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Ten women with pain and dysfunction following a whiplash injury were compared to 10 healthy age-matched women. Thermal detection thresholds were assessed by qualitative chair-side testing and by QST according to the method-of-limits. Seven test sites in the facial skin (overlying each trigeminal branch bilaterally, and the midpoint of the chin) were examined. The detection warm and cold thresholds were defined as the mean values of 10 individual thresholds. For the WAD patients, the qualitative assessment demonstrated both reduced and increased sensitivity compared to the healthy, whereas QST systematically showed significantly higher detection thresholds (i.e., decreased sensitivity) for both cold and warm stimuli. For the individuals who were assessed as having increased sensitivity in the qualitative assessment, the QST displayed either normal or higher thresholds, i.e., decreased sensitivity. The results suggest that QST is more sensitive for detecting thermal sensory disturbances in the face than a qualitative method. The impaired thermal sensitivity among the patients corroborates the notion of altered thermal detection capacity induced by WAD-related pain.

  1. Mismatch negativity to the patient's own name in chronic disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengmin; Di, Haibo; Yan, Xiaodan; Yu, Senming; Yu, Dan; Laureys, Steven; Weng, Xuchu

    2008-12-19

    Previous studies implicated potential value of mismatch negativity (MMN) in predicting recovery of consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We have adopted a novel MMN evoked by subject's own name (SON), a self-referential stimulus thought to be powerful in evoking residual brain activity, and examined the correlation between the MMN and recovery of consciousness in patients with chronic (>1 month) DOC. Twelve patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls were investigated. The patients were diagnosed as coma (n=4), vegetative state (VS, n=6), and minimally conscious state (MCS, n=2), mainly based on the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. The SON-evoked MMN (SON-MMN) was present in seven patients. Critically, the presence of SON-MMN was significantly correlated with recovery of consciousness. While four of the five patients (three VS and two coma) showing SON-MMN changed to MCS 3 months later, the rest of the patients (three VS and two coma) without SON-MMN failed to show any clinical improvement. Our study thus illustrates that the subject's own name is effective in evoking MMN in patients with DOC, and that SON-MMN has potential prognostic values in predicting recovery of consciousness. PMID:18938213

  2. Unravelling motor networks in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness: A promising minimally invasive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Antonino; Leo, Antonino; Buda, Antonio; Manuli, Alfredo; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral responsiveness and awareness levels correlate with the degree of functional connectivity within cortical-thalamocortical networks, whose breakdown accounts for chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Our study was aimed at assessing the role of the primary motor area (M1) and premotor-M1 circuitry dysfunction in motor output deterioration in minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) patients. As a control group, we included a healthy subject (HC) sample in the study. We evaluated the effects of different types of transcranial magnetic stimuli over M1 by recording post-stimulus time histogram (PSTH), which includes a series of peaks of unit firing activity that match with D and I-waves, characterizing the descending corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimuli. As compared to HC, DOC patients showed a dysfunction of intra-M1 and premotor-M1 circuits, which correlated with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scorings. Nonetheless, one UWS patient showed a partially preserved premotor-M1 circuitry, paralleled by a severe intra-M1 circuitry dysfunction. Our data suggest that motor unresponsiveness in some DOC patients may be due to a pure motor output failure, as in the functional locked-in syndrome (fLIS), rather than to a premotor-motor connectivity impairment, which instead characterizes MCS and UWS. PMID:27288702

  3. How virtual admission affects coping – telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emme, Christina; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Østergaard, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    To describe what characterises chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' coping of physical, emotional and social problems before, during and after virtual admission, in interaction with health professionals and relatives....

  4. A CLINICAL STUDY OF CHRONIC DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, S; Kumar, S.; Agarwal, A K

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY Neurological status of chronic depressive states have not been resolved as yet. Recent classificatory systems ICD-X and DSM-III-R have included chronic depression under affective disorders and have done away with the category of neurotic depression. The present study was undertaken with the aims of (a) to study clinical variables associated with major subtypes of chronic depression (chronic major depression and dysthymia) and (b) to investigate personality characteristics and life eve...

  5. Panic Disorder and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder. Other types of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder , obsessive compulsive disorder , social phobia , and post-traumatic stress disorders . Panic disorder affects women twice as often ...

  6. Heart rate increment analysis is not effective for sleep-disordered breathing screening in patients with chronic heart failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Damy, Thibaud; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Estrugo, Brigitte; Margarit, Laurent; Mouillet, Gauthier; Mahfoud, Mohannad; Roudot-Thoraval, Francoise; Vermes, Emmanuelle; Hittinger, Luc; Roche, Frederic; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variation has been suggested as an effective screening tool for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess this method in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We included prospectively 84 patients with stable CHF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or =15 h(-1) was diagnosed in 57.4% of patients. Percent VLFI was not correlated with AHI (r = 0.12). Receiver-operating character...

  7. Identification of clusters of individuals relevant to temporomandibular disorders and other chronic pain conditions: the OPPERA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Eric; Gaynor, Sheila; Slade, Gary D; Ohrbach, Richard; Fillingim, Roger B; Greenspan, Joel D; Dubner, Ronald; Smith, Shad B; Diatchenko, Luda; Maixner, William

    2016-06-01

    The classification of most chronic pain disorders gives emphasis to anatomical location of the pain to distinguish one disorder from the other (eg, back pain vs temporomandibular disorder [TMD]) or to define subtypes (eg, TMD myalgia vs arthralgia). However, anatomical criteria overlook etiology, potentially hampering treatment decisions. This study identified clusters of individuals using a comprehensive array of biopsychosocial measures. Data were collected from a case-control study of 1031 chronic TMD cases and 3247 TMD-free controls. Three subgroups were identified using supervised cluster analysis (referred to as the adaptive, pain-sensitive, and global symptoms clusters). Compared with the adaptive cluster, participants in the pain-sensitive cluster showed heightened sensitivity to experimental pain, and participants in the global symptoms cluster showed both greater pain sensitivity and greater psychological distress. Cluster membership was strongly associated with chronic TMD: 91.5% of TMD cases belonged to the pain-sensitive and global symptoms clusters, whereas 41.2% of controls belonged to the adaptive cluster. Temporomandibular disorder cases in the pain-sensitive and global symptoms clusters also showed greater pain intensity, jaw functional limitation, and more comorbid pain conditions. Similar results were obtained when the same methodology was applied to a smaller case-control study consisting of 199 chronic TMD cases and 201 TMD-free controls. During a median 3-year follow-up period of TMD-free individuals, participants in the global symptoms cluster had greater risk of developing first-onset TMD (hazard ratio = 2.8) compared with participants in the other 2 clusters. Cross-cohort predictive modeling was used to demonstrate the reliability of the clusters. PMID:26928952

  8. County-level determinants of dental utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions: How does place affect use?

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Donald L.; Leroux, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how place affects childrens’ access to dental care. We analyzed data for 25,908 Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions to identify the county-level determinants of dental utilization. Our analyses suggest that higher levels of poverty and designation as a dental health professional shortage area at the county-level are associated with lower probability of child-level dental use. There are significant interactions between child-level race/ethnicity and co...

  9. Emotional Expression and Positive Affect in Latina and non-Latina White Women Coping with Chronic Financial Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Patricia Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to examine emotional expression and positive affect in a sample of Latina and non-Latina white female undergraduate students at UCLA experiencing chronic financial stress. In order to assess the influence of dispositional emotional tendencies, stressor-specific coping, and cultural factors on outcomes of induced emotional expression, the first study examined the main and moderated effects of induced emotional expression on depressive symptoms, intrusive though...

  10. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, depression and disordered sleep in chronic post-SARS syndrome; a case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcai John

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long term adverse effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, a viral disease, are poorly understood. Methods Sleep physiology, somatic and mood symptoms of 22 Toronto subjects, 21 of whom were healthcare workers, (19 females, 3 males, mean age 46.29 yrs.+/- 11.02 who remained unable to return to their former occupation (mean 19.8 months, range: 13 to 36 months following SARS were compared to 7 healthy female subjects. Because of their clinical similarities to patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS these post-SARS subjects were similarly compared to 21 drug free female patients, (mean age 42.4 +/- 11.8 yrs. who fulfilled criteria for fibromyalgia. Results Chronic post-SARS is characterized by persistent fatigue, diffuse myalgia, weakness, depression, and nonrestorative sleep with associated REM-related apneas/hypopneas, an elevated sleep EEG cyclical alternating pattern, and alpha EEG sleep anomaly. Post- SARS patients had symptoms of pre and post-sleep fatigue and post sleep sleepiness that were similar to the symptoms of patients with FMS, and similar to symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Both post-SARS and FMS groups had sleep instability as indicated by the high sleep EEG cyclical alternating pattern rate. The post-SARS group had a lower rating of the alpha EEG sleep anomaly as compared to the FMS patients. The post-SARS group also reported less pre-sleep and post-sleep musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Conclusions The clinical and sleep features of chronic post-SARS form a syndrome of chronic fatigue, pain, weakness, depression and sleep disturbance, which overlaps with the clinical and sleep features of FMS and chronic fatigue syndrome.

  11. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly. PMID:26938817

  12. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  13. [The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment--an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta; Miernik-Jaeschke, Magdalena; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    The family burden (FB) has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems) and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers' emotions arising in response to objective difficulties). FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have been found. Since family member's illness can be not only a ballast, but also a potential source of satisfaction, it has been found that the level of caregiving-related satisfaction is a significant predictor of FB severity. FB dynamics does not seem to be parallel to the course of illness. Problem-focused and task-focused coping strategies are known to be related to lower values of FB. There is evidence suggesting that in families of patients with BD depressive episodes trigger substantially higher severity of FB, as compared to manic episodes. Data on FB related to major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce. Assertive community treatment strategies are the main option of reducing FB in the context of affective disorders, yet data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. PMID:24946470

  14. The affective disorder-related burden imposed on the family environment – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Kluza, Joanna Edyta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The family burden (FB has been defined as a multidimensional impact imposed by an illness on caregivers. FB can be divided into objective (i.e. related to measurable problems and subjective one (i.e. related to caregivers’ emotions arising in response to objective difficulties. FB is known to be related to disturbances in the functioning of the family system, higher level of stress, and the presence of financial problems. Some gender-dependent differences in the characteristics of FB have been found. Since family member’s illness can be not only a ballast, but also a potential source of satisfaction, it has been found that the level of caregiving-related satisfaction is a significant predictor of FB severity. FB dynamics does not seem to be parallel to the course of illness. Problem-focused and task-focused coping strategies are known to be related to lower values of FB.There is evidence suggesting that in families of patients with BD depressive episodes trigger substantially higher severity of FB, as compared to manic episodes. Data on FB related to major depressive disorder (MDD are scarce.Assertive community treatment strategies are the main option of reducing FB in the context of affective disorders, yet data on their effectiveness are inconclusive.

  15. Lithium and valproate may affect motor and sensory speed in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    murat ilhan atagun

    2013-01-01

    Results: The Li group was significantly slower than the HC and MF groups in the right hand trial of the Pegboard Test. The Li group scored significantly lower in the right and left hand trials of the finger-tapping test in comparison to the HC and MF groups. All patient groups (MF, Li and VP had slower visual reaction time scores than the HC group. The Li and VP groups had significantly slower auditory reaction time scores than the HC group. Conclusion: Lithium may impair sensory and motor speed more than VP. Medication-free patients differed from healthy controls only in the visual reaction time test. Lithium may disturb movement systems by affecting the complex integration of the brain structures serving motor coordination. These results may also suggest that in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder, disturbance of psychomotor functions may be related to medications.

  16. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  17. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik;

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that cannabis use affects negatively on onset and outcome of schizophrenia, but less is known about possible effects in mood disorders. Bipolar in- and outpatients (N = 3459) were enrolled in an observational study. The influence of cannabis exposure on clinical and social...... treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers....... Additionally, cannabis users experienced less satisfaction with life and had a lower probability of having a relationship compared with nonusers. There was little evidence that cannabis-outcome associations were mediated by third variables. An independent impact of cannabis use on psychopathologic outcomes in...

  18. A haplotype based study of lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder on the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald. H.; Wang, M.; Vang, A.G.;

    1999-01-01

    The Faroe Islands are a small group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, situated between Norway, Iceland and Scotland. The origin of the population is thought to be a mixture of Norwegian, Danish and British. The islands were populated at the same time as Iceland, i.e. around 1100 years ago......, and the size of the population was around, and occasionally below, 4000 inhabitants until 1800, after which it increased to its present-day level of around 45,000. The population is descended from Scandinavian and British ancestors. Because of the low number of founders and small size for many...... centuries, the Faroese population is perhaps the most valuable European population for genetic mapping of complex disease genes. The present study searched for haplotype sharing on chromosome 18 among eight lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder related, on average, 6.2 generations ago...

  19. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Henderson, Heather A; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  20. Effect on health-related quality of life of a multimodal physiotherapy program in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta-Vargas Antonio Ignacio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are major causes of morbidity in the world, and these conditions have a strong negative influence in terms of health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 8-week multimodal physical therapy program on general health state and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Methods There were 244 participants in this prospective cohort analysis with 8-week follow-up. The primary outcome was general health state (physical and mental components, determined with the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12. The secondary outcome was health related quality of life, determined with the EuroQoL-5D and VAS. The intervention was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-outcome measurements. T-tests were performed for paired data. Results Differences were statistically significant for physical health state: +1.68 (p  Conclusions Eight weeks of a Multimodal Physical Therapy Program seemed to moderately enhance the general health state and HRQoL of patients with chronic musculoskeletal diseases. This kind of therapeutic exercise can be recommended to patients with chronic low back pain, chronic neck pain and osteoarthritis, at least in the short term.

  1. Bone Marrow and Kidney Transplant for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Chronic Kidney Disease; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL); Hodgkin Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Aplastic Anemia; AL Amyloidosis; Diamond Blackfan Anemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Disease; Sickle Cell Anemia; Autoimmune Diseases; Thalassemia

  2. Stress and affective disorders: animal models elucidating the molecular basis of neuroendocrine-behavior interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, C

    2011-05-01

    Profound dysfunctions in several neuroendocrine systems have been described in patients suffering from affective disorders such as major depression. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these functional alterations, animal models including mice genetically modified by either direct gene-targeting or by selective breeding approaches have been used exceedingly, revealing valuable insights into neuroendocrine pathways conserved between rodents and men. This review focuses on altered function and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, including its involvement in emotionality and stress responsiveness. In this context, the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and disturbances in glucocorticoid receptor signaling seem to be of central importance. However, changes in the expression and release patterns of vasopressin, dopamine and serotonin have also been shown to contribute to variation in emotionality, stress coping, cognitive functions and social behaviors. Affective disorders show a high degree of complexity, involving a multitude of molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral alterations as well as an intense gene-environment interaction, making it difficult to dissociate the primary causes from secondary consequences of the disease. Thus, interdisciplinary research, as applied in the emerging field of systems biology, involving adequate animal models and combined methodologies can significantly contribute to our understanding regarding the transmission of genetic predispositions into clinically relevant endophenotypes. It is only with deep insight into the mechanisms by which the stress hormone systems are regulated that novel treatment strategies and promising targets for therapeutic interventions can be developed in the future. Such in-depth understanding is ultimately essential to realizing our goal of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. PMID:21544741

  3. Stress-related serotonergic systems: implications for symptomatology of anxiety and affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew W; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex have a functional topographic organization. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of a bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-dorsal raphe nucleus pathway by stress- and anxiety-related stimuli modulates a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD) and caudal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) that participates in facilitation of anxiety-like responses. In contrast, recent studies suggest that activation of a spinoparabrachial pathway by peripheral thermal or immune stimuli excites subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus/ventrolateral periaqueducal gray (DRVL/VLPAG) region and interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRI). Studies support a role for serotonergic neurons in the DRVL/VLPAG in inhibition of panic-like responses, and serotonergic neurons in the DRI in antidepressant-like effects. Thus, data suggest that while some subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus play a role in facilitation of anxiety-like responses, others play a role in inhibition of anxiety- or panic-like responses, while others play a role in antidepressant-like effects. Understanding the anatomical and functional properties of these distinct serotonergic systems may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. In this review, we describe the anatomical and functional properties of subpopulations of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, with a focus on those implicated in symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders, the DRD/DRC, DRVL/VLPAG, and DRI. PMID:22484834

  4. Add-on topiramate reduces weight in overweight patients with affective disorders: a clinical case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tredget John

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight-gain caused by many psychotropic drugs is a major cause for poor compliance with such medications and could also increase cardio-vascular morbidity among psychiatric patients. Recent reports have shown that the anticonvulsant topiramate causes weight loss in various patient groups. The drug has also shown effectiveness in open trials as a mood stabilizer in patients with affective disorders, but not in controlled trials in the acute treatment of mania. We used topiramate to treat 12 patients with affective disorders who had a body-mass index >30 kg/m2. Methods Topiramate was prescribed as part of our routine clinical practice, as an add-on medication, or as a replacement of a mood stabilizer. Patients' weight was recorded in 1 to 2 monthly intervals. Patients were followed up for between 6 and 12 months. The final dose of topiramate varied from 200 to 600 mg/day. Results Topiramate was effective in reducing the weight in 10 out of the 12 patients. At six months the 12 patients had lost a mean of 7.75 kg (SD = 6.9 kg, p Conclusion The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.

  5. No effect of ambient odor on the affective appraisal of a desktop virtual environment with signs of disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Desktop virtual environments (VEs are increasingly deployed to study the effects of environmental qualities and interventions on human behavior and safety related concerns in built environments. For these applications it is essential that users appraise the affective qualities of the VE similar to those of its real world counterpart. Previous studies have shown that factors like simulated lighting, sound and dynamic elements all contribute to the affective appraisal of a desktop VE. Since ambient odor is known to affect the affective appraisal of real environments, and has been shown to increase the sense of presence in immersive VEs, it may also be an effective tool to tune the affective appraisal of desktop VEs. This study investigated if exposure to ambient odor can modulate the affective appraisal of a desktop VE with signs of public disorder. METHOD: Participants explored a desktop VE representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism and crime, while being exposed to either room air or subliminal levels of unpleasant (tar or pleasant (cut grass ambient odor. Whenever they encountered signs of disorder they reported their safety related concerns and associated affective feelings. RESULTS: Signs of crime in the desktop VE were associated with negative affective feelings and concerns for personal safety and personal property. However, there was no significant difference between reported safety related concerns and affective connotations in the control (no-odor and in each of the two ambient odor conditions. CONCLUSION: Ambient odor did not affect safety related concerns and affective connotations associated with signs of disorder in the desktop VE. Thus, semantic congruency between ambient odor and a desktop VE may not be sufficient to influence its affective appraisal, and a more realistic simulation in which simulated objects appear to emit scents may be required to achieve this goal.

  6. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman-Peeters, Karlien M C; Ormel, Johan; Van Sonderen, Eric L P; Den Boer, Johan A; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hartman, Catharina A

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, this study examined the effects of a second affected parent, offspring gender, gender of the depressed parent and their interactions on risk of depression and anxiety disorder. We found that daughters had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than sons and that offspring of depressed mothers had a higher risk of anxiety than offspring of depressed fathers. In addition to these main effects, we found an interaction between parent and offspring gender inasmuch that sons of depressed fathers had the lowest risk of depression and anxiety relative to the other groups. A second affected parent tended to increase risk of depression and significantly increased risk of anxiety. However, this effect of a second affected parent on offspring anxiety was most prominent in daughters when the second affected parent was the father, whereas risk in sons did not increase if the father was affected as well. Our results indicate that paternal and maternal depression similarly and additively increase daughters' risk of emotional disorder, but that sons' risk only increases with maternal depression. Intergenerational transmission of emotional disorder seems strongest when the female gender is involved, either in the form of a daughter or a depressed mother. PMID:17941098

  7. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but i...

  8. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eRazzoli; Valentina eSanghez; Alessandro eBartolomucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  9. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  10. The effect of forearm posture on wrist flexion in computer workers with chronic upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson R Terry; Burgess Ronald A; Rollman Gary B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Occupational computer use has been associated with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs), but the etiology and pathophysiology of some of these disorders are poorly understood. Various theories attribute the symptoms to biomechanical and/or psychosocial stressors. The results of several clinical studies suggest that elevated antagonist muscle tension may be a biomechanical stress factor. Affected computer users often exhibit limited wrist range of motion, part...

  11. The relation of hepcidin to iron disorders, inflammation and hemoglobin in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Mercadal

    Full Text Available The metabolism of hepcidin is profoundly modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD. We investigated its relation to iron disorders, inflammation and hemoglobin (Hb level in 199 non-dialyzed, non-transplanted patients with CKD stages 1-5. All had their glomerular filtration rate measured by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance (mGFR, as well as measurements of iron markers including hepcidin and of erythropoietin (EPO. Hepcidin varied from 0.2 to 193 ng/mL. The median increased from 23.3 ng/mL [8.8-28.7] to 36.1 ng/mL [14.1-92.3] when mGFR decreased from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.02. Patients with absolute iron deficiency (transferrin saturation (TSAT <20% and ferritin <40 ng/mL had the lowest hepcidin levels (5.0 ng/mL [0.7-11.7], and those with a normal iron profile (TSAT ≥20% and ferritin ≥40, the highest (34.5 ng/mL [23.7-51.6]. In multivariate analysis, absolute iron deficiency was associated with lower hepcidin values, and inflammation combined with a normal or functional iron profile with higher values, independent of other determinants of hepcidin concentration, including EPO, mGFR, and albuminemia. The hepcidin level, although it rose overall when mGFR declined, collapsed in patients with absolute iron deficiency. There was a significant interaction with iron status in the association between Hb and hepcidin. Except in absolute iron deficiency, hepcidin's negative association with Hb level indicates that it is not down-regulated in CKD anemia.

  12. Impairments in facial affect recognition associated with autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Leah M; Vanmeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by social impairments, including inappropriate responses to affective stimuli and nonverbal cues, which may extend to poor face-emotion recognition. However, the results of empirical studies of face-emotion recognition in individuals with ASD have yielded inconsistent findings that occlude understanding the role of face-emotion recognition deficits in the development of ASD. The goal of this meta-analysis was to address three as-yet unanswered questions. Are ASDs associated with consistent face-emotion recognition deficits? Do deficits generalize across multiple emotional expressions or are they limited to specific emotions? Do age or cognitive intelligence affect the magnitude of identified deficits? The results indicate that ASDs are associated with face-emotion recognition deficits across multiple expressions and that the magnitude of these deficits increases with age and cannot be accounted for by intelligence. These findings suggest that, whereas neurodevelopmental processes and social experience produce improvements in general face-emotion recognition abilities over time during typical development, children with ASD may experience disruptions in these processes, which suggested distributed functional impairment in the neural architecture that subserves face-emotion processing, an effect with downstream developmental consequences. PMID:24915526

  13. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    OpenAIRE

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; Den Boer, J A; Minderaa, R. B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, this study examined the effects of a second affected parent, offspring gender, gender of the depressed parent and their interactions on risk of depressio...

  14. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain: Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Craig, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    Divided 90 chronic low back pain patients into those who demonstrated signs that were congruent or incongruent with underlying anatomical and physiological principles. Low socioeconomic status, compensation claims, use of opiate analgesics, greater disability, catastrophizing cognitions, stronger emotionality, and passive coping were more…

  15. Differential engagement of cognitive and affective neural systems in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates the neural bases of cognitive control of emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Seventeen un-medicated PBD patients, 15 un-medicated ADHD patients, and 14 healthy controls (HC) (mean age = 13.78 ± 2.47) performed an emotional valence Stroop Task, requiring them to match the color of an emotionally valenced word to the color of either of two adjacent circles. Both patient groups responded signific...

  16. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  17. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  18. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders. PMID:27449360

  19. Risk of affective disorders following prenatal exposure to severe life events: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.

  20. Psychological Disorders Affect 1 in 7 U.S. Kids Under 9: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, looking for reported speech and language problems, learning disabilities, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, anxiety and more. "Based ...

  1. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. PMID:25173178

  2. Simplified Radiographic Damage Index for Affected Joints in Chronic Gouty Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Tae Eun; Park, Kyungmin; Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new radiographic damage scoring method (DAmagE index of GoUt; DAEGU) in chronic gout using plain radiography. Two independent observers scored foot x-rays from 15 patients with chronic gout according to the DAEGU method and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvdH) method. The 10 metatarsophalangeal (MTP) and 2 interphalangeal (IP) joints of the first toes of both feet were scored to assess the degrees of erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN). The intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). The correlation between the DAEGU and SvdH methods was analyzed by calculating the Spearman's rho correlation coefficients and Kappa coefficients. The DAEGU method was found to be highly reproducible (0.945-0.987 for the intraobserver and 0.993-0.996 for the interobserver ICC values). The erosion, JSN, and total scores exhibited strong positive correlations between the DAEGU and SvdH methods and also within each method (r = 0.860-0.969, P < 0.001 for all parameters). The DAEGU and SvdH methods were in very good agreement as determined by Kappa coefficient analysis [0.732 (0.387-1.000) for erosion and 1.000 (1.000-1.000) for JSN]. In conclusion, this study revealed that DAEGU method was a reliable and feasible tool in the assessment of radiographic damage in chronic gout. The DAEGU method may provide a more easy assessment of structural damage in chronic gout in the real clinical practice. PMID:26955246

  3. CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA AFFECTS INTEGRATION OF SENSORY INPUT BY NEURONS IN THE NUCLEUS TRACTUS SOLITARII

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The autonomic nervous and respiratory systems, as well as their coupling, adapt over a wide range of conditions. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a model for recurrent apneas and induces alterations in breathing and increases in sympathetic nerve activity which may ultimately result in hypertension if left untreated. These alterations are believed to be due to increases in the carotid body chemoreflex pathway. Here we present evidence that the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), the central...

  4. An fMRI study of the interface between affective and cognitive neural circuitry in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; O'Connor, Megan Marlow; Harral, Erin M; Sweeney, John A

    2008-04-15

    The pathophysiology of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) impacts both affective and cognitive brain systems. Understanding disturbances in the neural circuits subserving these abilities is critical for characterizing developmental aberrations associated with the disorder and developing improved treatments. Our objective is to use functional neuroimaging with pediatric bipolar disorder patients employing a task that probes the functional integrity of attentional control and affect processing. Ten euthymic unmedicated pediatric bipolar patients and healthy controls matched for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and IQ were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a pediatric color word matching paradigm, subjects were asked to match the color of a word with one of two colored circles below. Words had a positive, negative or neutral emotional valence, and were presented in 30-s blocks. In the negative affect condition, relative to the neutral condition, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated greater activation of bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and left amygdala, and less activation in right rostral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsolateral PFC at the junction of the middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri. In the positive affect condition, there was no reduced activation of PFC or increased amygdala activation. The pattern of reduced activation of ventrolateral PFC and greater amygdala activation in bipolar children in response to negative stimuli suggests both disinhibition of emotional reactivity in the limbic system and reduced function in PFC systems that regulate those responses. Higher cortical cognitive areas such as the dorsolateral PFC may also be adversely affected by exaggerated emotional responsivity to negative emotions. This pattern of functional alteration in affective and cognitive circuitry may contribute to the reduced capacity for affect regulation and behavioral self-control in pediatric bipolar

  5. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. PMID:27264738

  6. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  7. Impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on sinonasal symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejbal D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dražen Shejbal,1 Davor Vagic, 2 Siniša Stevanovic, 3 Elvira Koic, 4 Livije Kalogjera21Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Pakrac City Hospital, Pakrac, Croatia; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Sisters of Mercy Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia; 3Division of Otorhinolaryngology, 4Division of Psychiatry, Virovitica General Hospital, Virovitica, CroatiaBackground: Severity of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS, measured by disease-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaires, is expected to increase in patients who also suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Altered pain perception, sleep disorders, and fatigue may be associated with this comorbidity.Methods: Severity of CRS was compared between a group of 28 patients with CRS and a group of 28 patients with CRS and concomitant PTSD using different disease-specific and generic instruments, such as visual analog scale (VAS, Short Form-36 test (SF-36, and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT 22.Results: SNOT-22 test showed significantly higher CRS severity in patients with CRS and PTSD, compared to patients with CRS without PTSD.Conclusion: Patients with less severe CRS, measured by objective outcome measures, due to the impact of comorbid PTSP, are classified as having severe rhinosinusitis, and are exposed to the risk of unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In patients with difficult-to-treat rhinosinusitis, diagnosis should be revised, and one item that should be evaluated is whether they suffer from PTSD.Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic rhinosinusitis, quality of life

  8. Comorbid mental disorders account for the role impairment of commonly occurring chronic physical disorders: Results from the national comorbidity survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, R.C.; Ormel, J.; Demler, O.; Stang, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Most health and work productivity studies have focused on individual conditions without considering comorbidity. We illustrate the implication of this neglect by examining the effects of comorbid mental disorders on role impairment (number of sickness absence and work cut-back days in the past month

  9. Peculiarities of coagulation hemostasis disorders in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlieva V.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The violation of blood coagulation properties is observed in many diseases of the respiratory system, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. It is known that in a stable COPD phase release of proinflammatory cytokines in blood is observed, it leads to disturbance of hemostasis parameters toward hypercoagulation. The aim of our study was to determine possibility of coagulation disorders formation in patients with COPD in a stable phase of pathological process at different stages of disease course and identify relationship between coagulation parameters levels and degree of violation of ventilation lung function. Materials and methods. We examined 30 patients with COPD in a stable disease phase, included in the main group (FEV1 =49,5±15,5% of the due, there were 27 men (90.0%, 3 (30.0% women, mean age was 61,8±7,9 years, level of pack /years index - 34,2±15,3. The control group consisted of 10 healthy subjects matched with the patients of the main group by age and sex. All patients were divided into 2 subgroups. Subgroup 1 included 16 patients with moderate COPD, that is the level of FEV1>50% (61,8±7,4% of predicted, and subgroup 2 - 14 COPD patients with severe COPD, that is the level of FEV1 <50% (35,3±8,2% of predicted. Patients received standard treatment according to the disease stage. Main indicators of coagulation levels: prothrombin index (PI, prothrombin ratio (PR, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and antithrombin III (AT III were identified in all patients. Results. The levels of PI, PR and INR in the subgroup 1 differed significantly from those of in the subgroup 2, control group (p<0,05 and pointed at hypercoagulation, whereas in the subgroup 2 all indicators were absolutely identical with control group. Correlation link between the level of INR levels and FEV1 (r=-0,73; p<0.01 in patients of the main group was determined. Levels of APTT, TT and AT

  10. Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J Paul; Glover, Gary H; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Chang, Catie; Mackey, Sean; Sacchet, Matthew D; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-03-30

    Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain's salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. Ten other participants engaged in an equivalent procedure with the exception that they saw SN-node neurofeedback indices from participants in the real neurofeedback group. Before and after scanning, all participants completed tasks assessing emotional responses to negative scenes and to negative and positive self-descriptive adjectives. Compared to participants in the sham-neurofeedback group, from pre- to post-training, participants in the real-neurofeedback group showed a greater decrease in SN-node response to negative stimuli, a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative scenes, and a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative self-descriptive adjectives. Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD. PMID:26862057

  11. Borderline personality disorder and self-conscious affect: Too much shame but not enough guilt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jessica R; Geiger, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Shame has emerged as a particularly relevant emotion to the maintenance and exacerbation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features; however, little attention has been paid to the potentially differing effects of other forms of self-conscious affect. While guilt has been demonstrated to have adaptive functions in the social psychology literature, it has not been previously explored whether a lack of socially adaptive guilt might also contribute to BPD-related dysfunction. The present study examined the relationship between BPD features and self-conscious emotions in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 839). Increased shame and decreased guilt independently accounted for significant variance in the association between BPD features and anger, hostility, and externalization of blame. Only increased shame significantly mediated the association between BPD features and anger rumination, and only decreased guilt significantly mediated the relationship between BPD features and aggression. These findings suggest BPD and its associated problems with anger and externalizing may be characterized not only by high levels of shame, but also by lower levels of guilt. Clinical implications include the need to differentiate between self-conscious emotions and teach adaptive responses to warranted guilt. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866901

  12. Association analysis of monoamine oxidase A gene and bipolar affective disorder in Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Te-Jen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in degrading several different biological amines, including serotonin. Although several pieces of evidence suggested that MAOA is important in the etiology of bipolar affective disorder (BPD, associations for markers of the MAOA gene with BPD were not conclusive and the association has not been investigated in Taiwanese population. This study was designed to illustrate the role of MAOA in the etiology of BPD in Han Chinese. Methods Two markers, a dinucleotide polymorphism in exon 2 and a functional uVNTR on the promoter of the MAOA gene, were used to study the genetic association in 108 unrelated patients with BPD and 103 healthy controls. Allelic distributions of two polymorphisms were analyzed and, caused the MAOA located at X chromosome, haplotype association was performed using haplotype unambiguously assigned in male participants. Results While no difference in allelic distributions of two MAOA polymorphisms was found, the risk haplotype 114S was associated with BPD in male patients (P = 0.03. The significance, however, was not found in female patients with 114S haplotype. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that MAOA may have a gender-specific and small effect on the etiology of BPD in Taiwan. Due to the limited sample size, results from this study need to be confirmed in replicates.

  13. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2005-03-01

    We sketch out putative evolutionary roles for affective temperaments within the theoretical framework of mood disorders conceptualized as extremes in an oligogenic model of inheritance, whereby the constituent traits in their dilute phenotypes confer adaptive advantages to individuals and/or their social group. Depressive traits, among other functions, would subserve sensitivity to the suffering of other members of the species, overlapping with those of the generalized anxious temperament, thereby enhancing the survival of not only kin but also other conspecifics. The pursuit of romantic opportunities in cyclothymia suggests that it may have evolved as a mechanism in reproductive success; cyclothymics' creative bent in poetry, music, painting, cooking or fashion design (among men, in particular) also appears useful for sexual seduction. Hyperthymic traits would lend distinct advantages in leadership, exploration, territoriality and mating. These are just some of the possibilities of the rich and complex temperamental traits subserving bipolarity within an evolutionary framework. We test selected aspects of these hypotheses with the use of correlations between the constituent traits of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS) and correlations between the TEMPS and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Such data support the counterbalancing protective influence of harm avoidance on the risk-taking behavior of cyclothymic individuals, in both men and women. Finally, we outline a hypothesis on the evolutionary function of anxious-depressive traits for women. PMID:15780693

  14. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy eAir; Michael James Weightman; Bernhard Theodor Baune

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition ...

  15. Affective lability and difficulties with regulation are differentially associated with amygdala and prefrontal response in women with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvers, JA; Hubbard, AD; Biggs, E; Shu, J.; Fertuck, E; Chaudhury, S.; Grunebaum, MF; Weber, J.; Kober, H; Chesin, M; Brodsky, BS; Koenigsberg, H; Ochsner, KN; Stanley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The present neuroimaging study investigated two aspects of difficulties with emotion associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): affective lability and difficulty regulating emotion. While these two characteristics have been previously linked to BPD symptomology, it remains unknown whether individual differences in affective lability and emotion regulation difficulties are subserved by distinct neural substrates within a BPD sample. To address this issue, sixty women diagnosed with...

  16. Parallel fluctuations of psychiatric and neurological symptoms in a patient with multiple sclerosis and bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, A; Eoli, M; La Mantia, L; Erbetta, A

    1995-11-01

    The case of a female patient affected by simultaneously onsetting multiple sclerosis and bipolar affective disorder at age 33 is reported. Over the following years, the patient displayed minor mood fluctuations but, at the ages of 41 and 42 years, respectively, she suffered from a major depressive and a manic episode, both of which were concomitant with a marked worsening in her neurological condition. PMID:8613416

  17. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  18. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  19. Chronic pain patients with possible co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder admitted to multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Andersen, Lou-Ann Christensen; Andersen, Per Grünwald

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common co-morbidity in chronic pain, little is known about the association between PTSD and pain in the context of chronic pain rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to investigate the association of...... consecutively referred cohort of 194 patients completed a baseline questionnaire at admission covering post-traumatic stress, pain symptoms, physical and mental functioning, as well as self-reported sleep quality and cognitive difficulties. Medication use was calculated from their medical records. A total of 95...... well as inferior social functioning compared to patients without PTSD. Possible co-morbid PTSD did not result in higher use of opioids or sedatives. Surprisingly, possible co-morbid PTSD at admission was not associated with lower levels of symptom reduction from pre- to post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS...

  20. What does history teach us about factors associated with relapse in bipolar affective disorder? Presentation at Hilton hotel, Gateshead, 2 September 2005 at Symposium entitled managing The aftermath of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    When investigating treatments for any chronic condition it is essential to know the usual course of the illness concerned. The natural history of bipolar affective disorder has only been established relatively recently. This review examines the factors that affect the course of bipolar disorder from an historical perspective. These include the affective nature of the episodes and the influence of psychotic symptoms, age at onset of illness, length of episodes and cycles, gender, ethnicity, concurrent drug and alcohol use, occupational status and factors leading to chronicity. The pioneering work of Kraepelin and Angst established that episodes of illness in bipolar disorder increased in frequency over time and that earlier age of onset predicted more frequent episodes. More recent work has established that female subjects have a later onset of illness, that the frequency of episodes often decreases over time and that rapid cycling has a poorer response to treatment. Suggested criteria for inclusion of subjects into trials examining manic relapse are listed based on the findings from earlier work. PMID:16551666

  1. [The Influence of Puberty on Neural Systems Subserving Emotion Regulation: Implications for Understanding Risk for Affective Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence, with the onset of puberty, represents a developmental period that, in the context of adverse events, renders youth vulnerable to the onset of psychopathology such as affective disorders. It is also a time when fronto-striatal-limbic systems supporting the processing and regulation of emotion and reward undergo important neuromaturational changes. Despite evidence from epidemiological research suggesting that, particularly in girls, the increase in the rate of depression is more strongly associated with pubertal development than maturational age, researchers are just beginning to scratch the surface regarding the specific influence of puberty on the development of fronto-striatal-limbic systems implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The goal of this review is to a) summarize findings from human neuroimaging studies focusing on the specific influence of puberty or sex hormones on the neurodevelopment of emotional processes, b) highlight the need for a better understanding of neurodevelopmental changes during puberty and how such changes could contribute to developmental trajectories toward the onset of an affective disorder and, c) discuss the potential value of investigating how these changes may contribute to unique opportunities for developing intervention strategies for affective disorders in adolescence. PMID:27570951

  2. A systematic review of amyloid-beta peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, L.; Heegaard, N. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Affective disorders are associated with an increased occurrence of cognitive deficits and have been linked to cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The putative molecular mechanisms involved in these associations are however not clear. The aim of this systematic review was to ...

  3. Evidence that the urban environment specifically impacts on the psychotic but not the affective dimension of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaymaz, Nil; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Graaf, Ron; Nolen, Willem; ten Have, Margreet; van Os, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: High rates of psychotic disorders and psychotic symptoms have been found in urban environments but reports for bipolar affective illness have been inconsistent, possibly due to failure to stratify for comorbid psychotic symptoms. It was hypothesised, therefore, that any effect of urbanic

  4. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the state of…

  5. An Affective Dimension within Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms among Boys: Personality and Psychopathology Outcomes into Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A dimension of negatively oriented affect within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, which has been described as irritability, has been shown to predict depression and anxiety. Related constructs have been linked to temperament and personality constructs. However, only a few studies have examined the prediction from…

  6. Association analysis of the monoamine oxidase A gene in bipolar affective disorder by using family-based internal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethen, M.M.; Eggermann, K.; Propping, P. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well accepted that association studies are a major tool in investigating the contribution of single genes to the development of diseases that do not follow simple Mendelian inheritance pattern (so-called complex traits). Such major psychiatric diseases as bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia clearly fall into this category of diseases. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  7. The DAOA/G30 locus and affective disorders: haplotype based association study in a polydiagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DAOA/G30 (D-amino acid oxidase activator gene complex at chromosomal region 13q32-33 is one of the most intriguing susceptibility loci for the major psychiatric disorders, although there is no consensus about the specific risk alleles or haplotypes across studies. Methods In a case-control sample of German descent (affective psychosis: n = 248; controls: n = 188 we examined seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around DAOA/G30 (rs3916966, rs1935058, rs2391191, rs1935062, rs947267, rs3918342, and rs9558575 for genetic association in a polydiagnostic approach (ICD 10; Leonhard's classification. Results No single marker showed evidence of overall association with affective disorder neither in ICD10 nor Leonhard's classification. Haplotype analysis revealed no association with recurrent unipolar depression or bipolar disorder according to ICD10, within Leonhard's classification manic-depression was associated with a 3-locus haplotype (rs2391191, rs1935062, and rs3916966; P = 0.022 and monopolar depression with a 5-locus combination at the DAOA/G30 core region (P = 0.036. Conclusion Our data revealed potential evidence for partially overlapping risk haplotypes at the DAOA/G30 locus in Leonhard's affective psychoses, but do not support a common genetic contribution of the DAOA/G30 gene complex to the pathogenesis of affective disorders.

  8. Radiolabelled cytokines for imaging chronic inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and particularly follow-up of chronic inflammatory disorders could be often difficult in clinical practice. Indeed, traditional radiological techniques reveal only structural tissue alterations and are not able to monitor functional changes occurring in tissues affected by chronic inflammation. The continuous advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of chronic disorders, combine with the progress of radiochemistry, led to the development of new specific radiolabelled agents for the imaging of chronic diseases. In this scenario, cytokines, due to their pivotal role in such diseases, represent good candidate as radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  9. Radiolabelled cytokines for imaging chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signore Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and particularly follow-up of chronic inflammatory disorders could be often difficult in clinical practice. Indeed, traditional radiological techniques reveal only structural tissue alterations and are not able to monitor functional changes occurring in tissues affected by chronic inflammation. The continuous advances in the knowledge of the pathophysioloy of chronic disorders, combined with the progress of radiochemistry, led to the development of new specific radiolabelled agents for the imaging of chronic diseases. In this scenario, cytokines, due to their pivotal role in such diseases, represent good candidates as radiopharmaceuticals.

  10. Chronic social isolation affects thigmotaxis and whole-brain serotonin levels in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Soaleha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The popularity of the zebrafish has been growing in behavioral brain research. Previously utilized mainly in developmental biology and genetics, the zebrafish has turned out to possess a complex behavioral repertoire. For example, it is a highly social species, and individuals form tight groups, a behavior called shoaling. Social isolation induced changes in brain function and behavior have been demonstrated in a variety of laboratory organisms. However, despite its highly social nature, the zebrafish has rarely been utilized in this research area. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic social isolation (lasting 90 days) on locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in an open tank. We also examine the effect of chronic social isolation on levels of whole-brain serotonin and dopamine and their metabolites. We found that long-term social deprivation surprisingly decreased anxiety-related behavious during open-tank testing but had no effect on locomotor activity. We also found that serotonin levels, decreased significantly in socially isolated fish, but levels of dopamine and metabolites of these neurotransmitters 5HIAA and DOPAC, respectively, remained unchanged. Our results imply that the standard high density housing employed in most zebrafish laboratories may not be the optimal way to keep these fish, and open a new avenue towards the analysis of the biological mechanisms of social behavior and of social deprivation induced changes in brain function using this simple vertebrate model organism. PMID:26119237

  11. A Brief Historic Overview of Clinical Disorders Associated with Tryptophan: The Relevance to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankfield, Adele

    2012-01-01

    Last century there was a short burst of interest in the tryptophan related disorders of pellagra and related abnormalities that are usually presented in infancy.1,2 Nutritional physiologists recognized that a severe human dietary deficiency of either tryptophan or the B group vitamins could result in central nervous system (CNS) sequelae such as ataxia, cognitive dysfunction and dysphoria, accompanied by skin hyperpigmentation.3,4 The current paper will focus on the emerging role of tryptophan in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). PMID:23032646

  12. The Unique Effects of Parental Alcohol and Affective Disorders, Parenting, and Parental Negative Affect on Adolescent Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…

  13. The role of inflammatory cytokines and ERK1/2 signaling in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome with related mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Yang, Hualan; Zhao, Yanfang; Chen, Xiang; Dong, Yinying; Li, Long; Dong, Yehao; Cui, Jiefeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Zheng, Ping; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Dai, Jican

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disorders(MHD) in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) have been widely studied. However, the underlying role of inflammatory cytokines and their associated signaling pathways have not been investigated. Here, we report the potential role of cytokines and associated signaling pathways in CP/CPPS patients with MHD and in a CP/CPPS animal model. CP/CPPS patients (n = 810) and control subjects (n = 992) were enrolled in this case-control multicenter study, and serum cytokine levels were measured. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received multiple intracutaneous injections of an immuno-agent along with a pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus triple vaccine for autoimmune CP/CPPS development. The results revealed that, in CP/CPPS patients with significant MHD, elevated IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α serum levels were observed. The above five cytokines in CP/CPPS rats were significantly elevated in prostate tissue (p MHD. PMID:27334333

  14. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Farsi translation of the kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-structural clinical interviews are very important in the area of mental health research and services. There were no studies of the reliability and validity of the Farsi (Persian version of Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL in Iran. This study compares the results of face-to-face, semi-structural interview and clinical interview by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. Method Subjects were 109 children and adolescents recruited to the child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic of Hafez Hospital. Order of interview (in-psychiatrist or the semi-structural interview was determined using random assignment within a counterbalanced framework. After, translation and back translation of K-SADS-PL, the Farsi version of K-SADS-PL was provided and used in the study. The interviewer was unaware of the child and adolescent psychiatrist diagnosis at the time of making the interview. Consensual validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, sensitivity, specifity, positive and negative predictive validity for the disorders were studied. Results Consensual validity of all of the psychiatric disorders was good to excellent. It was highest for panic disorder, conduct disorder, and simple phobia. Consensual validity of anorexia nervosa was 0.49. There was sufficient validity and test-retest and inter-rater reliability and good to excellent sensitivity and specifity and positive and negative predictive validity for nearly all of the disorders. Test-retest reliabilities of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and tic disorder were 0.81, 0.67, and 0.56; respectively. Inter-rater reliabilities of ADHD, and ODD were 0.69 and 0.69. Tic disorder, post traumatic disorder, panic disorder, and ADHD had the highest positive predictive validities. Conclusion The Farsi version of K-SADS-PL is a valid and reliable interview instrument

  16. Affective and Self-Esteem Instability in the Daily Lives of People with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Antonina S.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2014-01-01

    Research on affect and self-esteem in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has focused on trait or average levels, but we know little about the dynamic patterns of these experiences in the daily lives of people with SAD. We asked 40 adults with SAD and 39 matched healthy controls to provide end-of-day reports on their affect and self-esteem over two weeks. Compared to healthy adults, participants with SAD exhibited greater instability of negative affect and self-esteem, though the self-esteem effect...

  17. Severity of Anxiety Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Safa; Saeed Fallah-Tafti; Firrouzeh Talischi; Fatemeh Ghassem-Boroujerdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with chronic physical diseases sometimes show increased loss of function; such patients need more care. Anxiety is a well-known symptom that is prevalent among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients that can prolong and increase the risk of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety in the mentioned patients and to examine the presence of symptoms and appropriate treatment strategies to understand the role of psychological fu...

  18. The Investigation of Nail Disorders in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure Undergoing Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perihan Öztürk; Neslihan Dokur; Ergül Kurutaş; Ekrem Doğan; Tuğba Karakaş; Murat Kalender; Hasan Ekerbiçer

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Nail changes are often observed in patients with end-stage renal disease. These changes may occur due to chronic renal failure itself or to the treatment. This study aims to investigate the frequency of nail findings in patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy and to compare with healthy controls. Methods: One hundred and four patients with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis, and 104 healthy controls without any dermatological and sistemic diseases, were examined fo...

  19. Influenza hemagglutination inhibiting activity in respiratory mucus from horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (heaves syndrome).

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, J; Willoughby, R A; McDonell, W; Valli, V. E.; Viel, L; Bignell, W

    1983-01-01

    Samples of mucus from the lower trachea were collected from 53 horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and from 24 clinically normal horses. Serum samples were collected from 35 of the horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and from the 24 normal horses. Samples were tested for inhibition of hemagglutination by influenza A equine 1 and 2 viruses. There were high levels of hemagglutination inhibiting activity against influenza A equine 1 in mucus samples from horses with c...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…