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Sample records for chromospheric activity rotation

  1. Chromospheric activity and rotational modulation of the RS Canum Venaticorum binary V711 Tauri during 1998-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongtao; Gu, Shenghong

    2015-05-01

    We present long-term high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the very active RS Canum Venaticorum-type star V711 Tau, obtained during several observing runs from 1998 to 2004, and study its chromospheric activity. Using the spectral subtraction technique, several optical chromospheric activity indicators [including the He I D3, Na I D1, D2, Hα and Ca II infrared triplet (IRT) lines] formed at different atmospheric heights are analysed. Strong chromospheric emission supports earlier results that indicate that V711 Tau is a very active system. Two large optical flares were detected during our observations. The results suggest that the main part of chromospheric emission is attributed to the primary star of the system. The secondary also presents weak emission but is less active. The ratios of EW8542/EW8498 indicate that Ca II IRT emission arises predominantly from plage-like regions. We have found rotational modulation of chromospheric activity in the Hα and Ca II IRT lines, which suggests the presence of the chromospheric active longitudes over the surface of V711 Tau. Two active longitudes separated by about 180° were observed to dominate the activity, and the so-called flip-flop phenomenon was seen during our observations. Moreover, the chromospheric activity level shows a long-term variation that gradually increases from a deep minimum near the year 2002. A close spatial connection of photospheric spots and chromospheric active regions in both short and long timescales was found for V711 Tau.

  2. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar vicinity. An estimation of the radial velocity jitter

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Arnaiz, R; Montes, D; Eiroa, C; Montesinos, B

    2010-01-01

    Context: Chromospheric activity produces both photometric and spectroscopic variations that can be mistaken as planets. Large spots crossing the stellar disc can produce planet-like periodic variations in the light curve of a star. These spots clearly affect the spectral line profiles and their perturbations alter the line centroids creating a radial velocity jitter that might contaminate" the variations induced by a planet. Precise chromospheric activity measurements are needed to estimate the activity-induced noise that should be expected for a given star. Aims: We obtain precise chromospheric activity measurements and projected rotational velocities for nearby (d < 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to K) stars, to estimate their expected activity-related jitter. As a complementary objective, we attempt to obtain relationships between fluxes in different activity indicator lines, that permit a transformation of traditional activity indicators, i.e, CaII H & K lines, to others that hold noteworthy advanta...

  3. A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type stars: chromospheric activity, rotation, kinematics, and age

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Santiago, J; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Crespo-Chacon, I; Martinez-Arnaiz, R M; Fernandez-Figueroa, M J; De Castro, E; Cornide, M

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We present a compilation of spectroscopic data from a survey of 144 chromospherically active young stars in the solar neighborhood which may be used to investigate different aspects of the formation and evolution of the solar neighborhood in terms of kinematics and stellar formation history. The data have already been used by us in several studies. With this paper, we make all these data accessible to the scientific community for future studies on different topics. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations with echelle spectrographs to cover the entirety of the optical spectral range simultaneously. Standard data reduction was performed with the IRAF ECHELLE package. We applied the spectral subtraction technique to reveal chromospheric emission in the stars of the sample. The equivalent width of chromospheric emission lines was measured in the subtracted spectra and then converted to fluxes using equivalent width-flux relationships. Radial and rotational velocities were determined by the cross-co...

  4. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  5. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar neighbourhood: characterizing possible exoplanetary system host stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Arnáiz, Raquel M.

    2011-06-01

    This dissertation has investigated the chromospheric activity and rotation of nearby cool stars, which can potentially host exoplanetary systems. 1. High-resolution echelle spectra have been obtained for 565 nearby (d ≤ 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to M) stars. The observations were taken using high resolution echelle optical spectrographs. The observations were designed to ensure a spectral coverage including all the optical magnetic activity indicator lines: from the Ca II H & K lines to the Ca II IRT, including all the Balmer lines Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, and H?. This fact has ensured a simultaneous analysis of the magnetic activity using different diagnostics. The spectral coverage of the spectra has also permitted a precise analysis of the stellar properties as well as rotational and radial velocities. 2. The suitability of the stars as targets in exoplanetary search surveys has been analysed using the results obtained in the spectroscopic survey. Using the measured chromospheric activity in the optical spectrum, activity-induced RV jitter has been calculated for the active stars in the sample. Although the intrinsic variability of stellar activity makes it impossible to directly subtract the computed values from the RV signal, it provides an estimation of the activity-related noise. Therefore, this values can be used to set the minimum detectable mass for a planet orbiting the star or to determine the minimal amplitude variation that could indicate the existence of a planet. The compilation of the activity, rotation and predicted activity-induced RV jitter build up into a catalogue that determines the suitability of the stars as targets in exoplanet search surveys. 3. The relationship between pairs of excess surface flux in different activity diagnostics has been analysed using the results from the spectroscopic survey. The results show a clear correlation between the activity measured in different optical indicators. This fact confirms previous findings and

  6. Detailed Chromospheric Activity Nature of KIC 9641031

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldaş, Ezgi

    2016-01-01

    This study depends on KIC 9641031 eclipsing binary system with a chromospherically active component. There are three type variations, such as geometrical variations due to eclipses, sinusoidal variations due to the rotational modulations and also flares, in the light curves obtained with the data taken from the Kepler Mission Database. Taking into account results obtained from KIC 9641031's observations in the Kepler Mission Database, we present and discuss the details of chromospheric activity. The sinusoidal light variations due to rotational modulation and the flare events were modelled separately. 92 different data subsets separated using the analytic models described in the literature were modelled separately to obtain the cool spot configuration. It is seen that just one component of the system is chromospherically active star. On this component, there are two active regions separated by about 180 deg longitudinally between the latitudes of +50 deg and +100 deg, whose locations and forms are rapidly cha...

  7. Chromospheric activity as age indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of such an age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages larger than 2 Gyr, is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf b...

  8. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. II. Stellar Rotation, Starspots, and Chromospheric Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    We conducted high dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru/HDS. These 50 stars were selected from the solar-type superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler data. More than half (34 stars) of these 50 target superflare stars show no evidence of binarity, and we estimated stellar parameters of these 34 stars in our previous study (Notsu et al. 2015, hereafter called Paper I). According to our previous studies using Kepler data, superflare stars show quasi-periodic brightness variations whose amplitude (0.1-10\\%) is much larger than that of the solar brightness variations (0.01-0.1\\%) caused by the existence of sunspots on the rotating solar surface. In this study, we investigated whether these quasi-periodic brightness variations of superflare stars are explained by the rotation of a star with fairly large starspots, by using stellar parameters derived in Paper I. First, we confirmed that the value of the projected rotational velocity $v \\sin i$ is consistent with th...

  9. Starspot evolution, differential rotation, and magnetic cycles in the chromospherically active binaries lambda andromedae, sigma Geminorum, II Pegasi, and V711 Tauri

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    Henry, Gregory W.; Eaton, Joel A.; Hamer, Jamesia; Hall, Douglas S.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed 15-19 yr of photoelectric photometry, obtained manually and with automated telescopes, of the chromospherically active binaries lambda And, sigma Gem, II Peg, and V711 Tau. These observations let us identify individual dark starspots on the stellar surfaces from periodic dimming of the starlight, follow the evolution of these spots, and search for long-term cyclic changes in the properties of these starspots that might reveal magnetic cycles analogous to the Sun's 11 yr sunspot cycle. We developed a computer code to fit a simple two-spot model to our observed light curves that allows us to extract the most easily determinable and most reliable spot parameters from the light curves, i.e., spot longitudes and radii. We then used these measured properties to identify individual spots and to chart their life histories by constructing migration and amplitude curves. We identified and followed 11 spots in lambda And, 16 in sigma Gem, 12 in II Peg, and 15 in V711 Tau. Lifetimes of individual spots ranged from a few months to longer than 6 yr. Differential rotation coefficients, estimated from the observed range of spot rotation periods for each star and defined by equation (2), were 0.04 for lambda And, 0.038 for sigma Gem, 0.005 for II Peg, and 0.006 for V711 Tau, versus 0.19 for the Sun. We searched for cyclic changes in mean brightness, B-V color index, and spot rotation period as evidence for long-term cycles. Of these, long-term variability in mean brightness appears to offer the best evidence for such cycles in these four stars. Cycles of 11.1 yr for lambda And, 8.5 yr for sigma Gem, 11 yr for II Peg, and 16 yr V711 Tau are implied by these mean brightness changes. Cyclic changes in spot rotation period were found in lambda And and possibly II Peg. Errors in B-V were too large for any long-term changes to be detectable.

  10. Chromospheric activity as age indicator. An L-shaped chromospheric-activity versus age diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, G.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as an age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of this age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. Aims: I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. Methods: I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the solar neighbourhood. Results: Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. Conclusions: The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages older than 2 Gyr is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf binaries. However, even in the most optimistic scenario, uncertainty in age determination for field stars and lack of sufficient data in open clusters make any attempt of calibrating an age activity relationship for old stars premature. The hypothesis that chromospheric activity follows the Skumanich law, i.e. that it is proportional to t- 1/2, should be relaxed. The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/L8

  11. Evidence for Planet-induced Chromospheric Activity on HD 179949

    CERN Document Server

    Shkolnik, E; Bohlender, D A; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Walker, Gordon A.H.; Bohlender, David A.

    2003-01-01

    We have detected the synchronous enhancement of Ca II H & K emission with the short-period planetary orbit in HD 179949. High-resolution spectra taken on three observing runs extending more than a year show the enhancement coincides with phi ~ 0 (the sub-planetary point) of the 3.093-day orbit with the effect persisting for more than 100 orbits. The synchronous enhancement is consistent with planet-induced chromospheric heating by magnetic rather than tidal interaction. Something which can only be confirmed by further observations. Independent observations are needed to determine whether the stellar rotation is sychronous with the planet's orbit. Of the five 51 Peg-type systems monitored, HD 179949 shows the greatest chromospheric H & K activity. Three others show significant nightly variations but the lack of any phase coherence prevents us saying whether the activity is induced by the planet. Our two standards, tau Ceti and the Sun, show no such nightly variations.

  12. Chromospheric changes in K stars with activity

    CERN Document Server

    Vieytes, Mariela; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    We study the differences in chromospheric structure induced in K stars by stellar activity, to expand our previous work for G stars, including the Sun as a star. We selected six stars of spectral type K with 0.82$activity levels. We computed chromospheric models for the stars in the sample, in most cases in two different moments of activity. The models were constructed to obtain the best possible match with the Ca II K and the H$\\beta$ observed profiles. We also computed in detail the net radiative losses for each model to constrain the heating mechanism that can maintain the structure in the atmosphere. We find a strong correlation between these losses and \\Sc, the index generally used as a proxy for activity, as we found for G stars.

  13. Chromospherically active stars. II - HD 82558, a young single BY Draconis variable

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    Fekel, Francis C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Africano, John L.; Goodrich, Bret D.; Palmer, Leigh Hunter

    1986-01-01

    It is presently noted that the HD 82558 chromospherically active star is a young and rapidly rotating K2 V single BY Draconis variable with very strong far-UV emission features and an H-alpha line filled to the continuum level by emission. HD 82558 has constant velocity and is not a member of the Hyades Supercluster. Its light curve behavior, which appears to have been stable for several hundred rotation cycles, is reminiscent of that of the young, rapidly rotating, single K V variable H II 1883 in the Pleiades; this stability may be characteristic of young, single, chromospherically active stars.

  14. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, C1428EHA-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jofré, Emiliano [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  15. Possible chromospheric activity cycles in AD Leo

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P; Jofré, Emiliano; Mauas, Pablo J D

    2013-01-01

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully-convective boundary, to study in detail its long-term chromospheric activity could be an appreciable contribution for the dynamo theory. Here, we analyze with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both totally independent time-series, we obtain a possible activity cycle of period $\\sim7$ years and a less-significant shorter one of $\\sim2$ years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe simultaneously different spectral features, we also analyze the relation bet...

  16. The chromospherically active binary CFTuc revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doǧru, D.; Erdem, A.; Doǧru, S. S.; Zola, S.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents results derived from analysis of new spectroscopic and photometric observations of the chromospherically active binary system CFTuc. New high-resolution spectra, taken at the Mt. John University Observatory in 2007, were analysed using two methods: cross-correlation and Fourier-based disentangling. As a result, new radial velocity curves of both components were obtained. The resulting orbital elements of CFTuc are a1 sini = 0.0254 +/- 0.0001au, a2sini = 0.0228 +/- 0.0001au, M1sini = 0.902 +/- 0.005Msolar and M2sini = 1.008 +/- 0.006Msolar. The cooler component of the system shows Hα and CaII H&K emissions. Using simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations, an anticorrelation between the Hα emission and the BV light curve maculation effects was found. This behaviour indicates a close spatial association between photospheric and chromospheric active regions. Our spectroscopic data and recent BV light curves were solved simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney code. A dark spot on the surface of the cooler component was assumed to explain large asymmetries observed in the light curves. The following absolute parameters of the components were determined: M1 = 1.11 +/- 0.01Msolar, M2 = 1.23 +/- 0.01Msolar, R1 = 1.63 +/- 0.02Rsolar, R2 = 3.60 +/- 0.02Rsolar, L1 = 3.32 +/- 0.51Lsolar and L2 = 3.91 +/- 0.84Lsolar. The primary component has an age of about 5Gyr and is approaching its main-sequence terminal age. The distance to CFTuc was calculated to be 89 +/- 6pc from the dynamic parallax, neglecting interstellar absorption, in agreement with the Hipparcos value. The orbital period of the system was studied using the O-C analysis. The O-C diagram could be interpreted in terms of either two abrupt changes or a quasi-sinusoidal form superimposed on a downward parabola. These variations are discussed by reference to the combined effect of mass transfer and mass loss, the Applegate mechanism and also a light-time effect due to the existence of

  17. Chromospheric activity on late-type star DM UMa using high-resolution spectroscopic observations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, LiYun; Han, Xianming L; Chang, Liang; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We present new 14 high-resolution echelle spectra to discuss the level of chromospheric activity of DM UMa in {He I} D3, {Na I} D1, D2, Halpha, and {Ca II} infrared triplet lines (IRT). It is the first time to discover the emissions above the continuum in the {He I} D3 lines on 2015 February 9 and 10. The emission on February 9 is the strongest one ever detected for DM UMa. We analysed these chromospheric active indicators by employing the spectral subtraction technique. The subtracted spectra reveal weak emissions in the {Na I} D1, D2 lines, strong emission in the Halpha line, and clear excess emissions in the {Ca II} IRT lines. Our values for the EW8542/EW8498 ratio are on the low side, in the range of 1.0-1.7. There are also clear phase variations of the level of chromospheric activity in equivalent width (EW) light curves in these chromospheric active lines (especially the Halpha line). These phenomena might be explained by flare events or rotational modulations of the level of chromospheric activity.

  18. Chromospherically active stars. X - Spectroscopy and photometry of HD 212280

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Browning, Jared C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Morton, Mary D.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1993-01-01

    The system HD 212280 is a chromospherically active double lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 45.284 days and an eccentricity of 0.50. The spectrum is composite with spectral types of G8 IV and F5-8 V for the components. An estimated inclination of 78 +/- 8 deg results in masses of 1.7 and 1.4 solar mass for the G subgiant and mid-F star, respectively. The distance to the system is estimated to be 112 pc. Photometric observations obtained between 1987 November and 1992 June reveal that HD 212280 is a newly identified variable star with a V amplitude of about 0.15 mag and a mean period of 29.46 days. Our V data were divided into 11 sets and in all but one case two spots were required to fit the data. Lifetimes of 650 days and a minimum of 1350 days have been determined for two of the four spots. The differential rotation coefficient of 0.05 is relatively small. The age of the system is about 1.9 X 10 exp 9 yrs. The G subgiant is rotating slower than pseudosynchronously while the F-type star is rotating faster.

  19. Long-term chromospheric activity of non-eclipsing RS CVn-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2009-02-01

    Context: The IUE database provides several UV high and low-resolution spectra of RS CVn-type stars from 1978 to 1996. In particular, many of these stars were monitored continuously during several seasons by IUE. Aims: Our main purpose is to study the short and long-term chromospheric activity of the RS CVn systems most observed by IUE: HD 22 468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099, K1IV+G5V), HD 21 242 (UX Ari, K0IV+G5V), and HD 224 085 (II Peg, K2IV). Methods: We first obtained the Mount Wilson index S from the IUE high and low-resolution spectra. Secondly, we used the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to analyse the mean annual index and the amplitude of the rotational modulation of the index S. Results: For HD 22 468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099), we find a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of ~18 years and a shorter cycle with a period of ~3 years, which could be associated to a chromospheric “flip-flop” cycle. The data of HD 224 085 (II Peg) also suggest a chromospheric cycle of ~21 years and a flip-flop cycle of ~9 years. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of ~7 years for HD 21 242 (UX Ari).

  20. Evolution of Chromospheric Activity: M67 Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Whitney, B. A.; Pasquini, L.

    1999-08-01

    Echelle spectra of the Ca II H- and K-line region (λ3950) of 15 red giant stars in the open cluster M67 reveal atmospheric dynamics and determine chromospheric radiative losses in order to assess chromospheric heating requirements and to follow the evolution of chromospheric activity. M67 red giants in conjunction with giants in younger clusters create a continuous group of red giants in the color-magnitude diagram, with 0.1mass motions are well established at these luminosities. Radiative losses, as measured by emission strengths from Ca II, decrease smoothly with decreasing stellar effective temperature in M67 and connect well to a combined sample of warmer cluster giants (NGC 2477, IC 4756, and the Hyades) with Mrelated processes. The relative contribution of each heating mechanism changes with temperature in the stellar atmosphere, and these proportions may change during a star's evolution from the main sequence.

  1. Observing Episodic Coronal Heating Events Rooted in Chromospheric Activity

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Scott W

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a multi-wavelength study of episodic plasma injection into the corona of AR 10942. We exploit long-exposure images of the Hinode and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft to study the properties of faint, episodic, "blobs" of plasma that are propelled upward along coronal loops that are rooted in the AR plage. We find that the source location and characteristic velocities of these episodic upflow events match those expected from recent spectroscopic observations of faint coronal upflows that are associated with upper chromospheric activity, in the form of highly dynamic spicules. The analysis presented ties together observations from coronal and chromospheric spectrographs and imagers, providing more evidence of the connection of discrete coronal mass heating and injection events with their source, dynamic spicules, in the chromosphere.

  2. Long-term chromospheric activity of non-eclipsing RS CVn-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-01-01

    Context. The IUE database provides a large number of UV high and low-resolution spectra of RS CVn-type stars from 1978 to 1996. In particular, many of these stars were monitored continuously during several seasons by IUE. Aims. Our main purpose is to study the short and long-term chromospheric activity of the RS CVn systems most observed by IUE: HD 22468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099, K1IV+G5V), HD 21242 (UX Ari, K0IV+G5V) and HD 224085 (II Peg, K2IV). Methods. We first obtain the Mount Wilson index S from the IUE high and low-resolution spectra. Secondly, we analyse with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram the mean annual index S and the amplitude of its rotational modulation. Results. For HD 22468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099), we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter cycle with a period of 3 years, which could be associated to a chromospheric "flip-flop" cycle. The data of HD 224085 (II Peg) also suggest a chromospheric cycle of 21 years and a flip-flop cycle of 9 years. Finally, we obtained a p...

  3. Study of FK Comae Berenices: VII. Correlating photospheric and chromospheric activity

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Ilyin, I V; Oláh, K; Andersen, M I; Hackman, T

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection between the chromospheric and photospheric behaviour of the active late-type star FK Comae. We use spot temperature modelling, light curve inversion based on narrow- and wide-band photometric measurements, Halpha observations from 1997-2010, and Doppler maps from 2004-2010 to compare the behaviour of chromospheric and photospheric features. Investigating low-resolution Halpha spectra we find that the changes in the chromosphere seem to happen mainly on a time scale longer than a few hours, but shorter variations were also observed. According to the Halpha measurements prominences are often found in the chromosphere that reach to more than a stellar radius and are stable for weeks, and which seem to be often, but not every time connected with dark photospheric spots. The rotational modulation of the Halpha emission seems to typically be anticorrelated with the light curve, but we did not find convincing evidence of a clear connection in the long-term trends of the Halpha emission and th...

  4. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  5. Challenges to Understand Stellar Chromospheres and Stellar Activity: The Limit Case of Late-A and Early-F Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Gouttebroze, P.

    The onset of chromospheric activity appears at late-A and early-F stars where theories predict atmospheres in radiative equilibrium and shallow or non-existent convective zones. The detection of Ly-α emission cores in several A and F stars, first with the IUE satellite and then with the HST, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0. ^m19 (Catalano et al. [CITE]). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire et al. [CITE]) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal HI IS absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity we analyzed alternative hypotheses like the formation of Ly-α emissions into a corotating expanding wind, but we ruled out this alternative because we obtained inconsistent results. In addition, X-ray emission (originated surely in a corona) strengthen the presence of a chromosphere. Here we place the problem of chromospheric activity of late-A and early-F stars in the general context of the formation of over-photospheric stellar layers, comparing them with late-type star and solar cases.

  6. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars I: The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Ribas, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures, metallicity, and gravities avoiding the degeneracy present in photo...

  7. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  8. The chromospherically--active binary CF Tuc revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dogru, D; Dogru, S S; Zola, S

    2009-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra, of the chromospherically active binary system CF Tuc, taken at the Mt. John University Observatory in 2007, were analyzed using two methods: cross-correlation and Fourier--based disentangling. As a result, new radial velocity curves of both components were obtained. The resulting orbital elements of CF Tuc are: $a_{1}{\\sin}i$=$0.0254\\pm0.0001$ AU, $a_{2}{\\sin}i$=$0.0228\\pm0.0001$ AU, $M_{1}{\\sin}i$=$0.902\\pm0.005$ $M_{\\odot}$, and $M_{2}{\\sin}i$=$1.008\\pm0.006$ $M_{\\odot}$. The cooler component of the system shows H$\\alpha$ and CaII H & K emissions. Our spectroscopic data and recent $BV$ light curves were solved simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney code. A dark spot on the surface of the cooler component was assumed to explain large asymmetries observed in the light curves. The following absolute parameters of the components were determined: $M_{1}$=$1.11\\pm0.01$ $M_{\\odot}$, $M_{2}$=$1.23\\pm0.01$ $M_{\\odot}$, $R_{1}$=$1.63\\pm0.02$ $R_{\\odot}$, $R_{2}$=$3.60\\pm0.02$ $R_{\\o...

  9. The Chromospherically Active Low-Mass Close Binary KIC 9761199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldaş, E.; Dal, H. A.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results obtained from the analyses of KIC 9761199's light variation acquired by the Kepler Mission. The temperature of the secondary component was found to be 3891±1 K, and the mass ratio was found to be 0.69±0.01 with an orbital inclination of 77°.4± 0°.1. Stellar spots separated by about 180° longitudinally were found around the latitudes of +47° and +30°. In addition, the OPEA model was derived for 94 detected flares. The plateau value was found to be 1.951±0.069 s, while the half-life value was found to be 1014 s. The flare frequency N1 was 0.01351 h-1, while the flare frequency N2 was 0.00006. Maximum flare rise time was 1118.098 s, while maximum flare total time was 6767.72 s. The chromospheric activity level of KIC 9761199 is at the expected level according to a B-V of 1m.303.

  10. Possible chromospheric activity cycles in II Peg, UX Ari and V711 Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-01-01

    We study the Mount Wilson indices we obtained indirectly from IUE high and low resolution spectra of the RS CVn-type systems II Peg (K2IV), UX Ari (K0IV+G5V) and V711 Tau (K1IV+G5V), extensively observed by IUE from 1978 to 1996. We analyze the activity signatures, which correspond to the primary star, with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. From the analysis of V711 Tau data, we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter near 3-year cycle, which could be associated to a chromospheric flip-flop cycle. The data of II Peg also suggest a chromospheric cycle of near 21 years and a flip-flop cycle of 9 years approximately. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of near 6 years for UX Ari.

  11. Possible chromospheric activity cycles in II Peg, UX Ari and V711 Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2009-02-01

    We study the Mount Wilson indices we obtained indirectly from IUE high and low resolution spectra of the RS CVn-type systems II Peg (K2IV), UX Ari (K0IV+G5V) and V711 Tau (K1IV+G5V), extensively observed by IUE from 1978 to 1996. We analyze the activity signatures, which correspond to the primary star, with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. From the analysis of V711 Tau data, we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter ~3 year cycle, which could be associated to a chromospheric flip-flop cycle. The data of II Peg also suggest a chromospheric cycle of ~21 years and a flip-flop cycle of ~9 years. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of ~6 years for UX Ari.

  12. Chromospheric and Coronal Activity in the 500-Myr-old Open Cluster M37: Evidence for Coronal Stripping?

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alejandro; Covey, Kevin R; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey to characterize chromospheric activity, as measured by H$\\alpha$ emission, in low-mass members of the 500-Myr-old open cluster M37. Combining our new measurements of H$\\alpha$ luminosities ($L_{H\\alpha}$) with previously cataloged stellar properties, we identify saturated and unsaturated regimes in the dependence of the $L_{H\\alpha}$-to-bolometric-luminosity ratio, $L_{H\\alpha}/L_{bol}$, on the Rossby number $R_o$. All rotators with Ro smaller than 0.03$\\pm$0.01 converge to an activity level of $L_{H\\alpha}/L_{bol}$ = (1.27$\\pm$0.02) x 10$^{-4}$. This saturation threshold ($R_{o,sat}$ = 0.03$\\pm$0.01) is statistically smaller than that found in most studies of the rotation-activity relation. In the unsaturated regime, slower rotators have lower levels of chromospheric activity, with $L_{H\\alpha}/L_{bol}$($R_o$) following a power-law of index $\\beta$ = -0.51$\\pm$0.02, slightly shallower than the one found for a combined $\\approx$650-Myr-old sample of Hyades and ...

  13. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars. I. The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dutra-Ferreira, L.; Ribas, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. Aims: The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines, λλ 8498, 8542, and 8662) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. Methods: We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures (Teff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and gravities (log g) avoiding the degeneracy usually present in photometric continuum calibrations based solely on color indices. Results: The internal uncertainties achieved for continuum absolute flux calculations are ≈2% of the solar chromospheric flux, one order of magnitude lower than for photometric calibrations. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we gauge the impact of observational errors on the final chromospheric fluxes due to the absolute continuum flux calibration and find that Teffuncertainties are properly mitigated by the photospheric correction leaving [Fe/H] as the dominating factor in the chromospheric flux uncertainty. Conclusions: Across the FGK spectral types, the Ca II IRT lines are sensitive to chromospheric activity. The reduced internal uncertainties reported here enable us to build a new chromospheric absolute flux scale and explore the age-activity relation from the active regime down to very low activity levels and

  14. Chromospheric and Coronal Activity in the 500 Myr old Open Cluster M37: Evidence for Coronal Stripping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Covey, Kevin R.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic survey to characterize chromospheric activity, as measured by {{H}}α emission, in low-mass members of the 500 Myr old open cluster M37. Combining our new measurements of {{H}}α luminosities ({L}{{H}α }) with previously cataloged stellar properties, we identify saturated and unsaturated regimes in the dependence of the {L}{{H}α }-to-bolometric luminosity ratio, {L}{{H}α }/{L}{bol}, on the Rossby number R o . All rotators with R o smaller than 0.03 ± 0.01 converge to an activity level of {L}{{H}α }/{L}{bol}=(1.27+/- 0.02)× {10}-4. This saturation threshold ({R}o,{sat}=0.03+/- 0.01) is statistically smaller than that found in most studies of the rotation–activity relation. In the unsaturated regime, slower rotators have lower levels of chromospheric activity, with {L}{{H}α }/{L}{bol}(R o ) following a power-law of index β =-0.51+/- 0.02, slightly shallower than that found for a combined ≈650 Myr old sample of Hyades and Praesepe stars. By comparing this unsaturated behavior to that previously found for coronal activity in M37 (as measured via the X-ray luminosity, {L}{{X}}), we confirm that chromospheric activity decays at a much slower rate than coronal activity with increasing R o . While a comparison of {L}{{H}α } and {L}{{X}} for M37 members with measurements of both reveals a nearly 1:1 relation, removing the mass-dependencies by comparing instead {L}{{H}α }/{L}{bol} and {L}{{X}}/{L}{bol} does not provide clear evidence for such a relation. Finally, we find that {R}o,{sat} is smaller for our chromospheric than for our coronal indicator of activity ({R}o,{sat}=0.03+/- 0.01 versus 0.09 ± 0.01). We interpret this as possible evidence for coronal stripping.

  15. From CoRoT 102899501 to the Sun. A time evolution model of chromospheric activity on the main sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Gondoin, P; Fridlund, M; Frasca, A; Guenther, E W; Hatzes, A; Deeg, H J; Parviainen, H; Eigmueller, P; Deleuil, M

    2012-01-01

    Using a model based on the rotational modulation of the visibility of active regions, we analyse the high-accuracy CoRoT lightcurve of the active young star CoRoT102899501. Spectroscopic follow-up observations are used to derive its fundamental parameters. We compare its chromospheric activity level with a model of chrosmospheric activity evolution established by combining relationships between the R'HK index and the Rossby number with a recent model of stellar rotation evolution on the main sequence. We measure the spot coverage of the stellar surface as a function of time, and find evidence for a tentative increase from 5-14% at the beginning of the observing run to 13-29% 35 days later. A high level of magnetic activity on CoRoT102899501 is corroborated by a strong emission in the Balmer and Ca II HK lines (logR'HK ~ -4). The starspots used as tracers of the star rotation constrain the rotation period to 1.625+/-0.002 days and do not show evidence for differential rotation. The effective temperature (Teff=...

  16. The Activity and Rotation Limit in the Hyades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, U.; Reiners, A.; Seifahrt, A.; Kürster, M.

    2011-12-01

    We conduct a study of K to M type stars to investigate the activity and the rotation limit in the Hyades. We use a sample of 40 stars in this intermediate-age cluster (≍625 Myr) to probe stellar rotation in the threshold region where stellar activity becomes prevalent. Here we present projected equatorial velocities (vrotsin i) and chromospheric activity measurements (Hα) that indicate the existence of fast rotators in the Hyades at spectral types where also the fraction of stars with Hα emission shows a rapid increase ("Hα limit"). The locus of enhanced rotation (and activity) thus seems to be shifted to earlier types in contrast to what is seen as the rotation limit in field stars. The relation between activity and rotation appears to be similar to the one observed in field stars.

  17. The activity and rotation limit in the Hyades

    CERN Document Server

    Seemann, U; Seifahrt, A; Kürster, M

    2010-01-01

    We conduct a study of K to M type stars to investigate the activity and the rotation limit in the Hyades. We use a sample of 40 stars in this intermediate-age cluster (~625 Myr) to probe stellar rotation in the threshold region where stellar activity becomes prevalent. Here we present projected equatorial velocities (vsin i) and chromospheric activity measurements (H{\\alpha}) that indicate the existence of fast rotators in the Hyades at spectral types where also the fraction of stars with H{\\alpha} emission shows a rapid increase ("H{\\alpha} limit"). The locus of enhanced rotation (and activity) thus seems to be shifted to earlier types in contrast to what is seen as the rotation limit in field stars. The relation between activity and rotation appears to be similar to the one observed in fields stars.

  18. Chromospheric Observations of a Kink Wave in an On-disk Active Region Fibril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietarila, A. M.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Hirzberger, J.; Solanki, S.

    2011-12-01

    Most observations of kink and Alfven waves in the chromosphere are made in off-limb spicules. Here we present observations of a kink wave in high spatial and temporal resolution Ca II 8542 data of an active region fibril on the solar disk. The properties of the observed wave are similar to kink waves in spicules. From the inferred wave phase and period we estimate the lower limit for the field strength in the chromospheric fibril to be a few hundred Gauss. The observations indicate that the event may have been triggered by a small-scale reconnection event higher up in the atmosphere.

  19. Mg II Chromospheric Emission Line Bisectors Of HD39801 And Its Relation With The Activity Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Leonardo Enrique; Pérez Martínez, M. Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Betelgeuse is a cool star of spectral type M and luminosity class I. In the present work, the activity cycle of Betelgeuse was obtained from the integrated emission flux of the Mg II H and K lines, using more than 250 spectra taken from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) online database. Of which it was found, based on a Lomb Scargle periodogram, a cycle of 16 years, along with 2 sub-cycles with a period of the order of 0.60 and 0.65 years, which may be due to turbulence or possible stellar flares. In addition, an analysis of line asymmetry was made by means of the chromospheric emission line bisectors, due to the strong self-absorption observed in this lines, the blue and red wings were analyzed independently. In order to measure such asymmetry, a "line shift" was calculated, from which several cycles of variability were obtained from a Lomb Scargle periodogram, spanning from few months to 4 years. In the sense, the most significant cycle is about 0.44 and 0.33 years in the blue and red wing respectively. It is worth noting, that the rotation period of the star doesn't play an important role in the variability of the Mg II lines. This technique provides us with a new way to study activity cycles of evolved stars.

  20. The effect of magnetic activity saturation in chromospheric flux-flux relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Arnáiz, R M; Crespo-Chacón, I; Montes, D

    2011-01-01

    We present a homogeneous study of chromospheric and coronal flux-flux relationships using a sample of 298 late-type dwarf active stars with spectral types F to M. The chromospheric lines were observed simultaneously in each star to avoid spread due to long term variability. Unlike other works, we subtract the basal chromospheric contribution in all the spectral lines studied. For the first time, we quantify the departure of dMe stars from the general relations. We show that dK and dKe stars also deviate from the general trend. Studying the flux-colour diagrams we demonstrate that the stars deviating from the general relations are those with saturated X-ray emission and that those stars also present saturation in the H$\\alpha$ line. Using several age spectral indicators, we show that they are younger stars than those following the general relationships. The non-universality of flux-flux relationships found in this work should be taken into account when converting between fluxes in different chromospheric activ...

  1. An active region filament studied simultaneously in the chromosphere and photosphere. I. Magnetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Centeno, R.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: A thorough multiwavelength, multiheight study of the vector magnetic field in a compact active region filament (NOAA 10781) on 2005 July 3 and 5 is presented. We suggest an evolutionary scenario for this filament. Methods: Two different inversion codes were used to analyze the full Stokes vectors acquired with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) in a spectral range that comprises the chromospheric He i 10 830 Å multiplet and the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å line. In addition, we used SOHO/MDI magnetograms, as well as BBSO and TRACE images, to study the evolution of the filament and its active region (AR). High-resolution images of the Dutch Open Telescope were also used. Results: An active region filament (formed before our observing run) was detected in the chromospheric helium absorption images on July 3. The chromospheric vector magnetic field in this portion of the filament was strongly sheared (parallel to the filament axis), whereas the photospheric field lines underneath had an inverse polarity configuration. From July 3 to July 5, an opening and closing of the polarities on either side of the polarity inversion line (PIL) was recorded, resembling the recently discovered process of the sliding door effect seen by Hinode. This is confirmed with both TIP-II and SOHO/MDI data. During this time, a newly created region that contained pores and orphan penumbrae at the PIL was observed. On July 5, a normal polarity configuration was inferred from the chromospheric spectra, while strongly sheared field lines aligned with the PIL were found in the photosphere. In this same data set, the spine of the filament is also observed in a different portion of the field of view and is clearly mapped by the silicon line core. Conclusions: The inferred vector magnetic fields of the filament suggest a flux rope topology. Furthermore, the observations indicate that the filament is divided in two parts, one which lies in the chromosphere and another one that stays

  2. Chromospherically Active Low-Mass Close Binary: KIC 9761199

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldas, Ezgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the results obtained from KIC 9761199's the photometrical data acquired by the Kepler Mission. The light curve of the system, the sinusoidal variation out-of-eclipses and instant-short term flare events in the entire light curves were analyzed. The temperature of the secondary component was found to be 3891+-1 K, while the mass ratio of the components (q) was found to be 0.69+-0.01, and the orbital inclination (i) was computed as 77.4+-0.1 degrees. The sinusoidal variation is caused by the stellar spots of two active regions separated by about 180 degrees longitudinally located around the latitudes of +47 and +30 degrees. In addition, 94 flares were detected and their parameters were computed. The OPEA model was derived for these flares and its parameters were computed. The Plateau value as saturation level for the active component was found to be 1.951+-0.069 s, while the half-life value was found to be 1014 s. The flare frequency N1 was found to be 0.01351 per hour, while the flare...

  3. A coordinated optical and X-ray spectroscopic campaign on HD179949: searching for planet-induced chromospheric and coronal activity

    CERN Document Server

    Scandariato, G; Lanza, A F; Pagano, I; Fares, R; Shkolnik, E L; Bohlender, D; Cameron, A C; Dieters, S; Donati, J -F; Fiorenzano, A F Martìnez; Jardine, M; Moutou, C

    2013-01-01

    HD179949 is an F8V star, orbited by a close-in giant planet with a period of ~3 days. Previous studies suggested that the planet enhances the magnetic activity of the parent star, producing a chromospheric hot spot which rotates in phase with the planet orbit. However, this phenomenon is intermittent since it was observed in several but not all seasons. A long-term monitoring of the magnetic activity of HD179949 is required to study the amplitude and time scales of star-planet interactions. In 2009 we performed a simultaneous optical and X-ray spectroscopic campaign to monitor the magnetic activity of HD179949 during ~5 orbital periods and ~2 stellar rotations. We analyzed the CaII H&K lines as a proxy for chromospheric activity, and we studied the X-ray emission in search of flux modulations and to determine basic properties of the coronal plasma. A detailed analysis of the flux in the cores of the CaII H&K lines and a similar study of the X-ray photometry shows evidence of source variability, includ...

  4. An active region filament studied simultaneously in the chromosphere and photosphere: I - Magnetic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Pillet, V Martinez

    2011-01-01

    A thorough multiwavelength, multiheight study of the vector magnetic field in a compact active region (AR) filament (NOAA10781) is presented. We suggest an evolutionary scenario for this filament. Full Stokes vectors were acquired with TIP-II in a spectral range which comprises the chromospheric He I 10830 A multiplet and the photospheric Si I 10827 A line. An AR filament (that was formed before our observing run) was detected in the He I absorption images on 2005 July 3rd. The chromospheric vector magnetic field in this portion of the filament was strongly sheared whereas the photospheric field lines underneath had an inverse polarity configuration. From July 3rd to July 5th, an opening and closing of the polarities at either side of the polarity inversion line (PIL) was recorded, resembling the recently discovered process of the sliding door effect seen by Hinode. During this time, a newly created region that contained pores and orphan penumbrae at the PIL was observed.On July 5th, a normal polarity configu...

  5. Examining the Flicker-Jitter Relation of K2 stars: the Dependence on Chromospheric Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhn, Jacob K.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Bastien et al. (2014) have shown that short timescale photometric variations from high-precision Kepler light curves, coined "flicker", can be linked to radial velocity (RV) noise, or "jitter", in chromospherically inactive stars. Observations of the sun show invariance in flicker over its 11-year activity cycle. Therefore, we seek to examine how well the relation holds for more active stars. Here we explore the relation between photometric flicker and RV jitter by extending the sample to stars observed by the recent K2 mission for which data have been released (Campaigns 0-8). The initial Kepler sample included 12 stars with surface gravities 3 TESS and other future telescopes which will produce high-precision light curves.

  6. Photospheric and chromospheric magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs. Observational inputs on the solar-stellar connection from Kepler and Hermes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Beck, P. G.; Egeland, R.; Pallé, P. L.; Mathur, S.; Metcalfe, T. S.; do Nascimento, J.-D., Jr.; Ceillier, T.; Andersen, M. F.; Triviño Hage, A.

    2016-11-01

    We identify a set of 18 solar analogs among the seismic sample of solar-like stars observed by the Kepler satellite rotating between 10 and 40 days. This set is constructed using the asteroseismic stellar properties derived using either the global oscillation properties or the individual acoustic frequencies. We measure the magnetic activity properties of these stars using observations collected by the photometric Kepler satellite and by the ground-based, high-resolution Hermes spectrograph mounted on the Mercator telescope. The photospheric (Sph) and chromospheric (S index) magnetic activity levels of these seismic solar analogs are estimated and compared in relation to the solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs, within the maximum-to-minimum temporal variations of the 11-yr solar activity cycle 23. In agreement with previous studies, the youngest stars and fastest rotators in our sample are actually the most active. The activity of stars older than the Sun seems to not evolve much with age. Furthermore, the comparison of the photospheric, Sph, with the well-established chromospheric, S index, indicates that the Sph index can be used to provide a suitable magnetic activity proxy which can be easily estimated for a large number of stars from space photometric observations. Based on observations collected by the NASA Kepler space telescope and the Hermes spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Mercator telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Chromospheric Emission, Accretion Properties, and Rotation in $\\gamma$ Velorum and Chamaeleon I

    CERN Document Server

    Frasca, A; Lanzafame, A C; Alcalá, J M; Brugaletta, E; Klutsch, A; Stelzer, B; Sacco, G G; Spina, L; Jeffries, R D; Montes, D; Alfaro, E J; Barentsen, G; Bonito, R; Gameiro, J F; Lopez-Santiago, J; Pace, G; Pasquini, L; Prisinzano, L; Sousa, S G; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Micela, G; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Bayo, A; Costado, M T; Franciosini, E; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofre', P; Lardo, C; Maiorca, E; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Worley, C C

    2014-01-01

    We use the fundamental parameters delivered by the GES consortium in the first internal data release to select the members of $\\gamma$ Vel and Cha I among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. A total of 140 $\\gamma$ Vel members and 74 Cha I members were studied. We calculated stellar luminosities through spectral energy distributions, while stellar masses were derived by comparison with evolutionary tracks. The spectral subtraction of low-activity and slowly rotating templates, which are rotationally broadened to match the $v\\sin i$ of the targets, enabled us to measure the equivalent widths (EWs) and the fluxes in the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ lines. The H$\\alpha$ line was also used for identifying accreting objects and for evaluating the mass accretion rate ($\\dot M_{\\rm acc}$). The distribution of $v\\sin i$ for the members of $\\gamma$ Vel displays a peak at about 10 km s$^{-1}$ with a tail toward faster rotators. There is also some indication of a different $v\\sin i$ distribution for the members o...

  8. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  9. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  10. Chromospheric activity and evolutionary age of the Sun and four solar twins

    CERN Document Server

    Mittag, M; Hempelmann, A; González-Pérez, J N; Schmitt, J H M M

    2016-01-01

    The activity levels of the solar-twin candidates HD 101364 and HD 197027 are measured and compared with the Sun, the known solar twin 18 Sco, and the solar-like star 51 Peg. Furthermore, the absolute ages of these five objects are estimated from their positions in the HR diagram and the evolutionary (relative) age compared with their activity levels. To represent the activity level of these stars, the Mount Wilson S-indices were used. To obtain consistent ages and evolutionary advance on the main sequence, we used evolutionary tracks calculated with the Cambridge Stellar Evolution Code. From our spectroscopic observations of HD 101364 and HD 197027 and based on the established calibration procedures, the respective Mount Wilson S-indices are determined. We find that the chromospheric activity of both stars is comparable with the present activity level of the Sun and that of 18 Sco, at least for the period in consideration. Furthermore, the absolute age of HD 101364, HD 197027, 51 Peg, and 18 Sco are found to ...

  11. Observation and modeling of main sequence star chromospheres. 3: Differential analysis of hydrogen lines versus activity level in M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Doyle, J. G.; Koscielecki, M.

    1995-02-01

    We use the constraints at the extremes in magnetic activity level to simulate the effect of varying magnetic non-thermal heating in dM and dMe chromospheres by varying the transition region pressure and temperature minimum. We built four grids of model atmospheres with temperature minimum either at 2,660 K or 3,000 K, and a range of transition region pressure. We found that when decreasing the transition region pressure (i.e. the chromospheric temperature gradient), the Balmer lines change rapidly from emission to strong absorption, then the profiles weaken and become narrower until they disappear totally (zero Halpha stars). The Paschen and Brackett series exhibit a qualitatively similar behavior, but the `emission domain' is at a higher column mass. The Brackett lines never really develop a strong absorption. In opposition with other series, the Lyman lines show a monotonous decrease and even change to absorption for very low density models. These differences are useful spectral diagnostics for M dwarf atmospheres. All hydrogen series, except the Lyman series for intermediate and high pressures, are sensitive to the temperature minimum when large changes are considered. We also investigated the effect of the temperature break zone and found it is important only for high pressure atmospheres. Our grids of models successfully reproduce all type of observed Halpha profiles: (1) high activity with strong emission and weak self-reversal, (2) filled in intermediate activity with inner wings in emission and the core in absorption, (3) intermediate activity with strong and broad absorption, (4) low activity with weak and narrow absorption, (5) `zero activity' with an undetectable profile. We discuss the line characteristics over this wide range of physical conditions. We analyze the ionization fraction and electron density for our series of chromospheres. Changes in the ionization fraction are important throughout the pressure range. Heavy elements are the main electron

  12. Photospheric and chromospheric magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs. Observational inputs on the solar/stellar connection from Kepler and Hermes

    CERN Document Server

    Salabert, D; Beck, P G; Egeland, R; Palle, P L; Mathur, S; Metcalfe, T S; Nascimento, J -D do; Ceillier, T; Andersen, M F; Hage, A Trivino

    2016-01-01

    We identify a set of 18 solar analogs among the seismic sample of solar-like stars observed by the Kepler satellite rotating between 10 and 40 days. This set is constructed using the asteroseismic stellar properties derived using either the global oscillation properties or the individual acoustic frequencies. We measure the magnetic activity properties of these stars using observations collected by the photometric Kepler satellite and by the ground-based, high-resolution Hermes spectrograph mounted on the Mercator telescope. The photospheric (Sph) and chromospheric (S index) magnetic activity levels of these seismic solar analogs are estimated and compared in relation to the solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs, within the maximum-to-minimum temporal variations of the 11-year solar activity cycle 23. In agreement with previous studies, the youngest stars and fastest rotators in our sample are actually the most active. The activity of s...

  13. Oscillatory behavior of chromospheric fine structures in a network and a semi-active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Al, N

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we study the periodicities of oscillations in dark fine structures using observations of a network and a semi-active region close to the solar disk center. We simultaneously obtained spatially high resolution time series of white light images and narrow band images in the H$\\alpha$ line using the 2D G\\"ottingen spectrometer, which were based on two Fabry-Perot interferometers and mounted in the VTT/Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. During the observations, the H$\\alpha$ line was scanned at 18 wavelength positions with steps of 125 m\\AA. We computed series of Doppler and intensity images by subtraction and addition of the H$\\alpha$ $\\pm$ 0.3 \\AA\\ and $\\pm$ 0.7 \\AA\\ pairs, sampling the upper chromosphere and the upper photosphere, respectively. Then we obtained power, coherence and phase difference spectra by performing a wavelet analysis to the Doppler fluctuations. Here, we present comparative results of oscillatory properties of dark fine structures seen in a network and a semi-active reg...

  14. Chromospherically Active Stars in the RAVE Survey. II. Young Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žerjal, M.; Zwitter, T.; Matijevič, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Seabroke, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Wojno, J.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Conrad, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kunder, A.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of over 38,000 chromospherically active candidate solar-like stars and cooler dwarfs from the RAVE survey is addressed in this paper. An improved activity identification with respect to the previous study was introduced to build a catalog of field stars in the solar neighborhood with an excess emission flux in the calcium infrared triplet wavelength region. The central result of this work is the calibration of the age–activity relation for main-sequence dwarfs in a range from a few 10 {Myr} up to a few Gyr. It enabled an order of magnitude age estimation of the entire active sample. Almost 15,000 stars are shown to be younger than 1 {Gyr} and ∼2000 younger than 100 {Myr}. The young age of the most active stars is confirmed by their position off the main sequence in the J ‑ K versus {N}{UV}-V diagram showing strong ultraviolet excess, mid-infrared excess in the J ‑ K versus {W}1-{W}2 diagram, and very cool temperatures (J-K> 0.7). They overlap with the reference pre-main-sequence RAVE stars often displaying X-ray emission. The activity level increasing with the color reveals their different nature from the solar-like stars and probably represents an underlying dynamo-generating magnetic fields in cool stars. Of the RAVE objects from DR5, 50% are found in the TGAS catalog and supplemented with accurate parallaxes and proper motions by Gaia. This makes the database of a large number of young stars in a combination with RAVE’s radial velocities directly useful as a tracer of the very recent large-scale star formation history in the solar neighborhood. The data are available online in the Vizier database.

  15. The 3D structure of an active region filament as extrapolated from photospheric and chromospheric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chaouche, L Yelles; Pillet, V Martínez; Moreno-Insertis, F

    2012-01-01

    The 3D structure of an active region (AR) filament is studied using nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations based on simultaneous observations at a photospheric and a chromospheric height. To that end, we used the Si I 10827 \\AA\\ line and the He I 10830 \\AA\\ triplet obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the VTT (Tenerife). The two extrapolations have been carried out independently from each other and their respective spatial domains overlap in a considerable height range. This opens up new possibilities for diagnostics in addition to the usual ones obtained through a single extrapolation from, typically, a photospheric layer. Among those possibilities, this method allows the determination of an average formation height of the He I 10830 \\AA\\ signal of \\approx 2 Mm above the surface of the sun. It allows, as well, to cross-check the obtained 3D magnetic structures in view of verifying a possible deviation from the force- free condition especially at the photosphere. The extrapolati...

  16. HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IV. Time resolved analysis of the Ca ii H&K and Hα chromospheric emission of low-activity early-type M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandariato, G.; Maldonado, J.; Affer, L.; Biazzo, K.; Leto, G.; Stelzer, B.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Damasso, M.; Desidera, S.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Messina, S.; Micela, G.; Pagano, I.; Perger, M.; Piotto, G.; Rebolo, R.; Ribas, I.; Rosich, A.; Sozzetti, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. M dwarfs are prime targets for current and future planet search programs, particularly those focused on the detection and characterization of rocky planets in the habitable zone. In this context, understanding their magnetic activity is important for two main reasons: it affects our ability to detect small planets and it plays a key role in the characterization of the stellar environment. Aims: We analyze observations of the Ca ii H&K and Hα lines as diagnostics of chromospheric activity for low-activity early-type M dwarfs. Methods: We analyze the time series of spectra of 71 early-type M dwarfs collected in the framework of the HADES project for planet search purposes. The HARPS-N spectra simultaneously provide the Ca ii H&K doublet and the Hα line. We develop a reduction scheme able to correct the HARPS-N spectra for instrumental and atmospheric effects, and also to provide flux-calibrated spectra in units of flux at the stellar surface. The Ca ii H&K and Hα fluxes are then compared with each other, and their time variability is analyzed. Results: We find that the Ca ii H and K flux excesses are strongly correlated with each other, while the Hα flux excess is generally less correlated with the Ca ii H&K doublet. We also find that Hα emission does not increase monotonically with the Ca ii H&K line flux, showing some absorption before being filled in by chromospheric emission when Ca ii H&K activity increases. Analyzing the time variability of the emission fluxes, we derive a tentative estimate of the rotation period (on the order of a few tens of days) for some of the program stars, and the typical lifetime of chromospheric active regions (on the order of a few stellar rotations). Conclusions: Our results are in good agreement with similar previous studies. In particular, we find evidence that the chromospheres of early-type M dwarfs could be characterized by different filament coverage, affecting the formation mechanism of the Hα line. We also

  17. The Stellar Activity - Rotation Relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Mamajek, Eric E; Henry, Gregory W

    2012-01-01

    Using a new catalog of 824 solar and late-type stars with X-ray luminosities and rotation periods we have studied the relationship between rotation and stellar activity. From an unbiased subset of this sample the power law slope of the unsaturated regime, $L_X/L_{bol}\\propto Ro^\\beta$, is fit as $\\beta=-2.70\\pm0.13$. This is inconsistent with the canonical $\\beta=-2$ slope to a confidence of 5$\\sigma$ and argues for an interface-type dynamo. Super-saturation is observed for the fastest rotators in our sample and its parametric dependencies are explored. Significant correlations are found with both the corotation radius and the excess polar updraft, the latter theory being supported by other observations. We also present a new X-ray population synthesis model of the mature stellar component of our Galaxy and use it to reproduce deep observations of a high Galactic latitude field. The model, XStar, can be used to test models of stellar spin-down and dynamo decay, as well as for estimating stellar X-ray contamin...

  18. The behaviour of the excess CaII H & K and H$\\varepsilon$ emissions in chromospherically active binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Montes, D; Cornide, M; De Castro, E

    1995-01-01

    In this work we analyze the behaviour of the excess Ca~{\\sc ii} H \\& K and H\\epsilon emissions in a sample of 73 chromospherically active binary systems (RS~CVn and BY~Dra classes), of different activity levels and luminosity classes. This sample includes the 53 stars analyzed by Fern\\'andez-Figueroa et al. (1994) and the observations of 28 systems described by Montes et al. (1995c). By using the spectral subtraction technique (subtraction of a synthesized stellar spectrum constructed from reference stars of spectral type and luminosity class similar to those of the binary star components) we obtain the active-chromosphere contribution to the Ca~{\\sc ii} H \\& K lines in these 73 systems. We have determined the excess Ca~{\\sc ii} H \\& K emission equivalent widths and converted them into surface fluxes. The emissions arising from each component were obtained when it was possible to deblend both contributions. We have found that the components of active binaries are generally stronger emitters than s...

  19. SALT observations of the chromospheric activity of transiting planet hosts: mass-loss and star-planet interactions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, D.; Haswell, C. A.; Smith, Gareth D.; Fossati, L.; Barnes, J. R.; Busuttil, R.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    We measured the chromospheric activity of the four hot Jupiter hosts WASP-43, WASP-51/HAT-P-30, WASP-72 and WASP-103 to search for anomalous values caused by the close-in companions. The Mount Wilson Ca II H & K S-index was calculated for each star using observations taken with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph at the Southern African Large Telescope. The activity level of WASP-43 is anomalously high relative to its age and falls among the highest values of all known main-sequence stars. We found marginal evidence that the activity of WASP-103 is also higher than expected from the system age. We suggest that for WASP-43 and WASP-103 star-planet interactions (SPI) may enhance the Ca II H & K core emission. The activity levels of WASP-51/HAT-P-30 and WASP-72 are anomalously low, with the latter falling below the basal envelope for both main-sequence and evolved stars. This can be attributed to circumstellar absorption due to planetary mass-loss, though absorption in the interstellar medium may contribute. A quarter of known short-period planet hosts exhibit anomalously low activity levels, including systems with hot Jupiters and low-mass companions. Since SPI can elevate and absorption can suppress the observed chromospheric activity of stars with close-in planets, their Ca II H & K activity levels are an unreliable age indicator. Systems where the activity is depressed by absorption from planetary mass-loss are key targets for examining planet compositions through transmission spectroscopy.

  20. The spectroscopic binary system Gl 375. I. Orbital parameters and chromospheric activity

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, Rodrigo F; Cincunegui, Carolina; Mauas, Pablo J D

    2007-01-01

    We study the spectroscopic binary system Gl 375. We employ medium resolution echelle spectra obtained at the 2.15 m telescope at the Argentinian observatory CASLEO and photometric observations obtained from the ASAS database. We separate the composite spectra into those corresponding to both components. The separated spectra allow us to confirm that the spectral types of both components are similar (dMe3.5) and to obtain precise measurements of the orbital period (P = 1.87844 days), minimum masses (M_1 sin^3 i = 0.35 M_sun and M_2 sin^3 i =0.33 M_sun) and other orbital parameters. The photometric observations exhibit a sinusoidal variation with the same period as the orbital period. We interpret this as signs of active regions carried along with rotation in a tidally synchronized system, and study the evolution of the amplitude of the modulation in longer timescales. Together with the mean magnitude, the modulation exhibits a roughly cyclic variation with a period of around 800 days. This periodicity is also ...

  1. Spots, activity cycles, and differential rotation on cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The first results are reported from a search for activity cycles in stars similar to the sun based on modelling their spotting with an algorithm developed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Of the more than thirty program stars, 10 manifested a cyclical variation in their central latitudes and total starspot area. The observed cycles have durations of 4-15 years, i.e., analogous to the 11 year Schwabe sunspot cycle. Most of the stars have a rough analog of the solar butterfly pattern, with a reduction in the average latitude of the spots as their area increases. A flip-flop effect during the epoch of the maximum average latitude is noted in a number of these objects (e.g., the analog LQ Hya of the young sun or the RS CVn-type variable V711 Tau), as well as a reduction in the photometric rotation period of a star as the spots drift toward the equator, an analog of the differential rotation effect in the sun. Unlike in the sun, the observed spot formation cycles do not correlate uniquely with other indicators of activity— chromospheric emission in the CaII HK lines (Be Cet, EK Dra, Dx Leo), H line emission (LQ Hya, VY Ari, EV Lac), or cyclical flare activity (EV Lac). In V833 Tau, BY Dra, EK Dra, and VY Ari short Schwabe cycles coexist with long cycles that are analogous to the Gleissberg solar cycle, in which the spotted area can approach half the entire area of the star.

  2. Membership, lithium and chromospheric activity of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665 from GES (Gaia-ESO Survey) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Garrido, M.; Montes, D.; Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Gónzalez Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    We conduct a comparative study of the main properties of the of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665, focusing on their membership, lithium abundance and level of chromospheric activity and possible accretion. We use the fundamental parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and radial velocity) delivered by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) consortium in the four internal data release (iDR4) to select the members of these clusters among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. Chromospheric activity criterium, and iterative process between radial velocity distribution and lithium-temperature diagram are applied to determinate what objects are members or non members of the clusters. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify some field contaminant lithium-rich giants.

  3. Cortical activity during rotational and linear transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Howard, R J; Senior, C; Brammer, M; Bullmore, E T; Simmons, A; Woodruff, P; David, A S

    2000-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of cortical activation during image transformation tasks have shown that mental rotation may rely on similar brain regions as those underlying visual perceptual mechanisms. The V5 complex, which is specialised for visual motion, is one region that has been implicated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate rotational and linear transformation of stimuli. Areas of significant brain activation were identified for each of the primary mental transformation tasks in contrast to its own perceptual reference task which was cognitively matched in all respects except for the variable of interest. Analysis of group data for perception of rotational and linear motion showed activation in areas corresponding to V5 as defined in earlier studies. Both rotational and linear mental transformations activated Brodman Area (BA) 19 but did not activate V5. An area within the inferior temporal gyrus, representing an inferior satellite area of V5, was activated by both the rotational perception and rotational transformation tasks, but showed no activation in response to linear motion perception or transformation. The findings demonstrate the extent to which neural substrates for image transformation and perception overlap and are distinct as well as revealing functional specialisation within perception and transformation processing systems.

  4. Chromospheric activity on the late-type star V1355 Ori using Lijiang 1.8-m and 2.4-m telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qing-Feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Chang, Liang; Han, Xian-Ming; Lu, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Xi-Liang; Wang, Dai-Mei

    2016-10-01

    We obtained new high-resolution spectra using the Lijiang 1.8-m and 2.4-m telescopes to investigate the chromospheric activities of V1355 Ori as indicated in the behaviors of Ca ii H&K, Hδ, Hγ, Hβ, Na i D1, D2, Hα and Ca ii infrared triplet (IRT) lines. The observed spectra show obvious emissions above the continuum in Ca ii H&K lines, absorptions in the Hδ, Hγ, Hβ and Na i D1, D2 lines, variable behavior (filled-in absorption, partial emission with a core absorption component or emission above the continuum) in the Hα line, and weak self-reversal emissions in the strong filled-in absorptions of the Ca ii IRT lines. We used a spectral subtraction technique to analyze our data. The results show no excess emission in the Hδ and Hγ lines, very weak excess emissions in the Na i D1, D2 lines, excess emission in the Hβ line, clear excess emission in the Hα line, and excess emissions in the Ca ii IRT lines. The value of the ratio of EW8542/EW8498 is in the range 0.9 to 1.7, which implies that chromospheric activity might have been caused by plage events. The value of the ratio E Hα/E Hβ is above 3, indicating that the Balmer lines would arise from prominence-like material. We also found time variations in light curves associated with equivalent widths of chromospheric activity lines in the Na i D1, D2, Ca ii IRT and Hα lines in particular. These phenomena can be explained by plage events, which are consistent with the behavior of chromospheric activity indicators.

  5. Rotation-Activity-Age Relations For Solar-Type And Cooler Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Gibor

    2016-08-01

    The fact that stellar rotation and chromospheric emission are correlated with age was explicitly noted by Wilson (1963) and reinforced by Kraft (1967). Wilson knew that Ca II emission was correlated with surface magnetic field in the Sun. Skumanich (1972) suggested a simple functional for the age-activity relation, and suggested that magnetic braking was the likely reason for the decline in activity. A theory for the rotation-activity connection was elucidated by Noyes et al. (1984), who invoked the Rossby number as important to the stellar dynamo. This calibrated the relation by convection zone depth and turnover time, although it was noted early and recently confirmed that it is not clear whether Rossby number is empirically superior to the rotation period itself in producing a clear rotation-activity relation. In fact, turnover times are hard to properly define, and the Rossby number is itself calibrated to tighten the relations. The number of stars in samples used to study this has increased dramatically, as have the diagnostics available to assess magnetic activity. It remains clear is that there is a strong relationship between magnetic activity and stellar rotation, and that magnetic braking forces both activity and rotation to decrease with age. These relations are also subject to modification as a function of stellar mass. There has recently been a great increase in the number of measured stellar rotation periods, and in the calibration of these relations using star clusters (whose ages can be independently assessed). I will summarize some of the ongoing progress on this topic.

  6. Observing the solar chromosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This review is split into two parts: one on chromospheric line formation in answer to the frequent question ``where is my line formed'', and one presenting state-of-the-art imagery of the chromosphere. In the first part I specifically treat the formation of the Na D lines, Ca II H&K, and Hα. In the

  7. Solar Spectral Irradiance Variability of Some Chromospheric Emission Lines Through the Solar Activity Cycles 21-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göker, Ü. D.; Gigolashvili, M. Sh.; Kapanadze, N.

    2017-02-01

    A study of variations of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the wavelength ranges 121.5 nm-300.5 nm for the period 1981-2009 is presented. We used various data for ultraviolet (UV) spectral lines and international sunspot number (ISSN) from interactive data centers such as SME (NSSDC), UARS (GDAAC), SORCE (LISIRD) and SIDC, respectively. We reduced these data by using the MATLAB software package. In this respect, we revealed negative correlations of intensities of UV (289.5 nm-300.5 nm) spectral lines originating in the solar chromosphere with the ISSN index during the unusually prolonged minimum between the solar activity cycles (SACs) 23 and 24. We also compared our results with the variations of solar activity indices obtained by the ground-based telescopes. Therefore, we found that plage regions decrease while facular areas are increasing in SAC 23. However, the decrease in plage regions is seen in small sunspot groups (SGs), contrary to this, these regions in large SGs are comparable to previous SACs or even larger as is also seen in facular areas. Nevertheless, negative correlations between ISSN and SSI data indicate that these variations are in close connection with the classes of sunspots/SGs, faculae and plage regions. Finally, we applied the time series analysis of spectral lines corresponding to the wavelengths 121.5 nm-300.5 nm and made comparisons with the ISSN data. We found an unexpected increase in the 298.5 nm line for the Fe II ion. The variability of Fe II ion 298.5 nm line is in close connection with the facular areas and plage regions, and the sizes of these solar surface indices play an important role for the SSI variability, as well. So, we compared the connection between the sizes of faculae and plage regions, sunspots/SGs, chemical elements and SSI variability. Our future work will be the theoretical study of this connection and developing of a corresponding model.

  8. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Defru, N.; Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Rameau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres, and thus increase the observed flux in the Ca ii H and K doublet. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, these two spectral lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period (Prot) and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca ii emission is traditionally quantified through the -index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M dwarfs - the most numerous stars of the Galaxy - were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H and K emission to an exists to date. Aims: We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low- and very-low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the -index that extends to the realm of M dwarfs, and by evaluating the relationship between and the rotation period. Methods: We calibrated the bolometric and photospheric factors for M dwarfs to properly transform the S-index (which compares the flux in the Ca ii H and K lines to a close spectral continuum) into the . We monitored magnetic activity through the Ca ii H and K emission lines in the HARPS M dwarf sample. Results: The index, like the fractional X-ray luminosity LX/Lbol, shows a saturated correlation with rotation, with saturation setting in around a ten days rotation period. Above that period, slower rotators show weaker Ca ii activity, as expected. Under that period, the index saturates to approximately 10-4. Stellar mass modulates the Ca ii activity, with showing a constant basal activity above 0.6 M⊙ and then decreasing with mass between 0.6 M⊙ and the fully-convective limit of 0.35 M⊙. Short-term variability of the

  9. Persistent Sub-Yearly Chromospheric Variations in Lower Main-Sequence Stars: Tau Booe and alpha Com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Davesh; Donahue, Robert A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discoveries of extrasolar planetary systems around lower main-sequence stars such as tau Booe (HD 120136) has prompted further investigation into their stellar activity. A cursory analysis of tau Booe for cyclic chromospheric activity, based on its 30-yr record of Ca 2 H and K fluxes obtained as part of the HK Project from Mount Wilson Observatory, finds an intermediate, sub-yearly period (approximately 117 d) in chromospheric activity in addition to, and separate from, both its rotation (3.3 d) and long-term variability. As a persistent subyearly period in surface magnetic activity is unprecedented, we investigate this apparent anomaly further by examining chromospheric activity levels of other stars with similar mass, searching for variability in chromospheric activity with periods of less than one year, but longer than measured or predicted rotation. An examination of the time series of 40 mid-to-late F dwarfs yielded one other star for further analysis: alpha Com (HD 114378, P approximately 132 d). The variations for these two stars were checked for persistence and coherence. Based on these determinations, we eliminate the possibilities of rotation, long-term activity cycle, and the evolution of active regions as the cause of this variation in both stars. In particular, for tau Booe we infer that the phenomenon may be chromospheric in origin; however, beyond this, it is difficult to identify anything further regarding the cause of the activity variations, or even whether the observed modulation in the two stars have the same origin.

  10. Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagenal, Fran

    2001-01-01

    The work completed under this project, 'Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission', includes the following presentations: (1) Analysis of H-alpha Observations of High-altitude Coronal Condensations; (2) Multi-spectral Imaging of Coronal Activity; (3) Measurement and Modeling of Soft X-ray Loop Arcades; (4) A Study of the Origin and Dynamics of CMEs; and various poster presentations and thesis dissertations.

  11. Observing the Solar Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J

    2007-01-01

    This review is split into two parts: one on chromospheric line formation in answer to the frequent question "where is my line formed", and one presenting state-of-the-art imagery of the chromosphere. In the first part I specifically treat the formation of the Na D lines, Ca II H & K, and Halpha. In the second I show DOT, IBIS, VAULT, and TRACE images as evidence that the chromosphere consists of fibrils of intrinsically different types. The straight-up ones are hottest. The slanted ones are filled by shocks and likely possess thin transition sheaths to coronal plasma. The ones hovering horizontally over "clapotispheric" cell interiors outline magnetic canopies and are buffeted by shocks, most violently in the quietest regions. In the absence of integral-field ultraviolet spectrometry, H$\\alpha$ remains the principal chromosphere diagnostic. The required fast-cadence profile-sampling imaging is an important quest for new telescope technology.

  12. A chromospheric conundrum?

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip; Schmidt, Wolgang; Steiner, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    We examine spectra of the Ca II H line, obtained under good seeing conditions with the VTT Echelle Spectrograph in June of 2007, and higher resolution data of the Ca II 8542 Angstrom line from Fabry-Perot instruments. The VTT targets were areas near disk center which included quiet Sun and some dispersed plage. The infrared data included quiet Sun and plage associated with small pores. Bright chromospheric network emission patches expand little with wavelength from line wing to line center, i.e. with increasing line opacity and height. We argue that this simple observation has implications for the force and energy balance of the chromosphere, since bright chromospheric network emission is traditionally associated with enhanced local mechanical heating which increases temperatures and pressures. Simple physical considerations then suggest that the network chromosphere may not be able to reach horizontal force balance with its surroundings, yet the network is a long-lived structure. We speculate on possible rea...

  13. The Factory and The Beehive II. Activity and Rotation in Praesepe and the Hyades

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, S T; Covey, K R; Bowsher, E C; Bochanski, J J; Cargile, P A; Kraus, A; Law, N M; Lemonias, J J; Arce, H G; Fierroz, D F; Kundert, A

    2014-01-01

    Open clusters are collections of stars with a single, well-determined age, and can be used to investigate the connections between angular-momentum evolution and magnetic activity over a star's lifetime. We present the results of a comparative study of the relationship between stellar rotation and activity in two benchmark open clusters: Praesepe and the Hyades. As they have the same age and roughly solar metallicity, these clusters serve as an ideal laboratory for testing the agreement between theoretical and empirical rotation-activity relations at $\\approx$600 Myr. We have compiled a sample of 720 spectra --- more than half of which are new observations --- for 516 high-confidence members of Praesepe; we have also obtained 139 new spectra for 130 high-confidence Hyads. We have collected rotation periods ($P_{rot}$) for 135 Praesepe members and 87 Hyads. To compare $H\\alpha$ emission, an indicator of chromospheric activity, as a function of color, mass, and Rossby number $R_o$, we first calculate an expanded...

  14. Long-term chromospheric activity in southern M dwarfs: Gl 229 A and Gl 752 A

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P; Luoni, María Luisa; Mauas, Pablo J D

    2010-01-01

    Several late-type stars present activity cycles similar to that of the Sun. However, these cycles have been mostly studied in F to K stars. Due to their small intrinsic brightness, M dwarfs are not usually the targets of long-term observational studies of stellar activity, and their long-term variability is generally not known. In this work, we study the long-term activity of two M dwarf stars: Gl 229 A (M1/2) and Gl 752 A (M2.5). We employ medium resolution echelle spectra obtained at the 2.15 m telescope at the Argentinian observatory CASLEO between the years 2000 and 2010 and photometric observations obtained from the ASAS database. We analyzed Ca \\II K line-core fluxes and the mean V magnitude with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, and we obtain possible activity cycles of $\\sim$4 yr and $\\sim$7 yr for Gl 229 A and Gl 752 A respectively.

  15. Photospheric, Chromospheric and Helioseismic Signatures of a Large Flare in Super-active Region NOAA 10486

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Ambastha

    2006-06-01

    NOAA 10486 produced several powerful flares, including the 4B/X17.2 superflare of October 28, 2003/11:10 UT. This flare was extensively covered by the H and GONG instruments operated at the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO). The central location of the active region on October 28, 2003was well-suited for the ring diagram analysis to obtain the 3-D power spectra and search for helioseismic response of this large flare on the amplitude, frequency and width of the p-modes. Further, using USO observations, we have identified the sites of new flux emergences, large proper motions and line-of-sight velocity flows in the active region and their relationship with the flare.

  16. Chromospheric models for Altair (A7 IV-V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, R. Freire; Gouttebroze, P.; Catalano, S.; Marilli, E.; Bruhweiler, F.; Kondo, Y.; Van Der Hucht, K.; Talavera, A.

    1995-01-01

    The star, Altair (A7 IV-V), is clearly shown to have Lyman-alpha emission of chromospheric origin, while no evidence is found for the Mg II emission reported in previous investigations. We present non-Local Thermodymanic Equilibrium (non-LTE) semiempirical models incorporating partial redistribution of the chromosphere of Altair that reproduce the observed Lyman-alpha emission and the Mg II resonance absorption at 2800 A. We unambiguously establihed that chromospheres exist at spectral types as early as A7 on the main sequence, and we also demonstrate that it very unlikely that the observed emission originates in a corotating expanding wind. This result represents a new challenge for chromospheric heating theories. It may indicate that both differential rotation and convection layers, at least near the equator, exist in this fast rotating (v sin i = 220 km/s) star.

  17. Optical alignment of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter using sophisticated methods to minimize activities under vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Kano, R.; Kubo, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Bando, T.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket instrument developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) as a part of an international collaboration. The instrument main scientific goal is to achieve polarization measurement of the Lyman-α line at 121.56 nm emitted from the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region with an unprecedented 0.1% accuracy. The optics are composed of a Cassegrain telescope coated with a "cold mirror" coating optimized for UV reflection and a dual-channel spectrograph allowing for simultaneous observation of the two orthogonal states of polarization. Although the polarization sensitivity is the most important aspect of the instrument, the spatial and spectral resolutions of the instrument are also crucial to observe the chromospheric features and resolve the Ly-α profiles. A precise alignment of the optics is required to ensure the resolutions, but experiments under vacuum conditions are needed since Ly-α is absorbed by air, making the alignment experiments difficult. To bypass this issue, we developed methods to align the telescope and the spectrograph separately in visible light. We explain these methods and present the results for the optical alignment of the CLASP telescope and spectrograph. We then discuss the combined performances of both parts to derive the expected resolutions of the instrument, and compare them with the flight observations performed on September 3rd 2015.

  18. Optical Alignment of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter using Sophisticated Methods to Minimize Activities under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Kano, R.; Kubo, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Bando, T.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    2016-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket instrument developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) as a part of an international collaboration. The in- strument main scientific goal is to achieve polarization measurement of the Lyman-alpha line at 121.56 nm emitted from the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region with an unprecedented 0.1% accuracy. For this purpose, the optics are composed of a Cassegrain telescope coated with a "cold mirror" coating optimized for UV reflection and a dual-channel spectrograph allowing for simultaneous observation of the two orthogonal states of polarization. Although the polarization sensitivity is the most important aspect of the instrument, the spatial and spectral resolutions of the instrument are also crucial to observe the chromospheric features and resolve the Ly- pro les. A precise alignment of the optics is required to ensure the resolutions, but experiments under vacuum conditions are needed since Ly-alpha is absorbed by air, making the alignment experiments difficult. To bypass this issue, we developed methods to align the telescope and the spectrograph separately in visible light. We will explain these methods and present the results for the optical alignment of the CLASP telescope and spectrograph. We will then discuss the combined performances of both parts to derive the expected resolutions of the instrument, and compare them with the flight observations performed on September 3rd 2015.

  19. Rotation, differential rotation, and gyrochronology of active Kepler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhold, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The high-precision photometry from the CoRoT and Kepler satellites has led to measurements of surface rotation periods for tens of thousands of stars. Our main goal is to derive ages of thousands of field stars using consistent rotation period measurements in different gyrochronology relations. Multiple rotation periods are interpreted as surface differential rotation (DR). We re-analyze the sample of 24,124 Kepler stars from Reinhold et al. (2013) using different approaches based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Each quarter (Q1-Q14) is treated individually using a prewhitening approach. Additionally, the full time series, and different segments thereof are analyzed. For more than 18,500 stars our results are consistent with the rotation periods from McQuillan et al. (2014). Thereof, more than 12,300 stars show multiple significant peaks, which we interpret as DR. Gyrochronology ages between 100 Myr and 10 Gyr were derived for more than 17,000 stars using different gyrochronology relations. We find a bimodal...

  20. Rotated alphanumeric characters do not automatically activate frontoparietal areas subserving mental rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Michael M; Wolbers, Thomas; Peller, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have identified a set of areas in the intraparietal sulcus and dorsal precentral cortex which show a linear increase in activity with the angle of rotation across a variety of mental rotation tasks. This linear increase in activity with angular disparity suggests t...... modulated by angular disparity during the stimulus categorization task. These results suggest that at least for alphanumerical characters, areas implicated in mental rotation will only be called into action if the task requires a rotational transformation....

  1. Actively suspended counter-rotating machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A counter-rotating machine, such as a positive displacement pump having a pair of meshed, non-contacting helical screws (10,12), subjects its rotating members to axial and radial thrust forces when used for such purposes as compression of liquid or gaseous phase fluids while transporting them through a pump cavity (11,13). Each helical screw (10,12) has a shaft (17,17') which is actively suspended at opposite ends (11a,11b) of the pump cavity by a servo-controlled magnetic bearing assembly (19) and a servo-controlled rotary drive motor (20). Both bearing assemblies and drive motors are mounted on the outside of the pump cavity (11,13). Opto-electric angular position sensors (250) provide synchronization between radial orientation of the drive motors. The bearing assemblies and drive motors conjugately provide axial stabilization and radial centering of the helical screws during volumetric compression of aspirated liquid or gaseous phase fluids.

  2. Optimal rotation sequences for active perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakath, David; Rachuy, Carsten; Clemens, Joachim; Schill, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    One major objective of autonomous systems navigating in dynamic environments is gathering information needed for self localization, decision making, and path planning. To account for this, such systems are usually equipped with multiple types of sensors. As these sensors often have a limited field of view and a fixed orientation, the task of active perception breaks down to the problem of calculating alignment sequences which maximize the information gain regarding expected measurements. Action sequences that rotate the system according to the calculated optimal patterns then have to be generated. In this paper we present an approach for calculating these sequences for an autonomous system equipped with multiple sensors. We use a particle filter for multi- sensor fusion and state estimation. The planning task is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP), where the system decides in each step, what actions to perform next. The optimal control policy, which provides the best action depending on the current estimated state, maximizes the expected cumulative reward. The latter is computed from the expected information gain of all sensors over time using value iteration. The algorithm is applied to a manifold representation of the joint space of rotation and time. We show the performance of the approach in a spacecraft navigation scenario where the information gain is changing over time, caused by the dynamic environment and the continuous movement of the spacecraft

  3. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M-dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through R'HK

    CERN Document Server

    Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Rameau, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, CaH&K lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca H&Kemission is traditionally quantified through the R'HK-index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M-dwarfs were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H&K emission to an R'HK exists to date. We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low and very low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the R'HK-index that extends to the realm of M-dwarfs, and by evaluating the relation between R'HK and the rot...

  4. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  5. Stable umbral chromospheric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Scullion, E.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kiselman, D.; Gallagher, P. T.; Keenan, F. P.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We seek to understand the morphology of the chromosphere in sunspot umbra. We investigate if the horizontal structures observed in the spectral core of the Ca II H line are ephemeral visuals caused by the shock dynamics of more stable structures, and examine their relationship with observables in the H-alpha line. Methods: Filtergrams in the core of the Ca II H and H-alpha lines as observed with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope are employed. We utilise a technique that creates composite images and tracks the flash propagation horizontally. Results: We find 0.̋15 wide horizontal structures, in all of the three target sunspots, for every flash where the seeing is moderate to good. Discrete dark structures are identified that are stable for at least two umbral flashes, as well as systems of structures that live for up to 24 min. We find cases of extremely extended structures with similar stability, with one such structure showing an extent of 5''. Some of these structures have a correspondence in H-alpha, but we were unable to find a one-to-one correspondence for every occurrence. If the dark streaks are formed at the same heights as umbral flashes, there are systems of structures with strong departures from the vertical for all three analysed sunspots. Conclusions: Long-lived Ca II H filamentary horizontal structures are a common and likely ever-present feature in the umbra of sunspots. If the magnetic field in the chromosphere of the umbra is indeed aligned with the structures, then the present theoretical understanding of the typical umbra needs to be revisited. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. The rotation-activity relation in M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berlind, Perry L.; Calkins, Michael L.; Mink, Jessica D.

    2017-01-01

    Main sequence stars with masses below approximately 0.35 solar masses are fully-convective, and are expected to have a different type of magnetic dynamo than solar-type stars. Observationally, the dynamo mechanism can be probed through the relationship between rotation and magnetic activity, and the evolution of these properties. Though M dwarfs are the most common type of star in the galaxy, a lack of observational constraints at ages beyond 1 Gyr has hampered studies of the rotation-activity relation. To address this, we have made new measurements of rotation and magnetic activity in nearby, field-age M dwarfs. Combining our 386 rotation period measurements and 247 new optical spectra with data from the literature, we are able to probe the rotation-activity in M dwarfs with masses from 0.1 to 0.6 solar masses. We observe a threshold in the mass--period plane that separates active and inactive M dwarfs. The threshold coincides with the fast-period edge of the slowly rotating population, at approximately the rotation period at which an era of rapid rotational evolution appears to cease. We confirm that the activity of rapidly rotating M dwarfs maintains a saturated value. We have measured rotation periods as long as 140 days, allowing us to probe the unsaturated regime in detail. Our data show a clear power-law decay in relative H-alpha luminosity as a function Rossby number. We discuss implications for the magnetic dynamo mechanism.We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowship for Science and Engineering, and the John Templeton Foundation. E.R.N. acknowledges support from the NSF through a Graduate Research Fellowship and an Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  7. Rotation and magnetic activity of the Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.; Kopf, M.; Weber, M.; Küker, M.; Reegen, P.; Rice, J. B.; Matthews, J. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Rowe, J. F.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The single rapidly-rotating G0 giant 31 Comae has been a puzzle because of the absence of photometric variability despite its strong chromospheric and coronal emissions. As a Hertzsprung-gap giant, it is expected to be at the stage of rearranging its moment of inertia, hence likely also its dynamo action, which could possibly be linked with its missing photospheric activity. Aims: Our aim is to detect photospheric activity, obtain the rotation period, and use it for a first Doppler image of the star's surface. Its morphology could be related to the evolutionary status. Methods: We carried out high-precision, white-light photometry with the MOST satellite, ground-based Strömgren photometry with automated telescopes, and high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy with the new STELLA robotic facility. Results: The MOST data reveal, for the first time, light variations with a full amplitude of 5 mmag and an average photometric period of 6.80 ± 0.06 days. Radial-velocity variations with a full amplitude of 270 m s-1 and a period of 6.76 ± 0.02 days were detected from our STELLA spectra, which we also interpret as due to stellar rotation. The two-year constancy of the average radial velocity of +0.10 ± 0.33 km s-1 confirms the star's single status, as well as the membership in the cluster Melotte 111. A spectrum synthesis gives Teff = 5660 ± 42 K, log g = 3.51 ± 0.09, and [Fe/H] = -0.15 ± 0.03, which together with the revised Hipparcos distance, suggests a mass of 2.6 ± 0.1 M_⊙ and an age of ≈540 Myr. The surface lithium abundance is measured to be nearly primordial. A detection of a strong He i absorption line indicates nonradiative heating processes in the atmosphere. Our Doppler images show a large, asymmetric polar spot, cooler than Teff by ≈1600 K, and several small low-to-mid latitude features that are warmer by ≈300-400 K and are possibly of chromospheric origin. We computed the convective turnover time for 31 Com as a function of depth

  8. Movement of earth rotation and activities of atmosphere and ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The rotation of the earth, including the variation of the rotational rate and polar motion, represents the statement of the earth's overall movement and interactions among the solid earth, atmosphere and ocean on a variety of space-time scales. They make the earth's complex dynamical system under the conservation of angular momentum. The application and development of recent space geodetic tech-niques greatly promote the researches on the interactions between the earth rotation and the activities of atmosphere and ocean. This review will mainly report the progress in researches on the earth rotation and the activities of atmos-phere and ocean as well as the air-sea interaction in the tropics, and prospect the direction for future theoretical investigations.

  9. Diagnosis of solar chromospheric magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hongqi(张洪起)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurements of the chromospheric magnetic field and the spatial configuration of the field at the lower solar atmosphere inferred by the distribution of the solar photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields. Some questions in the study of the chromospheric magnetic field are also presented.

  10. HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N at TNG . III. Flux-flux and activity-rotation relationships of early-M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J.; Scandariato, G.; Stelzer, B.; Biazzo, K.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; González-Álvarez, E.; Affer, L.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Damasso, M.; Desidera, S.; González Hernández, J. I.; Gratton, R.; Leto, G.; Messina, S.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Perger, M.; Piotto, G.; Rebolo, R.; Ribas, I.; Sozzetti, A.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Understanding stellar activity in M dwarfs is crucial for the physics of stellar atmospheres and for ongoing radial velocity exoplanet programmes. Despite the increasing interest in M dwarfs, our knowledge of the chromospheres of these stars is far from being complete. Aims: We test whether the relations between activity, rotation, and stellar parameters and flux-flux relationships previously investigated for main-sequence FGK stars and for pre-main-sequence M stars also hold for early-M dwarfs on the main-sequence. Although several attempts have been made so far, here we analyse a large sample of stars undergoing relatively low activity. Methods: We analyse in a homogeneous and coherent way a well-defined sample of 71 late-K/early-M dwarfs that are currently being observed in the framework of the HArps-N red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES). Rotational velocities are derived using the cross-correlation technique, while emission flux excesses in the Ca ii H & K and Balmer lines from Hα up to Hɛ are obtained by using the spectral subtraction technique. The relationships between the emission excesses and the stellar parameters (projected rotational velocity, effective temperature, kinematics, and age) are studied. Relations between pairs of fluxes of different chromospheric lines (flux-flux relationships) are also studied and compared with the literature results for other samples of stars. Results: We find that the strength of the chromospheric emission in the Ca ii H & K and Balmer lines is roughly constant for stars in the M0-M3 spectral range. Although our sample is likely to be biased towards inactive stars, our data suggest that a moderate but significant correlation between activity and rotation might be present, as well as a hint of kinematically selected young stars showing higher levels of emission in the calcium line and in most of the Balmer lines. We find our sample of M dwarfs to be complementary in terms of chromospheric and X-ray fluxes with

  11. New insights into chromospheric structures from vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagg, A.

    During the last decade advances in instrumentation atomic physics and modeling have greatly improved the access to the chromospheric magnetic field vector High sensitivity polarimeters like the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter TIP2 VTT or the Spectro-Polarimeter for Infrared and Optical Regions SPINOR HAO lead to reliable Zeeman measurements using the He I 10830 nm triplet Theoretical modeling of the Hanle and the Paschen Back effect helped to significantly improve the analysis of polarization measurements in this triplet allowing to directly visualize the magnetic structure of spicules polar prominences and active regions In this presentation I will summarize the results of chromospheric magnetic field measurements using this interesting triplet obtained in the last couple of years and discuss the great potential it has to further uncover the complex structure of the chromosphere

  12. The Radio Activity-Rotation Relation of Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, M; Reiners, A

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the VLA. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at log(L_rad/L_bol) 10^(-7.5) above vsini~5 km/s, similar to the relation in H-alpha and X-rays. However, at spectral types >M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsini>20 km/s) exhibit "super-saturation" in X-rays and H-alpha, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsini>20 km/s have a higher radio detection fraction by about a f...

  13. Rotation, activity, and lithium abundance in cool binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Järvinen, S.

    2012-10-01

    We have used two robotic telescopes to obtain time-series high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy and V I and/or by photometry for a sample of 60 active stars, mostly binaries. Orbital solutions are presented for 26 double-lined systems and for 19 single-lined systems, seven of them for the first time but all of them with unprecedented phase coverage and accuracy. Eighteen systems turned out to be single stars. The total of 6609 {R=55 000} échelle spectra are also used to systematically determine effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, rotational velocities, lithium abundances and absolute Hα-core fluxes as a function of time. The photometry is used to infer unspotted brightness, {V-I} and/or b-y colors, spot-induced brightness amplitudes and precise rotation periods. An extra 22 radial-velocity standard stars were monitored throughout the science observations and yield a new barycentric zero point for our STELLA/SES robotic system. Our data are complemented by literature data and are used to determine rotation-temperature-activity relations for active binary components. We also relate lithium abundance to rotation and surface temperature. We find that 74 % of all known rapidly-rotating active binary stars are synchronized and in circular orbits but 26 % (61 systems) are rotating asynchronously of which half have {P_rot>P_orb} and {e>0}. Because rotational synchronization is predicted to occur before orbital circularization active binaries should undergo an extra spin-down besides tidal dissipation. We suspect this to be due to a magnetically channeled wind with its subsequent braking torque. We find a steep increase of rotation period with decreasing effective temperature for active stars, P_rot ∝ T_eff-7, for both single and binaries, main sequence and evolved. For inactive, single giants with {P_rot>100} d, the relation is much weaker, {P_rot ∝ T_eff-1.12}. Our data also indicate a period-activity relation for Hα of the form {R_Hα ∝ P

  14. Rotation and activity at 3 Gyr with Ruprecht 147

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar rotation slows and magnetic activity wanes over time, making these properties useful diagnostics to determine the ages of stars. While gyrochronology and Skumanich-type activity relations have been empirically calibrated for younger stars using nearby open clusters, few benchmark clusters older than 1 Gyr exist that are close enough to have activity levels measured for their main sequence stars. Pace (2013) claims that magnetic activity can no longer be used as an age indicator after ~1 Gyr (from NGC 752), but no open cluster has been available to substantiate this claim until now. We have recently demonstrated that Ruprecht 147 is the oldest nearby open cluster, with an age of 3 Gyr and a distance of ~300 pc, which bridges the age gap between NGC 752 at 1 Gyr and M67 and the Sun at 4 Gyr (Curtis et al. 2013). We have measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and magnetic activity indices (Calcium H&K) for >50 FGK dwarfs with high signal-to-noise spectra taken with the MMT Hectochelle, Magellan MIKE, Keck HIRES, and Tillinghast 1.5-m FAST spectrographs. We will discuss how our rotation and activity measurements for this 3 Gyr open cluster shed light on the rotation- and activity- age relations for old and late-type stars. We will also present new cluster members from our ongoing M dwarf survey with SALT RSS, discuss stellar multiplicity in light of our recently acquired Robo-AO imaging, and review our efforts to locate and characterize the white dwarf population.

  15. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumusque, X., E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than ∼2-2.5 km s{sup –1}. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 which can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD 189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be i=84{sub −20}{sup +6} deg, which implies a star-planet obliquity of ψ=4{sub −4}{sup +18} considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For α Cen B, we derive an inclination of i=45{sub −19}{sup +9}, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the α Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that α Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of α Cen B can be measured using 40 radial-velocity measurements, which is remarkable given that the projected rotational velocity of the star is smaller than 1.15 km s{sup –1}.

  16. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  17. Chromospheric seismology above sunspot umbrae

    CERN Document Server

    Snow, B; Regnier, S

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic resonator is an important model for explaining the three-minute oscillations in the chromosphere above sunspot umbrae. The steep temperature gradients at the photosphere and transition region provide the cavity for the acoustic resonator, which allows waves to be both partially transmitted and partially reflected. In this paper, a new method of estimating the size and temperature profile of the chromospheric cavity above a sunspot umbra is developed. The magnetic field above umbrae is modelled numerically in 1.5D with slow magnetoacoustic wave trains travelling along magnetic fieldlines. Resonances are driven by applying the random noise of three different colours---white, pink and brown---as small velocity perturbations to the upper convection zone. Energy escapes the resonating cavity and generates wave trains moving into the corona. Line of sight (LOS) integration is also performed to determine the observable spectra through SDO/AIA. The numerical results show that the gradient of the coronal ...

  18. Differential rotation of the active G5V star Kappa1 Ceti: Photometry from the MOST satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Rucinski, S M; Matthews, J M; Kuschnig, R; Shkolnik, E; Marchenko, S; Bohlender, D A; Günther, D B; Moffat, A F J; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Walker, Gordon A.H.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Marchenko, Sergey; Bohlender, David A.; Moffat, Anthony F.J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    About 30.5 days of nearly uninterrupted broadband photometry of the solar-type star Kappa1 Ceti, obtained with the MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite, shows evidence for two large starspots with different rotation periods of 8.9 and approximately 9.3 days (DeltaOmega/Omega~4%). Ground based measurements in 2002 and 2003 of Ca II H & K emission reveal variations in chromospheric activity with a period of about 9.3 days. The data were obtained during the MOST commissioning phase. When the data are combined with historical observations, they indicate that the 9.3-day spot has been stable in its period for over 30 years. The photometry, with a sampling rate of approximately once per minute, was also used to search for acoustic (p-mode) oscillations in the star. We detect no clear evidence for p-modes in the Kappa1 Ceti photometry, with a noise level around 7-9 mu_mag at frequencies in the range 0.5-4 mHz (3-sigma detection limit of 21 - 27 mu_mag). There were no flares or planetary ...

  19. Photospheric and chromospheric activity in V405 And: An M dwarf binary with components on the two sides of the full convection limit

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Kővári, Zs; Korhonen, H; Bartus, J; Hurta, Zs; Posztobányi, K

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the fast rotating (P_orb=P_rot=0.465d) active dwarf binary V405 And (M0V+M5V) using photometric BV(RI)_C and optical spectroscopic data. The light variation is caused by the combined effect of spottedness and binarity with a small eclipse. From the available light and radial velocity curves we estimate the system parameters. Three flare events happened during the observations: two were found in the spectroscopic data and one was observed photometrically in BV(RI)_C colours. An interesting eruptive phenomenon emerged from the photometric measurements which can be interpreted as a series of post-flare eruptions lasting for at least 3 orbits (rotations) of the system, originating from trans-equatorial magnetic loops, which connect the active regions in the two hemispheres. The two components of V405 And have masses well over and below the theoretical limit of full convection. This rare property makes the binary an ideal target for observing and testing models for stellar dynamo action.

  20. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Dumusque, X

    2014-01-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclinationt for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than $\\sim2$-2.5 \\kms. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 that can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be $i=84^{+6}_{-20}$ degrees, which implies a star-planet obliquity of $\\psi=4^{+18}_{-4}$ considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For $\\alpha$ Cen B, we derive an inclination of $i=45^{+9}_{-19}$, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the $\\alpha$ Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that $\\alpha$ Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of $\\alpha$ Cen B can be measured using 40...

  1. Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Johannes Mattheus

    2003-01-01

    The thesis "Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere" of J.M. Krijger is a study on the behavior of the solar chromosphere, the thin layer just above the solar surface (photosphere) visible in purple red light during a total solar eclipse. The most important result of this thesis is that the

  2. Rapidly Rotating, X-ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Boyd, Padi; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type FK, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, that is evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short-lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  3. The HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N@TNG. III. Flux-flux and activity-rotation relationships of early-M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, J; Stelzer, B; Biazzo, K; Lanza, A F; Maggio, A; Micela, G; González-Álvarez, E; Affer, L; Claudi, R U; Cosentino, R; Damasso, M; Desidera, S; Hernández, J I González; Gratton, R; Leto, G; Messina, S; Molinari, E; Pagano, I; Perger, M; Piotto, G; Rebolo, R; Ribas, I; Sozzetti, A; Mascareño, A Suárez; Sanchez, R Zanmar

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) Understanding stellar activity in M dwarfs is crucial for the physics of stellar atmospheres as well as for ongoing radial velocity exoplanet programmes. Despite the increasing interest in M dwarfs, our knowledge of the chromospheres of these stars is far from being complete. We aim to test whether the relations between activity, rotation, and stellar parameters and flux-flux relationships also hold for early-M dwarfs on the main-sequence. We analyse in an homogeneous and coherent way a well defined sample of 71 late-K/early-M dwarfs that are currently being observed in the framework of the HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES). Rotational velocities are derived using the cross-correlation technique while emission flux excesses in the Ca II H & K and Balmer lines from Halpha up to Hepsilon are obtained by using the spectral subtraction technique. The relationships between the emission excesses and the stellar parameters are studied. Relations between pairs of fluxes of different chromosphe...

  4. Effect of coronal temperature on the scale of solar chromospheric jets

    CERN Document Server

    Iijima, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of coronal temperature on the formation process of solar chromospheric jets using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the region from the upper convection zone to the lower corona. We develop a new radiative magnetohydrodynamic code for the dynamic modeling of the solar atmosphere, employing a LTE equation of state, optically thick radiative loss in the photosphere, optically thin radiative loss in the chromosphere and the corona, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. Many chromospheric jets are produced in the simulations by shock waves passing through the transition region. We find that these jets are projected farther outward when the coronal temperature is lower (similar to that in coronal holes) and shorter when the coronal temperature is higher (similar to that in active regions). When the coronal temperature is high, the deceleration of the chromospheric jets is consistent with the model in which deceleration is determined by the periodic chromo...

  5. The galloping chromosphere. [H alpha observation of oscillating velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, C.

    1974-01-01

    Oscillating velocity fields can be observed on H-alpha filtergrams as a shifting pattern of intensity fluctuations known as 'the galloping chromosphere'. The characteristics of this activity are those of horizontal running waves of typical period of about 300 sec and long wavelength (about 20,000 km) that can be interpreted as acoustic-gravity waves propagating in the acoustic domain. Periods are longer in dark, structured regions, and in fibrils, and the change is quantitatively consistent with the reduction of resonance frequency in a magnetic field of 1 to 10 gauss. These easily observed fluctuations thus offer a means of estimating magnetic-field strength at specific locations in the chromosphere. Phase velocities are high, ranging upward from typical values between 50 and 100 km per sec, and tending to be lower in active regions and toward the limb.

  6. Stacking transition in bilayer graphene caused by thermally activated rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ghazaryan, Davit; Son, Seok-Kyun; Woods, Colin R.; Misra, Abhishek; He, Lin; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Cao, Yang; Mishchenko, Artem

    2017-03-01

    Crystallographic alignment between two-dimensional crystals in van der Waals heterostructures brought a number of profound physical phenomena, including observation of Hofstadter butterfly and topological currents, and promising novel applications, such as resonant tunnelling transistors. Here, by probing the electronic density of states in graphene using graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnelling transistors, we demonstrate a structural transition of bilayer graphene from incommensurate twisted stacking state into a commensurate AB stacking due to a macroscopic graphene self-rotation. This structural transition is accompanied by a topological transition in the reciprocal space and by pseudospin texturing. The stacking transition is driven by van der Waals interaction energy of the two graphene layers and is thermally activated by unpinning the microscopic chemical adsorbents which are then removed by the self-cleaning of graphene.

  7. Design concepts for a continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bjørk, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    Design considerations for a prototype magnetic refrigeration device with a continuously rotating AMR are presented. Building the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) from stacks of elongated plates of the perovskite oxide material La0.67Ca0.33−xSrxMn1.05O3, gives both a low pressure drop and allows...... grading of the Curie temperature along the plates. This may be accomplished by a novel technique where a compositionally-graded material is tape cast in one piece. The magnet assembly is based on a novel design strategy, to create alternating high- and low magnetic field regions within a magnet assembly....... Focus is on maximising the magnetic field in the high field regions but also, importantly, minimising the flux in the low field regions. The design is iteratively optimised through 3D finite element magnetostatic modelling....

  8. Magnetic structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region

    CERN Document Server

    Sasso, C; Solanki, S K

    2013-01-01

    While the magnetic field in quiescent prominences has been widely investigated, less is known about the field in activated prominences. We introduce observational results on the magnetic field structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region. We study, in particular, its magnetic structure and line-of-sight flows during its early activated phase, shortly before it displays signs of rotation. We invert the Stokes profiles of the chromospheric He I 10830 A triplet and the photospheric Si I 10827 A line observed in this filament by the VTT on Tenerife. Using these inversion results we present and interpret the first maps of velocity and magnetic field obtained in an activated filament, both in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Up to 5 different magnetic components are found in the chromospheric layers of the filament, while outside the filament a single component is sufficient to reproduce the observations. Magnetic components displaying an upflow are preferentially located towards the centre of...

  9. Solar Physics at Evergreen: Solar Dynamo and Chromospheric MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zita, E. J.; Maxwell, J.; Song, N.; Dikpati, M.

    2006-12-01

    We describe our five year old solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for theoretical and remote solar physics research activities. Why does the Sun's magnetic field flip polarity every 11 years or so? How does this contribute to the magnetic storms Earth experiences when the Sun's field reverses? Why is the temperature in the Sun's upper atmosphere millions of degrees higher than the Sun's surface temperature? How do magnetic waves transport energy in the Sun’s chromosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere? How does solar variability affect climate change? Faculty and undergraduates investigate questions such as these in collaboration with the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder. We will describe successful student research projects, logistics of remote computing, and our current physics investigations into (1) the solar dynamo and (2) chromospheric magnetohydrodynamics.

  10. EFFECT OF CORONAL TEMPERATURE ON THE SCALE OF SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima; Yokoyama, T.H., E-mail: h.iijima@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-10-20

    We investigate the effect of coronal temperature on the formation process of solar chromospheric jets using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the region from the upper convection zone to the lower corona. We develop a new radiative magnetohydrodynamic code for the dynamic modeling of the solar atmosphere, employing an LTE equation of state, optically thick radiative loss in the photosphere, optically thin radiative loss in the chromosphere and the corona, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. Many chromospheric jets are produced in the simulations by shock waves passing through the transition region. We find that these jets are projected farther outward when the coronal temperature is lower (similar to that in coronal holes) and shorter when the coronal temperature is higher (similar to that in active regions). When the coronal temperature is high, the deceleration of the chromospheric jets is consistent with the model in which deceleration is determined by the periodic chromospheric shock waves. However, when the coronal temperature is low, the gravitational deceleration becomes more important and the chromospheric jets approach ballistic motion.

  11. Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wolfgang Kalkofen

    2008-03-01

    The nonmagnetic interior of supergranulation cells has been thought since the 1940s to be heated by the dissipation of acoustic waves. But all attempts to measure the acoustic flux have failed to show sufficient energy for chromospheric heating. Recent space observations with TRACE, for example, have found 10% or less of the necessary flux. To explain the missing energy it has been speculated that the nonmagnetic chromosphere is heated mainly by waves related to the magnetic field. If that were correct, the whole chromosphere, magnetic as well as nonmagnetic, would be heated mainly by waves related to the magnetic field. But contrary to expectation, the radiation emerging from the nonmagnetic chromosphere shows none of the signatures of magnetic waves, only those of acoustic waves. Nearly all the heating of the nonmagnetic chromosphere must therefore be due to acoustic waves. In the magnetic network on the boundary of supergranulation cells, on the other hand, the small filling factor of the magnetic field in the photosphere implies that only a small fraction of the wave flux that travels upward to heat the chromosphere can be channeled by the magnetic field. Hence, while some of the energy that is dissipated in the magnetic network is in the form of magnetic waves, most of it must be in the form of acoustic waves. Thus, the quiet solar chromosphere, instead of being heated mainly by magneticwaves throughout, must be heated mainly by acoustic waves throughout. The full wave flux heating the quiet chromosphere must travel through the photosphere. In the nonmagnetic medium, this flux is essentially all in the form of acoustic waves; TRACE registers at most 10% of it, perhaps because of limited spatial resolution.

  12. The HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N@TNG IV. Time resolved analysis of the Ca ii H&K and H{\\alpha} chromospheric emission of low-activity early-type M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scandariato, G; Biazzo, K; Leto, G; Stelzer, B; Sanchez, R Zanmar; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Damasso, M; Desidera, S; Álvarez, E González; Hernández, J I González; Gratton, R; Lanza, A F; Maggio, A; Messina, S; Micela, G; Pagano, I; Perger, M; Piotto, G; Rebolo, R; Ribas, I; Rosich, A; Sozzetti, A; Mascareño, A Suárez

    2016-01-01

    M dwarfs are prime targets for planet search programs, particularly of those focused on the detection and characterization of rocky planets in the habitable zone. Understanding their magnetic activity is important because it affects our ability to detect small planets, and it plays a key role in the characterization of the stellar environment. We analyze observations of the Ca II H&K and H{\\alpha} lines as diagnostics of chromospheric activity for low-activity early-type M dwarfs. We analyze the time series of spectra of 71 early-type M dwarfs collected for the HADES project for planet search purposes. The HARPS-N spectra provide simultaneously the H&K doublet and the H{\\alpha} line. We develop a reduction scheme able to correct the HARPS-N spectra for instrumental and atmospheric effects, and to provide flux-calibrated spectra in units of flux at the stellar surface. The H&K and H{\\alpha} fluxes are compared with each other, and their variability is analyzed. We find that the H and K flux excesse...

  13. Numerical studies of solar chromospheric jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Haruhisa

    2016-03-01

    The solar chromospheric jet is one of the most characteristic structures near the solar surface. The quantitative understanding of chromospheric jets is of substantial importance for not only the partially ionized phenomena in the chromosphere but also the energy input and dissipation processes in the corona. In this dissertation, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated using the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We newly develop a numerical code for the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the comprehensive modeling of solar atmosphere. Because the solar chromosphere is highly nonlinear, magnetic pressure dominated, and turbulent, a robust and high-resolution numerical scheme is required. In Chapter 2, we propose a new algorithm for the simulation of magnetohydrodynamics. Through the test problems and accuracy analyses, the proposed scheme is proved to satisfy the requirements. In Chapter 3, the effect of the non-local radiation energy transport, Spitzer-type thermal conduction, latent heat of partial ionization and molecule formation, and gravity are implemented to the magnetohydrodynamic code. The numerical schemes for the radiation transport and thermal conduction is carefully chosen in a view of the efficiency and compatibility with the parallel computation. Based on the developed radiation magnetohydrodynamic code, the formation and dynamics of chromospheric jets are investigated. In Chapter 4, we investigate the dependence of chromospheric jets on the coronal temperature in the two-dimensional simulations. Various scale of chromospheric jets with the parabolic trajectory are found with the maximum height of 2-8 Mm, lifetime of 2-7 min, maximum upward velocity of 10- 50 km/s, and deceleration of 100-350 m/s2. We find that chromospheric jets are more elongated under the cool corona and shorter under the hot corona. We also find that the pressure gradient force caused by the periodic shock waves accelerates some of the

  14. On the Role of Rotating Sunspots in the Activity of Solar Active Region NOAA 11158

    CERN Document Server

    Vemareddy, P; Maurya, R A

    2012-01-01

    We study the role of rotating sunspots in relation to the evolution of various physical parameters characterizing the non-potentiality of the active region NOAA 11158 and its eruptive events using the magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and multi-wavelength observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). From the evolutionary study of HMI intensity and AIA channels, it is observed that the AR consists of two major rotating sunspots one connected to flare-prone region and another with CME. The constructed space-time intensity maps reveal that the sunspots exhibited peak rotation rates coinciding with the occurrence of the major eruptive events. Further, temporal profiles of twist parameters, viz., average shear angle, $\\alpha_{\\rm av}$, $\\alpha_{\\rm best}$, derived from HMI vector magnetograms and the rate of helicity injection, obtained from the horizontal flux motions of HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, corresponded well with ...

  15. ON THE ROLE OF ROTATING SUNSPOTS IN THE ACTIVITY OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P.; Ambastha, A. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Udaipur-313001 (India); Maurya, R. A., E-mail: vema@prl.res.in, E-mail: ambastha@prl.res.in, E-mail: ramajor@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-10

    We study the role of rotating sunspots in relation to the evolution of various physical parameters characterizing the non-potentiality of the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 and its eruptive events using the magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and multi-wavelength observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From the evolutionary study of HMI intensity and AIA channels, it is observed that the AR consists of two major rotating sunspots, one connected to a flare-prone region and another with coronal mass ejection (CME). The constructed space-time intensity maps reveal that the sunspots exhibited peak rotation rates coinciding with the occurrence of major eruptive events. Further, temporal profiles of twist parameters, namely, average shear angle, {alpha}{sub av}, {alpha}{sub best}, derived from HMI vector magnetograms, and the rate of helicity injection, obtained from the horizontal flux motions of HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, correspond well with the rotational profile of the sunspot in the CME-prone region, giving predominant evidence of rotational motion causing magnetic non-potentiality. Moreover, the mean value of free energy from the virial theorem calculated at the photospheric level shows a clear step-down decrease at the onset time of the flares revealing unambiguous evidence of energy release intermittently that is stored by flux emergence and/or motions in pre-flare phases. Additionally, distribution of helicity injection is homogeneous in the CME-prone region while in the flare-prone region it is not and often changes sign. This study provides a clear picture that both proper and rotational motions of the observed fluxes played significant roles in enhancing the magnetic non-potentiality of the AR by injecting helicity, twisting the magnetic fields and thereby increasing the free energy, leading to favorable conditions for the observed transient activity.

  16. Misalignment between chromospheric features and magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the upper chromosphere shows an enormous amount of intricate fine structure. Much of this comes in the form of linear features which are most often assumed to be well aligned with the direction of the magnetic field in the low plasma beta regime thought to dominate the upper chromosphere. We use advanced radiative MHD simulations including the effects of ion-neutral interactions (using the generalized Ohm's law) in the partially ionized chromosphere to show that the magnetic field is often not well aligned with chromospheric features. This occurs where the ambipolar diffusion is large, i.e., ions and neutral populations decouple as the ion-neutral collision frequency drops allowing the field to slip through the neutral population, currents perpendicular to the field are strong, and thermodynamic timescales are longer than or similar to the those of ambipolar diffusion. We find this often happens in dynamic spicule or fibril-like features at the top of the chromosphere. This has important conse...

  17. Simulations of chromospheric heating by ambipolar diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, Elena

    2012-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for efficient heating of the solar chromosphere, based on non-ideal plasma effects. Three ingredients are needed for the work of this mechanism: (1) presence of neutral atoms; (2) presence of a non-potential magnetic field; (3) decrease of the collisional coupling of the plasma. Due to decrease of collisional coupling, a net relative motion appears between the neutral and ionized components, usually referred to as "ambipolar diffusion". This results in a significant enhancement of current dissipation as compared to the classical MHD case. We propose that the current dissipation in this situation is able to provide enough energy to heat the chromosphere by several kK on the time scale of minutes, or even seconds. In this paper, we show that this energy supply might be sufficient to balance the radiative energy losses of the chromosphere.

  18. Chromospheric LAyer SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; McKenzie, David E.; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier; De Pontieu, Bart; Kubo, Masahito; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kano, Ryouhei; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Masaki; Rachmeler, Laurel A.; Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Asensio Ramos, Andres; del Pino Aleman, Tanausu; Štępán, Jiri; Belluzzi, Luca; Larruquert, Juan Ignacio; Auchère, Frédéric; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Carlsson, Mattias J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The sounding rocket Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) was launched on September 3rd, 2015, and successfully detected (with a polarization accuracy of 0.1 %) the linear polarization signals (Stokes Q and U) that scattering processes were predicted to produce in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (Lyα 121.567 nm). Via the Hanle effect, this unique data set may provide novel information about the magnetic structure and energetics in the upper solar chromosphere. The CLASP instrument was safely recovered without any damage and we have recently proposed to dedicate its second flight to observe the four Stokes profiles in the spectral region of the Mg II h and k lines around 280 nm; in these lines the polarization signals result from scattering processes and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. Here we describe the modifications needed to develop this new instrument called the "Chromospheric LAyer SpectroPolarimeter" (CLASP2).

  19. Hip Rotations Influence Electromyographic Activity of Gluteus Medius Muscle During Pelvic Drop Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renan Lima; Facchini, Joana Hoverter; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Callegaric, Bianca; Amado João, Sílvia Maria

    2016-08-24

    Pelvic drop exercises are often used to strengthen the gluteus medius muscle with the aim of increasing or prioritizing its recruitment. However, the effect of hip rotation on the performance of the action of the gluteus medius is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hip rotation on the recruitment of the gluteus medius muscle, tensor fasciae latae and quadratus lumborum. Seventeen healthy subjects performed two sets of four repetitions of pelvic drop exercise in random order with lateral (PDLR), medial (PDMR) and neutral (PDN) rotation of the hip. The electromyographic activity of the gluteus medius muscle (GM), tensor fasciae latae (TFL) and quadratus lumborum (QL) were evaluated using surface electromyography (sEMG). The results showed significant increases in activation of the GM with medial and neutral rotation compared with lateral rotation (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, respectively) and there was no difference between medial and neutral rotation (p=1.00). There was no difference in electromyographic activity of the tensor fasciae latae and quadratus lumborum in any of the positions. The GM:TFL ratio was the same in all analyzed positions. Regarding the GM:QL ratio, there was a significant increase with medial rotation compared with lateral rotation (p=0.02). Pelvic drop exercises are more efficient for activating the gluteus medius when the hip is in medial rotation and neutral position.

  20. Chromospheric diagnosis with forward scattering polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, E S

    2016-01-01

    Is it physically feasible to perform chromospheric diagnosis using spatial maps of scattering polarization at the solar disk center? To investigate it we synthesized polarization maps (in 8542 Angstroms) resulting from MHD solar models and NLTE radiative transfer calculations that consider Hanle effect and vertical macroscopic motions. After explaining the physical con- text of forward scattering and presenting our results, we arrive at the definition of Hanle polarity inversion lines. We show how such features can give support for a clearer chromospheric diagnosis in which the magnetic and dynamic effects in the scattering polarization could be disentangled.

  1. Simultaneous Multi-Wavelength Observations of Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs. II. Mixed Trends in VB10 and LSR1835+32 and the Possible Role of Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Gizis, J E; Giampapa, M S; Rutledge, R E; Liebert, J; Martin, E; Fleming, T A; Johns-Krull, C M; Phan-Bao, N; Sherry, W H

    2007-01-01

    [Abridged] As part of our on-going investigation of magnetic activity in ultracool dwarfs we present simultaneous radio, X-ray, UV, and optical observations of LSR1835+32 (M8.5), and simultaneous X-ray and UV observations of VB10 (M8), both with a duration of about 9 hours. LSR1835+32 exhibits persistent radio emission and H-alpha variability on timescales of ~0.5-2 hr. The detected UV flux is consistent with photospheric emission, and no X-ray emission is detected to a deep limit of L_X/L_bol2x10^4. Similarly, L_Halpha/L_X>10 is at least 30 times larger than in early M dwarfs, and eliminates coronal emission as the source of chromospheric heating. The lack of radio variability during four rotations of LSR1835+32 requires a uniform stellar-scale field of ~10 G, and indicates that the H-alpha variability is dominated by much smaller scales, 25 km/s.

  2. Recent advances in measuring chromospheric magnetic fields in the He I 10830 Å line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagg, A.

    During the last decade advances in instrumentation, atomic physics and modeling have greatly improved the access to the chromospheric magnetic field vector. High sensitivity polarimeters like the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP2, VTT) or the Spectro-Polarimeter for Infrared and Optical Regions (SPINOR, HAO) lead to reliable Zeeman measurements using the He I 10830 Å triplet. The simultaneously measured Si I 10827 Å line provides additional information on the structure of the underlying photosphere. Theoretical modeling of the Hanle and the Paschen-Back effect helped to significantly improve the analysis of polarization measurements in the He I triplet, allowing to directly visualize the magnetic structure of spicules, polar prominences and active regions. Here, I will summarize the results of chromospheric magnetic field measurements using this interesting triplet obtained in the last couple of years and discuss the great potential it has to further uncover the complex structure of the chromosphere and its coupling to the photosphere.

  3. Reconnection Processes in the Chromosphere and Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazunari

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental key physical process in magnetized plasmas. Recent space solar observations revealed that magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the solar chromospheres and corona. Especially recent Hinode observations has found various types of tiny chromospheric jets, such as chromospheric anemone jets (Shibata et al. 2007), penumbral microjets (Katsukawa et al. 2007), light bridge jets from sunspot umbra (Shimizu et al. 2009), etc. It was also found that the corona is full of tiny X-ray jets (Cirtain et al. 2007). Often they are seen as helical spinning jets (Shimojo et al. 2007, Patsourakos et al. 2008, Pariat et al. 2009, Filippov et al. 2009, Kamio et al. 2010) with Alfvenic waves (Nishizuka et al. 2008, Liu et al. 2009) and there are increasing evidence of magnetic reconnection in these tiny jets. We can now say that as spatial resolution of observations become better and better, smaller and smaller flares and jets have been discovered, which implies that the magnetized solar atmosphere consist of fractal structure and dynamics, i.e., fractal reconnection. Bursty radio and hard X-ray emissions from flares also suggest the fractal reconnection and associated particle acceleration. Since magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not contain any characteristic length and time scale, it is natural that MHD structure, dynamics, and reconnection, tend to become fractal in ideal MHD plasmas with large magnetic Reynolds number such as in the solar atmosphere. We would discuss recent observations and theories related to fractal reconnection in the chromospheres and corona, and discuss possible implication to chromospheric and coronal heating.

  4. MULTIPLE PLASMA EJECTIONS AND INTERMITTENT NATURE OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Isobe, H. [Unit of Synergetic Study for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nishizuka, N., E-mail: singh@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nishida@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shibata@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: isobe@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nishizuka.naoto@jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of {approx}4 km s{sup -1}. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of {approx}35 km s{sup -1} was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  5. On the dynamic nature of the prolate solar chromosphere: jet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.; Koutchmy, S.; Vilinga, J.

    2007-03-01

    Context: In "cool" spectral lines, the smoothed upper edge of the solar chromosphere is prolate in the South-North direction at the epoch of minimum solar activity and nearly spherically symmetric at the maximum phase. We attribute the effect to the dynamical nature of the upper chromosphere, which consists of a large number of small jet-like structures ascending into the corona. We could not resolve the source region of an individual jetlet, although similar but larger structures are visible, especially in EUV coronal lines. Aims: We consider the problem of the formation of an individual jet above the limb, assuming that a large number of jet-like events is responsible for the prolate solar upper chromosphere. We then assume that spicules, being the cool part of the phenomenon, behave similarly, and we will mainly concentrate the analysis on the magnetic origin of the event. Methods: Image processing is used to reveal the displacement of magnetic field tubes filled with coronal plasma and jet formation due to field aligned motion above the null point created in the corona by the emerging magnetic bipole. Results: The growth of the bipole leads to a reconnection of the field lines and to a specific plasma motion in the vicinity of the null point that results in a plasma flow along the spine line of the 3D null. We assume that similar but smaller processes could happen very often at a smaller scale in the chromosphere, near emerging magnetic ephemeral regions, forming numerous jetlets in the upper chromosphere. As the field aligned motion is guided by the magnetic field, at the epoch of low activity the large-scale structure of the polar magnetic field and the one of the quiet equatorial region is sufficiently different to explain the prolateness of the chromosphere.

  6. Tracing the Chromospheric and Coronal Magnetic Field with AIA, IRIS, IBIS, and ROSA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Reardon, Kevin; Jess, Dave B.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the suitability of chromospheric images for magnetic modeling of active regions. We use high-resolution images (≈ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 2{--}0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 3), from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer in the Ca ii 8542 Å line, the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument in the Hα 6563 Å line, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph in the 2796 Å line, and compare non-potential magnetic field models obtained from those chromospheric images with those obtained from images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in coronal (171 Å, etc.) and in chromospheric (304 Å) wavelengths. Curvi-linear structures are automatically traced in those images with the OCCULT-2 code, to which we forward-fitted magnetic field lines computed with the Vertical-current Approximation Nonlinear Force Free Field code. We find that the chromospheric images: (1) reveal crisp curvi-linear structures (fibrils, loop segments, spicules) that are extremely well-suited for constraining magnetic modeling; (2) that these curvi-linear structures are field-aligned with the best-fit solution by a median misalignment angle of {μ }2≈ 4^\\circ -7° (3) the free energy computed from coronal data may underestimate that obtained from cromospheric data by a factor of ≈ 2-4, (4) the height range of chromospheric features is confined to h≲ 4000 km, while coronal features are detected up to h = 35,000 km; and (5) the plasma-β parameter is β ≈ {10}-5{--}{10}-1 for all traced features. We conclude that chromospheric images reveal important magnetic structures that are complementary to coronal images and need to be included in comprehensive magnetic field models, something that is currently not accomodated in standard NLFFF codes.

  7. Basal Chromospheric Flux and Maunder Minimum-type Stars: The quiet-Sun Chromosphere as a Universal Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, K -P; Martinez, M I Perez; Cuntz, M; Schmitt, J H M M

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the universal character of the quiet-Sun chromosphere among inactive stars (solar-type and giants). By assessing the main physical processes, we shed new light on some common observational phenomena. Methods: We discuss measurements of the solar Mt. Wilson S-index, obtained by the Hamburg Robotic Telescope around the extreme minimum year 2009, and compare the established chromospheric basal Ca II K line flux to the Mt. Wilson S-index data of inactive ("flat activity") stars, including giants. Results: During the unusually deep and extended activity minimum of 2009, the Sun reached S-index values considerably deeper than in any of its previously observed minima. In several brief periods, the Sun coincided exactly with the S-indices of inactive ("flat", presumed Maunder Minimum-type) solar analogues of the Mt. Wilson sample; at the same time, the solar visible surface was also free of any plages or remaining weak activity regions. The corresponding minimum Ca II K flux of the quiet Sun and ...

  8. New Insights on Late-A and Early-F Star Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Ferrero, R.; Catalano, S.; Marilli, E.; Gouttebroze, P.; Talavera, A.; Bruhweiler, F.

    The onset of chromospheric activity in late-A and early-F stars is here discussed. The detection of Ly- emission core in several A and F atars with the IUE satellite, gives evidence for the presence of chromospheric layers in these stars up to B - V = 0m.19 (Marilli et al., 1996). Semiempirical chromospheric models for Altair allowed us (Freire Ferrero et al., 1995) to explain the observed emission profiles taking into account normal H I interstellar (IS) absorption. However, due to the very high rotational velocity, we analysed alternative hypotheses to explain the observed emissions: (1) circumstellar or shell matter; (2) co-rotating expanding optically thin wind. We ruled out these hypotheses because their effects are negligible and as a consequence, this result reinforces the chromospheric origin of the observed Ly- core in Altair. The stars of our sample, having observed Ly- profilies similar to Altair's and similar stellar and IS properties, should reproduce similar chromospheric behaviour. Here we discuss several important questions that are raised by these results.

  9. Design Concepts for a Continuously Rotating Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bjørk, Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    Design considerations for a prototype magnetic refrigeration device with a continuously rotating AMR are presented. Building the AMR from stacks of elongated plates of the perovskite oxide material La0.67Ca0.33-xSrxMn1.05O3, gives both a low pressure drop and allows grading of the Curie temperature...... along the plates. This may be accomplished by a novel technique where a compositionally graded material may be tape cast in one piece. The magnet assembly is based on a novel design strategy, to create alternating high- and low magnetic field regions within a magnet assembly. Focus is on maximising...... the magnetic field in the high field regions but also, importantly, minimising the flux in the low field regions. The design is iteratively optimised through 3D finite element magnetostatic modelling....

  10. Helicity at Photospheric and Chromospheric Heights

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, S K; Sankarasubramanian, K

    2009-01-01

    In the solar atmosphere the twist parameter $\\alpha$ has the same sign as magnetic helicity. It has been observed using photospheric vector magnetograms that negative/positive helicity is dominant in the northern/southern hemisphere of the Sun. Chromospheric features show dextral/sinistral dominance in the northern/southern hemisphere and sigmoids observed in X-rays also have a dominant sense of reverse-S/forward-S in the northern/southern hemisphere. It is of interest whether individual features have one-to-one correspondence in terms of helicity at different atmospheric heights. We use UBF \\Halpha images from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) and other \\Halpha data from Udaipur Solar Observatory and Big Bear Solar Observatory. Near-simultaneous vector magnetograms from the DST are used to establish one-to-one correspondence of helicity at photospheric and chromospheric heights. We plan to extend this investigation with more data including coronal intensities.

  11. The chilling truth about the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    The notion that much of the solar gas in the low chromosphere is cool is discussed in terms of its validity. The dark CO absorption cores recorded at the extreme limb of the sun are described, including the 3-2 R14 line with a core-brightness temperature of 3620 K. A bifurcation in the plasma energy balance described to explain the high altitude cold gas is reviewed in terms of recent investigations. Spectral simulations of CO are described which examine the range of thermal profiles allowed by CO observations with low spatial resolution and limb darkening. Weak emission shoulders in the K line demonstrate that a cool chromosphere with Ca II emission is feasible, although the cold gas requires a surface coverage of as little as 20 percent to reproduce the limb darkening. To distinguish between the thermal bifurcation notion and the neophotosphere concept, observations of the high spatial resolution spectra of the CO bands are required.

  12. Heating of the magnetized solar chromosphere by partial ionization effects

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the heating of the magnetized solar chromosphere induced by the large fraction of neutral atoms present in this layer. The presence of neutrals, together with the decrease with height of the collisional coupling, leads to deviations from the classical MHD behavior of the chromospheric plasma. A relative net motion appears between the neutral and ionized components, usually referred to as ambipolar diffusion. The dissipation of currents in the chromosphere is enhanced orders of magnitude due to the action of ambipolar diffusion, as compared to the standard ohmic diffusion. We propose that a significant amount of magnetic energy can be released to the chromosphere just by existing force-free 10--40 G magnetic fields there. As a consequence, we conclude that ambipolar diffusion is an important process that should be included in chromospheric heating models, as it has the potential to rapidly heat the chromosphere. We perform analytical estimations and numerical simulations to prove this i...

  13. Chromospheric heating by acoustic waves compared to radiative cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Sobotka, M; Švanda, M; Jurčák, J; del Moro, D; Berrilli, F

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves are among the possible candidate mechanisms that heat the upper layers of solar atmosphere. A weak chromospheric plage near a large solar pore NOAA 11005 was observed on October 15, 2008 in the lines Fe I 617.3 nm and Ca II 853.2 nm with the Interferometric Bidimemsional Spectrometer (IBIS) attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope. Analyzing the Ca II observations with spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.4" and 52 s, the energy deposited by acoustic waves is compared with that released by radiative losses. The deposited acoustic flux is estimated from power spectra of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II line core. The radiative losses are calculated using a grid of seven 1D hydrostatic semi-empirical model atmospheres. The comparison shows that the spatial correlation of maps of radiative losses and acoustic flux is 72 %. In quiet chromosphere, the contribution of acoustic energy flux to radiative losses is small, only of about 15 %. In active areas with photospheric ma...

  14. A two-in-one Faraday rotator mirror exempt of active optical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qiong; Wan, Zhujun; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2014-02-10

    A two-in-one Faraday rotator mirror was presented, which functions as two independent Faraday rotation mirrors with a single device. With the introduction of a reflection lens as substitution of the mirror in traditional structure, this device is characterized by exemption of active optical alignment for the designers and manufacturers of Faraday rotator mirrors. A sample was fabricated by passive mechanical assembly. The insertion loss was measured as 0.46 dB/0.50 dB for the two independent ports, respectively.

  15. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N..; Ishikawa, R.; Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Giono, G.; Holloway, T.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; DePontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Auchere F.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Sainz, R. Manso; Belluzzi, L.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Stepan, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    To Understand energy release process in the Sun including solar flares, it is essentially important to measure the magnetic field of the atmosphere of the Sun. Magnetic field measurement of the upper layers (upper chromosphere and above) was technically difficult and not well investigated yet. Upper chromosphere and transition region magnetic field measurement by Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket to be launched in 2015. The proposal is already selected and developments of the flight components are going.

  16. The infrared excess of cool giant stars - A chromospheric contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.; Snell, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The idea that the infrared excesses of evolved M stars may contain a contribution from a chromosphere is explored using alpha Ori and W Hya as test cases. The spectrum of alpha Ori between 8 and 30 millimicrons can be interpreted satisfactorily in terms of three components: a photosphere, a silicate dust cloud, and a cool chromosphere (temperature about 5000 K), which is optically thick at 14 millimicrons. A similar modelling for W Hya suggests a hotter chromosphere (temperature about 8000 K), with unit optical depth at 30 millimicrons. Some consequences of these chromospheres are briefly discussed.

  17. Photometric and spectroscopic observations of three rapidly rotating late-type stars: EY Dra, V374 Peg and GSC 02038-00293

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, H; Husarik, M; Mahajan, S; Szczygiel, D; Olah, K

    2010-01-01

    Here, BV(RI)c broad band photometry and intermediate resolution spectroscopy in Halpha region are presented for two rapidly rotating late-type stars: EY Dra and V374 Peg. For a third rapid rotator, GSC 02038-00293, intermediate resolution Halpha spectroscopy and low resolution spectroscopy are used for spectral classification and stellar parameter investigation of this poorly known object. The low resolution spectrum of GSC 02038-00293 clearly indicates that it is a K-type star. Its intermediate resolution spectrum can be best fitted with a model with Teff=4750K and vsini=90km/s, indicating a very rapidly rotating mid-K star. The Halpha line strength is variable, indicating changing chromospheric emission on GSC 02038-00293. In the case of EY Dra and V374 Peg, the stellar activity in the photosphere is investigated from the photometric observations, and in the chromosphere from the Halpha line. The enhanced chromospheric emission in EY Dra correlates well with the location of the photospheric active regions, ...

  18. FAST ROTATION AND TRAILING FRAGMENTS OF THE ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2012 F5 (GIBBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahus, Michał; Waniak, Wacław [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Tendulkar, Shriharsh [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany); Jewitt, David [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sheppard, Scott S., E-mail: drahus@oa.uj.edu.pl [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-20

    While having a comet-like appearance, P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) has an orbit native to the Main Asteroid Belt, and physically is a km-sized asteroid which recently (mid 2011) experienced an impulsive mass ejection event. Here we report new observations of this object obtained with the Keck II telescope on UT 2014 August 26. The data show previously undetected 200 m scale fragments of the main nucleus, and reveal a rapid nucleus spin with a rotation period of 3.24 ± 0.01 hr. The existence of large fragments and the fast nucleus spin are both consistent with rotational instability and partial disruption of the object. To date, many fast rotators have been identified among the minor bodies, which, however, do not eject detectable fragments at the present-day epoch, and also fragmentation events have been observed, but with no rotation period measured. P/2012 F5 is unique in that for the first time we detected fragments and quantified the rotation rate of one and the same object. The rapid spin rate of P/2012 F5 is very close to the spin rates of two other active asteroids in the Main Belt, 133P/Elst-Pizarro and (62412), confirming the existence of a population of fast rotators among these objects. But while P/2012 F5 shows impulsive ejection of dust and fragments, the mass loss from 133P is prolonged and recurrent. We believe that these two types of activity observed in the rapidly rotating active asteroids have a common origin in the rotational instability of the nucleus.

  19. Activity of an enzyme immobilized on superparamagnetic particles in a rotational magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, Toru; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Nagaoka, Yutaka [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Tadamasa [Shimadzu GLC Ltd., Phenomenex Support Centre, Tokyo 110-0016 (Japan); Morimoto, Hisao; Usami, Ron [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    We immobilize {alpha}-amylase extracted from Bacillus Iicheniformis on the surfaces of superparamagnetic particles and investigate the effect of a rotational magnetic field on the enzyme's activity. We find that the activity of the enzyme molecules immobilized on superparamagnetic particles increases in the rotational magnetic field and reaches maximum at a certain frequency. We clarify the effect of the cluster structures formed by the superparamagnetic particles on the activity. Enzyme reactions are enhanced even in a tiny volume of solution using the present method, which is very important for the development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS).

  20. Observations of Chromospheric Anemone Jets with Hinode SOT and Hida Ca II Spectroheliogram

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Satoshi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Otsuji, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We present the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric "anemone" jets in solar active regions with Hinode SOT Ca II H broadband filetergram and Ca II K spetroheliogram on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory. During the coordinated observation, 9 chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed three important features, i.e.: (1) the jets are generated in the lower chromosphere, (2) the length and lifetime of the jets are 0.4-5 Mm and 40-320 sec, (3) the apparent velocity of the jets with Hinode SOT are 3-24 km/s, while Ca II K3 component at the jets show blueshifts (in 5 events) in the range of 2- 6 km/s. The chromospheric anemone jets are associated with mixed polarity regions which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features. It is found that the Ca II K line often show red or blue asymmetry in K2/K1 component: the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often show redshift (2-...

  1. Tracing the Chromospheric and Coronal Magnetic Field with AIA, IRIS, IBIS, and ROSA Data

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, M J; Jess, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the suitability of chromospheric images for magnetic modeling of active regions. We use high-resolution images (0.1") from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in the Ca II 8542 A line, the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument in the H-alpha 6563 A line, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in the 2796 A line, and compare non-potential magnetic field models obtained from those chromospheric images with those obtained from images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in coronal (171 A, etc.) and in chromospheric (304 A) wavelengths. Curvi-linear structures are automatically traced in those images with the OCCULT-2 code, to which we forward-fitted magnetic field lines computed with the Vertical-Current Approximation Non-Linear Force Free Field (VCA-NLFFF) code. We find that the chromospheric images: (1) reveal crisp curvi-linear structures (fibrils, loop segments, spicules) that are extremely well-suited for constrainin...

  2. Evidence for Fine Structure in the Chromospheric Umbral Oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Centeno, R; Collados, M; Bueno, J T

    2005-01-01

    Novel spectro-polarimetric observations of the \\ion{He}{1} multiplet are used to explore the dynamics of the chromospheric oscillation above sunspot umbrae. The results presented here provide strong evidence in support of the two-component model proposed by Socas-Navarro and co-authors. According to this model, the waves propagate only inside channels of sub-arcsecond width (the ``active'' component), whereas the rest of the umbra remains nearly at rest (the ``quiet'' component). Although the observations support the fundamental elements of that model, there is one particular aspect that is not compatible with our data. We find that, contrary to the scenario as originally proposed, the active component remains through the entire oscillation cycle and harbors both the upflowing and the downflowing phase of the oscillation.

  3. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.

    2006-09-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  4. Periodicity Signatures of Lightcurves of Active Comets in Non-Principal-Axis Rotational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Barrera, Jose G.

    2016-10-01

    There are two comets (1P/Halley, 103P/Hartley 2) that are unambiguously in non-principal-axis (NPA) rotational states in addition to a few more comets that are candidates for NPA rotation. Considering this fact, and the ambiguities associated with how to accurately interpret the periodicity signatures seen in lightcurves of active comets, we have started an investigation to identify and characterize the periodicity signatures present in simulated lightcurves of active comets. We carried out aperture photometry of simulated cometary comae to generate model lightcurves and analyzed them with Fourier techniques to identify their periodicity signatures. These signatures were then compared with the input component periods of the respective NPA rotational states facilitating the identification of how these periodicity signatures are related to different component periods of the NPA rotation. Ultimately, we also expect this study to shed light on why only a small fraction of periodic comets is in NPA rotational states, whereas theory indicates a large fraction of them should be in NPA states (e.g., Jewitt 1999, EMP, 79, 35). We explore the parameter space with respect to different rotational states, different orientations for the total rotational angular momentum vector, and different locations on the nucleus for the source region(s). As for special cases, we also investigate potential NPA rotational states representative of comet 103P/Hartley2, the cometary target of the EPOXI mission. The initial results from our investigation will be presented at the meeting. The NASA DDAP Program supports this work through grant NNX15AL66G.

  5. Gemini and Keck Observations of Slowly Rotating, Bilobate Active Asteroid (300163)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniak, Waclaw; Drahus, Michal

    2016-10-01

    One of the most puzzling questions regarding Active Asteroids is the mechanism of their activation. While some Active Asteroids show protracted and often recurrent mass loss, consistent with seasonal ice sublimation, some other eject dust impulsively as a result of a catastrophic disruption (e.g. Jewitt et al. 2015, Asteroids IV, 221). It has been suggested that ice can be excavated from the cold near-surface interior by an impact (Hsieh & Jewitt 2006, Science 312, 561) or, for small objects susceptible to YORP torques, by near-critical spin rate (Sheppard & Trujillo 2014, AJ 149, 44). But impact and rapid spin can also cause a catastrophic disruption (e.g. Jewitt et al. 2015, Asteroids IV, 221). It therefore becomes apparent that the different types of mass loss observed in Active Asteroids can be best classified and understood based on the nucleus spin rates (Drahus et al. 2015, ApJL 802, L8), but unfortunately the rotation periods have been measured for a very limited number of these objects. With this in mind we have initiated a survey of light curves of small Active Asteroids on the largest ground-based optical telescopes. Here we present the results for (300163), also known as 288P and 2006 VW139, which is a small 2.6-km sized asteroid that exhibited a comet-like activity over 100 days in the second half of 2011 (Hsieh et al. 2012, ApJL 748, L15; Licandro et al. 2013, A&A 550, A17; Agarwal et al. 2016, AJ 151, 12). Using Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS-S working in tandem on UT 2015 May 21-22 we have detected an inactive nucleus and measured a complete, dense, high-S/N rotational light curve. The light curve has a double-peaked period of 16 hours, an amplitude of 0.4 mag, and moderately narrow minima suggesting a bilobate or contact-binary shape. The long rotation period clearly demonstrates a non-rotational origin of activity of this object, consistent with an impact. Furthermore, among the five small Active Asteroids with known rotation periods (300163) is only

  6. The Solar Rotational Activity Variations during the 23-th Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R.; Hempelmann, A.; Valev, D.; Kostadinov, I.; Atanassov, At.; Giovanelli, G.; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.

    2006-03-01

    The study of the solar activity variability has been of great interest since its discovery. On the one hand it is important for the understanding of the Sun as an active star and on the other hand for the investigations of the solar-terrestrial connections. The solar magnetic field reverses approximately every 22 years, and manifests the 11-year solar cycle, in which the Sun changes its activity from its maximum value to the minimum one. The activity variations, developed by the sun surface rotation in connection with the nonsymmetrical distribution of active regions over the solar disc appear in a shorter time scale. As it is well known, these variations have periods of about 27 days. The solar surface rotates with different velocity, depending on the latitude. The differential solar rotation period, observed from the Earth, varies from 26.75 days at the solar equator up to approximately 29 days at higher latitudes. However the observed periodicity is generally in a wider range: from 20 up to 36 days. This wider spread is a result of the combination of both active-region evolution and solar rotation. A simple empirical solar activity model is proposed, which describes the obtained behavior by harmonic oscillations with simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation. The solar rotational periodicity is analyzed using wavelet. It is demonstrated, that the model describes well the separate episodes of the active region evolution. Both kinds of modulations are the consequence of activity region growth or decay and hence, they are a result of a variable pattern of spots and active regions on the solar surface.

  7. Reliability of forced internal rotation and active internal rotation to assess lateral instability of the biceps pulley

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARRIGONI, PAOLO; ROSE, GIACOMO DELLE; D’AMBROSI, RICCARDO; ROTUNDO, GIORGIO; CAMPAGNA, VINCENZO; PIRANI, PIERGIORGIO; PANASCÌ, MANLIO; PETRICCIOLI, DARIO; BERTONE, CELESTE; GRASSO, ANDREA; LATTE, CARMINE; COSTA, ALBERTO; VIOLA, GINO; DE GIORGI, SILVANA; PANELLA, ANTONELLO; PADUA, ROBERTO; BECCARINI, ALESSANDRO; SALCHER, BARBARA; OLIVIERI, MATTEO; MUGNAINI, MARCO; PANNONE, ANTONELLO; CEOLDO, CHIARA; LONGO, UMILE GIUSEPPE; DENARO, VINCENZO; CERCIELLO, SIMONE; PANNI, ALFREDO SCHIAVONE; AVANZI, PAOLO; ZORZI, CLAUDIO; RAGONE, VINCENZA; CASTAGNA, ALESSANDRO; RANDELLI, PIETRO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between positive painful forced internal rotation (FIR) and lateral pulley instability in the presence of a pre-diagnosed posterosuperior cuff tear. The same investigation was conducted for painful active internal rotation (AIR). Methods a multicenter prospective study was conducted in a series of patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic posterosuperior cuff repair. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) was administered. The VAS score at rest, DASH score, and presence/absence of pain on FIR and AIR were recorded and their relationships with lesions of the lateral pulley, cuff tear patterns and shape of lesions were analyzed. Results the study population consisted of 115 patients (mean age: 55.1 years) recruited from 12 centers. The dominant arm was affected in 72 cases (62.6%). The average anteroposterior extension of the lesion was 1.61 cm. The mean preoperative VAS and DASH scores were 6.1 and 41.8, respectively. FIR and AIR were positive in 94 (81.7%) and 85 (73.9%) cases, respectively. The lateral pulley was compromised in 50 cases (43.4%). Cuff tears were partial articular in 35 patients (30.4%), complete in 61 (53%), and partial bursal in 19 (16.5%). No statistical correlation between positive FIR or AIR and lateral pulley lesions was detected. Positive FIR and AIR were statistically associated with complete lesions. Negative FIR was associated with the presence of partial articular tears. Conclusions painful FIR in the presence of a postero-superior cuff tear does not indicate lateral pulley instability. When a cuff tear is suspected, positive FIR and AIR are suggestive of full-thickness tear patterns while a negative FIR suggests a partial articular lesion. Level of evidence: level I, validating cohort study with good reference standards. PMID:26151035

  8. Dynamical quorum sensing and clustering dynamics in a population of spatially distributed active rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Maeyama, Satomi

    2013-02-01

    A model of clustering dynamics is proposed for a population of spatially distributed active rotators. A transition from excitable to oscillatory dynamics is induced by the increase of the local density of active rotators. It is interpreted as dynamical quorum sensing. In the oscillation regime, phase waves propagate without decay, which generates an effectively long-range interaction in the clustering dynamics. The clustering process becomes facilitated and only one dominant cluster appears rapidly as a result of the dynamical quorum sensing. An exact localized solution is found to a simplified model equation, and the competitive dynamics between two localized states is studied numerically.

  9. Interactive modeling activities in the classroom—rotational motion and smartphone gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörn, Ray; Braskén, Mats

    2016-11-01

    The wide-spread availability of smartphones makes them a valuable addition to the measurement equipment in both the physics classroom and the instructional laboratory, encouraging an active interaction between measurements and modeling activities. In this paper we illustrate this interaction by making use of the internal gyroscope of a smartphone to study and measure the rotational dynamics of objects rotating about a fixed axis. The workflow described in this paper has been tested in a classroom setting and found to encourage an exploratory approach to both data collecting and modeling.

  10. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, E.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5%, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing that the targets are dwarf stars with spectral types between F and mid-K. Detectable Li i absorption in four of the targets confirms a low age of 100-400 Myr also deduced from gyrochronology. Our study indicates that the photometric beating phenomenon is likely attributable to differential rotation in fast-rotating stars with outer convection zones.

  11. The quiet chromosphere. Old wisdom, new insights, future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Robert J.

    2010-12-01

    The introduction to this review summarizes chromosphere observation with two figures. The first part showcases the historical emphasis on the eclipse chromosphere in the development of NLTE line formation theory and criticizes 1D modeling. The second part advertises recent breakthroughs after many decades of standstill. The third part discusses what may or should come next.

  12. Ubiquitous Fast Propagating Intensity Disturbances in Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    2016-01-01

    High cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment "the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP)" reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere, transition region, or both at a speed much higher than the sound speed.

  13. Controlled Activation of Protein Rotational Dynamics Using Smart Hydrogel Tethering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beech, Brenda M.; Xiong, Yijia; Boschek, Curt B.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Squier, Thomas C.

    2014-09-05

    Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications to take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with [13C] and [15N], permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Upon initial formation of hydrogels protein dynamics are suppressed, with concomitant increases in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in the activation of protein dynamics and restoration of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain motions necessary for substrate binding.

  14. Active control of counter-rotating open rotor interior noise in a Dornier 728 experimental aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Thomas; Unruh, Oliver; Algermissen, Stephan; Pohl, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The fuel consumption of future civil aircraft needs to be reduced because of the CO2 restrictions declared by the European Union. A consequent lightweight design and a new engine concept called counter-rotating open rotor are seen as key technologies in the attempt to reach this ambitious goals. Bearing in mind that counter-rotating open rotor engines emit very high sound pressures at low frequencies and that lightweight structures have a poor transmission loss in the lower frequency range, these key technologies raise new questions in regard to acoustic passenger comfort. One of the promising solutions for the reduction of sound pressure levels inside the aircraft cabin are active sound and vibration systems. So far, active concepts have rarely been investigated for a counter-rotating open rotor pressure excitation on complex airframe structures. Hence, the state of the art is augmented by the preliminary study presented in this paper. The study shows how an active vibration control system can influence the sound transmission of counter-rotating open rotor noise through a complex airframe structure into the cabin. Furthermore, open questions on the way towards the realisation of an active control system are addressed. In this phase, an active feedforward control system is investigated in a fully equipped Dornier 728 experimental prototype aircraft. In particular, the sound transmission through the airframe, the coupling of classical actuators (inertial and piezoelectric patch actuators) into the structure and the performance of the active vibration control system with different error sensors are investigated. It can be shown that the active control system achieves a reduction up to 5 dB at several counter-rotating open rotor frequencies but also that a better performance could be achieved through further optimisations.

  15. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E. [Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Aix-en-Provence (France). CEREGE, College de France; Abarca-del-Rio, R. [Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) (Chile). Dept. de Geofisica (DGEO)

    2014-10-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  16. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J. (UWA); (St. Vincent); (Queensland)

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  17. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, experimental results show the feasibility of reducing the amplitude of resonance peaks in rotor-bearing test rig, in the frequency domain, by using active lubricated bearings. The most important consequence of this vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility o...

  18. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, experimental results show the feasibility of reducing the amplitude of resonance peaks in rotor-bearing test rig, in the frequency domain, by using active lubricated bearings. The most important consequence of this vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility o...

  19. Radiating Current Sheets in the Solar Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    An MHD model of a Hydrogen plasma with flow, an energy equation, NLTE ionization and radiative cooling, and an Ohm's law with anisotropic electrical conduction and thermoelectric effects is used to self-consistently generate atmospheric layers over a $50$ km height range. A subset of these solutions contain current sheets, and have properties similar to those of the lower and middle chromosphere. The magnetic field profiles are found to be close to Harris sheet profiles, with maximum field strengths $\\sim 25-150$ G. The radiative flux $F_R$ emitted by individual sheets is $\\sim 4.9 \\times 10^5 - 4.5 \\times 10^6$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-s$^{-1}$, to be compared with the observed chromospheric emission rate of $\\sim 10^7$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-s$^{-1}$. Essentially all emission is from regions with thicknesses $\\sim 0.5 - 13$ km containing the neutral sheet. About half of $F_R$ comes from sub-regions with thicknesses 10 times smaller. A resolution $\\lesssim 5-130$ m is needed to resolve the properties of the sheets. The sheets...

  20. Internetwork chromospheric bright grains observed with IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart; Pereira, Tiago M D; Boerner, Paul; Hurlburt, Neal; Kleint, Lucia; Lemen, James; Tarbell, Ted D; Title, Alan; Wuelser, Jean-Pierre; Hansteen, Viggo H; Golub, Leon; McKillop, Sean; Reeves, Kathy K; Saar, Steven; Testa, Paola; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah; Kankelborg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveals small-scale rapid brightenings in the form of bright grains all over coronal holes and the quiet sun. These bright grains are seen with the IRIS 1330 \\AA, 1400 \\AA\\ and 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filters. We combine coordinated observations with IRIS and from the ground with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) which allows us to have chromospheric (Ca II 8542 \\AA, Ca II H 3968 \\AA, H\\alpha, and Mg II k 2796 \\AA), and transition region (C II 1334 \\AA, Si IV 1402) spectral imaging, and single-wavelength Stokes maps in Fe I 6302 \\AA at high spatial (0.33"), temporal and spectral resolution. We conclude that the IRIS slit-jaw grains are the counterpart of so-called acoustic grains, i.e., resulting from chromospheric acoustic waves in a non-magnetic environment. We compare slit-jaw images with spectra from the IRIS spectrograph. We conclude that the grain intensity in the 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filter comes from both the Mg II k core and wings. The signal in the C II ...

  1. The Lower Chromosphere in a Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitskaya, R. B.; Turova, I. P.; Ozhogina, O. A.

    2007-07-01

    We study the Ca ii K, H, and λ 849.8 nm line profiles in two regions of the quiet Sun, one being located in the extensive low-latitude coronal hole observed on 3 through 5 August 2003, and the other being located outside the coronal hole. Comparison of the profiles was carried out separately for cells and cell boundaries of the chromospheric network. Our principal result is that space- and time-averaged profiles of the central self-reversal in the coronal hole sites differ from those outside of the hole: Intensities of the K3 and H3 central depressions are increased in the cells but are unchanged in the network; the height of the K2 peaks is reduced in the cells and particularly in the network; the central self-reversal asymmetry is intensified in the network. Distinctions appear at a high confidence level. Line wings as well as average characteristics of the infrared line remain practically unchanged. We discuss probable causes for this behavior of the lower chromosphere lines.

  2. Short dynamic fibrils in sunspot chromospheres

    CERN Document Server

    van der Voort, Luc Rouppe

    2013-01-01

    Sunspot chromospheres display vigorous oscillatory signature when observed in chromospheric diagnostics like the strong Ca II lines and H-alpha. New high-resolution sunspot observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope show the ubiquitous presence of small-scale periodic jet-like features that move up and down. This phenomenon has not been described before. Their typical width is about 0.3 arcsec and they display clear parabolic trajectories in space-time diagrams. The maximum extension of the top of the jets is lowest in the umbra, a few 100 km, and progressively longer further away from the umbra in the penumbra, with the longest more than 1000 km. These jets resemble dynamic fibrils found in plage regions but at smaller extensions. LTE inversion of spectro-polarimetric Ca II 8542 observations enabled for a comparison of the magnetic field inclination and the properties of these short jets. We find that the most extended of these jets also have longer periods and tend to be located in regions with more ...

  3. Sunspot Rotation as a Driver of Major Solar Eruptions in NOAA Active Region 12158

    CERN Document Server

    Vemareddy, P; Ravindra, B

    2016-01-01

    We studied the developing conditions of sigmoid structure under the influence of magnetic non-potential characteristics of a rotating sunspot in the active region (AR) 12158. Vector magnetic field measurements from Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and coronal EUV observations from Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal that the erupting inverse-S sigmoid had roots in the location of the rotating sunspot. Sunspot rotates at a rate of 0-5deg/h with increasing trend in the first half followed by a decrease. Time evolution of many non-potential parameters had a well correspondence with the sunspot rotation. The evolution of the AR magnetic structure is approximated by a time series of force free equilibria. The NLFFF magnetic structure around the sunspot manifests the observed sigmoid structure. Field lines from the sunspot periphery constitute the body of the sigmoid and those from interior overly the sigmoid similar to a fluxrope structure. While the sunspot is being rotating, two major CME eruptions occurred in the A...

  4. Acceleration of Type 2 Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere - 2: Viscous Braking and Upper Bounds on Coronal Energy Input

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ~ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in inter-granular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  5. Physics of the Solar Chromosphere: Beyond the Ideal MHD Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, James

    2015-08-01

    The solar chromosphere is the dynamic, physically complex, layer that lies between the visible solar surface and the magnetically dominated corona. Despite being a moderator of the amount of mass, magnetic field, and energy, that is transferred into the solar corona and the heliosphere and beyond, there are still important open questions regarding the chromosphere. Recent advancements in both observation and theoretical descriptions of the chromosphere have created new ideas about how the chromosphere controls the transfer of the above quantities from the Sun's interior into the heliosphere. Open questions still remain, such as, how is the chromosphere heated, and how do chromospheric events such as spicules, jets, reconnection, and wave propagation and dissipation contribute to the mass and energy balance in the solar atmosphere. Central to these questions are extensions to the standard magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model of the Sun, such as non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium radiation, and multi-fluid physics. In this talk, we summarize the importance of these extensions and look for the necessary developments to answer open questions about the chromosphere.

  6. Minimalist coupled evolution model for stellar x-ray activity, rotation, mass loss, and magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    Late-type main sequence stars exhibit an x-ray to bolometric flux that depends on the Corolis number $Co$ (product of convective turnover time and angular rotation speed) as $Co^{\\zeta}$ with $2\\le \\zeta \\le 3$ for $Co > 1$. Stars in the unsaturated regime also obey the Skumanich law--- their rotation speeds scale inversely with square root of their age. The associated stellar magnetic field strengths follow a similar decrease with age. While the connection between faster rotators, stronger fields, and higher activity has been well established observationally, a basic theory for the time evolution of x-ray luminosity, rotation, magnetic field and mass loss been lacking. Here we offer a minimalist model for the time evolution of these quantities built from combining a Parker wind with several new ingredients: (1) explicit sourcing of both the thermal energy launching the wind and the x-ray luminosity via dynamo produced magnetic fields; (2) explicit coupling of x-ray activity and mass loss saturation to dynamo...

  7. A common model for cytokine receptor activation: combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of receptor dimer induced by class I cytokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Pang

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism by which the binding of a class I cytokine to the extracellular domain of its corresponding receptor transmits a signal through the cell membrane remains unclear. Receptor activation involves a cytokine-receptor complex with a 1∶2 stoichiometry. Previously we used our transient-complex theory to calculate the rate constant of the initial cytokine-receptor binding to form a 1∶1 complex. Here we computed the binding pathway leading to the 1∶2 activation complex. Three cytokine systems (growth hormone, erythropoietin, and prolactin were studied, and the focus was on the binding of the extracellular domain of the second receptor molecule after forming the 1∶1 complex. According to the transient-complex theory, translational and rotation diffusion of the binding entities bring them together to form a transient complex, which has near-native relative separation and orientation but not the short-range specific native interactions. Subsequently conformational rearrangement leads to the formation of the native complex. We found that the changes in relative orientations between the two receptor molecules from the transient complex to the 1∶2 native complex are similar for the three cytokine-receptor systems. We thus propose a common model for receptor activation by class I cytokines, involving combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of the two receptor molecules. Both types of rotations seem essential: the scissor-like rotation separates the intracellular domains of the two receptor molecules to make room for the associated Janus kinase molecules, while the self-rotation allows them to orient properly for transphosphorylation. This activation model explains a host of experimental observations. The transient-complex based approach presented here may provide a strategy for designing antagonists and prove useful for elucidating activation mechanisms of other receptors.

  8. Sunspot Rotation as a Driver of Major Solar Eruptions in the NOAA Active Region 12158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.; Cheng, X.; Ravindra, B.

    2016-09-01

    We studied the development conditions of sigmoid structure under the influence of the magnetic non-potential characteristics of a rotating sunspot in the active region (AR) 12158. Vector magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and coronal EUV observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal that the erupting inverse-S sigmoid had roots at the location of the rotating sunspot. The sunspot rotates at a rate of 0°-5° h-1 with increasing trend in the first half followed by a decrease. The time evolution of many non-potential parameters had a good correspondence with the sunspot rotation. The evolution of the AR magnetic structure is approximated by a time series of force-free equilibria. The non-linear force-free field magnetic structure around the sunspot manifests the observed sigmoid structure. Field lines from the sunspot periphery constitute the body of the sigmoid and those from the interior overlie the sigmoid, similar to a flux rope structure. While the sunspot was rotating, two major coronal mass ejection eruptions occurred in the AR. During the first (second) event, the coronal current concentrations were enhanced (degraded), consistent with the photospheric net vertical current; however, magnetic energy was released during both cases. The analysis results suggest that the magnetic connections of the sigmoid are driven by the slow motion of sunspot rotation, which transforms to a highly twisted flux rope structure in a dynamical scenario. Exceeding the critical twist in the flux rope probably leads to the loss of equilibrium, thus triggering the onset of the two eruptions.

  9. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tempelaere

    Full Text Available MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases.Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI.The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear and without tears (tendinopathy (p = 0.012. The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm than in normals (3.4mm (p = 0.02. The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm and tendinopathy (4.8mm shoulders (p = 0.05.The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; 'Looseness', i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position.

  10. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Methods Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. Results The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). Conclusion The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position. PMID:27434235

  11. AN ACTIVITY–ROTATION RELATIONSHIP AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NEARBY MID-TO-LATE-TYPE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Andrew A.; Weisenburger, Kolby L. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Dittmann, Jason [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. [MIT, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Bldg. 37, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pineda, J. Sebastian, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    Using spectroscopic observations and photometric light curves of 238 nearby M dwarfs from the MEarth exoplanet transit survey, we examine the relationships between magnetic activity (quantified by Hα emission), rotation period, and stellar age. Previous attempts to investigate the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in these stars were hampered by the limited number of M dwarfs with measured rotation periods (and the fact that v sin i measurements probe only rapid rotation). However, the photometric data from MEarth allows us to probe a wide range of rotation periods for hundreds of M dwarf stars (from shorter than one to longer than 100 days). Over all M spectral types that we probe, we find that the presence of magnetic activity is tied to rotation, including for late-type, fully convective M dwarfs. We also find evidence that the fraction of late-type M dwarfs that are active may be higher at longer rotation periods compared to their early-type counterparts, with several active, late-type, slowly rotating stars present in our sample. Additionally, we find that all M dwarfs with rotation periods shorter than 26 days (early-type; M1–M4) and 86 days (late-type; M5–M8) are magnetically active. This potential mismatch suggests that the physical mechanisms that connect stellar rotation to chromospheric heating may be different in fully convective stars. A kinematic analysis suggests that the magnetically active, rapidly rotating stars are consistent with a kinematically young population, while slow-rotators are less active or inactive and appear to belong to an older, dynamically heated stellar population.

  12. Chromospheric Sunspot Oscillations in H-alpha and Ca II 8542A

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, Ram Ajor; Park, Hyungmin; Yang, Heesu; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyuhyoun

    2013-01-01

    We study chromospheric oscillations including umbral flashes and running penumbral waves in a sunspot of active region (AR) using scanning spectroscopy in H-alpha and Ca II 8542A, with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) at the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. A bisector method is applied to spectral observations to construct chromospheric Doppler velocity maps. Temporal sequence analysis of these shows enhanced high-frequency oscillations inside the sunspot umbra in both lines. Their peak frequency gradually decreases outward from the umbra. The oscillation power is found to be associated with magnetic-field strength and inclination, with different relationships in different frequency bands.

  13. No tillage combined with crop rotation improves soil microbial community composition and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingjie; Jia, Shuxia; Zhang, Shixiu; McLaughlin, Neil B; Liang, Aizhen; Chen, Xuewen; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial community can vary with different agricultural managements, which in turn can affect soil quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of long-term tillage practice (no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT)) and crop rotation (maize-soybean (MS) rotation and monoculture maize (MM)) on soil microbial community composition and metabolic capacity in different soil layers. Long-term NT increased the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) mainly at the 0-5 cm depth which was accompanied with a greater microbial abundance. The greater fungi-to-bacteria (F/B) ratio was found in NTMS at the 0-5 cm depth. Both tillage and crop rotation had a significant effect on the metabolic activity, with the greatest average well color development (AWCD) value in NTMS soil at all three soil depths. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the shift in microbial community composition was accompanied with the changes in capacity of utilizing different carbon substrates. Therefore, no tillage combined with crop rotation could improve soil biological quality and make agricultural systems more sustainable.

  14. The stellar activity-rotation relationship and the evolution of stellar dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Mamajek, Eric E; Henry, Gregory W

    2011-01-01

    We present a sample of 824 solar and late-type stars with X-ray luminosities and rotation periods. This is used to study the relationship between rotation and stellar activity and derive a new estimate of the convective turnover time. From an unbiased subset of this sample the power law slope of the unsaturated regime, L_X / L_bol = Ro^\\beta, is fit as \\beta = -2.70 +/- 0.13. This is inconsistent with the canonical \\beta=-2 slope to a confidence of 5 sigma, and argues for an additional term in the dynamo number equation. From a simple scaling analysis this implies \\Delta\\Omega / \\Omega = \\Omega^0.7, i.e. the differential rotation of solar-type stars gradually declines as they spin down. Super-saturation is observed for the fastest rotators in our sample and its parametric dependencies are explored. Significant correlations are found with both the corotation radius and the excess polar updraft, the latter theory providing a stronger dependence and being supported by other observations. We estimate mass-depende...

  15. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Evangelos; Schmitt, Jürgen H M M

    2016-01-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5 %, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing...

  16. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...... as a function of cycle frequency was determined. It was found that thermal losses increase as the frequency increases. Therefore, a detailed study of these parasitic losses was carried out experimentally and numerically....

  17. A bimodal correlation between host star chromospheric emission and the surface gravity of hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Lanza, A F

    2015-01-01

    The chromospheric activity index logR'HK of stars hosting transiting hot Jupiters appears to be correlated with the planets' surface gravity. One of the possible explanations is based on the presence of condensations of planetary evaporated material located in a circumstellar cloud that absorbs the CaII H&K and MgII h&k resonance line emission flux, used to measure chromospheric activity. A larger column density in the condensations, or equivalently a stronger absorption in the chromospheric lines, is obtained when the evaporation rate of the planet is larger, which occurs for a lower gravity of the planet. We analyze here a sample of stars hosting transiting hot Jupiters tuned in order to minimize systematic effects (e.g., interstellar medium absorption). Using a mixture model, we find that the data are best fit by a two-linear-regression model. We interpret this result in terms of the Vaughan-Preston gap. We use a Monte Carlo approach to best take into account the uncertainties, finding that the two...

  18. Retrospective Conversion of Solar Data Printed in "Synoptic Maps of the Solar Chromosphere": A Scientific and Librarianship Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenceau, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Renié, C.

    2015-04-01

    Between 1928 and 2003, the Observatoire de Paris published solar activity maps and their corresponding data tables, first in the Annals of the Meudon Observatory, then in the Synoptic Maps of the Solar Chromosphere. These maps represent the main solar structures in a single view and spread out on a complete Carrington rotation as well as tables of associated data, containing various information on these structures such as positions, length, morphological characteristics, and behavior. Since 2003, these maps and data tables have not been released in print, as they are only published on the online BASS2000 database, the solar database maintained by LESIA (Laboratory for space studies and astrophysical instruments). In order to make the first 80 years of observations which were available only in paper accessible and usable, the LESIA and the Library of the Observatory have started a project to digitize the publications, enter the data with the assistance of a specialized company, and then migrate the files obtained in BASS2000 and in the Heliophysics Features Catalog created in the framework of the European project HELIO.

  19. Electromyographic study of rotator cuff muscle activity during full and empty can tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The empty can (EC and full can (FC tests are used as diagnostic tools for patients with rotator cuff disease. However, recently concerns have been raised that these tests do not selectively activate the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the rotator cuff muscle activation levels during the EC and FC tests in various positions using electromyography. Twelve healthy, right-handed men without shoulder complaints (mean age: 26.1 years, range: 23–35 years were included. The tests were performed isometrically with the shoulder elevated at 45° and 90° in the sagittal, scapular, and coronal planes, either in the thumb-up (FC test or thumb-down (EC test positions. During these positions, the electromyographic signal was recorded simultaneously from the four shoulder muscles using a combination of surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. The average activation of the supraspinatus and subscapularis was greater during the EC test than during the FC test and in the scapular and coronal planes than in the sagittal plane at 90°. For the infraspinatus, there were no significant differences in any positions between the two tests. Thus, the rotator cuff muscles are influenced by arm position and the elevation plane during the EC and FC tests.

  20. Starspot activity and rotation of the planet-hosting star Kepler-17

    CERN Document Server

    Bonomo, Aldo S

    2012-01-01

    Context. Kepler-17 is a G2V sun-like star accompanied by a transiting planet with a mass of ~2.5 Jupiter masses and an orbital period of 1.486 d, recently discovered by the Kepler space telescope. This star is highly interesting as a young solar analogue. Aims. We used about 500 days of high-precision, high-duty-cycle optical photometry collected by Kepler to study the rotation of the star and the evolution of its photospheric active regions. Methods. We applied a maximum-entropy light curve inversion technique to model the flux rotational modulation induced by active regions that consist of dark spots and bright solar-like faculae with a fixed area ratio. Their configuration was varied after a fixed time interval to take their evolution into account. Active regions were used as tracers to study stellar differential rotation, and planetary occultations were used to constrain the latitude of some spots. Results. Our modelling approach reproduces the light variations of Kepler-17 with a standard deviation of th...

  1. Particle Acceleration and Plasma Heating in the Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new mechanism of electron acceleration and plasma heating in the solar chromosphere, based on the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The instability develops at the chromospheric footpoints of a flare loop and deforms the local magnetic field. As a result, the electric current in the loop varies, and a resulting inductive electric field appears. A pulse of the induced electric field, together with the pulse of the electric current, propagates along the loop with the Alfvén velocity and begins to accelerate electrons up to an energy of about 1 MeV. Accelerated particles are thermalized in the dense layers of the chromosphere with the plasma density n ≈10^{14} - 10^{15} cm^{-3}, heating them to a temperature of about several million degrees. Joule dissipation of the electric current pulse heats the chromosphere at heights that correspond to densities n ≤10^{11} - 10^{13} cm^{-3}. Observations with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory indicate that chromospheric footpoints of coronal loops might be heated to coronal temperatures and that hot plasma might be injected upwards, which brightens ultra-fine loops from the photosphere to the base of the corona. Thereby, recent observations of the Sun and the model we propose stimulate a déjà vu - they are reminiscent of the concept of the chromospheric flare.

  2. Parsec-scale Faraday rotation and polarization of 20 active galactic nuclei jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    We perform polarimetry analysis of 20 active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4, and 15.4 GHz. The study allowed us to investigate linearly polarized properties of the jets at parsec-scales: distribution of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and fractional polarization along the jets, Faraday effects and structure of Faraday-corrected polarization images. Wavelength-dependence of the fractional polarization and polarization angle is consistent with external Faraday rotation, while some sources show internal rotation. The RM changes along the jets, systematically increasing its value towards synchrotron self-absorbed cores at shorter wavelengths. The highest core RM reaches 16,900 rad m-2 in the source rest frame for the quasar 0952+179, suggesting the presence of highly magnetized, dense media in these regions. The typical RM of transparent jet regions has values of an order of a hundred rad m-2 . Significant transverse rotation measure gradients are observed in seven sources. The magnetic field in the Faraday screen has no preferred orientation, and is observed to be random or regular from source to source. Half of the sources show evidence for the helical magnetic fields in their rotating magnetoionic media. At the same time jets themselves contain large-scale, ordered magnetic fields and tend to align its direction with the jet flow. The observed variety of polarized signatures can be explained by a model of spine-sheath jet structure.

  3. THE STELLAR-ACTIVITY-ROTATION RELATIONSHIP AND THE EVOLUTION OF STELLAR DYNAMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drake, Jeremy J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Henry, Gregory W., E-mail: nwright@cfa.harvard.edu [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We present a sample of 824 solar and late-type stars with X-ray luminosities and rotation periods. This is used to study the relationship between rotation and stellar activity and derive a new estimate of the convective turnover time. From an unbiased subset of this sample the power-law slope of the unsaturated regime, L{sub X} /L{sub bol}{proportional_to}Ro{sup {beta}}, is fit as {beta} = -2.70 {+-} 0.13. This is inconsistent with the canonical {beta} = -2 slope to a confidence of 5{sigma}, and argues for an additional term in the dynamo number equation. From a simple scaling analysis this implies {Delta}{Omega}/{Omega}{proportional_to}{Omega}{sup 0.7}, i.e., the differential rotation of solar-type stars gradually declines as they spin down. Supersaturation is observed for the fastest rotators in our sample and its parametric dependencies are explored. Significant correlations are found with both the corotation radius and the excess polar updraft, the latter theory providing a stronger dependence and being supported by other observations. We estimate mass-dependent empirical thresholds for saturation and supersaturation and map out three regimes of coronal emission. Late F-type stars are shown never to pass through the saturated regime, passing straight from supersaturated to unsaturated X-ray emission. The theoretical threshold for coronal stripping is shown to be significantly different from the empirical saturation threshold (Ro < 0.13), suggesting it is not responsible. Instead we suggest that a different dynamo configuration is at work in stars with saturated coronal emission. This is supported by a correlation between the empirical saturation threshold and the time when stars transition between convective and interface sequences in rotational spin-down models.

  4. Age-rotation relationship for late-type main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, T. N.

    1984-01-01

    With advancing spectral type and increasing age, late main-sequence stars exhibit monotonic decrease in rotational velocity. It is of great interest to extend the rotation-age relationship to stars of later spectral type. In recent times it has become possible to measure directly the rotational periods from the photometric modulation by Ca II H and K line emission. There have also been successful attempts to relate the chromospheric activity as manifested through Ca II H and K lines to the rotation period, and it was shown that the fraction of total stellar luminosity in Ca II H and K lines, corrected for photospheric contribution, is a function of a single parameter related to P and B-V. In the present investigation, this rotation-activity relation is utilized to infer the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. The period versus B-V plot is employed as a basis to infer that the rotational period of main-sequence stars is a single-valued function of mass (B-V color) and age.

  5. Linking Stellar Coronal Activity and Rotation at 500 Myr: A Deep Chandra Observation of M37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Covey, Kevin R.; Hartman, Joel D.; Kraus, Adam L.; Bowsher, Emily C.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Pooley, David A.; Posselt, Bettina; Saar, Steven H.; West, Andrew A.

    2015-08-01

    Empirical calibrations of the stellar age-rotation-activity relation (ARAR) rely on observations of the co-eval populations of stars in open clusters. We used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study M37, a 500-Myr-old open cluster that has been extensively surveyed for rotation periods ({P}{rot}). M37 was observed almost continuously for five days, for a total of 440.5 ks, to measure stellar X-ray luminosities ({L}{{X}}), a proxy for coronal activity, across a wide range of masses. The cluster’s membership catalog was revisited to calculate updated membership probabilities from photometric data and each star’s distance to the cluster center. The result is a comprehensive sample of 1699 M37 members: 426 with {P}{rot}, 278 with X-ray detections, and 76 with both. We calculate Rossby numbers, {R}o= {P}{rot}/τ , where τ is the convective turnover time, and ratios of the X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity, {L}{{X}}/{L}{bol}, to minimize mass dependencies in our characterization of the rotation-coronal activity relation at 500 Myr. We find that fast rotators, for which {R}o\\lt 0.09+/- 0.01, show saturated levels of activity, with log({L}{{X}}/{L}{bol})=\\-3.06+/- 0.04. For {R}o≥slant 0.09+/- 0.01, activity is unsaturated and follows a power law of the form {R}oβ , where β = -{2.03}-0.14+0.17. This is the largest sample available for analyzing the dependence of coronal emission on rotation for a single-aged population, covering stellar masses in the range 0.4-1.3 {M}⊙ , {P}{rot} in the range 0.4-12.8 days, and {L}{{X}} in the range {10}28.4-30.5 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. Our results make M37 a new benchmark open cluster for calibrating the ARAR at ages of ≈ 500 Myr.

  6. Modelling Chromospheric Line Profiles in NGC2808: Evidence of Mass Loss from RGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mauas, P J D; Pasquini, L

    2006-01-01

    In this study we test the possibility that the asymmetry in the profiles of the H-alpha and Ca II K lines in red giant stars is due to the presence of an active chromosphere rather than to mass loss. To this end, we compare line profiles computed using relevant model chromospheres to profiles of the H-alpha and Ca II K lines observed in five red giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 2808. The spectra were taken with FLAMES during Science Verification, using the UVES mode at high resolution (R=43,000) for the H-alpha line, and GIRAFFE in MEDUSA mode (R=20,000) for the Ca II K line. We find that the observed profiles are better described if a negative (outward) velocity field is included in the model chromospheres. This leads to mass loss rates of a few 10**(-9) solar masses per year, very close to the requirements of the stellar evolution theory.

  7. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium inversions from a 3D MHD chromospheric model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the solar chromosphere is believed to be governed by magnetic fields, even in quiet-Sun regions that have a relatively weak photospheric field. During the past decade inversion methods have emerged as powerful tools for analyzing the chromosphere of active regions. The applicability of inversions to infer the stratification of the physical conditions in a dynamic 3D solar chromosphere has not yet been studied in detail. This study aims to establish the diagnostic capabilities of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) inversion techniques of Stokes profiles induced by the Zeeman effect in the Ca II 8542 line. We computed the Ca II atomic level populations in a snapshot from a 3D radiation-MHD simulation of the quiet solar atmosphere in non-LTE using the 3D radiative transfer code Multi3d. These populations were used to compute synthetic full-Stokes profiles in the Ca II 8542 line using 1.5D radiative transfer and the inversion code Nicole. The profiles were then spectrally degraded to ac...

  8. An Activity-Rotation Relationship and Kinematic Analysis of Nearby Mid-to-Late-type M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    West, Andrew A; Irwin, Jonathan; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Charbonneau, David; Dittmann, Jason; Pineda, J Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Using spectroscopic observations and photometric light curves of 238 nearby M dwarfs from the MEarth exoplanet transit survey, we examine the relationships between magnetic activity (quantified by H-alpha emission), rotation period, and stellar age. Previous attempts to investigate the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in these stars were hampered by the limited number of M dwarfs with measured rotation periods (and the fact that vsini measurements probe only rapid rotation). However, the photometric data from MEarth allows us to probe a wide range of rotation periods for hundreds of M dwarf stars (from shorter than than one to longer than 100 days). Over all M spectral types that we probe, we find that the presence of magnetic activity is tied to rotation, including for late-type, fully convective M dwarfs. We also find evidence that the fraction of late-type M dwarfs that are active may be higher at longer rotation periods compared to their early-type counterparts, with several active, lat...

  9. Anti-solar differential rotation on the active sub-giant HU Virginis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, G.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Künstler, A.; Carroll, T. A.; Weber, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Measuring surface differential rotation (DR) on different types of stars is important when characterizing the underlying stellar dynamo. It has been suggested that anti-solar DR laws can occur when strong meridional flows exist. Aims: We aim to investigate the differential surface rotation on the primary star of the RS CVn binary, HU Vir, by tracking its starspot distribution as a function of time. We also aim to recompute and update the values for several system parameters of the triple system HU Vir (close and wide orbits). Methods: Time-series high-resolution spectroscopy for four continuous months was obtained with the 1.2-m robotic STELLA telescope. Nine consecutive Doppler images were reconstructed from these data, using our line-profile inversion code iMap. An image cross-correlation method was applied to derive the surface differential-rotation law for HU Vir. New orbital elements for the close and the wide orbits were computed using our new STELLA radial velocities (RVs) combined with the RV data available in the literature. Photometric observations were performed with the Amadeus Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT), providing contemporaneous Johnson-Cousins V and I data for approximately 20 yrs. This data was used to determine the stellar rotation period and the active longitudes. Results: We confirm anti-solar DR with a surface shear parameter α of -0.029 ± 0.005 and -0.026 ± 0.009, using single-term and double-term differential rotation laws, respectively. These values are in good agreement with previously claimed results. The best fit is achieved assuming a solar-like double-term law with a lap time of ≈400 d. Our orbital solutions result in a period of 10.387678 ± 0.000003 days for the close orbit and 2726 ± 7 d (≈7.5 yr) for the wide orbit. A Lomb-Scarge (L-S) periodogram of the pre-whitened V-band data reveals a strong single peak providing a rotation period of 10.391 ± 0.008 d, well synchronized to the short orbit. Based on

  10. Chromospheric oscillations observed with BBSO and TRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We examine chromospheric oscillations in both a coronal hole (CH) and a quiet Sun (QS) region, by employing Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) data on September 14 and 16, 2004. For the CH, the average oscillation periods of network magnetic field and non-magnetic field (NMF) regions are 257 and 222 s, respectively, and the average period of network field is longer than that of NMF region by 15.8%. In the QS, the average oscillation period is the 225 s for network field and 212 s for the NMF region. The average period of the network field is also longer than that of the NMF region by 6.1%. For the network region, we find that the average period in the CH is longer than that in the QS by 14.2%. This difference between CH and QS is possibly caused by different magnetic configurations i.e. the open magnetic field in the CH and the close field in the QS.

  11. Rotationally Induced Surface Slope-Instabilities and the Activation of CO2 Activity on Comet 103P/Hartley 2

    CERN Document Server

    Steckloff, Jordan K; Hirabayashi, Toshi; Melosh, H Jay; Richardson, James

    2016-01-01

    Comet 103P/Hartley 2 has diurnally controlled, CO2-driven activity on the tip of the small lobe of its bilobate nucleus. Such activity is unique among the comet nuclei visited by spacecraft, and suggests that CO2 ice is very near the surface, which is inconsistent with our expectations of an object that thermophysically evolved for ~45 million years prior to entering the Jupiter Family of comets. Here we explain this pattern of activity by showing that a very plausible recent episode of rapid rotation (rotation period of ~11 [10-13] hours) would have induced avalanches in Hartley 2's currently active regions that excavated down to CO2-rich ices and activated the small lobe of the nucleus. At Hartley 2's current rate of spindown about its principal axis, the nucleus would have been spinning fast enough to induce avalanches ~3-4 orbits prior to the DIXI flyby (~1984-1991). This coincides with Hartley 2's discovery in 1986, and implies that the initiation of CO2 activity facilitated the comet's discovery. During...

  12. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I E; Hovatta, T; Pearson, T J; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Khodade, P; Kiehlmann, S; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Modi, D; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane...

  13. Test and theory for piezoelectric actuator-active vibration control of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, A. B.; Lin, R. R.; Alexander, R. M.; Kascak, A. F.; Montague, J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of piezoelectric actuators for active vibration control (AVC) of rotating machinery is examined. Theory is derived and the resulting predictions are shown to agree closely with results of tests performed on an air turbine driven-overhung rotor. The test results show significant reduction in unbalance, transient and sub-synchronous responses. Results from a 30-hour endurance test support the AVD system reliability. Various aspects of the electro-mechanical stability of the control system are also discussed and illustrated. Finally, application of the AVC system to an actual jet engine is discussed.

  14. Heat and mass transfer in unsteady rotating fluid flow with binary chemical reaction and activation energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz G Awad

    Full Text Available In this study, the Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM is used to solve the coupled highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations due to an unsteady flow over a stretching surface in an incompressible rotating viscous fluid in presence of binary chemical reaction and Arrhenius activation energy. The velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as the skin-friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained and discussed for various physical parametric values. The numerical results obtained by (SRM are then presented graphically and discussed to highlight the physical implications of the simulations.

  15. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...... and implemented in a one-dimensional numerical AMR model that includes also the parasitic losses from the prototype. The temperature span for a thermal load of 200 W as a function of frequency was measured and modelled. Moreover, the temperature span dependence on the cooling capacity as a function of cycle...

  16. STIM1 activates CRAC channels through rotation of the pore helix to open a hydrophobic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Megumi; Yeung, Priscilla S.-W.; Ing, Christopher E.; McNally, Beth A.; Pomès, Régis; Prakriya, Murali

    2017-02-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels constitute a major pathway for Ca2+ influx and mediate many essential signalling functions in animal cells, yet how they open remains elusive. Here, we investigate the gating mechanism of the human CRAC channel Orai1 by its activator, stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). We find that two rings of pore-lining residues, V102 and F99, work together to form a hydrophobic gate. Mutations of these residues to polar amino acids produce channels with leaky gates that conduct ions in the resting state. STIM1-mediated channel activation occurs through rotation of the pore helix, which displaces the F99 residues away from the pore axis to increase pore hydration, allowing ions to flow through the V102-F99 hydrophobic band. Pore helix rotation by STIM1 also explains the dynamic coupling between CRAC channel gating and ion selectivity. This hydrophobic gating mechanism has implications for CRAC channel function, pharmacology and disease-causing mutations.

  17. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects III. Photospheric and chromospheric properties of Class III objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B; Alcala, J M; Manara, C F; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Rigliaco, E; Testi, L; Covino, S; D'Elia, V

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed X-Shooter/VLT spectra of 24 ClassIII sources from three nearby star-forming regions (sigmaOrionis, LupusIII, and TWHya). We determined the effective temperature, surface gravity, rotational velocity, and radial velocity by comparing the observed spectra with synthetic BT-Settl model spectra. We investigated in detail the emission lines emerging from the stellar chromospheres and combined these data with archival X-ray data to allow for a comparison between chromospheric and coronal emissions. Both X-ray and Halpha luminosity as measured in terms of the bolometric luminosity are independent of the effective temperature for early-M stars but decline toward the end of the spectral M sequence. For the saturated early-M stars the average emission level is almost one dex higher for X-rays than for Halpha: log(L_x/L_bol) = -2.85 +- 0.36 vs. log(L_Halpha/L_bol) = -3.72 +- 0.21. When all chromospheric emission lines (including the Balmer series up to H11, CaII HK, the CaII infrared triplet, and several HeI...

  18. Rotational velocities of low-mass stars in the Pleiades and Hyades

    CERN Document Server

    Terndrup, D M; Pinsonneault, M H; Sills, A; Yuan, Y; Jones, B F; Fischer, D; Krishnamurthi, A; Terndrup, Donald M.; Stauffer, John R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Sills, Alison; Yuan, Yongquan; Jones, Burton F.; Fischer, Debra; Krishnamurthi, Anita

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra of 89 M dwarf members of the Pleiades and Hyades and have derived radial velocities, H-alpha equivalent widths, and spectroscopic rotational velocities for these stars. Typical masses of the newly-observed Pleiades and Hyades stars are ~ 0.4 M_{\\sun} and ~ 0.2 M_{\\sun}, respectively. We combine our new observations with previously published data to explore the rotational evolution of young stars with M < 0.4 M_\\sun. The average rotation rate in the Hyades (age 600 Myr) is about 0.4 that of the Pleiades (110 Myr), and the mean equivalent widths of H-alpha are also lower. As found in previous studies, the correlation between rotation and chromospheric activity is identical in both clusters, implying that the lower activity in the Hyades is a result of the lower rotation rates. We show that a simple scaling of the Pleiades rotational distribution for M \\leq 0.4 M_{\\sun}, corrected for the effects of structural evolution, matches that of the Hyades if the average angula...

  19. Linking Stellar Coronal Activity and Rotation at 500 Myr: A Deep Chandra Observation of M37

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alejandro; Covey, Kevin R; Hartman, Joel D; Kraus, Adam L; Bowsher, Emily C; Douglas, Stephanie T; López-Morales, Mercedes; Pooley, David A; Posselt, Bettina; Saar, Steven H; West, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Empirical calibrations of the stellar age-rotation-activity relation (ARAR) rely on observations of the co-eval populations of stars in open clusters. We used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study M37, a 500-Myr-old open cluster that has been extensively surveyed for rotation periods ($P_{\\rm rot}$). M37 was observed almost continuously for five days, for a total of 440.5 ksec, to measure stellar X-ray luminosities ($L_{\\mathrm{X}}$), a proxy for coronal activity, across a wide range of masses. The cluster's membership catalog was revisited to calculate updated membership probabilities from photometric data and each star's distance to the cluster center. The result is a comprehensive sample of 1699 M37 members: 426 with $P_{\\rm rot}$, 278 with X-ray detections, and 76 with both. We calculate Rossby numbers, $R_o = P_{\\rm rot}/\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is the convective turnover time, and ratios of the X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity, $L_{\\rm X}/L_{\\rm bol}$, to minimize mass dependencies in our characterization of ...

  20. Kinetic description of electron beams in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Mauas, Pablo J.

    1992-01-01

    We formulate the relativistic Fokker-Plank equation for a beam of accelerated electrons interacting with a partially ionized plasma. In our derivation we conserved those terms contributing to velocity diffusion and found that this effect cannot be neglected a priori. We compute the terms accounting for elastic and inelastic collisions with neutral hydrogen and helium. Collisions with neutral hydrogen are found to be dominant throughout the chromosphere, except at the uppermost layers close to the transition region. As an application, we compute the loss of energy and momentum for a power-law beam impinging on the solar chromosphere, for a particular case in which the Fokker-Planck equation can be integrated analytically. We find that most of the beam energy is deposited in a relatively thin region of the chromosphere, a result which is largely insensitive to the theoretical method employed to compute the energy deposition rate.

  1. Kinetic description of electron beams in the solar chromosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, D.O.; Mauas, P.J. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (United States) Arcetri Osservatorio Astrofisico, Florence (Italy))

    1992-10-01

    We formulate the relativistic Fokker-Plank equation for a beam of accelerated electrons interacting with a partially ionized plasma. In our derivation we conserved those terms contributing to velocity diffusion and found that this effect cannot be neglected a priori. We compute the terms accounting for elastic and inelastic collisions with neutral hydrogen and helium. Collisions with neutral hydrogen are found to be dominant throughout the chromosphere, except at the uppermost layers close to the transition region. As an application, we compute the loss of energy and momentum for a power-law beam impinging on the solar chromosphere, for a particular case in which the Fokker-Planck equation can be integrated analytically. We find that most of the beam energy is deposited in a relatively thin region of the chromosphere, a result which is largely insensitive to the theoretical method employed to compute the energy deposition rate. 26 refs.

  2. Mathematic Modeling for Vegetal Coal Activation in a Rotating Cylindrical Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zalazar-Oliva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The activation of vegetal coal by applying physical or thermal methods is carried out under an atmosphere containing air, carbon dioxide or water vapor at temperatures ranging from 800 °C and 900 °C. This investigation was completed based on the mathematical modeling for the coal activation process in order to estimate the gas distribution and coal temperatures inside a rotating cylindrical kiln. The model consists of a system of non-lineal differential equations and equations to calculate the temperature of the cylinder internal wall and heat transfer coefficients. The 4th order Runge–Kutta method was used for the calculations. The comparison of the results obtained from modeling gas temperatures in the interior of the cylinder and the experimental data indicated that the variation is insignificant with an error margin below 5 %.

  3. CHROMOSPHERIC POLARIZATION IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC SOLAR OXYGEN INFRARED TRIPLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pino Alemán, Tanausú; Trujillo Bueno, Javier [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-07-20

    We present multilevel radiative transfer modeling of the scattering polarization observed in the solar O i infrared triplet around 777 nm. We demonstrate that the scattering polarization pattern observed on the solar disk forms in the chromosphere, far above the photospheric region where the bulk of the emergent intensity profiles originate. We investigate the sensitivity of the polarization pattern to the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere and to the presence of weak magnetic fields (10{sup −2}–100 G) through the Hanle effect, showing that the scattering polarization signals of the oxygen infrared triplet encode information on the magnetism of the solar chromosphere.

  4. Chromospheric Polarization in the Photospheric Solar Oxygen Infrared Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Alemán, T del Pino

    2015-01-01

    We present multilevel radiative transfer modeling of the scattering polarization observed in the solar O I infrared triplet around 777 nm. We demonstrate that the scattering polarization pattern observed on the solar disk forms in the chromosphere, far above the photospheric region where the bulk of the emergent intensity profiles originates. We study the sensitivity of the polarization pattern to the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere and to the presence of weak magnetic fields (0.01 - 100 G) through the Hanle effect, showing that the scattering polarization signals of the oxygen infrared triplet encode information on the magnetism of the solar chromosphere.

  5. Relating Changes in Cometary Rotation to Activity: Current Status and Applications to Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinha, Nalin

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a parameter, X, to predict the changes in the rotational period of a comet in terms of the rotational period itself, the nuclear radius, and the orbital characteristics. We show that X should be a constant if the bulk densities and shapes of nuclei are nearly identical and the activity patterns are similar for all comets. For four nuclei for which rotational changes are well documented, despite the nearly factor 30 variation observed among the effective active fractions of these comets, X is constant to within a factor two. We present an analysis for the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) to explore what rotational changes it could undergo during the upcoming perihelion passage where its perihelion distance will be ~2.7 solar radii. When close to the sun, barring a catastrophic disruption of the nucleus, the activity of ISON will be sufficiently strong to put the nucleus into a non-principal-axis rotational state and observable changes to the rotational period should also occur. Additional causes ...

  6. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.

  7. Large-deflection statics analysis of active cardiac catheters through co-rotational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Qi; Chen Qiu; Mehndiratta, Aadarsh; I-Ming Chen; Haoyong Yu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a co-rotational concept for large-deflection formulation of cardiac catheters. Using this approach, the catheter is first discretized with a number of equal length beam elements and nodes, and the rigid body motions of an individual beam element are separated from its deformations. Therefore, it is adequate for modelling arbitrarily large deflections of a catheter with linear elastic analysis at the local element level. A novel design of active cardiac catheter of 9 Fr in diameter at the beginning of the paper is proposed, which is based on the contra-rotating double helix patterns and is improved from the previous prototypes. The modelling section is followed by MATLAB simulations of various deflections when the catheter is exerted different types of loads. This proves the feasibility of the presented modelling approach. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the first to utilize this methodology for large-deflection static analysis of the catheter, which will enable more accurate control of robot-assisted cardiac catheterization procedures. Future work would include further experimental validations.

  8. Control of seismic and operational vibrations of rotating machines using semi-active mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rana; T.T.Soong

    2004-01-01

    A dual isolation problem for rotating machines consists of isolation of housing structures from the machine vibrations and protection of machines during an earthquake to maintain their functionality. Desirable characteristics of machine mounts for the above two purposes can differ significantly due to difference in nature of the excitation and performance criteria in the two situations. In this paper, relevant response quantities are identified that may be used to quantify performancc and simplified models of rotating machines are presented using which these relevant response quantities may be calculated. Using random vibration approach with a stationary excitation, it is shown that significant improvement in seismic performance is achievable by proper mount design. Results of shaking table experiments performed with a realistic setup using a centrifugal pump are presented. It is concluded that a solution to this dual isolation problem lies in a semi-active.mount capable of switching its properties from‘operation-optimum'to‘seismic-optimum'at the omset of a seismic event.

  9. The Counter-kink Rotation of a Non-Hale Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, M C López; Mandrini, C H; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L

    2014-01-01

    We describe the long-term evolution of a bipolar non-Hale active region which was observed from October, 1995, to January, 1996. Along these four solar rotations the sunspots and subsequent flux concentrations, during the decay phase of the region, were observed to move in such a way that by December their orientation conformed to the Hale-Nicholson polarity law. The sigmoidal shape of the observed soft X-ray coronal loops allows us to determine the sense of the twist in the magnetic configuration. This sense is confirmed by extrapolating the observed photospheric magnetic field, using a linear force-free approach, and comparing the shape of computed field lines to the observed coronal loops. This sense of twist agrees with that of the dominant helicity in the solar hemisphere where the region lies, as well as with the evolution observed in the longitudinal magnetogram during the first rotation. At first sight the relative motions of the spots may be miss-interpreted as the rising of an $\\Omega$-loop deformed...

  10. Arylsulphatase activity and sulphate content in relation to crop rotation and fertilization of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwik-Ziomek, Anetta; Lemanowicz, Joanna; Koper, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of varying rates of FYM (0, 20, 40, 60 Mg ha-1) and nitrogen N0, N1, N2, and N3 on the content of sulphate sulphur (VI) and the activity of arylsulphatase, which participates in the transformations of this element in Haplic Luvisol. The study report is based on a long-term field experiment with two different crop rotations: A - recognized as exhausting the humus from soil and B - recognized as enriching the soil with humus. During the cultivation of the plants, the soil was sampled four times from corn and a red clover cultivar and grass. The FYM fertilization rate for which the highest arylsulphatase activity and the content of sulphates were identified was 60 Mg ha-1. An inhibitory effect of high rates (90 and 135 kg N ha-1) of ammonium nitrate on the arylsulphatase activity was also observed. A significant correlation between the content of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphates and the arylsulphatase activity was recorded. The investigation on the effect of combined application of farmyard manure and mineral nitrogen fertilization on the activity of arylsulphatase participating in the sulphur cycling was launched to examine the problem in detail.

  11. Long Term Variations in Chromospheric Features from Ca-K Images at Kodaikanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyal, Muthu; Singh, Jagdev; Ravindra, B.; Priya, T. G.; Amareswari, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a collection of about 100 years of Ca-K line spectroheliograms at the Kodaikanal Observatory (KKL) obtained on daily basis with a single instrument that can be used to study long term variations of various chromospheric features. All the Ca-K images have been digitized using specially developed digitizers with uniform and highly stable light source, high quality lens and 4k×4k format CCD camera. The digitization has been carried out in a room with controlled temperature and humidity. The digitized data are in 16-bit format with pixel resolution of 0.86 arcsec. The digitized images have been calibrated by a process that includes flat-fielding, density to intensity conversion, centering the image, and rotation of the image to make the solar north pole in the fixed direction. Then we applied correction for the limb darkening effect and also made the background in the image uniform. The image background was normalized to unity that enabled us to use the intensity contrast to identify different features, such as plages, enhanced (EN), active (AN), and quite network on images and classified them by using different image contrast and area threshold values. After several experiments with different threshold values for different features and careful analysis of a large number of images, we could fix the threshold values of intensity contrast larger than 1.35 and area larger than 1 arcmin2 for plages, larger than 1.35 but area less than 1 arcmin2 for EN, and between 1.25 - 1.35 for AN. We compared the quarterly averaged and half yearly averaged plage areas obtained from KKL with the Mount Wilson (MWO) data and sunspot number. We find that the plage area extracted from the KKL is highly correlated with the MWO plage area, though there is a slight difference between the two data set in cycle 19. The plage area of KKL is also highly correlated with the sunspot number. The areas of EN and AN are also found to have smaller quasi-periodic variations apart from the solar

  12. Parsec-scale Faraday Rotation Measures from General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Active Galactic Nuclei Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Broderick, Avery E

    2010-01-01

    For the first time it has become possible to compare global 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to very-long baseline interferometric multi-frequency polarization observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the non-thermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a robust way in which to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of 3D global GRMHD jet formation simulations, with which we explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations the RMs are generated within a smooth extensio...

  13. Flattop pulse generation based on the combined action of active mode locking and nonlinear polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohui; Wai, P K A; Lu, Chao; Chen, Jinhua

    2014-02-10

    A pulse-width-tunable 10 GHz flattop pulse (FTP) train is generated based on the combined action of active mode locking and nonlinear polarization rotation pulse shaping. Although the setup was previously used for other applications, the mechanism of FTP generation based on it is first analyzed and confirmed in the experiment. An FTP with pulse width tunable from 12 to 20 ps by changing polarization controllers is generated within the wavelength tuning range of 20 nm. The generated pulse reveals good stability, with the side mode suppression ratio of 65 dB, timing jitter of 92 fs, and amplitude fluctuation of 0.36%.

  14. The Host Stars of Keplers Habitable Exoplanets: Superflares, Rotation and Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, D J; Broomhall, A -M; Brown, D J A; Lund, M N; Osborn, H P; Pollacco, D L

    2015-01-01

    We embark on a detailed study of the lightcurves of Keplers most Earth-like exoplanet host stars using the full length of Kepler data. We derive rotation periods, photometric activity indices, flaring energies, mass loss rates, gyrochronological ages, X-ray luminosities and consider implications for the planetary magnetospheres and habitability. Furthermore, we present the detection of superflares in the lightcurve of Kepler-438, the exoplanet with the highest Earth Similarity Index to date. Kepler-438b orbits at a distance of 0.166AU to its host star, and hence may be susceptible to atmospheric stripping. Our sample is taken from the Habitable Exoplanet Catalogue, and consists of the stars Kepler-22, Kepler-61, Kepler-62, Kepler-174, Kepler-186, Kepler-283, Kepler-296, Kepler-298, Kepler-438, Kepler-440, Kepler-442, Kepler-443 and KOI-4427, between them hosting 15 of the most habitable transiting planets known to date from Kepler.

  15. Lithium enrichment on the single active K1-giant DI Piscium -- Possible joint origin of differential rotation and Li enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovics, L; Vida, K; Granzer, T; Oláh, K

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the surface spot activity of the rapidly rotating, lithium-rich active single K-giant DI Psc to measure the surface differential rotation and understand the mechanisms behind the Li-enrichment. Doppler imaging was applied to recover the surface temperature distribution of DI Psc in two subsequent rotational cycles using the individual mapping lines Ca I 6439, Fe I 6430, Fe I 6421 and Li I 6708. Surface differential rotation was derived by cross-correlation of the subsequent maps. Difference maps are produced to study the uniformity of Li-enrichment on the surface. These maps are compared with the rotational modulation of the Li I 6708 line equivalent width. Doppler images obtained for the Ca and Fe mapping lines agree well and reveal strong polar spottedness, as well as cool features at lower latitudes. Cross-correlating the consecutive maps yields antisolar differential rotation with shear coefficient -0.083 +- 0.021. The difference of the average and the Li maps indicates that the lithium abu...

  16. Time-series Doppler imaging of the red giant HD 208472. Active longitudes and differential rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdarcan, O.; Carroll, T. A.; Künstler, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Evren, S.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. HD 208472 is among the most active RS CVn binaries with cool starspots. Decade-long photometry has shown that the spots seem to change their longitudinal appearance with a period of about six years, coherent with brightness variations. Aims: Our aim is to spatially resolve the stellar surface of HD 208472 and relate the photometric results to the true longitudinal and latitudinal spot appearance. Furthermore, we investigate the surface differential rotation pattern of the star. Methods: We employed three years of high-resolution spectroscopic data with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from the STELLA robotic observatory and determined new and more precise stellar physical parameters. Precalculated synthetic spectra were fit to each of these spectra, and we provide new spot-corrected orbital elements. A sample of 34 absorption lines per spectrum was used to calculate mean line profiles with a S/N of several hundred. A total of 13 temperature Doppler images were reconstructed from these line profiles with the inversion code iMap. Differential rotation was investigated by cross-correlating successive Doppler images in each observing season. Results: Spots on HD 208472 are distributed preferably at high latitudes and less frequently around mid-to-low latitudes. No polar-cap like structure is seen at any epoch. We observed a flip-flop event between 2009 and 2010, manifested as a flip of the spot activity from phase 0.0 to phase 0.5, while the overall brightness of the star continued to increase and reached an all-time maximum in 2014. Cross-correlation of successive Doppler images suggests a solar-like differential rotation that is ≈15 times weaker than that of the Sun. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC, and the Potsdam Automatic Photoelectric Telescopes (APT) in Arizona, jointly operated by AIP and Fairborn Observatory.Radial velocity measurements are only available at the

  17. Supersaturation and Activity-Rotation Relation in PMS stars: the case of the Young Cluster h Per

    CERN Document Server

    Argiroffi, C; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Moraux, E; Bouvier, J; Flaccomio, E

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic activity of late-type MS stars is characterized by different regimes, and their activity levels are well described by Ro, the ratio between P_rot and the convective turnover time. Very young PMS stars show, similarly to MS stars, intense magnetic activity. However they do not show clear activity-rotation trends, and it still debated which stellar parameters determine their magnetic activity levels. To bridge the gap between MS and PMS stars, we studied the activity-rotation relation in the young cluster h Per, a ~13 Myr old cluster, that contains both fast and slow rotators, whose members have ended their accretion phase and have already developed a radiative core. It offers us the opportunity to study the activity level of intermediate-age PMS stars with different rotational velocities, excluding any interactions with the circumstellar environment. We constrained the magnetic activity levels of h Per members measuring their X-ray emission from a Chandra observation, while P_rot were obtained by ...

  18. The Role of Partial Ionization Effects in the Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo H; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The energy for the coronal heating must be provided from the convection zone. The amount and the method by which this energy is transferred into the corona depends on the properties of the lower atmosphere and the corona itself. We review: 1) how the energy could be built in the lower solar atmosphere; 2) how this energy is transferred through the solar atmosphere; and 3) how the energy is finally dissipated in the chromosphere and/or corona. Any mechanism of energy transport has to deal with the various physical processes in the lower atmosphere. We will focus on a physical process that seems to be highly important in the chromosphere and not deeply studied until recently: the ion-neutral interaction effects (INIE) in the chromosphere. We review the relevance and the role of the partial ionization in the chromosphere and show that this process actually impacts considerably the outer solar atmosphere. We include analysis of our 2.5D radiative MHD simulations with the Bifrost code (Gudiksen et al. 2011) includ...

  19. Coronal heating by resonant absorption: The effects of chromospheric coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belien, A. J. C.; Martens, P. C. H.; Keppens, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present the first 2.5 dimensional numerical model calculations of the nonlinear wave dynamics and heating by resonant absorption in coronal loops with thermal structuring of the transition region and higher chromosphere. The numerical calculations were done with the Versatile Advection Code. The

  20. Recognizing Chromospheric Objects via Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Saleem; Turmon, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The solar chromosphere consists of three classes which contribute differentially to ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. We describe a data set of solar images, means of segmenting the images into the constituent classes, and a novel high-level representation for compact objects based on a triangulated spatial membership function.

  1. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-08-01

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  2. Magnetic fields on young, moderately rotating Sun-like stars II. EK Draconis (HD 129333)

    CERN Document Server

    Waite, Ian; Carter, Brad; Petit, Pascal; Jeffers, Sandra; Morin, Julien; Vidotto, Aline; Donati, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic fields, activity and dynamos of young solar-type stars can be empirically studied using time-series of spectropolarimetric observations and tomographic imaging techniques such as Doppler imaging and Zeeman Doppler imaging. In this paper we use these techniques to study the young Sun-like star EK Draconis (Sp-Type: G1.5V, HD 129333) using ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and NARVAL at the T\\`elescope Bernard Lyot. This multi-epoch study runs from late 2006 until early 2012. We measure high levels of chromospheric activity indicating an active, and varying, chromosphere. Surface brightness features were constructed for all available epochs. The 2006/7 and 2008 data show large spot features appearing at intermediate-latitudes. However, the 2012 data indicate a distinctive polar spot. We observe a strong, almost unipolar, azimuthal field during all epochs that is similar to that observed on other Sun-like stars. Using magnetic features, we determined an average equatorial rotational vel...

  3. Chromospheric anemone jets and magnetic reconnection in partially ionized solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Isobe, H. [Unit for Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The solar optical telescope onboard Hinode with temporal resolution of less than 5 s and spatial resolution of 150 km has observed the lower solar atmosphere with an unprecedented detail. This has led to many important findings, one of them is the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets in the solar chromosphere. The chromospheric anemone jets are ubiquitous in solar chromosphere and statistical studies show that the typical length, life time and energy of the chromospheric anemone jets are much smaller than the coronal events (e.g., jets/flares/CMEs). Among various observational parameters, the apparent length and maximum velocity shows good correlation. The velocity of chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfven speed in the lower solar chromosphere. Since the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets by Hinode, several evidences of magnetic reconnection in chromospheric anemone jets have been found and these observations are summarized in this paper. These observations clearly suggest that reconnection occurs quite rapidly as well as intermittently in the solar chromosphere. In the solar corona ({lambda}{sub i} > {delta}{sub SP}), anomalous resistivity arises due to various collisionless processes. Previous MHD simulations show that reconnection becomes fast as well as strongly time-dependent due to anomalous resistivity. Such processes would not arise in the solar chromosphere which is fully collisional and partially-ionized. So, it is unclear how the rapid and strongly time-dependent reconnection would occur in the solar chromosphere. It is quite likely that the Hall and ambipolar diffusion are present in the solar chromosphere and they could play an important role in driving such rapid, strongly time-dependent reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  4. Adsorption behavior of pesticide methomyl on activated carbon in a high gravity rotating packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Fen; Lee, Shu-Chi

    2012-06-01

    High gravity rotating packed bed (HGRPB) reactor possesses the property of high mass transfer rate, which is expected to promote the adsorption rate for the process. In this study, HGRPB has been applied on adsorption removal of methomyl from solution, adopting the adsorbent of activated carbon F400. The influence of operating parameters of HGRPB on mass transfer such as the rotating speed (N(R)), the flow rate of solution (F(L)) and initial concentration of methomyl (C(b0)) were examined. The traditionally internal mass transfer models combined with Freundlich isotherm were used to predict the surface and effective diffusion coefficients. In addition, the results have also been compared with those obtained from the traditional basket stirred batch reactor (BBR). The results showed that the larger values of N(R) and F(L) enhanced the effective intraparticle diffusion and provided more accessible adsorption sites so as to result in lower equilibrium concentration in HGRPB system when compared to SBR system. The results of adsorption kinetics demonstrated that surface and effective diffusions were both significantly greater in HGRPB system instead of BBR system. Furthermore, the values of Bi(S) also manifested less internal mass transfer resistance in HGRPB system. The contribution ratio (R(F)) of the surface to pore diffusion mass transport showed that the larger contribution resulted from the surface diffusion in HGRPB system. Therefore, the results reasonably led to the conclusion that when the HGRPB system applied on the adsorption of methomyl on F400, the lower equilibrium concentration and faster internal mass transfer can be obtained so as to highly possess great potential to match the gradually stricter environmental standard.

  5. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  6. First Direct Detection of Magnetic Fields in Starspots and Stellar Chromospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Berdyugina, S V; Afram, N; Suwald, F; Petit, P; Arnaud, J; Harrington, D M; Kuhn, J R

    2007-01-01

    Here we report on the first detection of circular polarization in molecular lines formed in cool magnetic regions (starspots) and in chromospheric emission lines formed in hot plages on the surfaces of active stars. Our survey of G-K-M stars included young main-sequence dwarfs and RS CVn-type giants and subgiants. All stars were found to possess surface magnetic fields producing Stokes V LSD signals in atomic lines of 0.05 to 0.5%. Several stars clearly showed circular polarization in molecular lines of 0.1 to 1%. The molecular Stokes V signal is reminiscent of that observed in sunspots. Chromospheric magnetic fields were detected on most active targets in Stokes V profiles of emission lines with peak polarization up to 2%. The observed molecular circular polarization on M dwarfs indicates single-polarity magnetic fields covering at least 10% of the stellar disk. Smaller signals on K stars imply that their magnetic fields are apparently weaker, more entangled than on M dwarfs, or more diluted by the bright ph...

  7. The energy input mechanism into the lower transition regions between stellar chromospheres and coronae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1988-01-01

    The ratio of the emission line fluxes for the C II and C IV lines in the lower transition regions (T = 30,000 to 100,000 K) between stellar chromospheres and transition layers is shown to depend mainly on the temperature gradient in the line emitting regions which can therefore be determined from this line ratio. From the observed constant (within the limits of observational error) ratio of the emission line fluxes of the C II (1335 A) and C IV (1550 A) lines it is concluded that the temperature gradients in the lower transition layers are similar for the large majority of stars independently of T sub eff, L, and degree of activity. This means that the temperature dependence of the damping length for the mechanical flux must be the same for all these stars. Since for different kinds of mechanical fluxes the dependence of the damping length on gas pressure and temperature is quite different, it is concluded that the same heating mechanism must be responsible for the heating of all the lower transition layers of these stars, regardless of their chromospheric activity. Only the amount of mechanical flux changes. The T Tauri stars are exceptions: their emission lines are probably mainly due to circumstellar material.

  8. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Stewart, M.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1 percent in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1 percent polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30 percent) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-alpha line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with 10 e-/pixel/second dark current, 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 +/- 0.5 and 1.0 percent residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  9. Study on transport of powdered activated carbon using a rotating circular flume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海龙; 邱敏燕; 徐祖信

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a rotating flume to examine the Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) transport with water flow. The initial PAC concentration was 10 mg/L-30 mg/L, and PAC concentration versus time under a specified cross-sectional averaging fluid shear was observed. Results show that compared with PAC deposition in still water, PAC is depleted to zero faster under a fluid shear of 0.02 Pa, due to PAC agglomeration with the fluid shear. However, since PAC floc size only ranges from a single particle (2mm) to approximate 6mm, an increasing of instantaneous turbulent fluctuations could counteract the force of PAC floc settling downward, and as a result the steady PAC concentration increases with the increase of shear stress. It is found that the critical shear stress for PAC deposition is about 0.60 Pa, and further the PAC deposition probability is presented according to the experimental scenarios between 0.02 Pa and 0.60 Pa. Combining the PAC transport and deposition formula with PAC-pollutant removal model provides an insight into PAC deployment in raw water aqueduct for sudden open water source pollution.

  10. A new gravitational-wave signature of SASI activities in non-rotating supernova cores

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Takami; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    We present results from fully relativistic three-dimensional core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations of a non-rotating 15 M_sun star using three different nuclear equations of state (EoSs). From our simulations covering up to ~350 ms after bounce, we show that the development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) differs significantly depending on the stiffness of nuclear EoS. Generally, the SASI activity occurs more vigorously in models with softer EoS. By evaluating the gravitational-wave (GW) emission, we find a new GW signature on top of the previously identified one, in which the typical GW frequency increases with time due to an accumulating accretion to the proto-neutron star (PNS). The newly observed quasi-periodic signal appears in the frequency range from ~100 to 200 Hz and persists for ~150 ms before neutrino-driven convection dominates over the SASI. By analyzing the cycle frequency of the SASI sloshing and spiral modes as well as the mass accretion rate to the emission region, we ...

  11. Time-series Doppler imaging of the red giant HD 208472. Active longitudes and differential rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Özdarcan, O; Künstler, A; Strassmeier, K G; Evren, S; Weber, M; Granzer, T

    2016-01-01

    HD 208472 is among the most active RS~CVn binaries with cool starspots. Decade-long photometry has shown that the spots seem to change their longitudinal appearance with a period of about six years, coherent with brightness variations. Our aim is to spatially resolve the stellar surface of HD 208472 and relate the photometric results to the true longitudinal and latitudinal spot appearance. Furthermore, we investigate the surface differential rotation pattern of the star. We employed three years of high-resolution spectroscopic data with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from the STELLA robotic observatory and determined new and more precise stellar physical parameters. Precalculated synthetic spectra were fit to each of these spectra, and we provide new spot-corrected orbital elements. A sample of 34 absorption lines per spectrum was used to calculate mean line profiles with a S/N of several hundred. A total of 13 temperature Doppler images were reconstructed from these line profiles with the inversion code...

  12. Optimal Electron Energies for Driving Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Reep, Jeffrey; Alexander, David

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of solar flares, energy deposition by a beam of electrons drives strong chromospheric evaporation leading to a significantly denser corona and much brighter emission across the spectrum. Chromospheric evaporation was examined in great detail by Fisher, Canfield, & McClymont (1985a,b,c), who described a distinction between two different regimes, termed explosive and gentle evaporation. In this work, we examine the importance of electron energy and stopping depths on the two regimes and on the atmospheric response. We find that with explosive evaporation, the atmospheric response does not depend strongly on electron energy. In the case of gentle evaporation, lower energy electrons are significantly more efficient at heating the atmosphere and driving up-flows sooner than higher energy electrons. We also find that the threshold between explosive and gentle evaporation is not fixed at a given beam energy flux, but also depends strongly on the electron energy and duration of heating. Furt...

  13. Analytical description of nonlinear acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Chae, Jongchul

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Vertical propagation of acoustic waves of finite amplitude in an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere is considered. Methods: Methods of nonlinear acoustics are used to derive a dispersive solution, which is valid in a long-wavelength limit, and a non-dispersive solution, which is valid in a short-wavelength limit. The influence of the gravitational field on wave-front breaking and shock formation is described. The generation of a second harmonic at twice the driving wave frequency, previously detected in numerical simulations, is demonstrated analytically. Results: Application of the results to three-minute chromospheric oscillations, driven by velocity perturbations at the base of the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Numerical estimates suggest that the second harmonic signal should be detectable in an upper chromosphere by an instrument such as the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Observatory.

  14. The effects of transients on photospheric and chromospheric power distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, T; Banerjee, D; Prasad, S Krishna; Mathioudakis, M; Jess, D; Pant, V

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a quiet Sun region with the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) equipped with CRISP Imaging SpectroPolarimeter. High-resolution, high-cadence, H$\\alpha$ line scanning images were taken to observe different layers of the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to upper chromosphere. We study the distribution of power in different period-bands at different heights. Power maps of the upper photosphere and the lower chromosphere show suppressed power surrounding the magnetic-network elements, known as "magnetic shadows". These also show enhanced power close to the photosphere, traditionally referred to as "power halos". The interaction between acoustic waves and inclined magnetic fields is generally believed to be responsible for these two effects. In this study we explore if small-scale transients can influence the distribution of power at different heights. We show that the presence of transients, like mottles, Rapid Blueshifted Excursions (RBEs) and Rapid Redshifted Excursions (RREs), can stro...

  15. A mechanism for deep chromospheric heating during solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. E.; Emslie, A. G.; Mauas, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the negative hydrogen ion, H(-), in the energy balance of the deep solar chromosphere is reexamined and it is found, in contrast with earlier authors, that H(-) is a source of heating at these levels. The response of this region to an ionizing flux of flare-associated UV radiation (1500 to 1900 A) is then addressed: it is found that the excess ionization of Si to Si(+) increases the local electron number density considerably, since most species are largely neutral at deep chromospheric levels. This in turn increases the electron-hydrogen atom association rate, the H(-) abundance, and the rate of absorption of photospheric radiation by this ion. It is found that the excess absorption by this process may lead to a substantial temperature enhancement at temperature minimum levels during flares.

  16. A rapid rotation to an inverted seated posture inhibits muscle force, activation, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Pramod; Grover, Varun; DiSanto, Mario C; Button, Duane C; Behm, David G

    2013-08-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated neuromuscular and cardiovascular changes with slow inversion rates, emergencies, such as overturned vehicles and helicopters can occur rapidly. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses with rapid (1 s) and slower (3 s) transitions from upright to inverted seated positions. Twenty-two subjects performed separate and concurrent unilateral elbow flexion and leg extension maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) for 6 s in an upright seated position and when inverted with 1 and 3 s rotations. Elbow flexion and leg extension force; biceps, triceps, quadriceps and hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) activity, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Whether the elbow flexion or leg extension contractions occurred concurrently or individually, significant (p leg extension MVC as compared to the initial second of rotation to inversion. HR, SBP and DBP demonstrated (p < 0.001) decreases when inverted within 1 and 3 s rotations as compared to upright. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that irrespective of rotation speed, inversion inhibited neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses, similar to the more deliberate, slower rotation of previous inversion studies.

  17. A User-Friendly Code to Diagnose Chromospheric Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The physical interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of lines of neutral helium, such as those of the 10830 A multiplet, represents an excellent opportunity for investigating the magnetism of plasma structures in the solar chromosphere. Here we present a powerful forward modeling and inversion code that permits either to calculate the emergent intensity and polarization for any given magnetic field vector or to infer the dynamical and magnetic properties from the observed Stokes pr...

  18. Discovery of Ubiquitous Fast Propagating Intensity Disturbances by the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J.; Champey, P.; Auchere, F.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Ramos, A. Asensio; Stepan, J.; Belluzzi, L.; Sainz, R. Manso; De Pontieu, B.; Ichimoto, K.; Carlsson, M.; Casini, R.; Goto, M.

    2016-01-01

    High cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in one or both of the chromosphere or transition region at a speed much higher than the sound speed. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of 2D images taken with broadband filters centered on the Ly(alpha) line at a 0.6 s cadence. The fast propagating intensity disturbances are detected in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and at least 20 events are clearly detected in the field of view of 527'' x 527'' during the 5-minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km/s, and they are comparable to the local Alfven speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is of about 10'', and the widths are a few arcseconds, which is almost determined by the pixel size of 1.''03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation of the fast propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magneto-hydrodynamic fast mode waves.

  19. Estimating the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotational axis: a potentially meaningful practical activity for astronomy education

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Danda de Oliveira; Letícia Zolet; Odilon Giovannini Junior

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a practical activity to estimate the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotation axis as a teaching resource with potential to promote the meaningful learning on topics related to astronomy and Earth science. Some topics of interest for carrying out the activity as the apparent movement of the sun, the angle of incidence of sunlight throughout the year and the seasons are discussed. The procedures and materials used in measuring the length of the shadow of a gnomon, th...

  20. RESOLVING THE FAN-SPINE RECONNECTION GEOMETRY OF A SMALL-SCALE CHROMOSPHERIC JET EVENT WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Chen, Bin; Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Ji, Haisheng [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Jets are ubiquitously present in both quiet and active regions on the Sun. They are widely believed to be driven by magnetic reconnection. A fan-spine structure has been frequently reported in some coronal jets and flares, and has been regarded as a signature of ongoing magnetic reconnection in a topology consisting of a magnetic null connected by a fan-like separatrix surface and a spine. However, for small-scale chromospheric jets, clear evidence of such structures is rather rare, although it has been implied in earlier works that showed an inverted-Y-shaped feature. Here we report high-resolution (0.″16) observations of a small-scale chromospheric jet obtained by the New Solar Telescope (NST) using 10830 Å filtergrams. Bi-directional flows were observed across the separatrix regions in the 10830 Å images, suggesting that the jet was produced due to magnetic reconnection. At the base of the jet, a fan-spine structure was clearly resolved by the NST, including the spine and the fan-like surface, as well as the loops before and after the reconnection. A major part of this fan-spine structure, with the exception of its bright footpoints and part of the base arc, was invisible in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray images (observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly and the X-Ray Telescope, respectively), indicating that the reconnection occurred in the upper chromosphere. Our observations suggest that the evolution of this chromospheric jet is consistent with a two-step reconnection scenario proposed by Török et al.

  1. Chromospheric telescope of Baikal Astrophysical Observatory. New light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorovsky, Valeriy; Kushtal, Galina; Lopteva, Lyubov; Proshin, Vladimir; Trifonov, Viktor; Chuprakov, Sergey; Khimich, Valeriy

    2016-06-01

    A chromospheric telescope is an important instrument for synoptic observations and solar research. After several decades of observations with the chromospheric telescope at Baikal Astrophysical Observatory, a need arose to improve the characteristics of this telescope and filter. A new reimaging lens to produce full-disk solar images 18 mm in diameter at the CCD camera Hamamatsu C-124 with a detector 36×24 mm (4000×2672 pixels) was designed and manufactured to replace the out-of-operation 50×50 mm Princeton Instruments camera. A contrast interference blocking filter and a new Iceland spar and quartz crystal plates instead of damaged ones were made and installed in the Hα birefringent filter (BF), manufactured by Bernhard Halle Nachfl. The optical immersion in the filter was changed. All telescope optics was cleaned and adjusted. We describe for the first time the design features and their related BF passband tuning. The wavefront interferograms of optical elements and telescope as a whole show that the wavefront distortion of the optical path is within 0.25 λ. The BF and pre-filter spectral parameters provide high-contrast monochromatic images. Besides, we give examples of solar chromospheric images in the Hα line core and wing.

  2. Do we have a radio powerful star without a chromosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzadyan, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two radio stars are selected, both equally powerful in microwave radio emission, but one of which, HD 101379, with a superpower chromosphere, and the other one, HD 132742, without a noticable chromosphere. On International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) recordings of HD 132742, a binary system like HD 101319, the doublet 2800 Mg II appears in absorption. However, in the last case the faint emission traces of k and h Mg II have been discovered in the lowest parts of absorption profiles. The reconstructed profiles of these emission details seem to be shifted to the relation of absorption profiles, which may be interpreted as a confirmation of the non-chromospheric nature of these details. In the case of radio star HD 101379, also a binary system, on the contrary, the doublet 2800 Mg II appears as a strong emission, without shift. These limiting cases may be combined assuming that the sources of both types of emission, radio and magnesium doublet, are located in the space between the components of binary systems. The parameters of these sources are obtained.

  3. On the solar chromosphere observed at the limb with Hinode

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band images in the Ca II H line, from the BFI instrument on the Hinode spacecraft, show emission from spicules emerging from and visible right down to the observed limb. Surprisingly, little absorption of spicule light is seen along their lengths. We present formal solutions to the transfer equation for given (ad-hoc) source functions, including a stratified chromosphere from which spicules emanate. The model parameters are broadly compatible with earlier studies of spicules. The visibility of Ca II spicules down to the limb in Hinode data seems to require that spicule emission be Doppler shifted relative to the stratified atmosphere, either by supersonic turbulent or organized spicular motion. The non-spicule component of the chromosphere is almost invisible in the broad band BFI data, but we predict that it will be clearly visible in high spectral resolution data. Broad band Ca II H limb images give the false impression that the chromosphere is dominated by spicules. Our analysis serves as a reminder ...

  4. Propagation of magnetically guided acoustic shocks in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, P.; Smart, M.

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of a train of acoustic shocks guided by diverging magnetic fields through a static model of the solar chromospheric network and transition region is investigated. For initial flux densities of 1,000,000 ergs/sq cm/sec in the lower chromosphere, the local efficiency of acoustic transmission into the corona can be much higher than that calculated for a plane parallel atmosphere. Acoustic energy will tend to be deposited at higher chromospheric levels in diverging magnetic fields, and magnetic guiding may influence the temperature profile of the network and plages. The total flux that can be transmitted into the corona along such diverging fields is severely limited since the magnetic elements occupy a small fractional area of the photosphere and the transmission efficiency is a rapidly decreasing function of initial flux density. Diverging magnetic fields and a varying ratio of specific heats are not likely to allow high frequency shocks to dissipate high enough in a static atmosphere to contribute significantly to the coronal energy balance.

  5. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Michael L., E-mail: mgoodman@wvhtf.org [Advanced Technologies Group, West Virginia High Technology Consortium Foundation, 1000 Galliher Drive, Fairmont, WV 26554 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s{sup –1} in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s{sup –1} for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  6. Tracing Ca K grains through the chromosphere into the transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, S.; Deubner, F.-L.; Fleck, B.; Wilhelm, K.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of Ca K grains from the lower chromosphere into the transition region is studied. Data from the solar ultraviolet measurement of emitted radiation (SUMER) and the VTT at Inzana (Tenerife) instruments were used. The purpose of the study was to investigate the formation of shock waves in the chromosphere. The most dynamical features in the chromosphere defined by the bright Ca II K emission in the filtergrams and spectrograms were analyzed.

  7. Estimating the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotational axis: a potentially meaningful practical activity for astronomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Danda de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a practical activity to estimate the angle of inclination of the Earth's rotation axis as a teaching resource with potential to promote the meaningful learning on topics related to astronomy and Earth science. Some topics of interest for carrying out the activity as the apparent movement of the sun, the angle of incidence of sunlight throughout the year and the seasons are discussed. The procedures and materials used in measuring the length of the shadow of a gnomon, the collected data, and the estimating of the angle of inclination of the rotation axis are presented. The article ends with a reflection on the implementation of this activity in elementary and high school level.

  8. Structure and Dynamics of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    2002-04-01

    The grant supported research on the structure of the quiet, nonmagnetic chromosphere and on wave excitation and propagation in both the nonmagnetic chromosphere and the magnetic network. The work on the structure of the chromosphere culminated in the recognition that between two competing views of the solar chromosphere, older models by Avrett and collaborators (referred to as VAL) and the newer, dynamical model by Carlsson & Stein (referred to as CS), the clear decision is in favor of the older models, and this in spite of the evident lack of physics, which does not include wave motion and oscillations. The contrast between the static VAL models and the dynamical CS model can be stated most succinctly by comparing the temperature variation implied by the VAL models and the temperature fluctuations of the CS model, which are, respectively, of the order of 10% for the VAL model (at heights where hydrogen is 50% ionized) and a factor of 10 (at the upper boundary of their chromospheric model). The huge fluctuations of the CS model have never been observed, whereas the smaller temperature variations of the VAL models are consistent with ground-based and space-based observations. While it should be obvious which model describes the Sun and which one fails, the case is far from settled in the minds of solar physicists. Thus, much educational work remains to be done and, of course, more research to develop arguments that make the case more convincing. The research on waves and oscillations has been based on a unified theory of excitation of acoustic waves in the field-free atmosphere and of transverse and longitudinal waves in magnetic flux tubes located in the magnetic network by noting, first, that impulsive excitation of all these waves in gravitationally stratified media leads to oscillations at the respective cutoff frequencies and, second, that the observed oscillation frequencies in the nonmagnetic and magnetic parts of the chromosphere match corresponding cutoff

  9. A dynamo model of magnetic activity in solar-like stars with different rotational velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2014-01-01

    We attempt to provide a quantitative theoretical explanation for the observations that Ca II H/K emission and X-ray emission from solar-like stars increase with decreasing Rossby number (i.e., with faster rotation). Assuming that these emissions are caused by magnetic cycles similar to the sunspot cycle, we construct flux transport dynamo models of $1M_{\\odot}$ stars rotating with different rotation periods. We first compute the differential rotation and the meridional circulation inside these stars from a mean-field hydrodynamics model. Then these are substituted in our dynamo code to produce periodic solutions. We find that the dimensionless amplitude $f_m$ of the toroidal flux through the star increases with decreasing Rossby number. The observational data can be matched if we assume the emissions to go as the power 3-4 of $f_m$. Assuming that the Babcock-Leighton mechanism saturates with increasing rotation, we can provide an explanation for the observed saturation of emission at low Rossby numbers. The m...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Active Suppression of Rotating Stall in Axial Compression Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunHu; LeonhardFottner

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper,a theoretical model is proposed to analyze the transient behavior of suppression of rotating stall in axial compression systems through the use of an additional distubance,The governing equations of the model are a set of simultaneous nonlinear first order partial differential equations,and for numerical calculations,a simple explicit time marching method can be used.The influence of system parameters on the suppression effectiveness and the interaction between rotating stall and surge have been discussed initially.The anslysis of the influence of system parameters presents that both the B parameter and axisymmetric comprssor characteristic have significant effect on the stabilization effectiveness of a control strategy.The effectiveness decreases as the value of B and the number of stages or stage loading of the compressor increase,It has been found that the onset flow rate of rotating stall and surge in a compression system may be different,and there is a strong interaction between these two kinds of instabilities.The onset flow rate of pure one dimensional surge depends on the value of B and axisymmetric compressor characteristic,besides the slope of the compressor characteristic.In some cases,when rotating stall which is the natural mode of instability in a compression system is suppressed one dimensional surge can occur,It often limits the effectiveness of a control strategy to suppress rotating stall.But when surge is intiated by ratating stall,it is also possible to inhibit the occurrence of surge by suppressing rotating stall in a compression system.

  11. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VII. Further Insights into the Chromosphere and Corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, the chromosphere is responsible for the capture of atomic hydrogen in the solar atmosphere and its eventual re-entry onto the photospheric surface (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15–L21. As for the corona, it represents a diffuse region containing both gaseous plasma and condensed matter with elevated electron affinity (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere V. On the Nature of the Corona. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L22–L25. Metallic hydrogen in the corona is thought to enable the continual harvest of electrons from the outer reaches of the Sun, thereby preserving the neutrality of the solar body. The rigid rotation of the corona is offered as the thirty-third line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Within the context of the gaseous models of the Sun, a 100 km thick transition zone has been hypothesized to exist wherein temperatures increase dramatically from 104–106 K. Such extreme transitional temperatures are not reasonable given the trivial physical scale of the proposed transition zone, a region adopted to account for the ultra-violet emission lines of ions such as C IV, O IV, and Si IV. In this work, it will be argued that the transition zone does not exist. Rather, the intermediate ionization states observed in the solar atmosphere should be viewed as the result of the simultaneous transfer of protons and electrons onto condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Line emissions from ions such as C IV, O IV, and Si IV are likely to be the result of condensation reactions, manifesting the involvement of species such as CH4, SiH4, H3O+ in the synthesis of CHS in the chromosphere. In addition, given the presence of a true solar surface at the level of the photosphere in the liquid metallic hydrogen model

  12. Active particle control in the CPD compact spherical tokamak by a lithium-gettered rotating drum limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y., E-mail: hirooka.yoshihiko@nifs.ac.j [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Zushi, H. [Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Bhattacharyay, R. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Yoshinaga, T. [Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakashima, Y.; Higashizono, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Active particle control capabilities of a lithium-gettered rotating drum poloidal limiter have been demonstrated during 50 kW RF-current drive discharges in a compact spherical tokamak with the major and minor radii of 30 and 20 cm, respectively. The pulse length is typically approx300 ms with a flat-top of approx250 ms. The rotating limiter is in the shape of cylinder with the diameter and axial length of 15 and 12 cm, respectively. It has reproducibly been observed that, as soon as the rotating drum is gettered with lithium, hydrogen recycling measured with H{sub a}lpha spectroscopy decreases by a factor of approx3 not only near the limiter but also in the center stack region. Also, the oxygen impurity level measured with O-II spectroscopy is reduced by a factor of approx3. Meanwhile, the core electron temperature increases from around 7 eV to 20 eV along which the flat-top toroidal plasma current is found to nearly double even at the same vertical magnetic field. Comprehensive surface analysis has been conducted to investigate hydrogen and lithium distributions over the rotating drum after plasma exposure.

  13. Active correction of the tilt angle of the surface plane with respect to the rotation axis during azimuthal scan

    CERN Document Server

    Sereno, M; Debiossac, M; Kalashnyk, N; Roncin, P

    2016-01-01

    A procedure to measure the residual tilt angle $\\tau$ between a flat surface and the azimuthal rotation axis of the sample holder is described. When the incidence angle $\\theta$ and readout of the azimuthal angle $\\phi$ are controlled by motors, an active compensation mechanism can be implemented to reduce the effect of the tilt angle during azimuthal motion. After this correction, the effective angle of incidence is kept fixed, and only the small residual oscillation of the scattering plane remains.

  14. Short-term evolution and coexistence of spots, plages and flare activity on LQ Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Soriano, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aim to study the short-term evolution of the chromospheric and photospheric activity of the young, single K2 dwarf LQ Hya. Methods: Four months of quasi-simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations were used to study the variations of the photometric light curve, the evolution of the chromospheric activity from the Hα and Hβ lines, and the distribution of cool spots from Doppler maps. Results: During our observations one side of the star was more active than the other. The equivalent width of the Hα line from the least active hemisphere increased from ≈0.7 Å at the beginning of the observation to 1.0 Å at the end. The basal emission of the most active hemisphere remained roughly constant at EWHαt1.0 Å. Intense flare activity was observed during the first twenty days, where at least four different events were detected. The line asymmetries of the Hα line suggest that one of the flares could have produced a mass ejection with a maximum projected speed of 70kms-1. The rotational modulation of the V-band photometry showed clear anti-correlation with the chromospheric activity. The difference in brightness between the opposite hemispheres decreased from 0.m16 to 0.m09 in two months. Three spots gradually moving apart from each other are dominating the photospheric Doppler maps. The comparison between the maps and the Hα line as the star rotates reveals the spatial coexistence of chromospheric Hα emission and photospheric spots. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the active regions of LQ Hya can live for at least four months. The detected changes in the photometric light curve and the spectroscopic Doppler images seem to be more a consequence of the spatial redistribution of the active regions rather than due to changes in their strength. Only one of the active regions shows significant changes in its chromospheric emission. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP

  15. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure.

  16. The seven sisters DANCe.II. Proper motions and the lithium-rotation-activity connection for G and K Pleiads

    CERN Document Server

    Barrado, D; Bouvier, J; Moraux, E; Sarro, L M; Bertin, E; Cuillandre, J C; Stauffer, J R; Lillo-Box, J; Pollock, A

    2016-01-01

    Stellar clusters are open windows to understand stellar evolution. Specifically, the change with time and the dependence on mass of different stellar properties. As such, they are our laboratories where different theories can be tested. We try to understand the origin of the connection between lithium depletion in F, G and K stars, rotation and activity, in particular in the Pleiades open cluster. We have collected all the relevant data in the literature, including information regarding rotation period, binarity and activity, and cross-matched with proper motions, multi-wavelength photometry and membership probability from the DANCe database. In order to avoid biases, only Pleiades single members with probabilities larger than p=0.75 have been included in the discussion. Results. The analysis confirms that there is a strong link between activity, rotation and the lithium equivalent width excess, specially for the range Lum(bol) = 0.5-0.2 Lsun (about K2-K7 spectral types or 0.75-0.95 Msun). It is not possible ...

  17. Context compensation in the vestibulo-ocular reflex during active head rotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medendorp, W.P.; Gisbergen, J.A.M. van; Pelt, S. van; Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) needs to modulate its gain depending on target distance to prevent retinal slip during head movements. We investigated gain modulation (context compensation) for binocular gaze stabilization in human subjects during voluntary yaw and pitch head rotations. Movements o

  18. DOT tomography of the solar atmosphere VII. Chromospheric response to acoustic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; van Veelen, B.; Sütterlin, P.

    2008-01-01

    We use synchronous movies from the Dutch Open Telescope sampling the G band, Ca ii H, and Hα with five-wavelength profile sampling to study the response of the chromosphere to acoustic events in the underlying photosphere. We first compare the visibility of the chromosphere in Ca ii H and Hα, demons

  19. Numerical RHD simulations of flaring chromosphere with Flarix

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzel, P; Varady, M; Karlicky, M; Moravec, Z

    2016-01-01

    Flarix is a radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) code for modeling of the response of the chromosphere to a beam bombardment during solar flares. It solves the set of hydrodynamic conservation equations coupled with non-LTE equations of radiative transfer. The simulations are driven by high energy electron beams. We present results of the Flarix simulations of a flaring loop relevant to the problem of continuum radiation during flares. In particular we focus on properties of the hydrogen Balmer continuum which was recently detected by IRIS.

  20. Radiative diagnostics in the solar photosphere and chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun and stars in general imprint or modify the polarization state of the electromagnetic radiation that is leaving from the star. The inference of solar/stellar magnetic fields is performed by detecting, studying and modeling polarized light from the target star. In this review we present an overview of techniques that are used to study the atmosphere of the Sun, and particularly those that allow to infer magnetic fields. We have combined a small selection of theory on polarized radiative transfer, inversion techniques and we discuss a number of results from chromospheric inversions.

  1. Chromospheric emission of planet candidate systems - a way to identify false positives

    CERN Document Server

    Karoff, Christoffer; Boxano, Alfio; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the presence of closely orbiting giant planets is associated with enhanced chromospheric emission of their host stars. The main cause for such a relation would likely be enhanced dynamo action induced by the planet. We present measurements of chromospheric emission in 234 planet candidate systems from the Kepler mission. This ensemble includes 37 systems with giant planet candidates, which show a clear emission enhancement. The enhancement, however, disappears when systems which are also identified as eclipsing binary candidates are removed from the ensemble. This suggests that a large fraction of the giant planet candidate systems with chromospheric emission stronger than the Sun are not giant planet system, but false positives. Such false-positive systems could be tidally interacting binaries with strong chromospheric emission. This hypotesis is supported by an analysis of 188 eclipsing binary candidates that show increasing chromospheric emission as function of decreasing orbi...

  2. ALFVÉNIC WAVE HEATING OF THE UPPER CHROMOSPHERE IN FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reep, J. W. [National Research Council Post-Doc Program, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Russell, A. J. B., E-mail: jeffrey.reep.ctr@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: arussell@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-10

    We have developed a numerical model of flare heating due to the dissipation of Alfvénic waves propagating from the corona to the chromosphere. With this model, we present an investigation of the key parameters of these waves on the energy transport, heating, and subsequent dynamics. For sufficiently high frequencies and perpendicular wave numbers, the waves dissipate significantly in the upper chromosphere, strongly heating it to flare temperatures. This heating can then drive strong chromospheric evaporation, bringing hot and dense plasma to the corona. We therefore find three important conclusions: (1) Alfvénic waves, propagating from the corona to the chromosphere, are capable of heating the upper chromosphere and the corona, (2) the atmospheric response to heating due to the dissipation of Alfvénic waves can be strikingly similar to heating by an electron beam, and (3) this heating can produce explosive evaporation.

  3. Electrostatic plasma instabilities driven by neutral gas flows in the solar chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Gogoberidze, G; Poedts, S; De Keyser, J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate electrostatic plasma instabilities of Farley-Buneman (FB) type driven by quasi-stationary neutral gas flows in the solar chromosphere. The role of these instabilities in the chromosphere is clarified. We find that the destabilizing ion thermal effect is highly reduced by the Coulomb collisions and can be ignored for the chromospheric FB-type instabilities. On the contrary, the destabilizing electron thermal effect is important and causes a significant reduction of the neutral drag velocity triggering the instability. The resulting threshold velocity is found as function of chromospheric height. Our results indicate that the FB type instabilities are still less efficient in the global chromospheric heating than the Joule dissipation of the currents driving these instabilities. This conclusion does not exclude the possibility that the FB type instabilities develop in the places where the cross-field currents overcome the threshold value and contribute to the heating locally. Typical length-scales...

  4. Multiwavelength studies of MHD waves in the solar chromosphere: An overview of recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Jess, D B; Verth, G; Fedun, V; Grant, S D T; Giagkiozis, I

    2015-01-01

    The chromosphere is a thin layer of the solar atmosphere that bridges the relatively cool photosphere and the intensely heated transition region and corona. Compressible and incompressible waves propagating through the chromosphere can supply significant amounts of energy to the interface region and corona. In recent years an abundance of high-resolution observations from state-of-the-art facilities have provided new and exciting ways of disentangling the characteristics of oscillatory phenomena propagating through the dynamic chromosphere. Coupled with rapid advancements in magnetohydrodynamic wave theory, we are now in an ideal position to thoroughly investigate the role waves play in supplying energy to sustain chromospheric and coronal heating. Here, we review the recent progress made in characterising, categorising and interpreting oscillations manifesting in the solar chromosphere, with an impetus placed on their intrinsic energetics.

  5. Alfv\\'enic Wave Heating of the Upper Chromosphere in Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Reep, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a numerical model of flare heating due to the dissipation of Alfv\\'enic waves propagating from the corona to the chromosphere. With this model, we present an investigation of the key parameters of these waves on the energy transport, heating, and subsequent dynamics. For sufficiently high frequencies and perpendicular wave numbers, the waves dissipate significantly in the upper chromosphere, strongly heating it to flare temperatures. This heating can then drive strong chromospheric evaporation, bringing hot and dense plasma to the corona. We therefore find three important conclusions: (1) Alfv\\'enic waves, propagating from the corona to the chromosphere, are capable of heating the upper chromosphere and the corona, (2) the atmospheric response to heating due to the dissipation of Alfv\\'enic waves can be strikingly similar to heating by an electron beam, and (3) this heating can produce explosive evaporation.

  6. M Dwarf Activity in the Pan-STARRS 1 Medium-Deep Survey: First Catalog and Rotation Periods

    CERN Document Server

    Kado-Fong, Erin; Mann, Andrew W; Berger, Edo; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Kenneth C; Huber, Mark E; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We report on an ongoing project to investigate activity in the M dwarf stellar population observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1-MDS). Using a custom-built pipeline, we refine an initial sample of $\\approx$ 4 million sources in PS1-MDS to a sample of 184,148 candidate cool stars using color cuts. Motivated by the well-known relationship between rotation and stellar activity, we use a multi-band periodogram analysis and visual vetting to identify 271 sources that are likely rotating M dwarfs. We derive a new set of polynomials relating M dwarf PS1 colors to fundamental stellar parameters and use them to estimate the masses, distances, effective temperatures, and bolometric luminosities of our sample. We present a catalog containing these values, our measured rotation periods, and cross-matches to other surveys. Our final sample spans periods of $\\lesssim$1-130 days in stars with estimated effective temperatures of $\\approx$ 2700-4000 K. Twenty-two of our sources have X-ray cross-matches, and they...

  7. Slender Ca II H fibrils mapping magnetic fields in the low solar chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Solanki, S K; Wiegelmann, T; Riethmueller, T; van Noort, M; Szydlarski, M; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Barthol, P; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knoelker, M; Pillet, V Martinez; Suarez, D Orozco; Schmidt, W

    2016-01-01

    A dense forest of slender bright fibrils near a small solar active region is seen in high-quality narrow-band Ca II H images from the SuFI instrument onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The orientation of these slender Ca II H fibrils (SCF) overlaps with the magnetic field configuration in the low solar chromosphere derived by magnetostatic extrapolation of the photospheric field observed with Sunrise/IMaX and SDO/HMI. In addition, many observed SCFs are qualitatively aligned with small-scale loops computed from a novel inversion approach based on best-fit numerical MHD simulation. Such loops are organized in canopy-like arches over quiet areas that differ in height depending on the field strength near their roots.

  8. The solar chromosphere as induction disk and the inverse Joule-Thomson effect

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The connection between nuclear fusion in the Sun's core and solar irradiance is obscured among other things by uncertainty over the mechanism of coronal heating. Data for solar wind density and velocity, sunspot number, and EUV flux suggest that electromagnetic energy from the Sun's convection zone is converted by induction through the chromosphere into thermal energy. The helium and hydrogen mixture exhaled by the Sun is then heated by the inverse Joule-Thomson effect when it expands via the corona into space. The almost complete shutdown of the solar wind on 10-11 May 1999 demonstrated that its velocity is a more faithful indicator of solar activity than are sunspots as it reflects short-term variations in coronal heating rather than quasicyclical fluctuations in the Sun's magnetism. Its reconstruction from the cosmic ray flux using isotopes spanning over 800,000 yr should therefore benefit the analysis and long-term forecasting of Earth and space weather.

  9. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick, E-mail: ssheppard@carnegiescience.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  10. Anti-solar differential rotation on the active sub-giant HU Virginis

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, G; Künstler, A; Carroll, T A; Weber, M

    2016-01-01

    Measuring surface differential rotation (DR) on different types of stars is important when characterizing the underlying stellar dynamo. It has been suggested that anti-solar DR laws can occur when strong meridional flows exist. We aim to investigate the differential surface rotation on the primary star of the RS CVn binary HU Vir by tracking its starspot distribution as a function of time. We also aim to recompute and update the values for several system parameters of the triple system HU Vir (close and wide orbits). Time-series high-resolution spectroscopy for four continuous months was obtained with the 1.2-m robotic STELLA telescope. Nine consecutive Doppler images were reconstructed from these data, using our line-profile inversion code iMap. An image cross-correlation method was applied to derive the surface differential-rotation law for HU Vir. New orbital elements for the close and the wide orbits were computed using our new STELLA radial velocities (RVs) combined with the RV data available in the lit...

  11. Connecting Magnetic Towers with Faraday Rotation Gradients in Active Galactic Nuclei Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmud, Mehreen; Murphy, Eoin; Gabuzda, Denise C; Hallahan, Redmond

    2013-01-01

    The idea that systematic Faraday Rotation gradients across the parsec-scale jets of AGNs can reveal the presence of helical magnetic (B) fields has been around since the early 1990s. These gradients are taken to be due to the systematic variation of the line of sight-B-field across the jet. We present here the parsec-scale Faraday Rotation distributions for the BL Lac objects 0716+714 and 1749+701, based on polarization data obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at two wavelengths near each of the 2cm, 4cm and 6cm bands (0716+714) and at four wavelengths in the range 18-22 cm (1749+701). The Rotation Measure (RM) maps for both these sources indicate systematic gradients across their jets, as expected if these jets have helical B fields. The significance of these transverse RM gradients is > 3 sigma in all cases. We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations directly demonstrating the possibility of observing such transverse RM gradients even if the intrinsic jet structure is much narrower than...

  12. Chromospheric Models and the Oxygen Abundance in Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dupree, A K; Kurucz, R L

    2016-01-01

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri that include a chromosphere influence the formation of optical lines of Oxygen I: the forbidden lines (630nm, 636nm) and the infrared triplet (777.1-777.5 nm). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-LTE models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied in evaluating line strengths of O I including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Ly-alpha and Ly-beta. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from high levels also appear stronger than produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors ~3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular cluste...

  13. Chromospheric Models and the Oxygen Abundance in Giant Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri, which include a chromosphere (CHR), influence the formation of optical lines of O i: the forbidden lines (λ6300, λ6363) and the infrared triplet (λλ7771-7775). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied for evaluating the line strengths of O i, including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Lyα and Lyβ. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than those in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from high levels also appear stronger than those produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors of ˜3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate-mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular clusters. A change in the oxygen abundance of metal-poor field giants could affect models of deep mixing episodes on the red giant branch. Changes in the oxygen abundance can impact other abundance determinations that are critical to astrophysics, including chemical tagging techniques and galactic chemical evolution.

  14. Chromospheric Plasma Ejections in a Light Bridge of a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donguk; Chae, Jongchul; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Yang, Heesu; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Kwak, Hannah

    2017-02-01

    It is well-known that light bridges (LBs) inside a sunspot produce small-scale plasma ejections and transient brightenings in the chromosphere, but the nature and origin of such phenomena are still unclear. Utilizing the high-spatial and high-temporal resolution spectral data taken with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph and the TiO 7057 Å broadband filter images installed at the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, we report arcsecond-scale chromospheric plasma ejections (1.″7) inside a LB. Interestingly, the ejections are found to be a manifestation of upwardly propagating shock waves as evidenced by the sawtooth patterns seen in the temporal-spectral plots of the Ca ii 8542 Å and Hα intensities. We also found a fine-scale photospheric pattern (1″) diverging with a speed of about 2 km s‑1 two minutes before the plasma ejections, which seems to be a manifestation of magnetic flux emergence. As a response to the plasma ejections, the corona displayed small-scale transient brightenings. Based on our findings, we suggest that the shock waves can be excited by the local disturbance caused by magnetic reconnection between the emerging flux inside the LB and the adjacent umbral magnetic field. The disturbance generates slow-mode waves, which soon develop into shock waves, and manifest themselves as the arcsecond-scale plasma ejections. It also appears that the dissipation of mechanical energy in the shock waves can heat the local corona.

  15. The Hβ Chromospheric Magnetic Field in a Quiescent Filament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We observed the line-of-sight magnetic field in the chromosphereandphotosphere of a large quiescent filament on the solar disk on September 6, 2001using the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope in Huairou Solar Observing Station. Thechromospheric and photospheric magnetograms together with Hβ filtergrams of thefilament were examined. The filament was located on the neutral line of the largescale longitudinal magnetic field in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Thelateral feet of the filament .were found to be related to magnetic structures with op-posite polarities. Two small lateral feet are linked to weak parasitic polarity. Thereis a negative magnetic structure in the photosphere under a break of the filament.At the location corresponding to the filament in the chromospheric magnetograms,the magnetic strength is found to be about 40-70 Gauss (measuring error about 39Gauss). The magnetic signal indicates the amplitude and orientation of the internalmagnetic field in the filament. We discuss several possible causes which may pro-duce such a measured signal. A twisted magnetic configuration inside the filamentis suggested .

  16. CHROMOSPHERIC MODELS AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri, which include a chromosphere (CHR), influence the formation of optical lines of O i: the forbidden lines (λ6300, λ6363) and the infrared triplet (λλ7771−7775). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied for evaluating the line strengths of O i, including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Lyα and Lyβ. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than those in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from high levels also appear stronger than those produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors of ∼3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate-mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular clusters. A change in the oxygen abundance of metal-poor field giants could affect models of deep mixing episodes on the red giant branch. Changes in the oxygen abundance can impact other abundance determinations that are critical to astrophysics, including chemical tagging techniques and galactic chemical evolution.

  17. Simulations of Alfven wave driving of the solar chromosphere - efficient heating and spicule launching

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, C S

    2016-01-01

    Two of the central problems in our understanding of the solar chromosphere are how the upper chromosphere is heated and what drives spicules. Estmates of the required chromospheric heating, based on radiative and conductive losses suggest a rate of $\\sim 0.1 \\mathrm{\\:erg\\:cm^{-3}\\:s^{-1}}$ in the lower chromosphere dropping to $\\sim 10^{-3} \\mathrm{\\:erg\\:cm^{-3}\\:s^{-1}}$ in the upper chromosphere (\\citet{Avrett1981}). The chromosphere is also permeated by spicules, higher density plasma from the lower atmosphere propelled upwards at speeds of $\\sim 10-20 \\mathrm{\\:km\\:s^{-1}}$, for so called Type-I spicules (\\citet{Pereira2012,Zhang2012}, reaching heights of $\\sim 3000-5000 \\mathrm{\\:km}$ above the photosphere. A clearer understanding of chromospheric dynamics, its heating and the formation of spicules, is thus of central importance to solar atmospheric science. For over thirty years it has been proposed that photospheric driving of MHD waves may be responsible for both heating and spicule formation. This ...

  18. A self-tunable Titanium Sapphire laser by rotating a set of parallel plates of active material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, Ignacio; Azkargorta, Jon; Fernandez, Joaquín; Balda, Rolindes; Del Río Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Illarramendi, M Asunción; Aramburu, Ibon

    2009-03-02

    In a recent work, the authors reported the experimental demonstration of wavelength tuning in a single birefringent plate of Ti:sapphire crystal based on its own birefringence properties. In that device, the thickness of the active plate, limited by the width of the single order tuning spectral region, imposed a strong constraint in the power performance of the laser. The aim of this work is to overcome this limitation by using a set of several identical birefringent plates so that the wavelength tuning of the laser is obtained by synchronously rotating the plates in their own plane. A discussion about the laser performance is presented.

  19. Post-Transition State Dynamics in Gas Phase Reactivity: Importance of Bifurcations and Rotational Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Yáñez, Manuel; Hase, William L; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Spezia, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Beyond the established use of thermodynamic vs kinetic control to explain chemical reaction selectivity, the concept of bifurcations on a potential energy surface (PES) is proving to be of pivotal importance with regard to selectivity. In this article, we studied by means of post-transition state (TS) direct dynamics simulations the effect that vibrational and rotational excitation at the TS may have on selectivity on a bifurcating PES. With this aim, we studied the post-TS unimolecular reactivity of the [Ca(formamide)](2+) ion, for which Coulomb explosion and neutral loss reactions compete. The PES exhibits different kinds of nonintrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) dynamics, among them PES bifurcations, which direct the trajectories to multiple reaction paths after passing the TS. Direct dynamics simulations were used to distinguish between the bifurcation non-IRC dynamics and non-IRC dynamics arising from atomistic motions directing the trajectories away from the IRC. Overall, we corroborated the idea that kinetic selectivity often does not reduce to a simple choice between paths with different barrier heights and instead dynamical behavior after passing the TS may be crucial. Importantly, rotational excitation may play a pivotal role on the reaction selectivity favoring nonthermodynamic products.

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF RETAINING WALL WITH WALL MOVEMENT OF ROTATION ABOUT TOP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元战; 唐照评; 郑斌

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Coulomb' s theory that the earth pressure against the back of a retaining wall is due to the thrust exerted by the sliding wedge of soil from the back of the wall to a plane which passes through the bottom edge of the wall and has an inclination equal to the angle of θ, the theoretical answers to the unit earth pressure, the resultant earth pressure and the point of application of the resultant earth pressure on a retaining wall were obtained for the wall movement mode of rotation about top. The comparisons were made among the formula presented here, the formula for the wall movement mode of translation,the Coulomb' s formula and some experimental observations. It is demonstrated that the magnitudes of the resultant earth pressures for the wall movement mode of rotation about top is equal to that determined by the formula for the wall movement mode of translation and the Coulomb' s theory. But the distribution of the earth pressure and the points of application of the resultant earth pressures have significant difference.

  1. Impacts of stellar evolution and dynamics on the habitable zone: The role of rotation and magnetic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Florian, Gallet; Louis, Amard; Sacha, Brun; Ana, Palacios; Stephane, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we aim to provide the community with the dependence of the habitable zone upon the stellar mass, metallicity, rotation, and for various prescriptions of the limits of the habitable zone. We use the STAREVOL code to study the evolution of the habitable zone and of the continuously habitable zone limits. Mass and metallicity are the stellar parameters that have the most dramatic effects on the habitable zone limits. Conversely, for a given stellar mass and metallicity, stellar rotation has only a marginal effect on these limits and does not modify the width of the habitable zone. The evolution of the habitable zone limits is also correlated to the evolution of the stellar activity (through the Rossby number) that depends on the stellar mass considered. While the magnetic activity has negligible consequence in the case of more massive stars, these effects may have a strong impact on the habitability of a planet around M dwarf stars. Thus, stellar activity cannot be neglected and may have strong ...

  2. The Chromospheric Solar Millimeter-wave Cavity; a Common Property in the Semi-empirical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Victor, De la Luz; Emanuele, Bertone

    2014-01-01

    The semi-empirical models of the solar chromosphere are useful in the study of the solar radio emission at millimeter - infrared wavelengths. However, current models do not reproduce the observations of the quiet sun. In this work we present a theoretical study of the radiative transfer equation for four semi- empirical models at these wavelengths. We found that the Chromospheric Solar Milimeter-wave Cavity (CSMC), a region where the atmosphere becomes locally optically thin at millimeter wavelengths, is present in the semi-empirical models under study. We conclude that the CSMC is a general property of the solar chromosphere where the semi-empirical models shows temperature minimum.

  3. A User-Friendly Code to Diagnose Chromospheric Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2007-01-01

    The physical interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of lines of neutral helium, such as those of the 10830 A multiplet, represents an excellent opportunity for investigating the magnetism of plasma structures in the solar chromosphere. Here we present a powerful forward modeling and inversion code that permits either to calculate the emergent intensity and polarization for any given magnetic field vector or to infer the dynamical and magnetic properties from the observed Stokes profiles. This diagnostic tool is based on the quantum theory of spectral line polarization, which self-consistently accounts for the Hanle and Zeeman effects in the most general case of the incomplete Paschen-Back effect regime. We also take into account radiative transfer effects. An efficient numerical scheme based on global optimization methods has been applied. Our Stokes inversion code permits a fast and reliable determination of the global minimum.

  4. A User-Friendly Code to Diagnose Chromospheric Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2007-05-01

    The physical interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of lines of neutral helium, such as those of the 10830 Å multiplet, represents an excellent opportunity for investigating the magnetism of plasma structures in the solar chromosphere. Here we present a powerful forward modeling and inversion code that permits either to calculate the emergent intensity and polarization for any given magnetic field vector or to infer the dynamical and magnetic properties from the observed Stokes profiles. This diagnostic tool is based on the quantum theory of spectral line polarization, which self-consistently accounts for the Hanle and Zeeman effects in the most general case of the incomplete Paschen-Back effect regime. We also take into account radiative transfer effects. An efficient numerical scheme based on global optimization methods has been applied. Our Stokes inversion code permits a fast and reliable determination of the global minimum.

  5. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab "pump" the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in ...

  6. Dynamics of Chromospheric Upflows and Underlying Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Phil

    2013-01-01

    We used \\ha-0.1 nm and magnetic field (at 1.56$\\mu$) data obtained with the New Solar Telescope to study the origin of the disk counterparts to type II spicules, so-called rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs). The high time cadence of our chromospheric (10 s) and magnetic field (45 s) data allowed us to generate x-t plots using slits parallel to the spines of the RBEs. These plots, along with potential field extrapolation, led us to suggest that the occurrence of RBEs is generally correlated with the appearance of new, mixed or unipolar fields in close proximity to network fields. RBEs show a tendency to occur at the interface between large-scale fields and small-scale dynamic magnetic loops and thus are likely to be associated with existence of a magnetic canopy. Detection of kinked and/or inverse "Y" shaped RBEs further confirm this conclusion.

  7. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Michael L., E-mail: mgoodman@wvhtf.org [Advanced Technologies Group, West Virginia High Technology Consortium Foundation, 1000 Galliher Drive, Fairmont, WV 26554 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  8. Comparable fMRI activity with differential behavioural performance on mental rotation and overt verbal fluency tasks in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Sharma, Tonmoy; Hines, Melissa; Andrew, Chris; Simmons, Andy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-01

    To explicate the neural correlates of sex differences in visuospatial and verbal fluency tasks, we examined behavioural performance and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) regional brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task and a compressed sequence overt verbal fluency task in a group of healthy men (n=9) and women (n=10; tested during the low-oestrogen phase of the menstrual cycle). Men outperformed women on the mental rotation task, and women outperformed men on the verbal fluency task. For the mental rotation task, men and women activated areas in the right superior parietal lobe and the bilateral middle occipital gyrus in association with the rotation condition. In addition, men activated the left middle temporal gyrus and the right angular gyrus. For verbal fluency, men activated areas in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalamus, left parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus, and women activated areas in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate. Despite observing task related activation in the hypothesised areas in men and women, no areas significantly differentiated the two sexes. Our results demonstrate comparable brain activation in men and women in association with mental rotation and verbal fluency function with differential performance, and provide support for sex differences in brain-behaviour relationships.

  9. Range of motion and leg rotation affect EMG activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-06-30

    The leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed eight LE REP at their 8-repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP x ROM interaction was detected (p<0.02). The middle 0.524 rad produced significantly higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 (p<0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p<0.001). For vastus lateralis (VL), EMG increased across REP (p<0.001) with NEU and TO EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM, and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM.

  10. Range of motion and leg rotation affect electromyography activation levels of the superficial quadriceps muscles during leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorile, Joseph F; Lew, Karen M; Stoutenberg, Mark; Pluchino, Alessandra; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2014-09-01

    Leg extension (LE) is commonly used to strengthen the quadriceps muscles during training and rehabilitation. This study examined the effects of limb position (POS) and range of motion (ROM) on quadriceps electromyography (EMG) during 8 repetitions (REP) of LE. Twenty-four participants performed 8 LE REP at their 8 repetition maximum with lower limbs medially rotated (TI), laterally rotated (TO), and neutral (NEU). Each REP EMG was averaged over the first, middle, and final 0.524 rad ROM. For vastus medialis oblique (VMO), a REP × ROM interaction was detected (p < 0.02). The middle 0.524 rad produced significantly higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 6-8 and the final 0.524 rad produced higher EMG than the initial 0.524 rad for REP 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 (p ≤ 0.05). For rectus femoris (RF), EMG activity increased across REP with TO generating the greatest activity (p < 0.001). For vastus lateralis (VL), EMG increased across REP (p < 0.001) with NEU and TO EMG increasing linearly throughout ROM and TI activity greatest during the middle 0.524 rad. We conclude that to target the VMO, the optimal ROM is the final 1.047 rad regardless of POS, while maximum EMG for the RF is generated using TO regardless of ROM. In contrast, the VL is maximally activated using TI over the first 1.047 rad ROM or in NEU over the final 0.524 rad ROM.

  11. Simulations of Alfvén and Kink Wave Driving of the Solar Chromosphere: Efficient Heating and Spicule Launching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, C. S.; Arber, T. D.

    2016-10-01

    Two of the central problems in our understanding of the solar chromosphere are how the upper chromosphere is heated and what drives spicules. Estimates of the required chromospheric heating, based on radiative and conductive losses, suggest a rate of ˜0.1 erg cm-3 s-1 in the lower chromosphere and drops to ˜10-3 erg cm-3 s-1 in the upper chromosphere. The chromosphere is also permeated by spicules, higher density plasma from the lower atmosphere propelled upwards at speeds of ˜10-20 km s-1, for so-called Type I spicules, which reach heights of ˜3000-5000 km above the photosphere. A clearer understanding of chromospheric dynamics, its heating, and the formation of spicules is thus of central importance to solar atmospheric science. For over 30 years it has been proposed that photospheric driving of MHD waves may be responsible for both heating and spicule formation. This paper presents results from a high-resolution MHD treatment of photospheric driven Alfvén and kink waves propagating upwards into an expanding flux tube embedded in a model chromospheric atmosphere. We show that the ponderomotive coupling from Alfvén and kink waves into slow modes generates shocks, which both heat the upper chromosphere and drive spicules. These simulations show that wave driving of the solar chromosphere can give a local heating rate that matches observations and drive spicules consistent with Type I observations all within a single coherent model.

  12. Investigation of the oxygen reduction activity on silver - a rotating disc electrode study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, G.K.H.; Mayrhofer, K.J.J.; Arenz, M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In this study the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is investigated on a nanoparticulate silver electrocatalyst in alkaline solution. The catalytic activity of the catalyst is determined both in terms of mass activity as well as specific activity and turn over frequency, respectively. It is demonstrated that the established mass activities are independent of the applied catalyst loading, an essential requirement for a reasonable analysis. The determination of the electrochemically active surface area (ECA) or the number of electrochemically accessible sites (N{sub ECAS}), respectively, is performed by the underpotential deposition of lead. The obtained value of the activity is compared to activities of polycrystalline silver and platinum measured in the same electrolyte, as well as to literature data. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Existence of Corotating and Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs for Active Scalar Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmidi, Taoufik; Mateu, Joan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of corotating and counter-rotating pairs of simply connected patches for Euler equations and the {(SQG)_{α}} equations with {α in (0,1)}. From the numerical experiments implemented for Euler equations in Deem and Zabusky (Phys Rev Lett 40(13):859-862, 1978), Pierrehumbert (J Fluid Mech 99:129-144, 1980), Saffman and Szeto (Phys Fluids 23(12):2339-2342, 1980) it is conjectured the existence of a curve of steady vortex pairs passing through the point vortex pairs. There are some analytical proofs based on variational principle (Keady in J Aust Math Soc Ser B 26:487-502, 1985; Turkington in Nonlinear Anal Theory Methods Appl 9(4):351-369, 1985); however, they do not give enough information about the pairs, such as the uniqueness or the topological structure of each single vortex. We intend in this paper to give direct proofs confirming the numerical experiments and extend these results for the {(SQG)_{α}} equation when {α in (0,1)}. The proofs rely on the contour dynamics equations combined with a desingularization of the point vortex pairs and the application of the implicit function theorem.

  14. A path towards understanding the rotation-activity relation of M dwarfs with K2 mission, X-ray and UV data

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B; Scholz, A; Matt, S P; --,

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between stellar rotation and magnetic activity for a sample of 134 bright, nearby M dwarfs observed in the Kepler Two-Wheel (K2) mission during campaigns C0 to C4. The K2 lightcurves yield photometrically derived rotation periods for 97 stars (79 of which without previous period measurement), as well as various measures for activity related to cool spots and flares. We find a clear difference between fast and slow rotators with a dividing line at a period of ~10d at which the activity level changes abruptly. All photometric diagnostics of activity (spot cycle amplitude, flare peak amplitude and residual variability after subtraction of spot and flare variations) display the same dichotomy, pointing to a quick transition between a high-activity mode for fast rotators and a low-activity mode for slow rotators. This unexplained behavior is reminiscent of a dynamo mode-change seen in numerical simulations that separates a dipolar from a multipolar regime. A substantial number of the fast rot...

  15. The Magnetic Coupling of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars: Role of MHD Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Leake, James; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Stellar chromospheres and winds represent universal attributes of stars on the cool portion of H-R diagram. In this paper we derive observational constrains for the chromospheric heating and wind acceleration from cool evolved stars and examine the role of Alfven waves as a viable source of energy dissipation and momentum deposition. We use a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic code with a generalized Ohm's law to study propagation of Alfven waves generated along a diverging magnetic field in a stellar photosphere at a single frequency. We demonstrate that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfven waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of α Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere model due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents on Pedersen resistivity are consistent with observational constraints on the net radiative losses in UV lines and the continuum from α Tau. At the top of the chromosphere, Alfven waves experience significant reflection, producing downward propagating transverse waves that interact with upward propagating waves and produce velocity shear in the chromosphere. Our simulations also suggest that momentum deposition by non-linear Alfven waves becomes significant in the outer chromosphere within 1 stellar radius from the photosphere that initiates a slow and massive winds from red giants and supergiants.

  16. Three-Dimensional Propagation of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Chromosphere and Corona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 郑惠南; 王水

    2002-01-01

    We study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation in the solar atmosphere consisting of the chromosphere and corona. Pressure enhancement and velocity shear are implemented simultaneously at the bottom of the chromosphere. The global propagation of the incurred MHD waves, including fast-mode and slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves as well as Alfvén wave, can be identified. Wave front positions obtained numerically with respect to specific waves fit well with those calculated with local MHD wave speeds.

  17. On the use of sensor fusion to reduce the impact of rotational and additive noise in human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise) imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered.

  18. On the Use of Sensor Fusion to Reduce the Impact of Rotational and Additive Noise in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered.

  19. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, Patrick; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtin, Jonathan; Hyde, David; Robertson, Bryan; Beabout, Brent; Beabout, Dyana; Stewart, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1% in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1% polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30%) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with =10 e- /pixel/second dark current, = 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 and =0.1% residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  20. The 27 day solar rotational effect on mesospheric nighttime OH and O3 observations induced by geomagnetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytterer, T; Santee, M L; Sinnhuber, M; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    Observations performed by the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura satellite from 2004 to 2009 (2004 to 2014) were used to investigate the 27 day solar rotational cycle in mesospheric OH (O3) and the physical connection to geomagnetic activity. Data analysis was focused on nighttime measurements at geomagnetic latitudes connected to the outer radiation belts (55°N/S-75°N/S). The applied superposed epoch analysis reveals a distinct 27 day solar rotational signal in OH and O3 during winter in both hemispheres at altitudes >70 km. The OH response is positive and in-phase with the respective geomagnetic activity signal, lasting for 1-2 days. In contrast, the O3 feedback is negative, delayed by 1 day, and is present up to 4 days afterward. Largest OH (O3) peaks are found at ~75 km, exceeding the 95% significance level and the measurement noise of <2% (<0.5%), while reaching variations of +14% (-7%) with respect to their corresponding background. OH at 75 km is observed to respond to particle precipitation only after a certain threshold of geomagnetic activity is exceeded, depending on the respective OH background. The relation between OH and O3 at 75 km in both hemispheres is found to be nonlinear. In particular, OH has a strong impact on O3 for relatively weak geomagnetic disturbances and accompanying small absolute OH variations (<0.04 ppb). In contrast, catalytic O3 depletion is seen to slow down for stronger geomagnetic variations and OH anomalies (0.04-0.13 ppb), revealing small variations around -0.11 ppm.

  1. The 27 day solar rotational effect on mesospheric nighttime OH and O3 observations induced by geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytterer, T.; Santee, M. L.; Sinnhuber, M.; Wang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Observations performed by the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura satellite from 2004 to 2009 (2004 to 2014) were used to investigate the 27 day solar rotational cycle in mesospheric OH (O3) and the physical connection to geomagnetic activity. Data analysis was focused on nighttime measurements at geomagnetic latitudes connected to the outer radiation belts (55°N/S-75°N/S). The applied superposed epoch analysis reveals a distinct 27 day solar rotational signal in OH and O3 during winter in both hemispheres at altitudes >70 km. The OH response is positive and in-phase with the respective geomagnetic activity signal, lasting for 1-2 days. In contrast, the O3 feedback is negative, delayed by 1 day, and is present up to 4 days afterward. Largest OH (O3) peaks are found at ~75 km, exceeding the 95% significance level and the measurement noise of <2% (<0.5%), while reaching variations of +14% (-7%) with respect to their corresponding background. OH at 75 km is observed to respond to particle precipitation only after a certain threshold of geomagnetic activity is exceeded, depending on the respective OH background. The relation between OH and O3 at 75 km in both hemispheres is found to be nonlinear. In particular, OH has a strong impact on O3 for relatively weak geomagnetic disturbances and accompanying small absolute OH variations (<0.04 ppb). In contrast, catalytic O3 depletion is seen to slow down for stronger geomagnetic variations and OH anomalies (0.04-0.13 ppb), revealing small variations around -0.11 ppm.

  2. Propagation of Alfv\\'enic Waves From Corona to Chromosphere and Consequences for Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Alexander J B

    2013-01-01

    How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a 2-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform 1D simulations of Alfv\\'en waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra and umbra) show that energy transmission from corona to chromosphere can exceed 20% of incident energy for wave periods of one second or less. Damping of waves in the chromosphere depends strongly on wave frequency: waves with periods 10 seconds or longer pass through the chromosphere with relatively little damping, however, for periods of 1 second or less, a substantial fraction (37%-100%) of wave energy entering the chromosphere is damped by ion-neutral friction in the mid and upper chromosphere, with electron resistivity playing some role in the lower ch...

  3. The connection between stellar activity cycles and magnetic field topology

    CERN Document Server

    See, V; Vidotto, A A; Donati, J -F; Saikia, S Boro; Bouvier, J; Fares, R; Folsom, C P; Gregory, S G; Hussain, G; Jeffers, S V; Marsden, S C; Morin, J; Moutou, C; Nascimento, J D do; Petit, P; Waite, I A

    2016-01-01

    Zeeman Doppler imaging has successfully mapped the large-scale magnetic fields of stars over a large range of spectral types, rotation periods and ages. When observed over multiple epochs, some stars show polarity reversals in their global magnetic fields. On the Sun, polarity reversals are a feature of its activity cycle. In this paper, we examine the magnetic properties of stars with existing chromospherically determined cycle periods. Previous authors have suggested that cycle periods lie on multiple branches, either in the cycle period-Rossby number plane or the cycle period-rotation period plane. We find some evidence that stars along the active branch show significant average toroidal fields that exhibit large temporal variations while stars exclusively on the inactive branch remain dominantly poloidal throughout their entire cycle. This lends credence to the idea that different shear layers are in operation along each branch. There is also evidence that the short magnetic polarity switches observed on ...

  4. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high RV of ~+245 km s^-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating Activity/Irradiance-Rotation-Age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray -- UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone (Anglada-Escude et al. 2014a, 2015). However, Robertson et al. (2015) questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H I Lyman-alpha 1215.67A emission line can be reliably made, because it is...

  5. New evidence for possible impact of solar activity on long-term fluctuation of the earth rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The long-term fluctuation of the Schwabe period (LSP) of sunspots number (SSN) has been found to have high correlation with the variation of the length-of-day (LOD) in low frequency by using the data of smoothed monthly mean SSN during 1818-1999 and the method of wavelet transform. Analyses indicate that the maximum correlation coefficient between the series of LSP and LOD during 1892-1997 is about 0.9, with a time lag of about 5 years for the LOD related to the LSP. Though the maximum correlation coefficients between the LSP and the other two LOD series (1818-1997) reduce to about 0.4, they remain over the thresholds of 95% confidence level. This suggests new evidence for possible impact of solar activity on the long-term fluctuation of the earth rotation.

  6. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Bahník

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject’s avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark.

  7. A minimal model for spontaneous cell polarization and edge activity in oscillating, rotating and migrating cells

    CERN Document Server

    Raynaud, Franck; Gabella, Chiara; Bornert, Alicia; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    How the cells break symmetry and organize their edge activity to move directionally is a fun- damental question in cell biology. Physical models of cell motility commonly rely on gradients of regulatory factors and/or feedback from the motion itself to describe polarization of edge activity. Theses approaches, however, fail to explain cell behavior prior to the onset of polarization. Our analysis using the model system of polarizing and moving fish epidermal keratocytes suggests a novel and simple principle of self-organization of cell activity in which local cell-edge dynamics depends on the distance from the cell center, but not on the orientation with respect to the front-back axis. We validate this principle with a stochastic model that faithfully reproduces a range of cell-migration behaviors. Our findings indicate that spontaneous polarization, persistent motion, and cell shape are emergent properties of the local cell-edge dynamics controlled by the distance from the cell center.

  8. The Effects of Close Companions (and Rotation) on the Magnetic Activity of M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Dylan P; Garcés, Ane; Catalán, Silvia; Dhital, Saurav; Fuchs, Miriam; Silvestri, Nicole M

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of close white dwarf and M dwarf (WD+dM) binary systems and examine the effect that a close companion has on the magnetic field generation in M dwarfs. We use a base sample of 1602 white dwarf -- main sequence binaries from Rebassa et al. to develop a set of color cuts in GALEX, SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS color space to construct a sample of 1756 WD+dM high-quality pairs from the SDSS DR8 spectroscopic database. We separate the individual WD and dM from each spectrum using an iterative technique that compares the WD and dM components to best-fit templates. Using the absolute height above the Galactic plane as a proxy for age, and the H{\\alpha} emission line as an indicator for magnetic activity, we investigate the age-activity relation for our sample for spectral types \\leqM7. Our results show that early-type M dwarfs (\\leqM4) in close binary systems are more likely to be active and have longer activity lifetimes compared to their field counterparts. However, at a spectral type of M5 (just pas...

  9. Continued activity in P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS. Unexpected comet, rotational break-up, or rubbing binary asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainaut, O. R.; Boehnhardt, H.; Snodgrass, C.; Meech, K. J.; Deller, J.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Kuehrt, E.; Lowry, S. C.; Manfroid, J.; Micheli, M.; Mottola, S.; Opitom, C.; Vincent, J.-B.; Wainscoat, R.

    2014-03-01

    The object P/2013 P5 PANSTARRS was discovered in August 2013, displaying a cometary tail, but its orbital elements indicated that it was a typical member of the inner asteroid main belt. We monitored the object from 2013 August 30 until 2013 October 05 using the CFHT 3.6 m telescope (Mauna Kea, HI), the NTT (ESO, La Silla), the CA 1.23 m telescope (Calar Alto), the Perkins 1.8m (Lowell) and the 0.6 m TRAPPIST telescope (La Silla). We measured its nuclear radius to be r ≲ 0.25-0.29 km, and its colours g' - r' = 0.58 ± 0.05 and r' - i' = 0.23 ± 0.06, typical for an S-class asteroid, as expected for an object in the inner asteroid belt and in the vicinity of the Flora collisional family. We failed to detect any rotational light curve with an amplitude <0.05 mag and a double-peaked rotation period <20 h. The evolution of the tail during the observations was as expected from a dust tail. A detailed Finson-Probstein analysis of deep images acquired with the NTT in early September and with the CFHT in late September indicated that the object was active since at least late January 2013 until the time of the latest observations in 2013 September, with at least two peaks of activity around 2013 June 14 ± 10 d and 2013 July 22 ± 3 d. The changes of activity level and the activity peaks were extremely sharp and short, shorter than the temporal resolution of our observations (~1 d). The dust distribution was similar during these two events, with dust grains covering at least the 1-1000 μm range. The total mass ejected in grains <1 mm was estimated to be 3.0 × 106 kg and 2.6 × 107 kg around the two activity peaks. Rotational disruption cannot be ruled out as the cause of the dust ejection. We also propose that the components of a contact binary might gently rub and produce the observed emission. Volatile sublimation might also explain what appears as cometary activity over a period of 8 months. However, while main belt comets best explained by ice sublimation are found

  10. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation.

  11. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics

  12. Toward A Self Consistent MHD Model of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Leake, J. E.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first magnetohydrodynamic model of the stellar chromospheric heating and acceleration of the outer atmospheres of cool evolved stars, using α Tau as a case study. We used a 1.5D MHD code with a generalized Ohm's law that accounts for the effects of partial ionization in the stellar atmosphere to study Alfvén wave dissipation and wave reflection. We have demonstrated that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfvé waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of α Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents, induced by upward propagating non-linear Alfvé waves, are consistent with observational constraints on the net radiative losses in UV lines and the continuum from α Tau. At the top of the chromosphere, Alfvé waves experience significant reflection, producing downward propagating transverse waves that interact with upward propagating waves and produce velocity shear in the chromosphere. Our simulations also suggest that momentum deposition by non-linear Alfvé waves becomes significant in the outer chromosphere at 1 stellar radius from the photosphere. The calculated terminal velocity and the mass loss rate are consistent with the observationally derived wind properties in α Tau.

  13. Hα Line Profile Asymmetries and the Chromospheric Flare Velocity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Simões, P. J. A.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S.; Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Kennedy, M.; Fletcher, L.; Graham, D.; Keenan, F. P.

    2015-11-01

    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  14. Flocculent flows in the chromospheric canopy of a sunspot

    CERN Document Server

    Vissers, Gregal

    2012-01-01

    High-quality imaging spectroscopy in the H{\\alpha} line, obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) at La Palma and covering a small sunspot and its surroundings, are studied. They exhibit ubiquitous flows both along fibrils making up the chromospheric canopy away from the spot and in the superpenumbra. We term these flows "flocculent" to describe their intermittent character, that is morphologically reminiscent of coronal rain. The flocculent flows are investigated further in order to determine their dynamic and morphological properties. For the measurement of their characteristic velocities, accelerations and sizes, we employ a new versatile analysis tool, the CRisp SPectral EXplorer (CRISPEX), which we describe in detail. Absolute velocities on the order of 7.2-82.4 km/s are found, with an average value of 36.5\\pm5.9 km/s and slightly higher typical velocities for features moving towards the sunspot than away. These velocities are much higher than th...

  15. Impacts of stellar evolution and dynamics on the habitable zone: The role of rotation and magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Amard, L.; Brun, S.; Palacios, A.; Mathis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Context. With the ever growing number of detected and confirmed exoplanets, the probability of finding a planet that looks like the Earth increases continuously. While it is clear that the presence of a planet in the habitable zone does not imply the planet is habitable, a systematic study of the evolution of the habitable zone is required to account for its dependence on stellar parameters. Aims: In this article, we aim to provide the community with the dependence of the habitable zone upon the stellar mass, metallicity, rotation, and for various prescriptions of the limits of the habitable zone. Methods: We use stellar evolution models computed with the code STAREVOL, which includes the most current physical mechanisms of internal transport of angular momentum and external wind braking, to study the evolution of the habitable zone and the continuously habitable zone limits. Results: The stellar parameters mass and metallicity affect the habitable zone limits most dramatically. Conversely, for a given stellar mass and metallicity, stellar rotation has only a marginal effect on these limits and does not modify the width of the habitable zone. Moreover, and as expected in the main-sequence phase and for a given stellar mass and metallicity, the habitable zone limits remain almost constant, and this confirms the usual assumptions of a relative constancy of these limits during that phase. The evolution of the habitable zone limits is also correlated to the evolution of the stellar activity (through the Rossby number), which depends on the stellar mass considered. While the magnetic activity has negligible consequence in the case of more massive stars, these effects may have a strong impact on the habitability of a planet around M-dwarf stars. Thus, stellar activity cannot be neglected and may have a strong impact on the development of life during the early stage of the continuously habitable zone phase of low-mass stars. Using observed trends of stellar magnetic field

  16. Magnetism and activity of planet hosting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Miller, Brendan P.

    The magnetic activity levels of planet host stars may differ from that of stars not known to host planets in several ways. Hot Jupiters may induce activity in their hosts through magnetic interactions, or through tidal interactions by affecting their host's rotation or convection. Measurements of photospheric, chromospheric, or coronal activity might then be abnormally high or low compared to control stars that do not host hot Jupiters, or might be modulated at the planet's orbital period. Such detections are complicated by the small amplitude of the expected signal, by the fact that the signals may be transient, and by the difficulty of constructing control samples due to exoplanet detection biases and the uncertainty of field star ages. We review these issues, and discuss avenues for future progress in the field.

  17. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  18. Upper Chromospheric Magnetic Field of a Sunspot Penumbra: Observations of Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, J; Solanki, S K; Feller, A; Collados, M; Suárez, D Orozco; Schlichenmaier, R; Franz, M; Balthasar, H; Denker, C; Berkefeld, T; Hofmann, A; Kiess, C; Nicklas, H; Yabar, A Pastor; Rezaei, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Sobotka, M; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; von der Lühe, O; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    The fine-structure of magnetic field of a sunspot penumbra in the upper chromosphere is to be explored and compared to that in the photosphere. High spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the 1.5-meter GREGOR telescope using the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). The observed spectral domain includes the upper chromospheric He I triplet at 1083.0 nm and the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and Ca I 1083.3 nm spectral lines. The upper chromospheric magnetic field is obtained by inverting the He I triplet assuming a Milne-Eddington type model atmosphere. A height dependent inversion was applied to the Si I 1082.7 nm and Ca I 1083.3 nm lines to obtain the photospheric magnetic field. We find that the inclination of the magnetic field shows variations in the azimuthal direction both in the photosphere, but also in the upper chromosphere. The chromospheric variations remarkably well coincide with the variations in the inclination of the photospheric field and resemble the well-known sp...

  19. Chromospheric polarimetry through multiline observations of the 850-nm spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Shimizu, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Carlsson, M.; Anan, T.; Oba, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Future solar missions and ground-based telescopes aim to understand the magnetism of the solar chromosphere. We performed a supporting study in Quintero Noda et al. focused on the infrared Ca II 8542 Å line and we concluded that it is one of the best candidates because it is sensitive to a large range of atmospheric heights, from the photosphere to the middle chromosphere. However, we believe that it is worth trying to improve the results produced by this line observing additional spectral lines. In that regard, we examined the neighbourhood solar spectrum looking for spectral lines which could increase the sensitivity to the atmospheric parameters. Interestingly, we discovered several photospheric lines which greatly improve the photospheric sensitivity to the magnetic field vector. Moreover, they are located close to a second chromospheric line which also belongs to the Ca II infrared triplet, i.e. the Ca II 8498 Å line, and enhances the sensitivity to the atmospheric parameters at chromospheric layers. We conclude that the lines in the vicinity of the Ca II 8542 Å line not only increase its sensitivity to the atmospheric parameters at all layers, but also they constitute an excellent spectral window for chromospheric polarimetry.

  20. What Do IRIS Observations of Mg II k Tell Us about the Solar Plage Chromosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit; De Pontieu, Bart

    2015-08-01

    We analyze observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the Mg ii k line, the Mg ii UV subordinate lines, and the O i 135.6 {nm} line to better understand the solar plage chromosphere. We also make comparisons with observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope of the Hα line, the Ca ii 8542 line, and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the coronal 19.3 {nm} line. To understand the observed Mg ii profiles, we compare these observations to the results of numerical experiments. The single-peaked or flat-topped Mg ii k profiles found in plage imply a transition region at a high column mass and a hot and dense chromosphere of about 6500 K. This scenario is supported by the observed large-scale correlation between moss brightness and filled-in profiles with very little or absent self-reversal. The large wing width found in plage also implies a hot and dense chromosphere with a steep chromospheric temperature rise. The absence of emission in the Mg ii subordinate lines constrain the chromospheric temperature and the height of the temperature rise while the width of the O i 135.6 {nm} line sets a limit to the non-thermal velocities to around 7 km s-1.

  1. Temporal Evolution of Chromospheric Oscillations in Flaring Regions: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsue, T.; Hill, F.; Stassun, K. G.

    2016-10-01

    We have analyzed Hα intensity images obtained at a 1 minute cadence with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) system to investigate the properties of oscillations in the 0-8 mHz frequency band at the location and time of strong M- and X-class flares. For each of three subregions within two flaring active regions, we extracted time series from multiple distinct positions, including the flare core and quieter surrounding areas. The time series were analyzed with a moving power-map analysis to examine power as a function of frequency and time. We find that, in the flare core of all three subregions, the low-frequency power (˜1-2 mHz) is substantially enhanced immediately prior to and after the flare, and that power at all frequencies up to 8 mHz is depleted at flare maximum. This depletion is both frequency- and time-dependent, which probably reflects the changing depths visible during the flare in the bandpass of the filter. These variations are not observed outside the flare cores. The depletion may indicate that acoustic energy is being converted into thermal energy at flare maximum, while the low-frequency enhancement may arise from an instability in the chromosphere and provide an early warning of the flare onset. Dark lanes of reduced wave power are also visible in the power maps, which may arise from the interaction of the acoustic waves and the magnetic field.

  2. Diagnosis of Magnetic and Electric Fields of Chromospheric Jets through Spectropolarimetric Observations of HI Paschen Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Anan, Tetsu; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields govern the plasma dynamics in the outer layers of the solar atmosphere, and electric fields acting on neutral atoms that move across the magnetic field enable us to study the dynamical coupling between neutrals and ions in the plasma. In order to measure the magnetic and electric fields of chromospheric jets, the full Stokes spectra of the Paschen series of neutral hydrogen in a surge and in some active region jets that took place at the solar limb were observed on May 5, 2012, using the spectropolarimeter of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida observatory, Japan. First, we inverted the Stokes spectra taking into account only the effect of magnetic fields on the energy structure and polarization of the hydrogen levels. Having found no definitive evidence of the effects of electric fields in the observed Stokes profiles, we then estimated an upper bound for these fields by calculating the polarization degree under the magnetic field configuration derived in the first step, with the additional ...

  3. HiRISE/NEOCE: an ESA M5 formation flying proposed mission combining high resolution and coronagraphy for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Von Fay-Siebenburgen (Erdélyi), Robert

    2016-07-01

    The global understanding of the solar environment through the magnetic field emergence and dissipation, and its influence on Earth, is at the centre of the four major thematics addressed by HiRISE/NEOCE (High Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy Explorer/New Externally Occulted Coronagraph Experiment). They are interlinked and also complementary: the internal structure of the Sun determines the surface activity and dynamics that trigger magnetic field structuring which evolution, variation and dissipation will, in turn, explain the coronal heating onset and the major energy releases that feed the influence of the Sun on Earth. The 4 major themes of HiRISE/NEOCE are: - fine structure of the chromosphere-corona interface by 2D spectroscopy in FUV at very high resolution; - coronal heating roots in inner corona by ultimate externally-occulted coronagraphy; - resolved and global helioseismology thanks to continuity and stability of observing at L1 Lagrange point; - solar variability and space climate with a global comprehensive view of UV variability as well. Recent missions have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled by the emerging magnetic field, guided by the coronal magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. This is implemented in HiRISE/NEOCE, to be proposed for ESA M5 ideally placed at the L1 Lagrangian point, providing FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and velocities up to the solar upper chromosphere, transition zone and inner corona with, in particular, 2D very high resolution multi

  4. Pathogenic and Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) Bacteria causing Dieback of Willows in Short Rotation Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Pajand

    2005-03-01

    To find out whether bacteria isolated from diseased plant parts can be the main causal agent for the dieback appearing in Salix energy forestry plantations in Sweden during the last few years, and if the joint effects of bacteria and frost injury are synergistic, extensive sampling of shoots from diseased Salix plants was performed. We performed several laboratory and greenhouse investigations and used evaluation techniques on the functions of the Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) bacteria. We carried out a comparison between spring and autumn bacterial communities isolated from within (endophytically) and surface (epiphytically) plant tissues of Salix viminalis. Seasonal variation of bacteria in willow clones with different levels of frost sensitivity and symptoms of bacterial damage was also investigated. We further focussed on possible effect of fertilisation and nutrient availability on the bacterial community in relation to plant dieback in Estonian willow plantations. The identification and detection of INA bacteria which cause damage in combination with frost to willow (Salix spp) plants in late fall, winter and spring was performed using BIOLOG MicroPlate, biochemical tests, selective INA primers and 16S rDNA analysis. To distinguish the character for differentiation between these bacteria morphologically and with respect to growing ability different culture media were used. We studied the temperature, at which ice nucleation occurred for individual bacteria, estimated the population of INA bacteria, effect of growth limiting factors, and evaluated the effect of chemical and physical agents for disruption and possible inhibition of INA among individual bacterial strains. The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on INA is discussed. We demonstrate that among the bacterial isolates recovered from the willow plantations, there were many that were capable of ice nucleation at temperatures between -2 and -10 deg C, many that were capable of inducing a

  5. LIVING WITH A RED DWARF: ROTATION AND X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET PROPERTIES OF THE HALO POPULATION KAPTEYN’S STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Durbin, Allyn, E-mail: scott.engle@villanova.edu [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    As part of Villanova’s Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray, and optical data of the Population II red dwarf—Kapteyn’s Star. Kapteyn’s Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high radial velocity of ∼+245 km s{sup −1}. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating activity/irradiance–rotation–age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray–UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn’s Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone. However, Robertson et al. questioned the planet’s existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star’s rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H i Lyα 1215.67 Å emission line can be reliably made, because it is mostly displaced from ISM and geo-coronal sources. Lyα emission dominates the FUV region of cool stars. Our measures can help determine the X-ray–UV effects on planets hosted by Kapteyn’s Star, and planets hosted by other old red dwarfs. Stellar X-ray and Lyα emissions have strong influences on the heating and ionization of upper planetary atmospheres and can (with stellar winds and flares) erode or even eliminate planetary atmospheres. Using our program stars, we have reconstructed the past exposures of Kapteyn’s Star's planets to coronal—chromospheric XUV emissions over time.

  6. Key Properties of Solar Chromospheric Line Formation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The distribution or wavelength-dependence of the formation regions of frequently used solar lines, Hα, Hβ, CaIIH and CaII8542, in quiet Sun, faint and bright flares is explored in the unpolarized case. We stress four aspects characterising the property of line formation process: 1) width of line formation core; 2) lineformation region; 3) influence of the temperature minimum region; and 4) wavelength ranges within which one can obtain pure chromospheric and photospheric filtergrams. It is shown that the above four aspects depend strongly on the atmo spheric physical condition and the lines used. The formation regions of all the wave length points within a line may be continuously distributed over one depth domain or discretely distributed because of no contribution coming from the temperature minimum reg:on, an important domain in the solar atmosphere that determines the distribution pattern of escape photons. On the other hand, the formation region of one wavelength point may cover only one height range or spread over two domains which are separated again by the temperature minimum region. Different lines may form in different regions in the quiet Sun. However, these line formation regions be come closer ir. solar flaring regions. Finally, though the stratification of line-of-sight velocity can alter the position of the line formation core within the line band and result in the asymmetry of the line formation core about the shifted line center, it can only lead to negligible changes in the line formation region or the line formation core width. All these results can be instructive to solar filtering observations.

  7. Ultraviolet jets and bright points in the solar chromosphere: I : search for one-to-one relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, J.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Hoekzema, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrograms and spectroheliograms of the solar chromosphere are used to test the suggestion (Dere et al. 1986, Rutten & Uitenbroek 1991a) that bright points observed at h = 1600 Å, chromospheric jets observed in CI lines near h = 1560 Å, and Ca II K2V bright points are associated with

  8. On the spatial scales of wave heating in the solar chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave energy has been proposed as a viable heating mechanism in the solar chromospheric plasma. Here, we use a simplified one-dimensional model of the chromosphere to theoretically investigate the physical processes and the spatial scales that are required for the efficient dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves and slow magnetoacoustic waves. We consider the governing equations for a partially ionized hydrogen-helium plasma in the single-fluid MHD approximation and include realistic wave damping mechanisms that may operate in the chromosphere, namely Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion, viscosity, thermal conduction, and radiative losses. We perform an analytic local study in the limit of small amplitudes to approximately derive the lengthscales for critical damping and efficient dissipation of MHD wave energy. We find that the critical dissipation lengthscale for Alfv\\'en waves depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and ranges from 10~m to 1~km for realistic field ...

  9. Chromospheric heating and structure as determined from high resolution 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Mats; Gudiksen, Boris V

    2010-01-01

    We have performed 3D radiation MHD simulations extending from the convection zone to the corona covering a box 16 Mm$^3$ at 32 km spatial resolution. The simulations show very fine structure in the chromosphere with acoustic shocks interacting with the magnetic field. Magnetic flux concentrations have a temperature lower than the surroundings in the photosphere but higher in the low chromosphere. The heating is there mostly through ohmic dissipation preferentially at the edges of the flux concentrations. The magnetic field is often wound up around the flux concentrations. When acoustic waves travel up along the field this topology leads to swirling motions seen in chromospheric diagnostic lines such as the calcium infrared triplet.

  10. Chromospheric magnetic reconnection: Two-fluid simulations of coalescing current loops

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To investigate magnetic reconnection rates during the coalescence of two current loops in the solar chromosphere, by altering the neutral-hydrogen to proton density ratio, ioniziation/recombination coefficients, collision frequency and relative helicity of the loops. Methods: 2.5D numerical simulations of the chromosphere were conducted using a newly developed two-fluid (ion-neutral) numerical code. Developed from the Artificial Wind scheme, the numerical code includes the effects of ion-neutral collisions, ionization/recombination, thermal/resistive diffusivity and collisional/resistive heating. Results: It was found that the rates of magnetic reconnection strongly depend on the neutral-hydrogen to proton density ratio; increasing the density ratio by a thousand-fold decreased the rate of magnetic reconnection by twenty-fold. This result implies that magnetic reconnection proceeds significantly faster in the upper chromosphere, where the density of ions (protons) and neutral-hydrogen is comparable, tha...

  11. Conditions for Photospherically Driven Alfvenic Oscillations to Heat the Solar Chromosphere by Pedersen Current Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a complete electrical conductivity tensor is used to estimate conditions for photospherically driven, linear, non-plane Alfvenic oscillations extending from the photosphere to the lower corona to drive a chromospheric heating rate due to Pedersen current dissipation that is comparable to the net chromospheric net radiative loss of $\\sim 10^7$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$. The heating rates due to electron current dissipation in the photosphere and corona are also computed. The wave amplitudes are computed self-consistently as functions of an inhomogeneous background (BG) atmosphere. The effects of the conductivity tensor are resolved numerically using a resolution of 3.33 m. The oscillations drive a chromospheric heating flux $F_{Ch} \\sim 10^7 - 10^8$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$ at frequencies $\

  12. Observation and numerical modeling of chromospheric evaporation during the impulsive phase of a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Imada, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the chromospheric evaporation flow during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the Hinode/EIS observation and 1D hydrodynamic numerical simulation coupled to the time-dependent ionization. The observation clearly shows that the strong redshift can be observed at the base of the flaring loop only during the impulsive phase. We performed two different numerical simulations to reproduce the strong downflows in FeXII and FeXV during the impulsive phase. By changing the thermal conduction coefficient, we carried out the numerical calculation of chromospheric evaporation in the thermal conduction dominant regime (conductivity coefficient kappa0 = classical value) and the enthalpy flux dominant regime (kappa0 = 0.1 x classical value). The chromospheric evaporation calculation in the enthalpy flux dominant regime could reproduce the strong redshift at the base of the flare during the impulsive phase. This result might indicate that the thermal conduction can be strongly suppressed in some cases o...

  13. A new approach for modelling chromospheric evaporation in response to enhanced coronal heating: 1 the method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, C D; Cargill, P J; De Moortel, I

    2016-01-01

    We present a new computational approach that addresses the difficulty of obtaining the correct interaction between the solar corona and the transition region in response to rapid heating events. In the coupled corona, transition region and chromosphere system, an enhanced downward conductive flux results in an upflow (chromospheric evaporation). However, obtaining the correct upflow generally requires high spatial resolution in order to resolve the transition region. With an unresolved transition region, artificially low coronal densities are obtained because the downward heat flux jumps across the unresolved region to the chromosphere, underestimating the upflows. Here, we treat the lower transition region as a discontinuity that responds to changing coronal conditions through the imposition of a jump condition that is derived from an integrated form of energy conservation. To illustrate and benchmark this approach against a fully resolved one-dimensional model, we present field-aligned simulations of corona...

  14. Effects of a shoulder injury prevention strength training program on eccentric external rotator muscle strength and glenohumeral joint imbalance in female overhead activity athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederbracht, Yvonne; Shim, Andrew L; Sloniger, Mark A; Paternostro-Bayles, Madeline; Short, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    Imbalance of the eccentrically-activated external rotator cuff muscles versus the concentrically-activated internal rotator cuff muscles is a primary risk factor for glenohumeral joint injuries in overhead activity athletes. Nonisokinetic dynamometer based strength training studies, however, have focused exclusively on resulting concentric instead of applicable eccentric strength gains of the external rotator cuff muscles. Furthermore, previous strength training studies did not result in a reduction in glenoumeral joint muscle imbalance, thereby suggesting that currently used shoulder strength training programs do not effectively reduce the risk of shoulder injury to the overhead activity athlete. Two collegiate women tennis teams, consisting of 12 women, participated in this study throughout their preseason training. One team (n = 6) participated in a 5-week, 4 times a week, external shoulder rotator muscle strength training program next to their preseason tennis training. The other team (n = 6) participated in a comparable preseason tennis training program, but did not conduct any upper body strength training. Effects of this strength training program were evaluated by comparing pre- and posttraining data of 5 maximal eccentric external immediately followed by concentric internal contractions on a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer (Chattecx Corp., Hixson, Tennessee). Overall, the shoulder strength training program significantly increased eccentric external total work without significant effects on concentric internal total work, concentric internal mean peak force, or eccentric external mean peak force. In conclusion, by increasing the eccentric external total exercise capacity without a subsequent increase in the concentric internal total exercise capacity, this strength training program potentially decreases shoulder rotator muscle imbalances and the risk for shoulder injuries to overhead activity athletes.

  15. Fast-light Enhanced Brillouin Laser Based Active Fiber Optics Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Rotation and Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Minchuan; Fouda, Mohamed; Condon, Nicholas; Scheuer, Jacob; Shahriar, Selim M

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a conceptual design for an Active Fast Light Fiber Optic Sensor (AFLIFOS) that can perform simultaneously or separately as a gyroscope (differential mode effect) and a sensor for acceleration, strain, and other common mode effects. Two Brillouin lasers in opposite directions and separated in frequency by several free spectral ranges are used for this sensor. By coupling two auxiliary resonators to the primary fiber resonator, we produce superluminal effects for two laser modes. We develop a detailed theoretical model for optimizing the design of the AFLIFOS, and show that the enhancement factor of the sensitivity is $\\sim{187}$ and $\\sim{-187}$, respectively for the two Brillouin lasers under the optimized condition, when the effective change in perimeter of the primary fiber resonator is 0.1nm, corresponding to a rotation rate of 0.4 deg/sec for a ring resonator with radius 1m. It may be possible to get much higher enhancement by adjusting the parameters such as the perimeters and the coupl...

  16. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusz Janusz; Brzezinski Aleksander; Kosek Wieslaw; Nastula Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals wit...

  17. Testing Wave Propagation Properties in the Solar Chromosphere with ALMA and IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bernard; Straus, Thomas; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Waves and oscillations are interesting not only from the point of view that they can propagate energy into the chromosphere and dissipate that energy to produce non-radiative heating, they also carry information about the structure of the atmosphere in which they propagate. Since the late 80s there is substantial evidence that the chromospheric wave field is dominated by a non-propagating component, presumably resulting from wave reflection at the transition region. Observations of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II infrared tripet lines, Ca II K, and He 10830 all show vanishing phase lags (i.e. vanishing travel time differences) between the various lines, in particular also for frequencies above the cut-off frequency. Why is the apparent phase speed of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere so high? Are these results misleading because of complex radiation transfer effects in these optically thick lines? ALMA, which acts as a linear thermometer of the solar chromosphere, will provide measurements of the local plasma conditions that should be, at least in principle, much easier to interpret. Multi-wavelength time series of ALMA observations of the temperature fluctuations of inter-network oscillations should allow travel time measurements between different heights as these disturbances propagate through the chromosphere and thus should finally settle the long-standing question about the propagation characteristics of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere. We plan to combine ALMA mm-observations with high resolution IRIS observations in the Mg II h and k lines, and until ALMA observations are available, will study the expected signals using time series of mm-maps from 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations that are being prepared within the framework of the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON).

  18. Theory of Collisional Two-Stream Plasma Instabilities in the Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Chad Allen; Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers; Fontenla, Juan

    2014-06-01

    The solar chromosphere experiences intense heating just above its temperature minimum. The heating increases the electron temperature in this region by over 2000 K. Furthermore, it exhibits little time variation and appears widespread across the solar disk. Although semi-empirical models, UV continuum observations, and line emission measurements confirm the existence of the heating, its source remains unexplained. Potential heating sources such as acoustic shocks, resistive dissipation, and magnetic reconnection via nanoflares fail to account for the intensity, persistence, and ubiquity of the heating. Fontenla (2005) suggested turbulence from a collisional two-stream plasma instability known as the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) could contribute significantly to the heating. This instability is known to heat the plasma of the E-region ionosphere which bears many similarities to the chromospheric plasma. However, the ionospheric theory of the FBI does not account for the diverse ion species found in the solar chromosphere. This work develops a new collisional, two-stream instability theory appropriate for the chromospheric plasma environment using a linear fluid analysis to derive a new dispersion relationship and critical E x B drift velocity required to trigger the instability. Using a 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, radiative transfer model and careful estimates of collision rates and magnetic field strengths, we calculate the trigger velocities necessary to induce the instability throughout the chromosphere. Trigger velocities as low as 4 km s^-1 are found near the temperature minimum, well below the local neutral acoustic speed in that region. From this, we expect the instability to occur frequently, converting kinetic energy contained in neutral convective flows from the photosphere into thermal energy via turbulence. This could contribute significantly to chromospheric heating and explain its persistent and ubiquitous nature.

  19. Four-colour photometry of EY Dra: a study of an ultra-fast rotating active dM1-2e star

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, K; Kővári, Zs; Jurcsik, J; Sódor, Á; Váradi, M; Belucz, B; Dékány, I; Hurta, Zs; Nagy, I; Posztobányi, K

    2010-01-01

    We present more than 1000-day long photometry of EY Draconis in BV(RI)C passbands. The changes in the light curve are caused by the spottedness of the rotating surface. Modelling of the spotted surface shows that there are two large active regions present on the star on the opposite hemispheres. The evolution of the surface patterns suggests a flip-flop phenomenon. Using Fourier analysis, we detect a rotation period of P_rot=0.45875d, and an activity cycle with P~350d, similar to the 11-year long cycle of the Sun. This cycle with its year-long period is the shortest one ever detected on active stars. Two bright flares are also detected and analysed.

  20. Single- vs. double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a new aspect of knee assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Łukasz; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have compared single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the knee joint during activities involving change-of-direction maneuvers and knee rotation. This study examined whether the type of ACLR contributes to postphysiotherapy outcomes, with an emphasis on knee function assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. Fifteen male patients after SB ACLR and 15 male patients after DB ACLR took part in the same physiotherapy program. Twenty-four weeks after ACLR, both groups underwent anterior laxity measurement, pivot shift tests, range of movement and joint circumference measurements, subjective assessment of pain and stability levels in the knee joint, peak torque measurement of the muscles rotating the tibia toward the femur, and a run test with maximal speed and change-of-direction maneuvers. Comparative analysis did not show any differences between the results of anterior tibial translation, pivot shift test, range of movement and joint circumference, and subjective assessment of pain and knee joint stability levels. No differences were noted between the groups in peak torque values obtained from the muscles responsible for internal and external tibial rotation or results of the run test. The data obtained from this study can be used by research teams to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various study protocols involving surgical and physiotherapy treatment. The data are especially useful when combined with the clinical assessment of patients who would like to return to sport.

  1. Inference of the chromospheric magnetic field orientation in the Ca ii 8542 Å line fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Martínez González, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Solar chromospheric fibrils, as observed in the core of strong chromospheric spectral lines, extend from photospheric field concentrations suggesting that they trace magnetic field lines. These images have been historically used as proxies of magnetic fields for many purposes. Aims: Use statistical analysis to test whether the association between fibrils and magnetic field lines is justified. Methods: We use a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze several tens of thousands of pixels in spectro-polarimetric chromospheric images of penumbrae and chromospheric fibrils. We compare the alignment between the field azimuth inferred from the linear polarization signals through the transverse Zeeman effect and the direction of the fibrils in the image. Results: We conclude that, in the analyzed fields of view, fibrils are often well aligned with the magnetic field azimuth. Despite this alignment, the analysis also shows that there is a non-negligible dispersion. In penumbral filaments, we find a dispersion with a standard deviation of 16°, while this dispersion goes up to 34° in less magnetized regions.

  2. Chromospheric Diagnosis with Ca II Lines: Forward Modeling in Forward Scattering. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, E. S.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a synthetic tomography of the quiet solar chromosphere formed by spatial maps of scattering polarization. It has been calculated for the Ca II 8498, 8542, and 3934 Å lines by solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem of the second kind in a three-dimensional atmosphere model obtained from realistic magneto-hydrodynamical simulations. Our investigation focuses on the linear polarization signals induced by kinematics, radiation field anisotropy, and the Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry. Thus, instead of considering slit profiles at the limb as normally done in the study of the second solar spectrum, we synthesize and analyze spatial maps of polarization at the disk center. This allows us to understand the spatial signatures of dynamics and magnetic field in the linear polarization in order to discriminate them observationally. Our results suggest some ideas for chromospheric diagnosis that will be developed throughout a series of papers. In particular, Hanle polarity inversion lines and dynamic Hanle diagrams are two concepts introduced in the present work. We find that chromospheric dynamics and magnetic field topology create spatial polarization fingerprints that trace the dynamic situation of the plasma and the magnetic field. This allows us to reconstruct the magnetic field intensity in the middle chromosphere using Stokes V along grooves of null linear polarization. We finally address the problems of diagnosing Hanle saturation and kinematic amplification of scattering signals using Hanle diagrams.

  3. Spectro-polarimetric observation in UV with CLASP to probe the chromosphere and transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Ryouhei; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Winebarger, Amy R.; Auchère, Frédéric; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Narukage, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Ken; Bando, Takamasa; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kubo, Masahito; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Giono, Gabriel; Hara, Hirohisa; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Sakao, Taro; Tsuneta, Saku; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Goto, Motoshi; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Casini, Roberto; Manso Sainz, Rafael; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Stepan, Jiri; Belluzzi, Luca; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-05-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a NASA sounding-rocket experiment that was performed in White Sands in the US on September 3, 2015. During its 5-minute ballistic flight, CLASP successfully made the first spectro-polarimetric observation in the Lyman-alpha line (121.57 nm) originating in the chromosphere and transition region. Since the Lyman-alpha polarization is sensitive to magnetic field of 10-100 G by the Hanle effect, we aim to infer the magnetic field information in such upper solar atmosphere with this experiment.The obtained CLASP data showed that the Lyman-alpha scattering polarization is about a few percent in the wings and the order of 0.1% in the core near the solar limb, as it had been theoretically predicted, and that both polarization signals have a conspicuous spatio-temporal variability. CLASP also observed another upper-chromospheric line, Si III (120.65 nm), whose critical field strength for the Hanle effect is 290 G, and showed a measurable scattering polarization of a few % in this line. The polarization properties of the Si III line could facilitate the interpretation of the scattering polarization observed in the Lyman-alpha line.In this presentation, we would like to show how the upper chromosphere and transition region are seen in the polarization of these UV lines and discuss the possible source of these complicated polarization signals.

  4. Chromospheric polarimetry through multi-line observations of the 850 nm spectral region

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, C Quintero; Katsukawa, Y; Rodriguez, J de la Cruz; Carlsson, M; Anan, T; Oba, T; Ichimoto, K; Suematsu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Future solar missions and ground-based telescopes aim to understand the magnetism of the solar chromosphere. We performed a supporting study in Quintero Noda et al. (2016) focused on the infrared Ca II 8542 A line and we concluded that is one of the best candidates because it is sensitive to a large range of atmospheric heights, from the photosphere to the middle chromosphere. However, we believe that it is worth to try improving the results produced by this line observing additional spectral lines. In that regard, we examined the neighbour solar spectrum looking for spectral lines that could increase the sensitivity to the atmospheric parameters. Interestingly, we discovered several photospheric lines that greatly improve the photospheric sensitivity to the magnetic field vector. Moreover, they are located close to a second chromospheric line that also belongs to the Ca II infrared triplet, i.e. the Ca II 8498 A line, and enhances the sensitivity to the atmospheric parameters at chromospheric layers. We conc...

  5. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability and Excitation of Super-Dreicer Electric Fields in the Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kronshtadtov, P. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of the long-standing so-called "number problem" in the physics of solar flares, we consider the excitation of a super-Dreicer electric field at the leading edge of the electric current pulse that occurs at the chromospheric legs of a coronal magnetic loop as a result of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. It is shown that for a sufficiently strong electric current, I0 ≥ 10^{10} A, the current pulse propagates in the non-linear mode and generates a strong longitudinal electric field Ez, which strongly depends on the current ( Ez ∝ I03) and can exceed the Dreicer field ( Ez > ED). In this case, the bulk of electrons in the site of the current pulse is in a runaway mode, and the energy release rate in the chromosphere increases significantly. Super-Dreicer electric fields also provide injection of protons into the regime of acceleration by Langmuir turbulence generated by fast electrons at the leading edge of the electric current pulse. The electric field at the pulse edge can exceed the Dreicer field starting from the chromosphere level with the number density n ≈ 10^{13} cm^{-3}. At a lower current I0 < 10^{10} A, a super-Dreicer mode at the higher levels of the chromosphere with n < 10^{12} cm^{-3} occurs.

  6. What do iris observations of Mg II k tell us about the solar plage chromosphere?

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart

    2015-01-01

    We analyze observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph of the Mg II k line, the Mg II UV subordinate lines, and the O I 135.6 nm line to better understand the solar plage chromosphere. We also make comparisons with observations from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope of the H{\\alpha} line, the Ca II 8542 line, and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the coronal 19.3 nm line. To understand the observed Mg II profiles, we compare these observations to the results of numerical experiments. The single-peaked or flat-topped Mg II k profiles found in plage imply a transition region at a high column mass and a hot and dense chromosphere of about 6500 K. This scenario is supported by the observed large-scale correlation between moss brightness and filled-in profiles with very little or absent self-reversal. The large wing width found in plage also implies a hot and dense chromosphere with a steep chromospheric temperature rise. The absence of emission in the Mg II subo...

  7. Physical properties of the quiet solar chromosphere-corona transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunin-Barkovskaya, O. V.; Somov, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    The physical properties of the quiet solar chromosphere-corona transition region are studied. Here the structure of the solar atmosphere is governed by the interaction of magnetic fields above the photosphere. Magnetic fields are concentrated into thin tubes inside which the field strength is great. We have studied how the plasma temperature, density, and velocity distributions change along a magnetic tube with one end in the chromosphere and the other one in the corona, depend on the plasma velocity at the chromospheric boundary of the transition region. Two limiting cases are considered: horizontally and vertically oriented magnetic tubes. For various plasma densities we have determined the ranges of plasma velocities at the chromospheric boundary of the transition region for which no shock waves arise in the transition region. The downward plasma flows at the base of the transition region are shown to be most favorable for the excitation of shock waves in it. For all the considered variants of the transition region we show that the thermal energy transfer along magnetic tubes can be well described in the approximation of classical collisional electron heat conduction up to very high velocities at its base. The calculated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission agrees well with the present-day space observations of the Sun.

  8. Chromospheric Nanoflares as a Source of Coronal Plasma: II. Repeating Nanoflares

    CERN Document Server

    Bradshaw, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The million degree plasma of the solar corona must be supplied by the underlying layers of the atmosphere. The mechanism and location of energy release, and the precise source of coronal plasma, remain unresolved. In earlier work we pursued the idea that warm plasma is supplied to the corona via direct heating of the chromosphere by nanoflares, contrary to the prevailing belief that the corona is heated in-situ and the chromosphere is subsequently energized and ablated by thermal conduction. We found that single (low-frequency) chromospheric nanoflares could not explain the observed intensities, Doppler-shifts, and red/blue asymmetries in Fe XII and XIV emission lines. In the present work we follow up on another suggestion that the corona could be powered by chromospheric nanoflares that repeat on a timescale substantially shorter than the cooling/draining timescale. That is, a single magnetic strand is re-supplied with coronal plasma before the existing plasma has time to cool and drain. We perform a series ...

  9. Generation of Flows in the Solar Chromosphere Due to Magnetofluid Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M; Shatashvili, N L; Yoshida, Z; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Nikol'skaya, Komunela I.; Shatashvili, Nana L.; Yoshida, Zensho

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that a generalized magneto-Bernoulli mechanism can effectively generate high velocity flows in the Solar chromosphere by transforming the plasma pressure energy into kinetic energy. It is found that at reasonable heights and for realistic plasma parameters, there is a precipitous pressure fall accompanied by a sharp amplification of the flow speed.

  10. Toward A Self Consistent MHD Model of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, V S; Carpenter, K G

    2014-01-01

    We present the first magnetohydrodynamic model of the stellar chromospheric heating and acceleration of the outer atmospheres of cool evolved stars, using alpha Tau as a case study. We used a 1.5D MHD code with a generalized Ohm's law that accounts for the effects of partial ionization in the stellar atmosphere to study Alfven wave dissipation and wave reflection. We have demonstrated that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfven waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of alpha Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents, induced by ...

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability and Excitation of Super-Dreicer Electric Fields in the Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kronshtadtov, P. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Within the framework of the long-standing so-called "number problem" in the physics of solar flares, we consider the excitation of a super-Dreicer electric field at the leading edge of the electric current pulse that occurs at the chromospheric legs of a coronal magnetic loop as a result of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. It is shown that for a sufficiently strong electric current, I0 ≥ 10^{10} A, the current pulse propagates in the non-linear mode and generates a strong longitudinal electric field Ez, which strongly depends on the current (Ez ∝ I03) and can exceed the Dreicer field (Ez > ED). In this case, the bulk of electrons in the site of the current pulse is in a runaway mode, and the energy release rate in the chromosphere increases significantly. Super-Dreicer electric fields also provide injection of protons into the regime of acceleration by Langmuir turbulence generated by fast electrons at the leading edge of the electric current pulse. The electric field at the pulse edge can exceed the Dreicer field starting from the chromosphere level with the number density n ≈ 10^{13} cm^{-3}. At a lower current I0 < 10^{10} A, a super-Dreicer mode at the higher levels of the chromosphere with n < 10^{12} cm^{-3} occurs.

  12. MHD modeling of coronal loops: injection of high-speed chromospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Petralia, A; Orlando, S; Klimchuk, J A

    2014-01-01

    Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upwardly moving fronts in the corona observed in the EUV band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are unlikely to be the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes, and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. We simulate the propagation of a dense $10^4$ K chromospheric jet upwards along a coronal loop, by means of a 2-D cylindrical MHD model, including gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool ($\\sim 0.8$ MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet's initial speed is 70 km/s, its initial density is $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We explore also other values of jet speed and density in 1-...

  13. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-Ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-04-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray, and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high radial velocity of ∼+245 km s-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating activity/irradiance-rotation-age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray-UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone. However, Robertson et al. questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H i Lyα 1215.67 Å emission line can be reliably made, because it is mostly displaced from ISM and geo-coronal sources. Lyα emission dominates the FUV region of cool stars. Our measures can help determine the X-ray-UV effects on planets hosted by Kapteyn's Star, and planets hosted by other old red dwarfs. Stellar X-ray and Lyα emissions have strong influences on the heating and ionization of upper planetary atmospheres and can (with stellar winds and flares) erode or even eliminate planetary atmospheres. Using our program stars, we have reconstructed the past exposures of Kapteyn's Star's planets to coronal - chromospheric XUV emissions over time. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13020. This work is also based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a NASA science mission, program #13200633.

  14. Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs I: Regimes of Internal Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SNe Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super-Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly uniform rotation and strongly differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri ≤slant 0.1, we find both the low-viscosity Zahn regime with a nonmonotonic angular velocity profile and a new differential rotation regime for which the viscosity is high and scales linearly with the shear, σ. Employment of Kelvin–Helmholtz viscosity alone yields differential rotation. Large values of Ri ≫ 1 produce a regime of nearly uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as {σ }3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.

  15. Ca II 854.2 nm Spectromagnetograms: A Powerful Chromospheric Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Bertello, Luca; Branston, D.; Britanik, J.; Bulau, S.; Cole, L.; Gosain, Sanjay; Harker, Brian; Jones, Harrison P.; Marble, A.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Pevtsov, A.; Schramm, K.; Streander, Kim; Villegas, H.

    2016-05-01

    The transition from physical dominance by plasma flows in the photosphere to magnetic pressure in the solar chromosphere motivates as many diagnostic observations as possible across this important region. Among the few ground-accessible spectral lines formed within the chromosphere, the Ca II 854.2 nm line has the desirable properties of presence everywhere on the solar disk, Zeeman sensitivity, and narrow line width. Mapped observations of circular polarization within this line (spectromagnetograms) have been made at NSO infrequently since 1974, with regular daily full-disk observations starting in August 1996. Full-disk spectral observations of the complete Stokes polarization vector are now being made regularly since November 2015. It is not easy to estimate chromospheric magnetic field properties from the 854.2 nm line profile polarization. To provide rough quick-look vector field maps we found that the weak-field approximation provides a fair first estimate of the line-of-sight component but appears to be too simple to interpret the transverse magnetic field from frequently asymmetric, linearly-polarized line profiles. More realistic estimates of the chromospheric vector field, short of extremely lengthy, full 3D, non-local radiative transfer inversions, are being investigated. We briefly introduce recent instrumental modifications and observational characteristics, sample observations, and results concerning the expansion of the chromospheric field with increasing height, the presence of large areas of weak, nearly horizontal fields, and field estimates in plages, sunspots, flares, filaments, and filament channels. The Stokes spectra will be freely available to the community.This work utilizes SOLIS data obtained by the NSO Integrated Synoptic Program (NISP), managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  16. PROPERTIES OF CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION AND PLASMA DYNAMICS OF A SOLAR FLARE FROM IRIS OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykov, Viacheslav M.; Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Kosovichev, Alexander G. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Sharykin, Ivan N.; Struminsky, Alexei B.; Zimovets, Ivan [Space Research Institute (IKI) of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of hot chromospheric plasma of solar flares is a key to understanding the mechanisms of flare energy release and particle acceleration. A moderate M1.0 class flare of 2014 June 12, (SOL2014-06-12T21:12) was simultaneously observed by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and other spacecraft, and also by the New Solar Telescope at the BBSO. This paper presents the first part of our investigation focused on analysis of the IRIS data. Our analysis of the IRIS data in different spectral lines reveals a strong redshifted jet-like flow with a speed of ∼100 km s{sup −1} of the chromospheric material before the flare. Strong nonthermal emission of the C ii k 1334.5 Å line, formed in the chromosphere–corona transition region, is observed at the beginning of the impulsive phase in several small (with a size of ∼1″) points. It is also found that the C ii k line is redshifted across the flaring region before, during, and after the impulsive phase. A peak of integrated emission of the hot (1.1 · 10{sup 7} K) plasma in the Fe xxi 1354.1 Å line is detected approximately five minutes after the integrated emission peak of the lower temperature C ii k. A strong blueshift of the Fe xxi line across the flaring region corresponds to evaporation flows of the hot chromospheric plasma with a speed of 50 km s{sup −1}. Additional analysis of the RHESSI data supports the idea that the upper chromospheric dynamics observed by IRIS has features of “gentle” evaporation driven by heating of the solar chromosphere by accelerated electrons and by a heat flux from the flare energy release site.

  17. First Detection of Chromospheric Magnetic Field Changes during an X1-Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleint, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Stepwise changes of the photospheric magnetic field, which often becomes more horizontal, have been observed during many flares. Previous interpretations include coronal loops that contract, and it has been speculated that such jerks could be responsible for sunquakes. Here we report the detection of stepwise chromospheric line-of-sight magnetic field (B{}{LOS}) changes obtained through spectropolarimetry of Ca ii 8542 Å with DST/IBIS during the X1-flare SOL20140329T17:48. These changes are stronger (<640 Mx cm‑2) and appear in larger areas than their photospheric counterparts (<320 Mx cm‑2). The absolute value of {B}{LOS} more often decreases than increases. Photospheric changes are predominantly located near a polarity inversion line, and chromospheric changes near the footpoints of loops. The locations of changes are near, but not exactly co-spatial to hard X-ray emission and neither to enhanced continuum emission nor to a small sunquake. Enhanced chromospheric and coronal emission is observed in nearly all locations that exhibit changes of {B}{LOS}, but the emission also occurs in many locations without any {B}{LOS} changes. Photospheric and chromospheric changes of {B}{LOS} show differences in timing, sign, and size and seem independent of each other. A simple model of contracting loops yields changes of the opposite sign to those observed. An explanation for this discrepancy could be increasing loop sizes or loops that untwist in a certain direction during the flare. It is yet unclear which processes are responsible for the observed changes and their timing, size, and location, especially considering the incoherence between the photosphere and the chromosphere.

  18. The young active star SAO 51891 (V383 Lac)

    CERN Document Server

    Biazzo, Katia; Marilli, Ettore; Covino, Elvira; Alcala', Juan M; Cakirli, Omur; Klutsch, Alexis; Meyer, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Our aim is investigating surface inhomogeneities of the young late-type star SAO51891, from photosphere to upper chromosphere, analyzing contemporaneous high-resolution spectra and broad-band photometry. The FOCES@CAHA spectral range is used to determine spectral classification and derive vsini and Vrad. The Li abundance is measured to estimate the age. The BVRIJHKs bands are used to construct the SED. The variations of our BV fluxes and Teff are used to infer the presence of photospheric spots and observe their behavior over time. The chromospheric activity is studied applying the spectral subtraction technique to Halpha, CaII H&K, Heps, and CaII IRT lines. We find SAO51891 to be a young K0-1V star with Li abundance close to the Pleiades upper envelope, confirming its youth (~100 Myr), also inferred from its kinematical membership to the Local Association. We detect no IR excess from SED analysis, and rotational modulation of luminosity, Teff, CaII, and Heps total fluxes. A spot model with two active reg...

  19. Justification for parameters of a dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit in studying of active rotational working tools of tiller machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Kupryashkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with design options and technological modes of the dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit for studying tillage machine active rotating work tools. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the possibility the movable module instability was discovered. This negatively affects on implementing the experiment program trough the especific method. The need in engineering solutions for the defect correction is shown. In addition, the authors consider the structural features and characteristics of the used devices for providing the stabilization of the movable module in the study of active rotating work tools of tillage machines. An electromagnetic brake dynamic stabilizer in the structure of the existing rolling module was proposed as an engineering device. Materials and Methods: A theoretical study of rolling module stability, based on synthesis of basic regulations and laws of mechanics related to active rotating work tools was conducted. As a result of the theoretical research, a design scheme of movable module loading was created. This scheme includes the design features and structural power factors. Results: A database representing the settings of power specification in the motion stability determining the mobile unit was created. Further use of the database values allow supporting the most optimal location of the electromagnetic brake with its design options. Discussion and Conclusions: The research of the electromagnetic brake in a mobile unit promoted stabilizing the unit movement, increased the frequency of its use and provided data that are more precise during experiments.

  20. Semi-empirical Modeling of the Photosphere, Chromosphere, Transition Region, and Corona of the M-dwarf Host Star GJ 832

    CERN Document Server

    Fontenla, J M; Witbrod, Jesse; France, Kevin; Buccino, A; Mauas, Pablo; Vietes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M

    2016-01-01

    Stellar radiation from X-rays to the visible provides the energy that controls the photochemistry and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. The important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region (10--91.2~nm) is inaccessible and should be computed from a reliable stellar model. It is essential to understand the formation regions and physical processes responsible for the various stellar emission features in order to predict how the spectral energy distribution varies with age and activity levels. We compute a state-of-the-art semi-empirical atmospheric model and the emergent high-resolution synthetic spectrum of the moderately active M2~V star GJ~832 as the first of a series of models for stars with different activity levels. Using non-LTE radiative transfer techniques and including many molecular lines, we construct a one-dimensional simple model for the physical structure of the star's chromosphere, chromosphere-corona transition region, and corona. The synthesized spectrum for this model fits the continuum and lin...

  1. Integration of crop rotation and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculum application for enhancing AM activity to improve phosphorus nutrition and yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Dipankar; Toppo, Neha Nancy; Variar, Mukund

    2011-11-01

    Upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major crop of Eastern India grown during the wet season (June/July to September/October). Aerobic soils of the upland rice system, which are acidic and inherently phosphorus (P) limiting, support native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) activity. Attempts were made to improve P nutrition of upland rice by exploiting this natural situation through different crop rotations and application of AM fungal (AMF) inoculum. The effect of a 2-year crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) followed by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus L.) in the first year and upland rice in the second year on native AM activity was compared to three existing systems, with and without application of a soil-root-based inoculum. Integration of AM fungal inoculation with the maize-horse gram rotation had synergistic/additive effects in terms of AMF colonization (+22.7 to +42.7%), plant P acquisition (+11.2 to +23.7%), and grain yield of rice variety Vandana (+25.7 to +34.3%).

  2. Constraining stellar physics from red-giant stars in binaries - stellar rotation, mixing processes and stellar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, P G; Pavlovski, K; Palacios, A; Tkachenko, A; García, R A; Mathis, S; Corsaro, E; Johnston, C; Mosser, B; Ceillier, T; Nascimento, J -D do; Raskin, G

    2016-01-01

    The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seism...

  3. Oscillations of the sun's chromosphere. II - H-alpha line centre and wing filtergram time sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, F.; von Uexkuell, M.

    1985-03-01

    In order to investigate the dynamics of the solar chromosphere we perform a Fourier analysis of time sequences (total duration 128 min) of Hα photographic filtergrams taken simultaneously at disc centre in line centre and ±0.5 Å from the line centre. The results are: (i) At low frequencies (periods >450 s) the brightness fluctuations are caused by the temporal evolution of Hα structures at the boundaries of the chromospheric network. We observe that much of the coarse chromospheric structure survives the 128 min time span. We derive lifetimes of 2-8 min for the small-scale structure and 5-20 min for the larger structures. (ii) The modal structure of the 5 min oscillation is clearly visible in the power spectra of the three filtergram. The fundamental (f) mode can be followed to high horizontal wavenumbers kh ≍3.7 Mm-1 and follows the expected relationship ω2f = gkh, where g is the surface gravity. (iii) A chromospheric resonant mode cannot be found in the k - ω plane. (iv) The higher resonant p modes reach into the acoustic wave domain (periods T ≍ 150 s) and thus require the transition zone as the upper reflecting layer. (v) We find no evidence for internal gravity waves. (vi) From a coherence and phase analysis we conclude that the brightness fluctuations of the chromospheric structure seen in -0.5 Å lead those in +0.5 Å by 2 min at kh =2 Mm -1 and by 4 min at kh =0.5 Mm-1. (vii) From the same coherence and phase analysis we can identify acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere with periods as short as 80 s. They possess as much power as the 5 min oscillations and are seen better outside the chromospheric network than within the network. (viii) The phase difference between intensity in Hα line centre and velocity, constructed from the two Hα wing filtergrams, decreases from about 90° at low frequencies and high wavenumbers to 0° at high frequencies and low wavenumbers. Tentatively we interpret this as a change from mainly standing waves for the low

  4. Chiral rotational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy, a technique that enables the determination of the orientated optical activity pseudotensor components BX X, BY Y, and BZ Z of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample and provides an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral solely by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centers. A basic design for a chiral rotational spectrometer together with a model of its functionality is given. Our proposed technique offers the more familiar polarizability components αX X, αY Y, and αZ Z as by-products, which could see it find use even for achiral molecules.

  5. Chiral Rotational Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Robert P; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce chiral rotational spectroscopy: a new technique that enables the determination of the individual optical activity polarisability components $G_{XX}'$, $G_{YY}'$, $G_{ZZ}'$, $A_{X,YZ}$, $A_{Y,ZX}$ and $A_{Z,XY}$ of chiral molecules, in a manner that reveals the enantiomeric constitution of a sample whilst yielding an incisive signal even for a racemate. Chiral rotational spectroscopy could find particular use in the analysis of molecules that are chiral by virtue of their isotopic constitution and molecules with multiple chiral centres. The principles that underpin chiral rotational spectroscopy can also be exploited in the search for molecular chirality in space, which, if found, may add weight to hypotheses that biological homochirality and indeed life itself are of cosmic origin.

  6. Rotation of cometary meteoroids

    CERN Document Server

    Capek, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the rotational characteristics of meteoroids after their release from a comet during normal activity. The results can serve as initial conditions for further analyses of subsequent evolution of rotation in the interplanetary space. A sophisticated numerical model was applied to meteoroids ejected from 2P/Encke comet. The meteoroid shapes were approximated by polyhedrons with several thousands of surface elements, which have been determined by 3D laser scanning method of 36 terrestrial rock samples. These samples came from three distinct sets with different origin and shape characteristics. Two types of gas-meteoroid interactions (diffuse and specular reflection of gas molecules from the surface of meteoroid) and three gas ejection models (leading to very different ejection velocities) were assumed. The rotational characteristics of ejected meteoroid population were obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion with random initial conditions and random shape sele...

  7. Full-Disk Chromospheric Vector Magnetograms with Ca II 854.2 nm line: Some Promising Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Sanjay; Harvey, J. W.; Harker, Brian; Pillet, V. M.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Marble, Andrew R.; Bertello, Luca; + SOLIS-Team

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, the focus of solar magnetometry has shifted outward from the photosphere to the chromospheric layers. The reasons for this are many. With regards to instrumentation faster detectors with more sensitivity have become available, as have fast electro-optic modulators. Also, there are several potential benefits of observing vector fields in the chromospheric layer as the magnetic field is more force-free in this layer as compared to the photosphere. Coronal force-free field extrapolations are more reliable using chromospheric fields as the lower boundary condition and free magnetic energy is readily computed using the magnetic virial theorem. Recently, a full Stokes polarimeter for the chromospheric Ca II 854.2 nm spectral line was developed and installed in the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) instrument on the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope. We present details of this new polarimeter, full disk spectropolarimetric observations and vector magnetograms of the chromosphere, and examples of some promising applications (e.g., maps of normal component of electric current density in the chromosphere, free magnetic energy estimated using virial theorem, and non-potentiality parameter magnetic shear angle).This work utilizes SOLIS data obtained by the NSO Integrated Synoptic Program (NISP), managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation

  8. Vertical-axis rotations and deformation along the active strike-slip El Tigre Fault (Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina) assessed through palaeomagnetism and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cortés, José M.; Terrizzano, Carla M.

    2016-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from poorly consolidated to non-consolidated late Cenozoic sediments along the central segment of the active El Tigre Fault (Central-Western Precordillera of the San Juan Province, Argentina) demonstrate broad cumulative deformation up to ~450 m from the fault trace and reveal clockwise and anticlockwise vertical-axis rotations of variable magnitude. This deformation has affected in different amounts Miocene to late Pleistocene samples and indicates a complex kinematic pattern. Several inherited linear structures in the shear zone that are oblique to the El Tigre Fault may have acted as block boundary faults. Displacement along these faults may have resulted in a complex pattern of rotations. The maximum magnitude of rotation is a function of the age of the sediments sampled, with largest values corresponding to middle Miocene-lower Pliocene deposits and minimum values obtained from late Pleistocene deposits. The kinematic study is complemented by low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data to show that the local strain regime suggests a N-S stretching direction, subparallel to the strike of the main fault.

  9. Spicules and their on-disk counterparts, the main driver for solar chromospheric heating?

    CERN Document Server

    Puschmann, Klaus Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The question how the outer solar atmosphere is heated from solar photospheric temperatures of about 5800K up to solar chromospheric and coronal temperatures of about 20 000K and millions of degrees respectively, remained without any satisfying answer for centuries. On 4 May 2005, I recorded several time series of Halpha line scans with the GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer, still deployed at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), for different solar limb and on-disc positions as well for quiet sun at solar disk center. The spatially and temporally highly resolved time series of Halpha line parameters reveal the entire and detailed complexity as well as the overwhelming dynamics of spicules covering the entire solar disk, thus apparently confirming spicules as the potential driver for chromospheric heating of both the Sun and sun-like stars.

  10. Solar Hard X-ray Source Sizes in a Beam-Heated and Ionised Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    O'Flannagain, A; Gallagher, P T

    2014-01-01

    Solar flare hard X-rays (HXRs) are produced as bremsstrahlung when an accelerated population of electrons interacts with the dense chromospheric plasma. HXR observations presented by using the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) have shown that HXR source sizes are 3-6 times more extended in height than those predicted by the standard collisional thick target model (CTTM). Several possible explanations have been put forward including the multi-threaded nature of flare loops, pitch-angle scattering, and magnetic mirroring. However, the nonuniform ionisation (NUI) structure along the path of the electron beam has not been fully explored as a solution to this problem. Ionised plasma is known to be less effective at producing nonthermal bremsstrahlung HXRs when compared to neutral plasma. If the peak HXR emission was produced in a locally ionised region within the chromosphere, the intensity of emission will be preferentially reduced around this peak, resulting in a more extended source. Due to...

  11. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar chromospheric jets: theory and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuridze, D; Henriques, V; Mathioudakis, M; Keenan, F P; Hanslmeier, A

    2016-01-01

    Using data obtained by the high resolution CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter instrument on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, we investigate the dynamics and stability of quiet-Sun chromospheric jets observed at disk center. Small-scale features, such as Rapid Redshifted and Blueshifted Excursions, appearing as high speed jets in the wings of the H$\\alpha$ line, are characterized by short lifetimes and rapid fading without any descending behavior. To study the theoretical aspects of their stability without considering their formation mechanism, we model chromospheric jets as twisted magnetic flux tubes moving along their axis, and use the ideal linear incompressible magnetohydrodynamic approximation to derive the governing dispersion equation. Analytical solutions of the dispersion equation indicate that this type of jet is unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), with a very short (few seconds) instability growth time at high upflow speeds. The generated vortices and unresolved turbulent flows associated...

  12. Heating of the partially ionized solar chromosphere by waves in magnetic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shelyag, S; de Vicente, A; Przybylski, D

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show a "proof of concept" of the heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere due to wave dissipation caused by the effects of partial ionization. Numerical modeling of non-linear wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube, embedded in the solar atmosphere, is performed by solving a system of single-fluid quasi-MHD equations, which take into account the ambipolar term from the generalized Ohm's law. It is shown that perturbations caused by magnetic waves can be effectively dissipated due to ambipolar diffusion. The energy input by this mechanism is continuous and shown to be more efficient than dissipation of static currents, ultimately leading to chromospheric temperature increase in magnetic structures.

  13. Modeling properties of chromospheric evaporation driven by thermal conduction fronts from reconnection shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Brannon, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the corona results in contracting flare loops, releasing energy into plasma heating and shocks. The hydrodynamic shocks so produced drive thermal conduction fronts (TCFs) which transport energy into the chromosphere and drive upflows (evaporation) and downflows (condensation) in the cooler, denser footpoint plasma. Observations have revealed that certain properties of the transition point between evaporation and condensation (the "flow reversal point" or FRP), such as temperature and velocity-temperature derivative at the FRP, vary between different flares. These properties may provide a diagnostic tool to determine parameters of the coronal energy release mechanism and the loop atmosphere. In this study, we develop a 1-D hydrodynamical flare loop model with a simplified three-region atmosphere (chromosphere/transition region/corona), with TCFs initiated by shocks introduced in the corona. We investigate the effect of two different flare loop parameters (post-shock temperature and tra...

  14. HEATING OF THE PARTIALLY IONIZED SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE BY WAVES IN MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelyag, S.; Przybylski, D. [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Khomenko, E.; Vicente, A. de, E-mail: shelyag@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we show a “proof of concept” of the heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere due to wave dissipation caused by the effects of partial ionization. Numerical modeling of non-linear wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube, embedded in the solar atmosphere, is performed by solving a system of single-fluid quasi-MHD equations, which take into account the ambipolar term from the generalized Ohm’s law. It is shown that perturbations caused by magnetic waves can be effectively dissipated due to ambipolar diffusion. The energy input by this mechanism is continuous and shown to be more efficient than dissipation of static currents, ultimately leading to chromospheric temperature increase in magnetic structures.

  15. The Hanle and Zeeman Effects in Solar Spicules: A Novel Diagnostic Window on Chromospheric Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bueno, J T; Centeno, R; Collados, M; Landi degl'Innocenti, E

    2005-01-01

    An attractive diagnostic tool for investigating the magnetism of the solar chromosphere is the observation and theoretical modeling of the Hanle and Zeeman effects in spicules, as shown in this letter for the first time. Here we report on spectropolarimetric observations of solar chromospheric spicules in the He I 10830 \\AA multiplet and on their theoretical modeling accounting for radiative transfer effects. We find that the magnetic field in the observed (quiet Sun) spicular material at a height of about 2000 km above the visible solar surface has a strength of the order of 10 G and is inclined by approximately $35^{\\circ}$ with respect to the local vertical direction. Our empirical finding based on full Stokes-vector spectropolarimetry should be taken into account in future magnetohydrodynamical simulations of spicules.

  16. The Chromospheric Solar Millimeter-wave Cavity, as a Result of the Temperature Minimum Region

    CERN Document Server

    De la Luz, V; Lara, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the local radio emission at the lower part of the solar atmosphere. To accomplish this, we have used a numerical code to simulate the emission and transport of high frequency electromagnetic waves from 2 GHz up to 10 THz. As initial conditions we used three well know chromospheric models. In this way, the generated synthetic spectra allows us to study the local emission and absorption processes with high resolution in both altitude and frequency. Associated with the temperature minimum predicted by these models we found that the local optical depth at millimeter wavelengths remains constant, producing an optically thin layer which is surrounded by two layers of high local emission. We call this structure the Chromospheric Solar Millimeter-wave Cavity (CSMC). The CSMC shows the complexity of the relationship between the theoretical temperature profile and the observed brightness temperature and may help to understand the dispersion of the observed brightness temper...

  17. Chromospheric diagnosis with Ca II lines: forward modeling in forward scattering (I)

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, E S

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the first synthetic tomography of the quiet solar chromosphere formed by spatial maps of scattering polarization. It has been calculated for the CaII 8498, 8542 and 3934 A lines by solving the NLTE (non-local thermodynamical equilibrium) RT (radiative transfer) problem of the second kind in a 3D atmosphere model obtained from realistic MHD (magneto-hydrodynamical) simulations. Maps of circular polarization were calculated neglecting atomic polarization. Our investigation focuses on the linear polarization signals induced by kinematics, radiation field anisotropy and Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry. Thus, instead of considering slit profiles at the limb as normally done in the study of the second solar spectrum, we synthetize and analyze spatial maps of polarization at disk center. It allows us to understand the spatial signatures of dynamics and magnetic field in the linear polarization for discriminating them observationally. Our results suggest new ideas for chromospheric diagno...

  18. An Automated Algorithm to Distinguish and Characterize Solar Flares and Associated Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, M S; Jackiewicz, J; McNamara, B J; McAteer, R T J

    2011-01-01

    We present a new automated algorithm to identify, track, and characterize small-scale brightening associated with solar eruptive phenomena observed in H{\\alpha}. The temporal spatially-localized changes in chromospheric intensities can be separated into two categories: flare ribbons and sequential chromospheric brightenings (SCBs). Within each category of brightening we determine the smallest resolvable locus of pixels, a kernel, and track the temporal evolution of the position and intensity of each kernel. This tracking is accomplished by isolating the eruptive features, identifying kernels, and linking detections between frames into trajectories of kernels. We fully characterize the evolving intensity and morphology of the flare ribbons by observing the tracked flare kernels in aggregate. With the location of SCB and flare kernels identified, they can easily be overlaid on top of complementary data sets to extract Doppler velocities and magnetic field intensities underlying the kernels. This algorithm is ad...

  19. Simulations of the Mg II k and Ca II 8542 lines from an Alfv\\'en Wave-heated flare chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Graham S; Russell, Alexander J B; Allred, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfv\\'en wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg II k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca II 8542A profiles which are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg II k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with IRIS observations. The predicted differences between the Ca II 8542A in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating in flares.

  20. Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in Solar Chromospheric Jets: Theory and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuridze, D.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Henriques, V.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2016-10-01

    Using data obtained by the high-resolution CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter instrument on the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, we investigate the dynamics and stability of quiet-Sun chromospheric jets observed at the disk center. Small-scale features, such as rapid redshifted and blueshifted excursions, appearing as high-speed jets in the wings of the Hα line, are characterized by short lifetimes and rapid fading without any descending behavior. To study the theoretical aspects of their stability without considering their formation mechanism, we model chromospheric jets as twisted magnetic flux tubes moving along their axis, and use the ideal linear incompressible magnetohydrodynamic approximation to derive the governing dispersion equation. Analytical solutions of the dispersion equation indicate that this type of jet is unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), with a very short (few seconds) instability growth time at high upflow speeds. The generated vortices and unresolved turbulent flows associated with the KHI could be observed as a broadening of chromospheric spectral lines. Analysis of the Hα line profiles shows that the detected structures have enhanced line widths with respect to the background. We also investigate the stability of a larger-scale Hα jet that was ejected along the line of sight. Vortex-like features, rapidly developing around the jet’s boundary, are considered as evidence of the KHI. The analysis of the energy equation in the partially ionized plasma shows that ion-neutral collisions may lead to fast heating of the KH vortices over timescales comparable to the lifetime of chromospheric jets.

  1. HRTS observations of the fine structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere and transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, K. P.

    1983-01-01

    Arc-second UV observations of the Sun by the NRL High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) have led to the discovery of dynamic fine structures such as 400 km/s coronal jets and chromospheric jets (spicules) and have provided new information about the structure and dynamics of the transition zone. These observations are reviewed and their relevance to the origin of the solar wind is discussed.

  2. Relationship Between Chromospheric Evaporation and Magnetic Field Topology in an M-Class Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Viacheslav M.; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Sharykin, Ivan N.; Zimovets, Ivan V.; Vargas Dominguez, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    Chromospheric evaporation is observed as Doppler blueshift during solar flares. It plays a key role in the dynamics and energetics of solar flares; however, its mechanism is still unknown. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of spatially resolved multi-wavelength observations of chromospheric evaporation during an M 1.0-class solar flare (SOL2014-06-12T21:12) using data from NASA’s Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and HMI/SDO (the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory), and high-resolution observations from VIS/NST (the Visible Imaging Spectrometer at the New Solar Telescope). The results show that the averaged over the flare region Fe xxi blueshift of the hot (107 K) evaporating plasma is delayed relative to the C ii redshift of the relatively cold (104 K) chromospheric plasma by about one minute. The spatial distribution of the delays is not uniform across the region and can be as long as two minutes in several zones. Using vector magnetograms from HMI, we reconstruct the magnetic field topology and the quasi-separatrix layer, and find that the blueshift delay regions as well as the Hα flare ribbons are connected to the region of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) and an expanding flux rope via a system of low-lying loop arcades with a height of ≲4.5 Mm. As a result, the chromospheric evaporation may be driven by the energy release in the vicinity of PIL, and has the observed properties due to a local magnetic field topology.

  3. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Isobe, H., E-mail: singh@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Unit for Synergetic Study for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  4. Observation and numerical modeling of chromospheric evaporation during the impulsive phase of a solar flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imada, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinimada@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi, E-mail: murakami.izumi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University of Advanced Studies), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Watanabe, Tetsuya, E-mail: watanabe.tetsuya@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University of Advanced Studies), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We have studied the chromospheric evaporation flow during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observation and 1D hydrodynamic numerical simulation coupled to the time-dependent ionization. The observation clearly shows that the strong redshift can be observed at the base of the flaring loop only during the impulsive phase. We performed two different numerical simulations to reproduce the strong downflows in FeXII and FeXV during the impulsive phase. By changing the thermal conduction coefficient, we carried out the numerical calculation of chromospheric evaporation in the thermal conduction dominant regime (conductivity coefficient κ{sub 0} = classical value) and the enthalpy flux dominant regime (κ{sub 0} = 0.1 × classical value). The chromospheric evaporation calculation in the enthalpy flux dominant regime could reproduce the strong redshift at the base of the flare during the impulsive phase. This result might indicate that the thermal conduction can be strongly suppressed in some cases of flare. We also find that time-dependent ionization effect is important to reproduce the strong downflows in Fe XII and Fe XV.

  5. Mass motion in upper solar chromosphere detected from solar eclipse observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Qu, Zhongquan; Yan, Xiaoli; Dun, Guangtao; Chang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    The eclipse-observed emission lines formed in the upper solar atmosphere can be used to diagnose the atmosphere dynamics which provides an insight to the energy balance of the outer atmosphere. In this paper, we analyze the spectra formed in the upper chromospheric region by a new instrument called Fiber Arrayed Solar Optic Telescope (FASOT) around the Gabon total solar eclipse on November 3, 2013. The double Gaussian fits of the observed profiles are adopted to show enhanced emission in line wings, while red-blue (RB) asymmetry analysis informs that the cool line (about 104 K) profiles can be decomposed into two components and the secondary component is revealed to have a relative velocity of about 16-45 km s^{-1}. The other profiles can be reproduced approximately with single Gaussian fits. From these fittings, it is found that the matter in the upper solar chromosphere is highly dynamic. The motion component along the line-of-sight has a pattern asymmetric about the local solar radius. Most materials undergo significant red shift motions while a little matter show blue shift. Despite the discrepancy of the motion in different lines, we find that the width and the Doppler shifts both are function of the wavelength. These results may help us to understand the complex mass cycle between chromosphere and corona.

  6. ALFVÉN WAVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE: 1.5D MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shelyag, S. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion–neutral collisions.

  7. DETECTION OF SHOCK MERGING IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF A SOLAR PORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jongchul; Song, Donguk; Seo, Minju [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Suk; Park, Young-Deuk; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    It was theoretically demonstrated that a shock propagating in the solar atmosphere can overtake another and merge with it. We provide clear observational evidence that shock merging does occur quite often in the chromosphere of sunspots. Using Hα imaging spectral data taken by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Soar Observatory, we construct time–distance maps of line-of-sight velocities along two appropriately chosen cuts in a pore. The maps show a number of alternating redshift and blueshift ridges, and we identify each interface between a preceding redshift ridge and the following blueshift ridge as a shock ridge. The important finding of ours is that two successive shock ridges often merge with each other. This finding can be theoretically explained by the merging of magneto-acoustic shock waves propagating with lower speeds of about 10 km s{sup −1} and those propagating at higher speeds of about 16–22 km s{sup −1}. The shock merging is an important nonlinear dynamical process of the solar chromosphere that can bridge the gap between higher-frequency chromospheric oscillations and lower-frequency dynamic phenomena such as fibrils.

  8. Relationship between chromospheric evaporation and magnetic field topology in M-class solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Sadykov, V M; Sharykin, I N; Zimovets, I V; Dominguez, S Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Chromospheric evaporation is observed as Doppler blueshift during solar flares. It plays one of key roles in dynamics and energetics of solar flares, however, its mechanism is still unknown. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of spatially-resolved multi-wavelength observations of chromospheric evaporation during an M 1.0 class solar flare (SOL2014-06-12T21:12) using data from the NASA's IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph) and HMI/SDO (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory) telescopes, and VIS/NST (Visible Imaging Spectrometer at New Solar Telescope) high-resolution observations, covering the temperature range from 10^4 K to 10^7 K. The results show that the averaged over the region Fe XXI blueshift of the hot evaporating plasma is delayed relative to the C II redshift of the relatively cold chromospheric plasma by about 1 min. The spatial distribution of the delays is not uniform across the region and can be as long as 2 min in several zones. Using vector magne...

  9. First Detection of Chromospheric Magnetic Field Changes During an X1-Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kleint, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Stepwise changes of the photospheric magnetic field, which often becomes more horizontal, have been observed during many flares. Previous interpretations include coronal loops that contract and it has been speculated that such jerks could be responsible for sunquakes. Here we report the detection of stepwise chromospheric line-of-sight magnetic field (B$_{\\rm LOS}$) changes obtained through spectropolarimetry of Ca II 8542 \\AA\\ with DST/IBIS during the X1-flare SOL20140329T17:48. They are stronger ($<$640 Mx cm$^{-2}$) and appear in larger areas than their photospheric counterparts ($<$320 Mx cm$^{-2}$). The absolute value of B$_{\\rm LOS}$ more often decreases than increases. Photospheric changes are predominantly located near a polarity inversion line, chromospheric changes near footpoints of loops. The locations of changes are near, but not exactly co-spatial to hard X-ray (HXR) emission and neither to enhanced continuum emission, nor a small sunquake. Enhanced chromospheric and coronal emission is ob...

  10. MUSCLE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL MOMENT DURING SINGLE-LEG DROP LANDING IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF BICEPS FEMORIS IN REDUCING INTERNAL ROTATION OF KNEE DURING LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguru Fujii

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001. When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes

  11. Active head rotation in benign positional paroxysmal vertigo Da rotação cefálica ativa na vertigem posicional paroxística benigna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Freitas Ganança

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo (BPPV is one of the most common vestibular diseases and the active head rotation test one of the most modern methods of vestibular function assessment. AIM: this study aims to verify if the active head rotation test may reveal signs of horizontal and/or vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex dysfunction in vertigo patients suspected for BPPV. STUDY DESIGN: retrospective series study. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Neurotological evaluation including computerized electronystagmography and active head rotation on the horizontal and vertical axes were conducted in 100 patients suspected for BPPV patients. Results: Isolated or associated abnormalities of the horizontal and/or vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex gain, phase and symmetry were indicative of vestibular involvement and found in 77.0% of the BPPV patients. CONCLUSION: the active head rotation test revealed horizontal and/or vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex dysfunctions in a relevant number of BPPV patients.A vertigem posicional paroxística benigna (VPPB corresponde a uma das vestibulopatias mais comuns e a rotação cefálica ativa um dos métodos mais modernos de avaliação da função vestibular. OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se a prova de rotação cefálica ativa pode revelar sinais de disfunção do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular horizontal e/ou vertical em pacientes vertiginosos com hipótese diagnóstica de VPPB. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Estudo de série retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Uma avaliação otoneurológica incluindo a eletronistagmografia computadorizada e a prova de rotação cefálica ativa, no plano horizontal e vertical foi conduzida em 100 pacientes com hipótese diagnóstica de VPPB. Resultados: Alterações isoladas ou associadas de ganho, fase e assimetria do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular horizontal e/ou vertical, foram os achados indicativos de comprometimento vestibular em 77,0% dos casos de VPPB. CONCLUSÃO: A prova de rota

  12. WASP-41b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Planet Orbiting a Magnetically Active G8V Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Street, R. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Gillon, M.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05 days orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8 V star (V = 11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the Ca ii H and K ines and photometric variability with a period of 18.4 days and an amplitude of about 1%. We use a new method to show quantitatively that this periodic signal has a low false-alarm probability. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8 Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.92 ± 0.06 MJup, 1.20 ± 0.06 RJup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

  13. NO 2 column amount and total ozone in Stara Zagora (42°N, 25°E) and their response to the solar rotational activity variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R.; Kostadinov, I.; Valev, D.; Hempelmann, A.; Atanassov, At.; Giovanelli, G.; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.; Markova, T.

    Studies have shown that the total ozone amount and the ozone mixing ratio on the Earth's equator correlate with the 27-day rotational modulation of the solar activity.We report some first results of our research, concerning possible links between the short-term solar activity, i.e., variations on the rotational time-scale, and the stratospheric NO 2. The solar activity variations and the atmospheric responses were studied by means of wavelet analysis, cross-correlation and cross-wavelet analysis. It is found out that the 27-day solar cycle in the UV irradiation is modulated by a longer period of several months; this longer period is probably related with active region growth and decay (ARGD). That kind of modulation produces shortening or extension of the 27-day basic period, ranging from 22 to 34 days. The modulation is a consequence of ARGD and hence, results from a variable pattern of spots and active regions on the solar surface. We find a similar time-frequency behaviour in the wavelet maps of NO 2 slant column amounts, derived from DOAS measurements at the Stara Zagora station as well as in the total ozone amount, obtained by the GOME instrument during solar cycle 23. For those time intervals when the cross-correlation between the variation of the short-term solar activity and that of the trace gas species is positive, the cross-correlation coefficients are up to 0.6 for the NO 2 and up to 0.5 for the ozone variation.

  14. HiRISE Mission to Address the Dynamical Chromosphere-Corona Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Lamy, Philippe; von Fay-Siebenburgen (Erdélyi), Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chro-mosphere and million degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled by the emerging magnetic field, guided by the coronal magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many thin loops or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The dynamics in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining that dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or MHD?), require both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission HiRISE, the ultimate new generation ultrahigh resolution, interferomet-ric and coronagraphic, Solar Physics Mission, proposed for ESA Cosmic Vision (pre-selected in 2007, and under preparation for 2012 second call). HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy Explorer), at the L1 Lagrangian point, provides meter class FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (satellites in formation flying 280 m apart) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and velocities in the solar upper chromosphere, transition zone and inner corona with, in particular, 2D very high

  15. EFFECT OF POSTURAL CORRECTION WITH DIFFERENT TAPING MATERIALS ON SCAPULAR KINEMATICS AND MYOELECTRIC ACTIVITIES OF SCAPULAR ROTATORS IN SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME A RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Mohamad Abd Al-Gawad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rigid and kinesio tapings are commonly used in the rehabilitation of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS. Yet; the effect of postural correction with the two taping materials in SIS has not been extensively studied. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of postural correction with two different taping materials on scapular kinematics and electromyography of scapular upward rotators in patients with SIS. Methods: Twenty female patients with SIS participated in this study. Their age ranged from 30-60 years. Participants were randomly assigned into: Group I (Kinesio tape, n=10 and Group II (rigid tape, n=10. Thoracic and scapular taping with posture correction was applied to both groups. Scapular upward rotation at 0˚, 60˚, 90˚ and 120˚ of shoulder elevation and the activity level of the upper fibers of trapezius (UT, lower fibers of trapezius (LT and serratus anterior (SA muscles were measured before and immediately after taping application. Results: Both taping materials significantly increased scapular upward rotation at 60°, 90° and 120° angles (P =.004,.002 and .047 respectively after the application of tape as compared to the before. In addition, significantly greater muscle activity of the LT and SA muscles (P =.027 and 0.05 respectively were demonstrated by the kinesio-taping group as compared to rigid taping group during real taping condition. Conclusion: Both taping materials are effective in restoring scapular kinematics. Furthermore, kinesio taping has a facilitatory effect on the LT and SA muscles. Kinesio taping may be considered an alternative to rigid taping in patients with SIS.

  16. Exploiting arm posture synergies in activities of daily living to control the wrist rotation in upper limb prostheses: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, Federico; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although significant technological advances have been made in the last forty years, natural and effortless control of upper limb prostheses is still an open issue. Commercially available myoelectric prostheses present limited Degrees of Freedom (DoF) mainly because of the lack of available and reliable independent control signals from the human body. Thus, despite the crucial role that an actuated wrist could play in a transradial prosthesis in terms of avoiding compensatory movements, commercial hand prostheses present only manually adjustable passive wrists or actuated rotators controlled by (unnatural) sequential control strategies. In the present study we investigated the synergies between the humeral orientation with respect to the trunk and the forearm pronation/supination angles during the execution of a wide range of activities of daily living, in healthy subjects. Our results showed consistent postural synergies between the two selected body segments for almost the totality of the activities of daily living under investigation. This is a promising result because these postural synergies could be exploited to automatically control the wrist rotator unit in transradial prostheses improving the fluency and the dexterity of the amputee.

  17. Motor Processes in Children's Mental Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Daum, Moritz M.; Walser, Simone; Mast, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies with adult human participants revealed that motor activities can influence mental rotation of body parts and abstract shapes. In this study, we investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement on mental rotation performance from a developmental perspective. Children at the age of 5, 8, and 11 years and adults performed a…

  18. Regimes of Internal Rotation in Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Ghosh, Pranab

    2017-01-01

    Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SN Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. Differential rotation is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super--Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly-uniform and strongly-differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri > 1 produce a regime of nearly-uniform rotation for which the baroclinic viscosity is of intermediate value and scales as σ3. We discuss the gap in understanding of the behavior at intermediate values of Ri and how observations may constrain the rotation regimes attained by nature.

  19. Motion of the shoulder complex in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis and associated with rotator cuff dysfunction: part 2 - muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira; Michener, Lori Ann; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Reiff, Rodrigo Bezerra de Menezes; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Salvini, Tania Fátima

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to compare muscle activity in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis (ACO), ACO associated with rotator cuff disease (ACO+RCD), and controls. Seventy-four participants (23 isolated ACO, 25 ACO+RCD, 26 controls) took part in this study. Disability was assessed with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Muscle activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and anterior deltoid (AD) was collected during arm elevation in the sagittal and scapular planes. Pain during motion was assessed with the numerical pain rating scale. Analysis of the DASH, pain and kinematics were reported in part 1 of this study. For each muscle, separate 2-way linear mixed-model ANOVAs were performed to compare groups. ACO+RCD group had more UT and AD activity than the the isolated ACO and control other groups, more AD activity than the isolated ACO group during the ascending phase, and more AD activity than the ACO and control groups during the descending phase in both planes. Isolated ACO group had less SA activity than the control group only in the sagittal plane. Alterations in shoulder muscle activity are present in individuals with isolated ACO and with ACO+RCD and should be considered in rehabilitation.

  20. Investigating the Spectroscopic Variability and Magnetic Activity of Photometrically Variable M Dwarfs in SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jean-Paul; Cid, Aurora; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic activity, a wide range of observable phenomena produced in the outer atmospheres of stars, is currently not well understood for M dwarfs. In higher mass stars, magnetic activity is powered by a dynamo process involving the differential rotation of a star’s inner regions. This process generates a magnetic field, heats up regions in the atmosphere, and produces emission line radiation (H-alpha) from collisional excitation. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s (SDSS) Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), we will compare the H-alpha emission line strengths for a sample of 12,000 known photometrically variable M dwarfs observed in the PAN-STARRS1 survey with those of a known non-variable sample. This will be done in order to test whether photometric variability of the sample correlate with chromospheric H-alpha emission features and if not, explore the alternate reasons for that photometric variability, like binarity.

  1. The Connection between the Corona and Chromosphere during a Multiple Event Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    NOAA AR 10940 (Jan 25 2007 - Feb 09 2007) rotated into view producing a CME and EIT wave, and followed by at least 27 B and C class flares as rotated across the disk. As it reached the west limb it proceeded to produce a sequence of jets and filament eruptions that were observed in unprecedented detail. I present observations from TRACE, EIT, HINODE XRT / SOT / EIS, RHESSI, GOES 12 and STEREO-A COR 1 to investigate part of the sequence of events that lead to a filament eruption and sympathetic jet at 02:30 - 03:00 02/09/07. I concentrate on the topology changes and infer that external breakout reconnection was the mechanism that lead to the removal of overlying field and subsequent filament eruption I will also discuss the instrument development activities at MSFC.

  2. WASP-41b: A transiting hot Jupiter planet orbiting a magnetically-active G8V star

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L; Cameron, A Collier; Hellier, C; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Gillon, M; Lister, T A; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Udry, S

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet with an orbital period of 3.05d orbiting the star TYC 7247-587-1. The star, WASP-41, is a moderately bright G8V star (V=11.6) with a metallicity close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.08+-0.09). The star shows evidence of moderate chromospheric activity, both from emission in the cores of the CaII H and K lines and photometric variability with a period of 18.3d and an amplitude of about 1%. The rotation period of the star implies a gyrochronological age for WASP-41 of 1.8Gyr with an error of about 15%. We have used a combined analysis of the available photometric and spectroscopic data to derive the mass and radius of the planet (0.93+-0.06M_Jup, 1.21+-0.06R_Jup). Further observations of WASP-41 can be used to explore the connections between the properties of hot Jupiter planets and the level of chromospheric activity in their host stars.

  3. Activity indicators and stellar parameters of the Kepler targets. An application of the ROTFIT pipeline to LAMOST-Kepler stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; De Cat, P.; Catanzaro, G.; Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B.; Luo, A. L.; Shi, J. R.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, H. T.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: A comprehensive and homogeneous determination of stellar parameters for the stars observed by the Kepler space telescope is necessary for statistical studies of their properties. As a result of the large number of stars monitored by Kepler, the largest and more complete databases of stellar parameters published to date are multiband photometric surveys. The LAMOST-Kepler survey, whose spectra are analyzed in the present paper, was the first large spectroscopic project, which started in 2011 and aimed at filling that gap. In this work we present the results of our analysis, which is focused on selecting spectra with emission lines and chromospherically active stars by means of the spectral subtraction of inactive templates. The spectroscopic determination of the atmospheric parameters for a large number of stars is a by-product of our analysis. Methods: We have used a purposely developed version of the code ROTFIT for the determination of the stellar parameters by exploiting a wide and homogeneous collection of real star spectra, namely the Indo US library. We provide a catalog with the atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]), radial velocity (RV), and an estimate of the projected rotation velocity (vsini). For cool stars (Teff≤ 6000 K), we also calculated the Hα and Ca ii-IRT fluxes, which are important proxies of chromospheric activity. Results: We have derived the RV and atmospheric parameters for 61 753 spectra of 51 385 stars. The average uncertainties, which we estimate from the stars observed more than once, are about 12 km s-1, 1.3%, 0.05 dex, and 0.06 dex for RV, Teff, log g, and [Fe/H], respectively, although they are larger for the spectra with a very low signal-to-noise ratio. Literature data for a few hundred stars (mainly from high-resolution spectroscopy) were used to peform quality control of our results. The final accuracy of the RV is about 14 km s-1. The accuracy of the Teff, log g, and [Fe/H] measurements is about 3.5%, 0.3 dex

  4. FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE MEDIATED BY THE PLASMOID INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Lei; Kliem, Bernhard; Lin, Jun [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Wu, Ning, E-mail: leini@ynao.ac.cn [School of Tourism and Geography, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650031 (China)

    2015-01-20

    Magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized solar chromosphere is studied in 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including radiative cooling and ambipolar diffusion. A Harris current sheet with and without a guide field is considered. Characteristic values of the parameters in the middle chromosphere imply a high magnetic Reynolds number of ∼10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} in the present simulations. Fast magnetic reconnection then develops as a consequence of the plasmoid instability without the need to invoke anomalous resistivity enhancements. Multiple levels of the instability are followed as it cascades to smaller scales, which approach the ion inertial length. The reconnection rate, normalized to the asymptotic values of magnetic field and Alfvén velocity in the inflow region, reaches values in the range ∼0.01-0.03 throughout the cascading plasmoid formation and for zero as well as for strong guide field. The outflow velocity reaches ≈40 km s{sup –1}. Slow-mode shocks extend from the X-points, heating the plasmoids up to ∼8 × 10{sup 4} K. In the case of zero guide field, the inclusion of both ambipolar diffusion and radiative cooling causes a rapid thinning of the current sheet (down to ∼30 m) and early formation of secondary islands. Both of these processes have very little effect on the plasmoid instability for a strong guide field. The reconnection rates, temperature enhancements, and upward outflow velocities from the vertical current sheet correspond well to their characteristic values in chromospheric jets.

  5. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.

  6. YSO accretion shocks: magnetic, chromospheric or stochastic flow effects can suppress fluctuations of X-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Matsakos, T; Stehlé, C; González, M; Ibgui, L; de Sá, L; Lanz, T; Orlando, S; Bonito, R; Argiroffi, C; Reale, F; Peres, G

    2013-01-01

    Context. Theoretical arguments and numerical simulations of radiative shocks produced by the impact of the accreting gas onto young stars predict quasi-periodic oscillations in the emitted radiation. However, observational data do not show evidence of such periodicity. Aims. We investigate whether physically plausible perturbations in the accretion column or in the chromosphere could disrupt the shock structure influencing the observability of the oscillatory behavior. Methods. We performed local 2D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of an accretion shock impacting a chromosphere, taking optically thin radiation losses and thermal conduction into account. We investigated the effects of several perturbation types, such as clumps in the accretion stream or chromospheric fluctuations, and also explored a wide range of plasma-\\beta values. Results. In the case of a weak magnetic field, the post-shock region shows chaotic motion and mixing, smoothing out the perturbations and retaining a global periodic signature....

  7. Multifluid modeling of magnetosonic wave propagation in the solar chromosphere -- effects of impact ionization and radiative recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Maneva, Yana G; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    In order to study chromospheric magnetosonic wave propagation including, for the first time, the effects of ion-neutral interactions in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, we have developed a new multi-fluid computational model, accounting for ionization and recombination reactions in gravitationally stratified magnetized collisional media. The two-fluid model used in our 2D numerical simulations treats neutrals as a separate fluid and considers charged species (electrons and ions) within the resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskii's transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations and the solenoidality of the magnetic field is enforced with a hyperbolic divergence cleaning scheme. The initial density and temperature profiles are similar to VAL III chromospheric model in which dynamical, thermal and chemical equilibrium are considered to ensure comparison to existing MHD models and avoid artif...

  8. The embedded feature model for the interpretation of chromospheric contrast profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, R.; Gebbie, K. B.; Bar, V.

    1977-01-01

    Contrast profiles obtained from chromospheric filtergrams and spectra of bright and dark mottles have to date been interpreted almost exclusively in terms of Becker's cloud model. Here we demonstrate the failure of this model to account in a physically consistent way for the observed contrasts. As an alternative, we introduce an embedded-feature model, restricting our discussion in this paper to stationary features. Our model is then characterized by three independent parameters: the density of absorbing atoms, the geometrical depth, and the profile of the absorption coefficient. An analytic approximation to the contrast resulting from such a model reproduces well the observed behavior of all types of contrast profiles.

  9. MHS sunspot model from deep sub-photospheric to chromospheric layers

    CERN Document Server

    Khomenko, E

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of magnetic fields on the propagation properties of waves, as derived from different local helioseismology techniques, forward modeling of waves is required. Such calculations need a model in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium as initial atmosphere to propagate oscillations through it. We provide a method to construct such a model in equilibrium for a wide range of parameters to be used for simulations of artificial helioseismologic data. The method combine the advantages of self-similar solutions and current-distributed models. A set of models is developed by numerical integration of magnetohydrostatic equations from the sub-photospheric to chromospheric layers.

  10. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...

  11. New weed control strategies in maize considering narrow crop rotations with maize, greater ALSresistance in common weeds and application restrictions with regard to active substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many herbicides with different HRAC-groups are available for weed control in maize. Because of narrow maize crop rotation summer weeds and warmth loving weeds are encouraged. On the other hand the new confirmed cases of an ALS target site resistance in the weed species Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus in Brandenburg, Stellaria media in Saxony and Matricaria recutita and Tripleurospermum perforatum in Brandenburg and Thuringia, warn that in the future the sulfonylureas must be used only according to the management of herbicide resistance. In this way the selection of resistant weed biotypes will be prevented. Moreover in protected water areas it may be a requirement to reduce and to substitute the input of some active substances, for example terbuthylazine and bentazon. The control of E. crus-galli and P. convolvulus with non-sulfonylurea or/and non-terbuthylazine herbicides according to management of herbicide resistance will be discussed.

  12. Solar fine-scale structures. I. Spicules and other small-scale, jet-like events at the chromospheric level: observations and physical parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiropoula, G; Kontogiannis, I; Madjarska, M S; Doyle, J G; Suematsu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades the uninterrupted, high-resolution observations of the Sun, from the excellent range of telescopes aboard many spacecraft complemented with observations from sophisticated ground-based telescopes have opened up a new world producing significantly more complete information on the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere than before. The interface between the lower solar atmosphere where energy is generated by subsurface convection and the corona comprises the chromosphere, which is dominated by jet-like, dynamic structures, called mottles when found in quiet regions, fibrils when found in active regions and spicules when observed at the solar limb. Recently, space observations with Hinode have led to the suggestion that there should exist two different types of spicules called Type I and Type II which have different properties. Ground-based observations in the Ca II H and K filtergrams reveal the existence of long, thin emission features called straws in observations close to the l...

  13. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 2: Mechanics II, Momentum, Energy, Rotational and Harmonic Motion, and Chaos (Units 8 - 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including: Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

  14. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  15. Auto-rotação cefálica ativa em pacientes com tontura/ vertigem Active cephalic auto-rotation in patients with dizziness/ vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída R.M. de Assunção

    Full Text Available Introdução: A auto-rotação cefálica ativa é um teste rápido, de simples realização, não invasivo, que não causa desconforto ao paciente, pode ser realizado com facilidade em crianças e avalia o reflexo vestíbulo-ocular nas freqüências fisiológicas de movimentação da cabeça, utilizadas na vida cotidiana (de 1 a 4 Hz. Forma de estudo: clínico retrospectivo não randomizado. Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes com queixas de tontura/vertigem através da auto-rotação cefálica ativa comparando os sintomas com as alterações encontradas. Material e método: Um grupo de 1281 pacientes com queixa de tontura/vertigem foi submetido ao teste de auto-rotação cefálica ativa horizontal com alvo fixo, como uma etapa da avaliação otoneurológica. Resultados: As idades variaram de três a 93 anos com média de 49,6 anos, sendo 946 (73,8% do sexo feminino e 335 (26,2% do sexo masculino. A queixa de vertigem foi relatada por 896 (69,9% dos pacientes e a tontura por 385 (30,1%. A faixa de freqüência de resposta à prova de auto-rotação cefálica variou de 1,5 a 7,5Hz com média de 3,5Hz. A prova de auto-rotação cefálica ativa foi normal em 937 (73,1% e alterada em 344 (26,9% dos pacientes. As alterações mais freqüentes foram as relacionadas ao ganho (aumento, redução isoladas ou associadas a alterações de fase e simetria, em 241 (19% pacientes. O aumento do ganho isolado foi verificado em 92 pacientes (7,2%. Conclusão: Não houve relação entre as alterações na prova de auto-rotação cefálica ativa horizontal e as queixas de tontura e vertigem.Introduction: Active cephalic auto-rotation is a rapid, easy, painless and comfort test, that can be done in children and evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the physiologic frequencies of head, used in the every day life (from one to four hertz. Study design: clinical retrospective not randomized. Aim: Evaluate patients with complaints of dizziness/vertigo through the active

  16. Solar Cycle Fine Structure and Surface Rotation from Ca II K-Line Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeff; Keil, Steve; Worden, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of three and a half decades of data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program yields evidence for four components to the variation: (a) the solar cycle, with considerable fine structure and a quasi-periodicity of 122.4 days; (b) a stochastic process, faster than (a) and largely independent of it, (c) a quasi-periodic signal due to rotational modulation, and of course (d) observational errors (shown to be quite small). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these chromospheric parameters. Time-frequency analysis is especially useful for extracting information about differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the connection between its behavior and fine structure of the solar cycle on approximately one-year time scales. These results further suggest that similar analyses will be useful at detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light-curves such as those being produced at NASA's Kepler observatory.

  17. Explosive Chromospheric Evaporation in a Circular-ribbon Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q M; Ning, Z J; Su, Y N; Ji, H S; Guo, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the C4.2 circular-ribbon flare in active region (AR) 12434 on 2015 October 16. The short-lived flare was associated with positive magnetic polarities and a negative polarity inside, as revealed by the photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms. Such magnetic pattern is strongly indicative of a magnetic null point and spine-fan configuration in the corona. The flare was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament residing in the AR, which produced the inner flare ribbon (IFR) and the southern part of a closed circular flare ribbon (CFR). When the eruptive filament reached the null point, it triggered null point magnetic reconnection with the ambient open field and generated the bright CFR and a blowout jet. Raster observations of the \\textit{Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph} (\\textit{IRIS}) show plasma upflow at speed of 35$-$120 km s$^{-1}$ in the Fe {\\sc xxi} 1354.09 {\\AA} line ($\\log T\\approx7.05$) and downflow at speed of 10$-$60 km s$^{-1}$ i...

  18. The Brightness Temperature of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere at 2.6 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kazumasa; Shimojo, Masumi; Asayama, Shinichiro; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; White, Stephen; Bastian, Timothy; Saito, Masao

    2017-01-01

    The absolute brightness temperature of the Sun at millimeter wavelengths is an important diagnostic of the solar chromosphere. Because the Sun is so bright, measurement of this property usually involves the operation of telescopes under extreme conditions and requires a rigorous performance assessment of the telescope. In this study, we establish solar observation and calibration techniques at 2.6 mm wavelength for the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and accurately derive the absolute solar brightness temperature. We tune the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) receiver by inducing different bias voltages onto the SIS mixer to prevent saturation. Then, we examine the linearity of the receiver system by comparing outputs derived from different tuning conditions. Furthermore, we measure the lunar filled beam efficiency of the telescope using the New Moon, and then derive the absolute brightness temperature of the Sun. The derived solar brightness temperature is 7700 ± 310 K at 115 GHz. The telescope beam pattern is modeled as a summation of three Gaussian functions and derived using the solar limb. The real shape of the Sun is determined via deconvolution of the beam pattern from the observed map. Such well-calibrated single-dish observations are important for high-resolution chromospheric studies because they provide the absolute temperature scale that is lacking from interferometer observations.

  19. Numerical simulations of chromospheric hard X-ray source sizes in solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marina; Fletcher, Lyndsay; MacKinnon, Alec L

    2012-01-01

    X-ray observations are a powerful diagnostic tool for transport, acceleration, and heating of electrons in solar flares. Height and size measurements of X-ray footpoints sources can be used to determine the chromospheric density and constrain the parameters of magnetic field convergence and electron pitch-angle evolution. We investigate the influence of the chromospheric density, magnetic mirroring and collisional pitch-angle scattering on the size of X-ray sources. The time-independent Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport is solved numerically and analytically to find the electron distribution as a function of height above the photosphere. From this distribution, the expected X-ray flux as a function of height, its peak height and full width at half maximum are calculated and compared with RHESSI observations. A purely instrumental explanation for the observed source size was ruled out by using simulated RHESSI images. We find that magnetic mirroring and collisional pitch-angle scattering tend to ch...

  20. Modeling Properties Of Chromospheric Evaporation Driven By Thermal Conduction Fronts From Reconnection Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Sean; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the corona results in contracting flare loops, releasing energy into plasma heating and shocks. These hydrodynamic shocks drive thermal conduction fronts (TCFs), which deposit energy into the chromosphere, driving upflows (evaporation) and downflows (condensation) across a range of temperatures. Observations have revealed that the transition between evaporation and condensation, the "velocity reversal point" (VRP), occurs at a characteristic temperature and with a characteristic slope, which vary between different flares. In this study, we develop a 1-D hydrodynamical flare loop model with a simplified three-region atmosphere (chromosphere / transition region (TR) / corona), with TCFs initiated by piston shocks introduced in the corona. We investigate the effect of three different flare loop parameters (post-shock temperature, TR temperature ratio, and TR thickness) on the temperature and slope of the VRP. We find that both of the evaporation characteristics have power-law relationships to the varied flare parameters, and we report the scaling exponents for our model. Finally, we develop a method to determine the best-fit post-shock temperature and TR temperature ratio based on the observed quantities, and discuss the results for two sets of published data.

  1. Dynamics of the Solar Magnetic Network. II. Heating the Magnetized Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. S.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2008-06-01

    We consider recent observations of the chromospheric network and argue that the bright network grains observed in the Ca II H and K lines are heated by an as-yet-unidentified quasi-steady process. We propose that the heating is caused by dissipation of short-period magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic flux tubes (periods less than 100 s). Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of such waves are presented. We consider wave generation in the network due to two separate processes: (1) transverse motions at the base of the flux tube and (2) the absorption of acoustic waves generated in the ambient medium. We find that the former mechanism leads to efficient heating of the chromosphere by slow magnetoacoustic waves propagating along magnetic field lines. This heating is produced by shock waves with a horizontal size of a few hundred kilometers. In contrast, acoustic waves excited in the ambient medium are converted into transverse fast modes that travel rapidly through the flux tube and do not form shocks, unless the acoustic sources are located within 100 km from the tube axis. We conclude that the magnetic network may be heated by magnetoacoustic waves that are generated in or near the flux tubes.

  2. Dynamics of the Solar Magnetic Network. II. Heating the Magnetized Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, S S

    2008-01-01

    We consider recent observations of the chromospheric network, and argue that the bright network grains observed in the Ca II H & K lines are heated by an as yet unidentified quasi-steady process. We propose that the heating is caused by dissipation of short-period magnetoacoustic waves in magnetic flux tubes (periods less than 100 s). Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of such waves are presented. We consider wave generation in the network due to two separate processes: (a) by transverse motions at the base of the flux tube; and (b) by the absorption of acoustic waves generated in the ambient medium. We find that the former mechanism leads to an efficient heating of the chromosphere by slow magnetoacoustic waves propagating along magnetic field lines. This heating is produced by shock waves with a horizontal size of a few hundred kilometers. In contrast, acoustic waves excited in the ambient medium are converted into transverse fast modes that travel rapidly through the flux tube and do not form shocks, unl...

  3. Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late K and M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rauscher, E; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rauscher, Emily

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromospheric emission lines in 147 main sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (0.30-0.55 solar masses) using multiple high resolution spectra obtained during six years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck 1 telescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and line luminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasing stellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the H and K lines with a double Gaussian model to represent both the chromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of the sample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshifted by ~0.1 km/s relative to the emission, but the nature of this velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the H and K lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of the Wilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths and FWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a given value of M_v, stars exhibi...

  4. Limits of shock heating for the chromospheres of low-gravity stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelmavla, Diaa

    2016-07-01

    This work discusses theoretical limits of chromospheric heating by shock waves in stars with low surface gravity. The computations are self consistent, and based on waves generated in stellar convection zones. We employ the new finding of the mixing length parameter α = 1.8. The Ca~II~H+K and Mg~II~h+k fluxes are computed assuming partial redistribution (PRD). The results show the strong dependence of the number of formed shocks and their transmission through the atmosphere on the value of the surface gravity. For stars with solar gravity, heating by shock waves is very efficient, this efficiency decreases with decreasing the value of G. For fixed effective temperature and solar metallicity, the temperature of the chromosphere increase with increasing the stellar surface gravity. A linear correlation is found between the surface gravity and the number of transmitted shocks. The emitted Mg~II and Ca~II fluxes show also a linear dependance on G. It has been found that there is a clear threshold value of G where no shocks are formed. The theoretically computed basal Ca~II and Mg~II fluxes follow simple formulae as a function of stellar surface gravity.

  5. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR MILLIMETER-WAVE CAVITY ORIGINATES IN THE TEMPERATURE MINIMUM REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Luz, Victor [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 (Mexico); Raulin, Jean-Pierre [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP 01302-907 (Brazil); Lara, Alejandro [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-01-10

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the local radio emission at the lower part of the solar atmosphere. To accomplish this, we have used a numerical code to simulate the emission and transport of high-frequency electromagnetic waves from 2 GHz up to 10 THz. As initial conditions, we used VALC, SEL05, and C7 solar chromospheric models. In this way, the generated synthetic spectra allow us to study the local emission and absorption processes with high resolution in both altitude and frequency. Associated with the temperature minimum predicted by these models, we found that the local optical depth at millimeter wavelengths remains constant, producing an optically thin layer that is surrounded by two layers of high local emission. We call this structure the Chromospheric Solar Millimeter-wave Cavity (CSMC). The temperature profile, which features temperature minimum layers and a subsequent temperature rise, produces the CSMC phenomenon. The CSMC shows the complexity of the relation between the theoretical temperature profile and the observed brightness temperature and may help us to understand the dispersion of the observed brightness temperature in the millimeter wavelength range.

  6. Alfv\\'en Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere: 1.5D models

    CERN Document Server

    Arber, T D; Shelyag, S

    2015-01-01

    Physical processes which may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modelling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfv\\'en waves through Pedersen resistivity. However this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfv\\'en wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfv\\'en waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative...

  7. Observational Searches for Chromospheric -Mode Oscillations from CaII H-Line Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Kariyappa; L. Damé; K. M. Hiremath

    2006-06-01

    We have used a high spatial and temporal resolution of long time sequence of spectra in CaII H-line obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) of the Sacramento Peak Observatory on a quiet region at the center of the solar disk over a large number of bright points and network elements to search for atmospheric (chromospheric) -mode oscillations. An important parameter of the H-line profile, intensity at H2V(IH2V), has been derived from a large number of line profiles. We derived the light curves of all the bright points and network elements. The light curves represent the main pulse with large intensity amplitude and followed by several follower pulses with lower intensity amplitudes. The light curves of these bright points would give an impression that one can as well draw curves towards and away from the highest peak (main pulse) showing an exponential growth and decay of the amplitudes. An exponential decaying function has been fitted for all the light curves of the bright points to determine the damping time of the modes that are more or less the same, and one value of the coefficient of exponent can represent reasonably well the decay for all the cases. The FFT analysis of temporal variation of both the bright points and the network elements indicates around 10-min periodicity. We speculate that this longer period of oscillation may be related to chromospheric -mode oscillations.

  8. Performance Characterization of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Reyann; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Champey, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket instrument currently being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), and other partners. The goal of this instrument is to observe and detect the Hanle effect in the scattered Lyman-Alpha UV (121.6nm) light emitted by the Sun's chromosphere. The polarized spectrum imaged by the CCD cameras will capture information about the local magnetic field, allowing for measurements of magnetic strength and structure. In order to make accurate measurements of this effect, the performance characteristics of the three on- board charge-coupled devices (CCDs) must meet certain requirements. These characteristics include: quantum efficiency, gain, dark current, read noise, and linearity. Each of these must meet predetermined requirements in order to achieve satisfactory performance for the mission. The cameras must be able to operate with a gain of 2.0+/- 0.5 e--/DN, a read noise level less than 25e-, a dark current level which is less than 10e-/pixel/s, and a residual non- linearity of less than 1%. Determining these characteristics involves performing a series of tests with each of the cameras in a high vacuum environment. Here we present the methods and results of each of these performance tests for the CLASP flight cameras.

  9. On fibrils and field lines: The nature of H$\\alpha$ fibrils in the solar chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaarts, Jorrit; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the solar chromosphere in the line-core of the \\Halpha\\ line show dark elongated structures called fibrils that show swaying motion. We performed a 3D radiation-MHD simulation of a network region, and computed synthetic \\Halpha\\ images from this simulation to investigate the relation between fibrils and the magnetic field lines in the chromosphere. The periods, amplitudes and phase-speeds of the synthetic fibrils are consistent with those observed. We analyse the relation between the synthetic fibrils and the field lines threading through them, and find that some fibrils trace out the same field line along the fibril's length, but there are also fibrils that sample different field lines at different locations along their length. Fibrils sample the same field lines on a time scale of $\\sim200$~s. This is shorter than their own lifetime. We analysed the evolution of the atmosphere along a number of field lines that thread through fibrils and find that they carry slow-mode waves that load mass in...

  10. Oscillatory Response of the Solar Chromosphere to a Strong Downflow above a Sunspot

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Hannah; Song, Donguk; Kim, Yeon-Han; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Madjarska, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    We report three-minute oscillations in the solar chromosphere driven by a strong downflow event in a sunspot. We used the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The strong downflow event is identified in the chromospheric and transition region lines above the sunspot umbra. After the event, oscillations occur at the same region. The amplitude of the Doppler velocity oscillations is 2 km/s, and gradually decreases with time. In addition, the period of the oscillations gradually increases from 2.7 minutes to 3.3 minutes. In the IRIS 1330 slit-jaw images, we identify a transient brightening near the footpoint of the downflow detected in the Ha+0.5A image. The characteristics of the downflowing material are consistent with those of sunspot plumes. Based on our findings, we suggest that the gravitationally stratified atmosphere came to oscillate with three minute period in response to the impulsive downflow event as was theoretically i...

  11. The chromosphere of α Cen A as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, B.; Liseau, R.; DUNES Team

    2015-05-01

    Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the heating of those layers requires the direct access to the relevant empirical data. In particular, the chromospheric temperature minimum, i.e. the region of the atmosphere where the temperature undergoes a reversal and starts increasing to reach values of the order of MK in the corona, can be observed directly in the far infrared and in the submillimetre spectral regime. In this paper we present the results of the observations obtained in those ranges of the solar twin α Cen A. Similar to the Sun, the far infrared emission of this star originates in the temperature minimum above the stellar photosphere. To our knowledge, this is the first time a temperature minimum has been directly measured on a main-sequence star other than the Sun. This contribution is a summary of the the results presented in ``α Centauri in the far infrared. First measurements of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun'' (Liseau et al 2013, A&A, 549, L7) based on results from the Herschel} Open Time Key Project DUNES and APEX/LABOCA observations.

  12. Overdamped Alfven waves due to ion-neutral collisions in the solar chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, R; Zaqarashvili, T V

    2014-01-01

    Alfvenic waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and their dissipation may play an important role in atmospheric heating. In the partially ionized solar chromosphere, collisions between ions and neutrals are an efficient dissipative mechanism for Alfven waves with frequencies near the ion-neutral collision frequency. The collision frequency is proportional to the ion-neutral collision cross section for momentum transfer. Here, we investigate Alfven wave damping as a function of height in a simplified chromospheric model and compare the results for two sets of collision cross sections, namely those of the classic hard-sphere model and those based on recent quantum-mechanical computations. We find important differences between the results for the two sets of cross sections. There is a critical interval of wavelengths for which impulsively excited Alfven waves are overdamped as a result of the strong ion-neutral dissipation. The critical wavelengths are in the range from 1 km to 50 km for the hard-sphere cr...

  13. IUE ultraviolet spectra and chromospheric models of HR 1099 and UX Arietis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T.; Linsky, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    IUE spectra in the region 1150-3200 A of the RS CVn-type variables HR 1099 and UX Arietis are presented and analyzed in terms of chromospheric models. Measurements of Mg h and k lines and Ca II H-K and H alpha spectra are indicated which are found not to be correlated with orbital phase or radio flares and which suggest that the strong emission arises in the K star rather than the G star in these systems. Under the assumption that the UV emission lines are associated with the K star, surface gravities of log g = 3.6 and 3.4 and effective temperatures of 4850 and 5000 K are adopted for HR 1099 and UX Ari, respectively, along with solar metal abundances for each. Model calculations of the chromospheric structure necessary to account for observed C(+), Mg(+), Si(+) and Si(+2) line fluxes are presented which indicate that the transition region pressure lies in the range 0.18-1.0 dynes/sq cm, implying transition regions that are more extended than that of the sun and are not conductively heated. It is noted that pressure scaling laws and the use of Mg II and C II lines as pressure diagnostics may be invalid, possibly due to atmospheric inhomogeneities or gas flows.

  14. OSCILLATION OF NEWLY FORMED LOOPS AFTER MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Fuxian Solar Observatory, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-10

    With the high spatial and temporal resolution Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we focus on two groups of loops with an X-shaped configuration in the dynamic chromosphere. We find that the anti-directed loops approach each other and reconnect continually. The connectivity of the loops is changed and new loops are formed and stack together. The stacked loops are sharply bent, implying that they are greatly impacted by the magnetic tension force. When another reconnection process takes place, one new loop is formed and stacks with the previously formed ones. Meanwhile, the stacked loops retract suddenly and move toward the balance position, performing an overshoot movement, which led to an oscillation with an average period of about 45 s. The oscillation of newly formed loops after magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere is observed for the first time. We suggest that the stability of the stacked loops is destroyed due to the attachment of the last new loop and then suddenly retract under the effect of magnetic tension. Because of the retraction, another lower loop is pushed outward and performs an oscillation with a period of about 25 s. The different oscillation periods may be due to their difference in three parameters, i.e., loop length, plasma density, and magnetic field strength.

  15. The UV and X-ray activity of the M dwarfs within 10pc of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B; Micela, G; Lopez-Santiago, J; Liefke, C

    2013-01-01

    We systematically study the X-ray and ultraviolet emission of a subsample of M dwarfs from a recent proper-motion survey, selecting all M dwarfs within 10pc to obtain a nearly volume-limited sample (~90% completeness). Archival ROSAT, XMM-Newton and GALEX data are combined with published spectroscopic studies of Halpha emission and rotation to obtain a broad picture of stellar activity on M dwarfs. We make use of synthetic model spectra to determine the relative contributions of photospheric and chromospheric emission to the ultraviolet flux. We also analyse the same diagnostics for a comparison sample of young M dwarfs in the TWHya association (~10Myrs). We find that generally the emission in the GALEX bands is dominated by the chromosphere but the photospheric component is not negligible in early-M field dwarfs. The surface fluxes for the Halpha, near-ultraviolet, far-ultraviolet and X-ray emission are connected via a power law dependence. We present here for the first time such flux-flux relations involvin...

  16. Diagnosis of magnetic and electric fields of chromospheric jets through spectropolarimetric observations of H I Paschen lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Gifu 506-1314 (Japan); Casini, R., E-mail: anan@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ichimoto@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: casini@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    Magnetic fields govern the plasma dynamics in the outer layers of the solar atmosphere, and electric fields acting on neutral atoms that move across the magnetic field enable us to study the dynamical coupling between neutrals and ions in the plasma. In order to measure the magnetic and electric fields of chromospheric jets, the full Stokes spectra of the Paschen series of neutral hydrogen in a surge and in some active region jets that took place at the solar limb were observed on 2012 May 5, using the spectropolarimeter of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida observatory, Japan. First, we inverted the Stokes spectra taking into account only the effect of magnetic fields on the energy structure and polarization of the hydrogen levels. Having found no definitive evidence of the effects of electric fields in the observed Stokes profiles, we then estimated an upper bound for these fields by calculating the polarization degree under the magnetic field configuration derived in the first step, with the additional presence of a perpendicular (Lorentz type) electric field of varying strength. The inferred direction of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky approximately aligns to the active region jets and the surge, with magnetic field strengths in the range 10 G < B < 640 G for the surge. Using magnetic field strengths of 70, 200, and 600 G, we obtained upper limits for possible electric fields of 0.04, 0.3, and 0.8 V cm{sup –1}, respectively. This upper bound is conservative, since in our modeling we neglected the possible contribution of collisional depolarization. Because the velocity of neutral atoms of hydrogen moving across the magnetic field derived from these upper limits of the Lorentz electric field is far below the bulk velocity of the plasma perpendicular to the magnetic field as measured by the Doppler shift, we conclude that the neutral atoms must be highly frozen to the magnetic field in the surge.

  17. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  18. Differentially Rotating White Dwarfs I: Regimes of Internal Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Most viable models of Type Ia supernovae (SN~Ia) require the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf that has evolved in a binary system. Rotation could be an important aspect of any model for SN~Ia, whether single or double degenerate, with the white dwarf mass at, below, or above the Chandrasekhar limit. {\\sl Differential rotation} is specifically invoked in attempts to account for the apparent excess mass in the super--Chandrasekhar events. Some earlier work has suggested that only uniform rotation is consistent with the expected mechanisms of angular momentum transport in white dwarfs, while others have found pronounced differential rotation. We show that if the baroclinic instability is active in degenerate matter and the effects of magnetic fields are neglected, both nearly-uniform and strongly-differential rotation are possible. We classify rotation regimes in terms of the Richardson number, Ri. At small values of Ri $\\leq$ 0.1, we find both the low-viscosity Zahn regime with a non-monot...

  19. Time-dependent hydrogen ionisation in 3D simulations of the solar chromosphere. Methods and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaarts, J.; Wedemeyer-Bohm, S.

    2006-01-01

    Context. The hydrogen ionisation degree deviates substantially from statistical equilibrium under the conditions of the solar chromosphere. A realistic description of this atmospheric layer thus must account for time-dependent non-equilibrium effects. Aims. Advancing the realism of numerical simulat

  20. Multi-fluid Modeling of Magnetosonic Wave Propagation in the Solar Chromosphere: Effects of Impact Ionization and Radiative Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Yana G.; Alvarez Laguna, Alejandro; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan

    2017-02-01

    In order to study chromospheric magnetosonic wave propagation including, for the first time, the effects of ion–neutral interactions in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, we have developed a new multi-fluid computational model accounting for ionization and recombination reactions in gravitationally stratified magnetized collisional media. The two-fluid model used in our 2D numerical simulations treats neutrals as a separate fluid and considers charged species (electrons and ions) within the resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskiis transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations and the solenoidality of the magnetic field is enforced with a hyperbolic divergence-cleaning scheme. The initial density and temperature profiles are similar to VAL III chromospheric model in which dynamical, thermal, and chemical equilibrium are considered to ensure comparison to existing MHD models and avoid artificial numerical heating. In this initial setup we include simple homogeneous flux tube magnetic field configuration and an external photospheric velocity driver to simulate the propagation of MHD waves in the partially ionized reactive chromosphere. In particular, we investigate the loss of chemical equilibrium and the plasma heating related to the steepening of fast magnetosonic wave fronts in the gravitationally stratified medium.

  1. Identical location transmission electron microscopy in combination with rotating disc electrode measurements. The activity of fuel cell catalysts and their degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegl, Katrin G.

    2011-07-13

    As an alternative to conventional combustion engines, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) using hydrogen as a fuel is a promising concept owing to its potential independence from fossil fuels, high efficiency and zero emissions. Concerning its commercial viability, the fundamental problem of high system cost per power output and lifetime is closely related to finding more active and stable catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. In the presented work, several methods are combined to examine the parameters and processes responsible for both activity and degradation of platinum-based catalysts. Degradation mechanisms are scrutinized by means of electrochemical measurements with the rotating disc electrode in combination with a recently developed TEM technique, which allows for the comparison of identical locations before and after accelerated stress tests. (orig.) [German] Die mit Wasserstoff betriebene Proton Exchange Membrane Brennstoffzelle (PEMFC) stellt aufgrund ihrer potentiellen Unabhaengigkeit von fossilen Energietraegern, ihrem hohen Wirkungsgrad und fehlendem Schadstoffausstoss eine vielversprechende Alternative zum konventionellen Verbrennungsmotor dar. Das grundlegende Problem der zu hohen Systemkosten und zu geringen Lebensdauer fuer kommerzielle Anwendungen ist eng mit der Entwicklung aktiverer und stabiler Elektrokatalysatoren fuer die Sauerstoffreduktion verknuepft. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden verschiedene Methoden kombiniert, um die Parameter und Prozesse zu untersuchen, welche fuer die Aktivitaet und Degradation platinbasierter Katalysatoren verantwortlich sind. Zur Aufklaerung vorliegender Degradationsmechanismen werden elektrochemische Messungen mit der rotierenden Scheibenelektrode in Kombination mit einer neu entwickelten TEM Methode eingesetzt, welche es ermoeglicht, identische Stellen vor und nach beschleunigten Degradationstests zu untersuchen.

  2. Heating of the solar middle chromosphere by large-scale electric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global resistive, two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is used to introduce and support the hypothesis that the quiet solar middle chromosphere is heated by resistive dissipation of large-scale electric currents which fill most of its volume. The scale height and maximum magnitude of the current density are 400 km and 31.3 m/sq m, respectively. The associated magnetic field is almost horizontal, has the same scale height as the current density, and has a maximum magnitude of 153 G. The current is carried by electrons flowing across magnetic field lines at 1 m/s. The resistivity is the electron contribution to the Pedersen resitivity for a weakly ionized, strongly magnetized, hydrogen gas. The model does not include a driving mechanism. Most of the physical quantities in the model decrease exponentially with time on a resistive timescale of 41.3 minutes. However, the initial values and spatial; dependence of these quantities are expected to be essentially the same as they would be if the correct driving mechanism were included in a more general model. The heating rate per unit mass is found to be 4.5 x 10(exp 9) ergs/g/s, independent of height and latitude. The electron density scale height is found to be 800 km. The model predicts that 90% of the thermal energy required to heat the middle chromosphere is deposited in the height range 300-760 km above the temperature minimum. It is shown to be consistent to assume that the radiation rate per unit volume is proportional to the magnetic energy density, and then it follows that the heating rate per unit volume is also proportional to the energy from the photosphere into the overlying chromosphere are briefly discussed as possible driving mechanisms for establishing and maintaining the current system. The case in which part of or all of the current is carried by protons and metal ions, and the contribution of electron-proton scattering to the current are also considered, with the conclusion

  3. Control of molecular rotation in the limit of extreme rotational excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Milner, V

    2015-01-01

    Laser control of molecular rotation is an area of active research. A number of recent studies has aimed at expanding the reach of rotational control to extreme, previously inaccessible rotational states, as well as controlling the directionality of molecular rotation. Dense ensembles of molecules undergoing ultrafast uni-directional rotation, known as molecular superrotors, are anticipated to exhibit unique properties, from spatially anisotropic diffusion and vortex formation to the creation of powerful acoustic waves and tuneable THz radiation. Here we describe our recent progress in controlling molecular rotation in the regime of high rotational excitation. We review two experimental techniques of producing uni-directional rotational wave packets with a "chiral train" of femtosecond pulses and an "optical centrifuge". Three complementary detection methods, enabling the direct observation, characterization and control of the superrotor states, are outlined: the one based on coherent Raman scattering, and two...

  4. Activity indicators and stellar parameters of the Kepler targets. An application of the ROTFIT pipeline to LAMOST-Kepler stellar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Frasca, A; De Cat, P; Catanzaro, G; Fu, J N; Ren, A B; Luo, A L; Shi, J R; Wu, Y; Zhang, H T

    2016-01-01

    The LAMOST-Kepler survey, whose spectra are analyzed in the present paper, is the first large spectroscopic project aimed at characterizing these sources. Our work is focused at selecting emission-line objects and chromospherically active stars and on the evaluation of the atmospheric parameters. We have used a version of the code ROTFIT that exploits a wide and homogeneous collection of real star spectra, i.e. the Indo US library. We provide a catalog with the atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]), the radial velocity (RV) and an estimate of the projected rotation velocity (vsini). For cool stars (Teff<6000 K) we have also calculated the H-alpha and CaII-IRT chromospheric fluxes. We have derived the RV and the atmospheric parameters for 61,753 spectra of 51,385 stars. Literature data for a few hundred stars have been used to do a quality control of our results. The final accuracy of RV, Teff, logg, and [Fe/H] measurements is about 14 km/s, 3.5%, 0.3 dex, and 0.2 dex, respectively. However, while the...

  5. Transition Region and Chromospheric Signatures of Impulsive Heating Events. II. Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Reep, Jeffrey W; Crump, Nicholas A; Simoes, Paulo J A

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Solar Maximum Mission showed a close connection between the hard X-ray and transition region emission in solar flares. Analogously, the modern combination of RHESSI and IRIS data can inform the details of heating processes in ways never before possible. We study a small event that was observed with RHESSI, IRIS, SDO, and Hinode, allowing us to strongly constrain the heating and hydrodynamical properties of the flare, with detailed observations presented in a previous paper. Long duration red-shifts of transition region lines observed in this event, as well as many other events, are fundamentally incompatible with chromospheric condensation on a single loop. We combine RHESSI and IRIS data to measure the energy partition among the many magnetic strands that comprise the flare. Using that observationally determined energy partition, we show that a proper multi-threaded model can reproduce these red-shifts in magnitude, duration, and line intensity, while simultaneously being well constrained by...

  6. Dynamical Processes in Flux Tubes and their Role in Chromospheric Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. S. Hasan

    2000-09-01

    We model the dynamical interaction between magnetic flux tubes and granules in the solar photosphere which leads to the excitation of transverse (kink) and longitudinal (sausage) tube waves. The investigation is motivated by the interpretation of network oscillations in terms of flux tube waves. The calculations show that for magnetic field strengths typical of the network, the energy flux in transverse waves is higher than in longitudinal waves by an order of magnitude. But for weaker fields, such as those that might be found in internetwork regions, the energy fluxes in the two modes are comparable. Using observations of footpoint motions, the energy flux in transverse waves is calculated and the implications for chromospheric heating are pointed out.

  7. The key role of solar dynamics in the chromospheric Hanle polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, E S

    2016-01-01

    The quantum theory of polarized light allows one to model scattering in the solar atmosphere for inferring its properties. This powerful approach has revealed two key long-standing problems in solar physics: the puzzling dilemmas between theory and observations in several anomalously polarized spectral lines and the need for inferring the ubiquitous weak chromospheric magnetic fields, which requires discriminating the Hanle effect in dynamic optically thick plasmas. However, the ever-present dynamics, i.e., the temporal evolution of heatings and macroscopic motions, has been widely disregarded when modeling and interpreting the scattering polarization. This has hindered a consistent theoretical solution to the puzzle while falsifying the Hanle diagnosis. Here, we show that the dynamical evolution is a keystone for solving both problems because its systematic impact allows an explanation of the observations from 'anomalous' instantaneous polarization signals. Evolution accounted for, we reproduce amplitudes an...

  8. Prevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Networks of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, H; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-01-01

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80-250 km/s from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20-80 seconds and widths of 300 km or less. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with ~20 km/s amplitudes. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~100000 K and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  9. Efficacy of an electrically active sonic toothbrush and an oscillating/rotating powered toothbrush in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis: A comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Dadlani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of an electrically active sonic toothbrush and an oscillating/rotating powered toothbrush in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Material and Methods: For this study, 40 healthy student volunteers (20 males, 20 females were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups by a second examiner; one group used a current producing sonic toothbrush and the other group used a battery powered toothbrush. Plaque Index, Modified Gingival Index and Gingival Bleeding Index were assessed at baseline, 15 th day, 30 th day, 45 th day and 60 th day. Results: All the baseline indices appeared to be well balanced. At the end of the study, reduction in plaque index, modified gingival index and gingival bleeding index were statistically highly significant during each interval for both the toothbrushes. The difference in reduction of clinical parameters between the two toothbrushes was statistically non significant. Conclusion: Both the toothbrushes used in this study were clinically effective in removing plaque and improving gingival health.

  10. Two-fluid modeling of magnetosonic wave propagation in the partially ionized solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Yana; Alvarez Laguna, Alejandro; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    We perform 2D two-fluid simulations to study the effects of ion-neutral interactions on the propagation of magnetosonic waves in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, where the number density of neutrals significantly exceeds the number density of protons at low heights. Thus modeling the neutral-ion interactions and studying the effect of neutrals on the ambient plasma properties becomes important for better understanding the observed emission lines and the propagation of disturbances from the photosphere to the transition region and the corona. The role of charged particles (electrons and ions) is combined within resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskii's transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations, allowing for propagation of higher frequency waves neglected by the standard MHD approximation. Separate mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are considered for the neutrals and the interaction between the different fluids is determined by the chemical reactions, such as impact ionization, radiative recombination and charge exchange, provided as additional source terms. To initialize the system we consider an ideal gas equation of state with equal initial temperatures for the electrons, ions and the neutrals and different density profiles. The initial temperature and density profiles are height-dependent and follow VAL C atmospheric model for the solar chromosphere. We have searched for a chemical and collisional equilibrium between the ions and the neutrals to minimize any unphysical outflows and artificial heating induced by initial pressure imbalances. Including different magnetic field profiles brings new source of plasma heating through Ohmic dissipation. The excitation and propagation of the magnetosonic waves depends on the type of the external velocity driver. As the waves propagate through the gravitationally stratified media

  11. Precision VUV Spectro-Polarimetry for Solar Chromospheric Magnetic Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Hara, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Kano, R.; Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kobiki, T.; Narukage, N.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Aoki, K.; Miyagawa, K.; Ichimoto, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchère, F.; Clasp Team

    2014-10-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a VUV spectro-polarimeter optimized for measuring the linear polarization of the Lyman-α line (121.6 nm) to be launched in 2015 with NASA's sounding rocket (Ishikawa et al. 2011; Narukage et al. 2011; Kano et al. 2012; Kobayashi et al. 2012). With this experiment, we aim to (1) observe the scattering polarization in the Lyman-α line, (2) detect the Hanle effect, and (3) assess the magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and transition region for the first time. The polarization measurement error consists of scale error δ a (error in amplitude of linear polarization), azimuth error Δφ (error in the direction of linear polarization), and spurious polarization ɛ (false linear polarization signals). The error ɛ should be suppressed below 0.1% in the Lyman-α core (121.567 nm ±0.02 nm), and 0.5% in the Lyman-α wing (121.567 nm ±0.05 nm), based on our scientific requirements shown in Table 2 of Kubo et al. (2014). From scientific justification, we adopt Δ φexercise polarization error budget, by investigating all the possible causes and their magnitudes of polarization errors, all of which are not necessarily verified by the polarization calibration. Based on these error budgets, we conclude that a polarization sensitivity of 0.1% in the line core, δ a<10% and Δ φ<2° can be achieved combined with the polarization calibration of the spectro-polarimeter and the onboard calibration at the Sun center(refer to Ishikawa et al. 2014, for the detail). We are currently conducting verification tests of the flight components and development of the UV light source for the polarization calibration. From 2014 spring, we will begin the integration, alignment, and calibration. We will update the error budgets throughout the course of these tests.

  12. The Key Role of Solar Dynamics in the Chromospheric Hanle Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, E. S.; Bianda, M.

    2016-11-01

    The quantum theory of polarized light allows one to model scattering in the solar atmosphere for inferring its properties. This powerful approach has revealed two key long-standing problems in solar physics: the puzzling dilemmas between theory and observations in several anomalously polarized spectral lines and the need for inferring the ubiquitous weak chromospheric magnetic fields, which requires discriminating the Hanle effect in dynamic optically thick plasmas. However, the ever-present dynamics, i.e., the temporal evolution of heatings and macroscopic motions, has been widely disregarded when modeling and interpreting the scattering polarization. This has hindered a consistent theoretical solution to the puzzle while falsifying the Hanle diagnosis. Here, we show that the dynamical evolution is a keystone for solving both problems because its systematic impact allows an explanation of the observations from “anomalous” instantaneous polarization signals. Evolution accounted for, we reproduce amplitudes and (spectral and spatial) shapes of the Ca i 4227 Å polarization at solar disk center, identifying a restrictive arrangement of magnetic fields, kinematics, heatings, and spatio-temporal resolution. We find that the joint action of dynamics, Hanle effect, and low temporal resolutions mimics Zeeman linear polarization profiles, the true weak-field Zeeman signals being negligible. Our results allow reinterpretation of many polarization signals of the solar spectra and support time-dependent scattering polarization as a powerful tool for deciphering the spatio-temporal distribution of chromospheric heatings and fields. This approach may be a key aid in developing the Hanle diagnosis for the solar atmosphere.

  13. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to these tendons may result in: Rotator cuff tendinitis, which is irritation and swelling of these tendons ... Brien MJ, Leggin BG, Williams GR. Rotator cuff tendinopathies and tears: surgery and therapy. In: Skirven TM, ...

  14. Spectroscopic observations of active solar-analog stars with high X-ray luminosity, as a proxy of superflare stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Namekata, Kosuke; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies of solar-type superflare stars have suggested that even old slowly rotating stars similar to the Sun can have large starspots and superflares. We conducted high-dispersion spectroscopy of 49 nearby solar-analog stars (G-type main-sequence stars with Teff ≈ 5600-6000 K) identified as ROSAT soft X-ray sources, which are not binary stars from previous studies. We expected that these stars could be used as a proxy of bright solar-analog superflare stars, since superflare stars are expected to show strong X-ray luminosity. More than half (37) of the 49 target stars show no evidence of binarity, and their atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) are within the range of ordinary solar-analog stars. We measured the intensity of Ca II 8542 and Hα lines, which are good indicators of the stellar chromospheric activity. The intensity of these lines indicates that all the target stars have large starspots. We also measured v sin i (projected rotational velocity) and lithium abundance for the target stars. Li abundance is a key to understanding the evolution of the stellar convection zone, which reflects the stellar age, mass and rotational history. We confirmed that many of the target stars rapidly rotate and have high Li abundance, compared with the Sun, as suggested by many previous studies. There are, however, also some target stars that rotate slowly (v sin i = 2-3 km s-1) and have low Li abundance like the Sun. These results support that old and slowly rotating stars similar to the Sun could have high activity levels and large starspots. This is consistent with the results of our previous studies of solar-type superflare stars. In the future, it is important to conduct long-term monitoring observations of these active solar-analog stars in order to investigate detailed properties of large starspots from the viewpoint of stellar dynamo theory.

  15. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  16. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  17. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  18. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The chromosphere is the site of weak emission lines characterizing the flash spectrum observed for a few seconds during a total eclipse. This layer of the solar atmosphere is known to possess an opaque Hα emission and a great number of spicules, which can extend well above the photosphere. A stunning variety of hydrogen emission lines have been observed in this region. The production of these lines has provided the seventeenth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A critical assessment of current and primordial helium levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47. Contrary to the gaseous solar models, the simplest mechanism for the production of emission lines is the evaporation of excited atoms from condensed surfaces existing within the chromosphere, as found in spicules. This is reminiscent of the chemiluminescence which occurs during the condensation of silver clusters (Konig L., Rabin I., Schultze W., and Ertl G. Chemiluminescence in the Agglomeration of Metal Clusters. Science, v. 274, no. 5291, 1353–1355. The process associated with spicule formation is an exothermic one, requiring the transport of energy away from the site of condensation. As atoms leave localized surfaces, their electrons can occupy any energy level and, hence, a wide variety of emission lines are produced. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the presence of hydrides on the Sun can also facilitate hydrogen condensation in the chromosphere. The associated line emission from main group and transition elements constitutes the thirtieth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter. Condensation processes also help to explain why spicules manifest an apparently constant temperature over their entire length. Since the corona supports magnetic field lines, the random orientations associated with spicule formation suggests that the hydrogen condensates in the chromosphere are not metallic in

  19. Measuring stellar rotation periods with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, M B; Schunker, H; Karoff, C

    2015-01-01

    We measure rotation periods for 12151 stars in the Kepler field, based on the photometric variability caused by stellar activity. Our analysis returns stable rotation periods over at least six out of eight quarters of Kepler data. This large sample of stars enables us to study the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. We find good agreement with previous studies and vsini measurements for F, G and K stars. Combining rotation periods, B-V color, and gyrochronology relations, we find that the cool stars in our sample are predominantly younger than ~1Gyr.

  20. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...... to identify the specific tissue region under study. In order to use the spatial rotator in practice, however, it is necessary to be able to identify intersection points between cell boundaries and test rays in a series of parallel focal planes, also at the peripheral parts of the cell boundaries. In cases...

  1. Rotational Mixing and Lithium Depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsonneault, M H

    2010-01-01

    I review basic observational features in Population I stars which strongly implicate rotation as a mixing agent; these include dispersion at fixed temperature in coeval populations and main sequence lithium depletion for a range of masses at a rate which decays with time. New developments related to the possible suppression of mixing at late ages, close binary mergers and their lithium signature, and an alternate origin for dispersion in young cool stars tied to radius anomalies observed in active young stars are discussed. I highlight uncertainties in models of Population II lithium depletion and dispersion related to the treatment of angular momentum loss. Finally, the origins of rotation are tied to conditions in the pre-main sequence, and there is thus some evidence that enviroment and planet formation could impact stellar rotational properties. This may be related to recent observational evidence for cluster to cluster variations in lithium depletion and a connection between the presence of planets and s...

  2. Semi-empirical Modeling of the Photosphere, Chromosphere, Transition Region, and Corona of the M-dwarf Host Star GJ 832

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Witbrod, Jesse; France, Kevin; Buccino, A.; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2016-10-01

    Stellar radiation from X-rays to the visible provides the energy that controls the photochemistry and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. The important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region (10-91.2 nm) is inaccessible and should be computed from a reliable stellar model. It is essential to understand the formation regions and physical processes responsible for the various stellar emission features to predict how the spectral energy distribution varies with age and activity levels. We compute a state-of-the-art semi-empirical atmospheric model and the emergent high-resolution synthetic spectrum of the moderately active M2 V star GJ 832 as the first of a series of models for stars with different activity levels. We construct a one-dimensional simple model for the physical structure of the star’s chromosphere, chromosphere-corona transition region, and corona using non-LTE radiative transfer techniques and many molecular lines. The synthesized spectrum for this model fits the continuum and lines across the UV-to-optical spectrum. Particular emphasis is given to the emission lines at wavelengths that are shorter than 300 nm observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, which have important effects on the photochemistry of the exoplanet atmospheres. The FUV line ratios indicate that the transition region of GJ 832 is more biased to hotter material than that of the quiet Sun. The excellent agreement of our computed EUV luminosity with that obtained by two other techniques indicates that our model predicts reliable EUV emission from GJ 832. We find that the unobserved EUV flux of GJ 832, which heats the outer atmospheres of exoplanets and drives their mass loss, is comparable to the active Sun. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS AR-09525.01A. These observations

  3. Predictors of human rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  4. Simulations of the Mg II k and Ca II 8542 lines from an AlfvÉn Wave-heated Flare Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Graham S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay.; Russell, Alexander J. B.; Allred, Joel C.

    2016-08-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfvén wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg ii k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca ii 8542 Å profiles that are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg ii k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations. The predicted differences between the Ca ii 8542 Å in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating in flares.

  5. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Kinahan, Sean; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Santarpia, Joshua L.

    2015-03-01

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometer (UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor.

  6. The solar interface from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona : contribution of eclipses and EUV filtergrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bazin, Cyrille

    2013-01-01

    Eclipses are very favourable for the photosphere- chromosphere and corona interface observation as the occultation takes place in space, free of parasitic light coming from the occulting disk (the Moon). Independently, EUV filtergrams of the limb region obtained in space were analyzed using one dimensional hydrostatic VAL models but this method ignores the ubiquitous magnetic field emergence phenomenon associated with the chromospheric network. A jump of temperature from 0.01 to 1 MK is observed near the 2 Mm heights and higher, further producing a permanent solar wind flow. The heating processes responsible for this temperature jump and for the flow are not yet fully understood. In this thesis, we reconsider these problems with new high cadence CCD flash spectra, white light (W-L) eclipse images and new EUV images obtained with space-borne instruments. We illustrate the mechanisms of low First Ionisation Potential (FIP) emission lines present in the low layers of the solar atmosphere, and nearby prominences....

  7. Evidence for collisional depolarization of the \\ion{Ba}{ii} ${\\lambda}4554$ line in the low chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Derouich, M

    2008-01-01

    Context. Rigorous modeling of the \\ion{Ba}{ii} ${\\lambda}4554$ formation is potentially interesting since this strongly polarized line forms in the solar chromosphere where the magnetic field is rather poorly known. Aims. To investigate the role of isotropic collisions with neutral hydrogen in the formation of the polarized \\ion{Ba}{ii} ${\\lambda}4554$ line and, thus, in the determination of the magnetic field. Methods. Multipole relaxation and transfer rates of the $d$ and p-states of \\ion{Ba}{ii} by isotropic collisions with neutral hydrogen are calculated. We consider a plane parallel layer of \\ion{Ba}{ii} situated at the low chromosphere and anisotropically illuminated from below which produces linear polarization in the ${\\lambda}4554$ line by scattering processes. To compute that polarization, we solve the statistical equilibrium equations for \\ion{Ba}{ii} levels including collisions, radiation and magnetic field effects. Results. Variation laws of the relaxation and transfer rates with hydrogen number ...

  8. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2004-01-01

    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  9. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION, CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY, AND STAR-PLANET INTERACTIONS IN THE WASP-12 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haswell, C. A.; Fossati, L.; Holmes, S.; Kolb, U. C.; Busuttil, R.; Carter, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ayres, T.; France, K.; Froning, C. S. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Street, R. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hebb, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cameron, A. Collier; Enoch, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Burwitz, V. [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rodriguez, J. [Observatori Astronomic de Mallorca, Cami de l' Observatori, E-07144 Costitx, Mallorca (Spain); West, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J., E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: cynthia.froning@colorado.edu, E-mail: leslie.hebb@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Extended gas clouds have been previously detected surrounding the brightest known close-in transiting hot Jupiter exoplanets, HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b; we observed the distant but more extreme close-in hot Jupiter system, WASP-12, with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Near-UV (NUV) transits up to three times deeper than the optical transit of WASP-12 b reveal extensive diffuse gas, extending well beyond the Roche lobe. The distribution of absorbing gas varies between visits. The deepest NUV transits are at wavelength ranges with strong stellar photospheric absorption, implying that the absorbing gas may have temperature and composition similar to those of the stellar photosphere. Our spectra reveal significantly enhanced absorption (greater than 3{sigma} below the median) at {approx}200 individual wavelengths on each of two HST visits; 65 of these wavelengths are consistent between the two visits, using a strict criterion for velocity matching that excludes matches with velocity shifts exceeding {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. Excess transit depths are robustly detected throughout the inner wings of the Mg II resonance lines independently on both HST visits. We detected absorption in Fe II {lambda}2586, the heaviest species yet detected in an exoplanet transit. The Mg II line cores have zero flux, emission cores exhibited by every other observed star of similar age and spectral type are conspicuously absent. WASP-12 probably produces normal Mg II profiles, but the inner portions of these strong resonance lines are likely affected by extrinsic absorption. The required Mg{sup +} column is an order of magnitude greater than expected from the interstellar medium, though we cannot completely dismiss that possibility. A more plausible source of absorption is gas lost by WASP-12 b. We show that planetary mass loss can produce the required column. Our Visit 2 NUV light curves show evidence for a stellar flare. We show that some of the possible transit detections in resonance lines of rare elements may be due instead to non-resonant transitions in common species. We present optical observations and update the transit ephemeris.

  10. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  11. Formation and Eruption of a Small Flux Rope in the Chromosphere Observed by NST, IRIS, and SDO

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pankaj; Wang, Haimin; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution images from 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), we report the direct evidence of chromospheric reconnection at the polarity inversion line (PIL) between two small opposite polarity sunspots. Small jet-like structures (with velocities of ~20-55 km/s) were observed at the reconnection site before the onset of the first M1.0 flare. The slow rise of untwisting jets was followed by the onset of cool plasma inflow (~10 km/s) at the reconnection site, causing the onset of a two-ribbon flare. The reconnection between two sheared J-shaped cool H$\\alpha$ loops causes the formation of a small twisted flux rope (S shaped) in the chromosphere. In addition, Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms show the flux cancellation (both positive and negative) during the first M1.0 flare. The emergence of negative flux and cancellation of positive flux (with shear flows) continue until the successful eruption of the flux rope. The newly formed chromospheric flux ro...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  13. Analysis of coronal and chromospheric hard X-ray sources in an eruptive solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimovets, Ivan; Golovin, Dmitry; Livshits, Moisey; Vybornov, Vadim; Sadykov, Viacheslav; Mitrofanov, Igor

    We have analyzed hard X-ray emission of an eruptive solar flare on 3 November 2010. The entire flare region was observed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. This gave us an information that chromospheric footpoints of flare magnetic loops were behind the east solar limb for an earth observer. Hard X-ray emission from the entire flare region was detected by the High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft while hard X-rays from the coronal part of the flare region were detected by the RHESSI. This rare situation has allowed us to investigate both coronal and chromospheric sources of hard X-ray emission separately. Flare impulsive phase was accompanied by eruption of a magnetic flux rope and formation of a plasmoid detected by the AIA/SDO in the EUV range. Two coronal hard X-ray sources (S_{1} and S_{2}) were detected by the RHESSI. The upper source S_{1} coincided with the plasmoid and the lower source S_{2} was near the tops of the underlying flare loops that is in accordance with the standard model of eruptive flares. Imaging spectroscopy with the RHESSI has allowed to measure energetic spectra of hard X-ray emission from the S_{1} and S_{2} sources. At the impulsive phase peak they have power-law shape above ≈ 15 keV with spectral slopes gamma_{S_{1}}=3.46 ± 1.58 and gamma_{S_{2}}=4.64 ± 0.12. Subtracting spatially integrated spectrum of coronal hard X-ray emission measured by the RHESSI from the spectrum measured by the HEND we found spectrum of hard X-rays emitted from the footpoints of the flare loops (source S_{0}). This spectrum has a power-law shape with gamma_{S_{0}}=2.21 ± 0.57. It is shown that it is not possible to explain the measured spectra of the S_{2} and S_{0} sources in frames of the thin and thick target models respectively if we assume that electrons were accelerated in the energy release site situated below the plasmoid and above the flare loops as suggested by the standard flare model. To resolve the contradiction

  14. Relativistic Rotating Vector Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.

  15. The ultracool dwarf DENIS-P J104814.7-395606. Chromospheres and coronae at the low-mass end of the main-sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B; Biazzo, K; Ercolano, B; Crespo-Chacon, I; Lopez-Santiago, J; Martinez-Arnaiz, R; Schmitt, J H M M; Rigliaco, E; Leone, F; Cupani, G

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained an XMM-Newton observation and a broad-band spectrum from the ultraviolet to the near infrared with X-Shooter for one of the nearest M9 dwarfs, DENIS-P J1048-3956 (4pc). We integrate these data by a compilation of activity parameters for ultracool dwarfs from the literature with the aim to advance our understanding of these objects by comparing them to early-M type dwarf stars and the Sun. Our deep XMM-Newton observation has led to the first X-ray detection of DENIS-P J1048-3956 (log Lx = 25.1) as well as the first measurement of its V band brightness (V = 17.35mag). Flux-flux relations between X-ray and chromospheric activity indicators are here for the first time extended into the regime of the ultracool dwarfs. The approximate agreement of DENIS-P J1048-3956 and other ultracool dwarfs with flux-flux relations for early-M dwarfs suggests that the same heating mechanisms work in the atmospheres of ultracool dwarfs, albeit weaker as judged from their lower fluxes. The observed Balmer decrement...

  16. Multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a small-scale emerging magnetic flux event and the chromospheric and coronal response

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented resolution. Observations with the 1.6m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's IRIS mission, the NST observed active region NOAA 11810 in photospheric and chromospheric wavelengths. Complimentary data are provided by SDO and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing abnormal granulation and interacting with the pre-existing ambient field in upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the HeI data. IRIS catched ejection of a hot plasma jet...

  17. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  18. Solar granulation from photosphere to low chromosphere observed in BaII 4554 A line

    CERN Document Server

    Kostik, R; Shchukina, N

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the statistical properties of solar granulation in the photosphere and low chromosphere up to 650 km. We use velocity and intensity variations obtained at different atmospheric heights from observations in BaII 4554 A. The observations were done during good seeing conditions at the VTT at the Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The line core forms rather high in the atmosphere and allows granulation properties to be studied at heights that have been not accessed before in similar studies. In addition, we analyze the synthetic profiles of the BaII 4554 A line by the same method computed taking NLTE effects into account in the 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere. We suggest a 16-column model of solar granulation depending on the direction of motion and on the intensity contrast measured in the continuum and in the uppermost layer. We calculate the heights of intensity contrast sign reversal and velocity sign reversal. We show that both parameters depend strongly on th...

  19. How important are electron beams in driving chromospheric evaporation in the 2014 March 29 flare?

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marina; Krucker, Säm; Graham, David

    2015-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution observations of chromospheric evaporation in the flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48. Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) observations of the FeXXI 1354.1 A line indicate evaporating plasma at a temperature of 10 MK along the flare ribbon during the flare peak and several minutes into the decay phase with upflow velocities between 30 km s$^{-1}$ and 200 km s$^{-1}$. Hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints were observed by RHESSI for two minutes during the peak of the flare. Their locations coincided with the locations of the upflows in parts of the southern flare ribbon but the HXR footpoint source preceded the observation of upflows in FeXXI by 30-75 seconds. However, in other parts of the southern ribbon and in the northern ribbon the observed upflows were not coincident with a HXR source in time nor space, most prominently during the decay phase. In this case evaporation is likely caused by energy input via a conductive flux that is established between the hot (25 MK) coronal source, ...

  20. The Chromospheric Solar Limb Brightening at Radio, Millimeter, Sub-millimeter, and Infrared Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    De la Luz, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the auto-consistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and the C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz, at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H-. In order to solve the radiative transfer equation a 3D geometry was employed to determine the ray paths and Bremsstrahlung, H-, and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark (1994). We found that there are differences between observed and computed solar radii of ...

  1. Chromospheric Condensation and Quasi-periodic Pulsations in a Circular-ribbon Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q M; Ning, Z J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the C3.1 circular-ribbon flare SOL2015-10-16T10:20 in AR 12434. The flare consisted of a circular flare ribbon (CFR), an inner flare ribbon (IFR) inside, and a pair of short parallel flare ribbons (PFRs). During the impulsive phase of the flare, "two-step" raster observations of \\textit{IRIS} with a cadence of 6 s and an exposure time of 2 s show plasma downflow at the CFR in the Si {\\sc iv} $\\lambda$1402.77 line, suggesting chromospheric condensation. The downflow speeds first increased rapidly from a few km s$^{-1}$ to the peak values of 45$-$52 km s$^{-1}$, before decreasing gradually to the initial levels. The decay timescales of condensation were 3$-$4 minutes, indicating ongoing magnetic reconnection. Interestingly, the downflow speeds are positively correlated with logarithm of the Si {\\sc iv} line intensity and time derivative of the \\textit{GOES} soft X-ray (SXR) flux in 1$-$8 {\\AA}. The radio dynamic spectra are characterized by a type \\Rm...

  2. Time-dependent hydrogen ionisation in the solar chromosphere. I: Methods and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer-Boehm, J L S

    2006-01-01

    An approximate method for solving the rate equations for the hydrogen populations was extended and implemented in the three-dimensional radiation (magneto-)hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. The method is based on a model atom with six energy levels and fixed radiative rates. It has been tested extensively in one-dimensional simulations. The extended method has been used to create a three-dimensional model that extends from the upper convection zone to the chromosphere. The ionisation degree of hydrogen in our time-dependent simulation is comparable to the corresponding equilibrium value up to 500 km above optical depth unity. Above this height, the non-equilibrium ionisation degree is fairly constant over time and space, and tends to be at a value set by hot propagating shock waves. The hydrogen level populations and electron density are much more constant than the corresponding values for statistical equilibrium, too. In contrast, the equilibrium ionisation degree varies by more than 20 orders of magnitude between...

  3. Modelling chromospheric line profiles as diagnostics of velocity fields in {\\omega} Centauri red giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vieytes, M; Cacciari, C; Origlia, L; Pancino, E

    2010-01-01

    Context. Mass loss of ~0.1-0.3 M$_{\\odot}$ from Population II red giant stars (RGB) is a requirement of stellar evolution theory in order to account for several observational evidences in globular clusters. Aims. The aim of this study is to detect the presence of outward velocity fields, which are indicative of mass outflow, in six luminous red giant stars of the stellar cluster {\\omega} Cen. Methods. We compare synthetic line profiles computed using relevant model chromospheres to observed profiles of the H{\\alpha} and Ca II K lines. The spectra were taken with UVES (R=45,000) and the stars were selected so that three of them belong to the metal-rich population and three to the metal-poor population, and sample as far down as 1 to 2.5 magnitudes fainter than the respective RGB tips. Results. We do indeed reveal the presence of low-velocity outward motions in four of our six targets, without any apparent correlation with astrophysical parameters. Conclusions. This provides direct evidence that outward velocit...

  4. Chromospheric Rapid Blueshifted Excursions Observed with IBIS and Their Association with Photospheric Magnetic Field Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Na; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin P; Lamb, Derek A; Deforest, Craig E; Denker, Carsten; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Rui; Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    Chromospheric rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) are suggested to be the disk counterparts of type II spicules at the limb and believed to contribute to the coronal heating process. Previous identification of RBEs was mainly based on feature detection using Dopplergrams. In this paper, we study RBEs on 2011 October 21 in a very quiet region at the disk center, which were observed with the high-cadence imaging spectroscopy of the Ca II 8542 A line from the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS). By using an automatic spectral analysis algorithm, a total of 98 RBEs are identified during a 11 minute period. Most of these RBEs have either a round or elongated shape, with an average area of 1.2 arcsec^2. The detailed temporal evolution of spectra from IBIS makes possible a quantitative determination of the velocity (~16 km/s) and acceleration (~400 m/s^2) of Ca II 8542 RBEs, and reveal an additional deceleration (~-160 m/s^2) phase that usually follows the initial acceleration. In addition, we also inv...

  5. The energy of waves in the photosphere and lower chromosphere: 1. Velocity statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Rezaei, R; Collados, M

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic waves are one of the primary suspects besides magnetic fields for the chromospheric heating process to temperatures above radiative equilibrium (RE). We derived the mechanical wave energy as seen in line-core velocities to obtain a measure of mechanical energy flux with height for a comparison with the energy requirements in a semi-empirical atmosphere model. We analyzed a 1-hour time series and a large-area map of Ca II H spectra on the traces of propagating waves. We analyzed the velocity statistics of several spectral lines in the wing of Ca II H, and the line-core velocity of Ca II H. We converted the velocity amplitudes into volume and mass energy densities. For comparison, we used the increase of internal energy necessary to lift a RE atmosphere to the HSRA temperature stratification. We find that the velocity amplitude grows in agreement with linear wave theory and thus slower with height than predicted from energy conservation. The mechanical energy of the waves above around z~500 km is insuf...

  6. Generation of electric currents in the chromosphere via neutral-ion drag

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnoselskikh, V; Hudson, H S; Bale, S D; Abbett, W P; 10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1542

    2010-01-01

    We consider the generation of electric currents in the solar chromosphere where the ionization level is typically low. We show that ambient electrons become magnetized even for weak magnetic fields (30 G); that is, their gyrofrequency becomes larger than the collision frequency while ion motions continue to be dominated by ion-neutral collisions. Under such conditions, ions are dragged by neutrals, and the magnetic field acts as if it is frozen-in to the dynamics of the neutral gas. However, magnetized electrons drift under the action of the electric and magnetic fields induced in the reference frame of ions moving with the neutral gas. We find that this relative motion of electrons and ions results in the generation of quite intense electric currents. The dissipation of these currents leads to resistive electron heating and efficient gas ionization. Ionization by electron-neutral impact does not alter the dynamics of the heavy particles; thus, the gas turbulent motions continue even when the plasma becomes f...

  7. Transition Region and Chromospheric Signatures of Impulsive Heating Events. I. Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Harry P; Crump, Nicholas A; Simoes, Paulo J A

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the response of the transition region and chromosphere to energy deposition during a small flare. Simultaneous observations from RHESSI provide constraints on the energetic electrons precipitating into the flare footpoints while observations of XRT, AIA, and EIS allow us to measure the temperatures and emission measures from the resulting flare loops. We find clear evidence for heating over an extended period on the spatial scale of a single IRIS pixel. During the impulsive phase of this event the intensities in each pixel for the Si IV 1402.770, C II 1334.535, Mg II 2796.354 and O I 1355.598 emission lines are characterized by numerous, small-scale bursts typically lasting 60s or less. Red shifts are observed in Si IV, C II, and Mg II during the impulsive phase. Mg II shows red-shifts during the bursts and stationary emission at other times. The Si IV and C II profiles, in contrast, are ...

  8. Systematic radial flows in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona of the quiet sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Rottman, Gary J.; Orrall, Frank Q.

    1991-05-01

    An observational study of the systematic radial flows representative of the quiet sun's chromosphere, transition region, and corona is presented. A sounding rocket experiment (July 27, 1987) obtained high-resolution EUV spectra along a solar diameter with spatial resolution of 20 x 20 arcsec. The center-to-limb behavior of four representative lines (Si II 1533 A, Fe II 1563 A, C IV 1548 A, Ne VIII 770 A formed at different heights in the solar atmosphere is discussed. Assuming that horizontal motions cancel statistically so that the line-of-sight velocity approaches zero at the limb, the net radial downflow is approximately 7.5 + or - 1.0 km/s for C IV, 2.7 + or - 1.5 km/s for Fe II 1563 A, and upper limits of 0 + or - 1.2 km/s and 0 + or - 4 km/s for Si II and Ne VIII, respectively. The absolute wavelengths of each emission line were determined by direct comparison with wavelengths of known platinum lines generated by an inflight calibration lamp. The assumption of line-of-sight velocity approaching zero at the limb is then tested by comparing the wavelengths with recently published laboratory rest wavelengths of the solar emission lines.

  9. IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K.; Raymond, John C.; Chen, Bin; Murphy, Nicholas A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Liu, Wei, E-mail: hui.tian@cfa.harvard.edu [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfvén speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. With observations of the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we report the detection of a greatly redshifted (∼125 km s{sup –1} along the line of sight) Fe XXI 1354.08 Å emission line with a ∼100 km s{sup –1} nonthermal width at the reconnection site of a flare. The redshifted Fe XXI feature coincides spatially with the loop-top X-ray source observed by RHESSI. We interpret this large redshift as the signature of downward-moving reconnection outflow/hot retracting loops. Imaging observations from both IRIS and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory also reveal the eruption and reconnection processes. Fast downward-propagating blobs along these loops are also found from cool emission lines (e.g., Si IV, O IV, C II, Mg II) and images of AIA and IRIS. Furthermore, the entire Fe XXI line is blueshifted by ∼260 km s{sup –1} at the loop footpoints, where the cool lines mentioned above all exhibit obvious redshift, a result that is consistent with the scenario of chromospheric evaporation induced by downward-propagating nonthermal electrons from the reconnection site.

  10. Magnetic Diagnostics of the Chromosphere with the Mg II h-k Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Alemán, Tanausú del Pino; Sainz, Rafael Manso

    2016-01-01

    We developed a numerical code for polarized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel geometry that implements a recent formulation of partially coherent scattering by polarized multi-term atoms in arbitrary magnetic field regimes. This code allows the realistic modeling of the scattering polarization of important chromospheric lines, such as the Mg II h-k doublet, the Ca II H-K doublet and IR triplet, and lines of the H I Lyman and Balmer series. We present explicit results of the Mg II h-k doublet in a weakly magnetized atmosphere (20-100 G). These confirm the importance of partial redistribution effects in the formation of these lines, as pointed out by previous work in the non-magnetic case. We show that the presence of a magnetic field can produce measurable modifications of the broadband linear polarization even for relatively small field strengths (~10 G), while the circular polarization remains well represented by the classical magnetograph formula. Both these results open an important new window for the...

  11. Chromospheric Magnetic Reconnection caused by Photospheric Flux Emergence: Implications for Jet-like Events Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J Y; Doyle, J G; Lu, Q M

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the low atmosphere, e.g. chromosphere, is investigated in various physical environments. Its implications for the origination of explosive events (small--scale jets) are discussed. A 2.5-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in Cartesian coordinates is used. It is found that the temperature and velocity of the outflow jets as a result of magnetic reconnection are strongly dependent on the physical environments, e.g. the magnitude of the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. If the magnetic field strength is weak and the density is high, the temperature of the jets is very low (~10,000 K) as well as its velocity (~40 km/s). However, if environments with stronger magnetic field strength (20 G) and smaller density (electron density Ne=2x10^{10} cm^{-3}) are considered, the outflow jets reach higher temperatures of up to 600,000 K and a line-of-sight velocity of up to 130 km/s which is comparable with the observational values of jet-like events.

  12. Magneto-seismological insights into the penumbral chromosphere and evidence for wave damping in spicules

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J

    2014-01-01

    The observation of propagating magneto-hydrodynamic kink waves in magnetic structures and measurement of their properties (amplitude, phase speed) can be used to diagnose the plasma conditions in the neighbourhood of the magnetic structure via magneto-seismology (MS). We aim to reveal properties of the chromosphere/Transition Region above the sunspot penumbra using this technique. Hinode observed a sunspot as it was crossing the limb, providing a unique side on view of the sunspot atmosphere. The presence of large spicule-like jets is evident in \\ion{Ca}{II} H images. The jets are found to support transverse wave motions that displace the central axis, which can be interpreted as a kink wave. The properties of a wave event are measured and used to determine the magnetic and density stratification along the structure. We also measure the width of the spicule and the intensity profile along the structure. The measured wave properties reveal an initial rapid increase in amplitude with height above the solar surf...

  13. Radio Coverage from Chromosphere to Earth: FASR-LOFAR-SIRA Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, D. E.; Kassim, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Radio emission is uniquely sensitive to a number of key plasma parameters (magnetic field, temperature, density, high-energy electrons, and various plasma waves) over heights ranging without gaps from the chromosphere, throughout the corona and heliosphere, to the Earth. Two ground-based radio arrays, the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), together with the space-based Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA) are planned that will for the first time provide direct imaging of disturbances over this vast height range through interferometric imaging over their equally impressive frequency range of 24 GHz to 30 kHz. We describe the science goals of these instruments, focusing especially on the science addressed jointly by all three instruments. Among the examples are (1) simultaneous imaging of CMEs, flaring loops, and shock-associated (type II) emission and (2) imaging the propagation of electrons on open field lines (type III), from their acceleration point through the corona and heliosphere to the point where they are measured in situ by near-Earth spacecraft. In addition to spatially relating the different phenomena, the spectral information is rich in quantitative diagnostics. We give some examples of the revolutionary results we can expect from the combined instruments.

  14. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  15. The Factory and The Beehive I. Rotation Periods For Low-Mass Stars in Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Agüeros, Marcel; Lemonias, Jenna; Law, Nicholas; Kraus, Adam; Batalha, Natasha; Bloom, Joshua; Cenko, S Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Stellar rotation periods measured from single-age populations are critical for investigating how stellar angular momentum content evolves over time, how that evolution depends on mass, and how rotation influences the stellar dynamo and the magnetically heated chromosphere and corona. We report rotation periods for 40 late-K to mid-M stars members of the nearby, rich, intermediate-age (~600 Myr) open cluster Praesepe. These rotation periods were derived from ~200 observations taken by the Palomar Transient Factory of four cluster fields from 2010 February to May. Our measurements indicate that Praesepe's mass-period relation transitions from a well-defined singular relation to a more scattered distribution of both fast and slow rotators at ~0.6 Msun. The location of this transition is broadly consistent with expectations based on observations of younger clusters and the assumption that stellar-spin down is the dominant mechanism influencing angular momentum evolution at 600 Myr. However, a comparison to data r...

  16. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  17. Faraday rotation measure synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brentjens, MA; de Bruyn, AG

    2005-01-01

    We extend the rotation measure work of Burn ( 1966, MNRAS, 133, 67) to the cases of limited sampling of lambda(2) space and non-constant emission spectra. We introduce the rotation measure transfer function (RMTF), which is an excellent predictor of n pi ambiguity problems with the lambda(2) coverag

  18. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  19. A Rotating Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenci, V A

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which mapping we have to use to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a "Lorentz-like" coordinate transformation we obtain that creation-anihilation operators of a massless scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state (a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. After this, introducing an apparatus device coupled linearly with the field we obtain that there is a strong correlation between number of rotating particles (in a given state) obtained via canonical quantization and via response function of the rotating detector. Finally, we analyse polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view.

  20. Uniformly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...