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Sample records for chromosomes involving translocations

  1. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Rapid Karyotype Evolution in Lasiopodomys Involved at Least Two Autosome – Sex Chromosome Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Serdyukova, Natalya A.; O’Brien, Patricia C. M.; Kovalskaya, Julia M.; Smorkatcheva, Antonina V.; Golenishchev, Feodor N.; Perelman, Polina L.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The generic status of Lasiopodomys and its division into subgenera Lasiopodomys (L. mandarinus, L. brandtii) and Stenocranius (L. gregalis, L. raddei) are not generally accepted because of contradictions between the morphological and molecular data. To obtain cytogenetic evidence for the Lasiopodomys genus and its subgenera and to test the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis of sex chromosome complex origin in L. mandarinus proposed previously, we hybridized chromosome painting probes from the field vole (Microtus agrestis, MAG) and the Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus, DTO) onto the metaphases of a female Mandarin vole (L. mandarinus, 2n = 47) and a male Brandt's vole (L. brandtii, 2n = 34). In addition, we hybridized Arctic lemming painting probes onto chromosomes of a female narrow-headed vole (L. gregalis, 2n = 36). Cross-species painting revealed three cytogenetic signatures (MAG12/18, 17a/19, and 22/24) that could validate the genus Lasiopodomys and indicate the evolutionary affinity of L. gregalis to the genus. Moreover, all three species retained the associations MAG1bc/17b and 2/8a detected previously in karyotypes of all arvicolins studied. The associations MAG2a/8a/19b, 8b/21, 9b/23, 11/13b, 12b/18, 17a/19a, and 5 fissions of ancestral segments appear to be characteristic for the subgenus Lasiopodomys. We also validated the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis on the origin of complex sex chromosomes in L. mandarinus. Two translocations of autosomes onto the ancestral X chromosome in L. mandarinus led to a complex of neo-X1, neo-X2, and neo-X3 elements. Our results demonstrate that genus Lasiopodomys represents a striking example of rapid chromosome evolution involving both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Multiple reshuffling events including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fissions, inversions and heterochromatin expansion have led to the formation of modern species karyotypes in a very short time, about 2.4 MY. PMID

  3. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

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    F. Malvestiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9 may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement.

  4. Rapid Karyotype Evolution in Lasiopodomys Involved at Least Two Autosome - Sex Chromosome Translocations.

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    Olga L Gladkikh

    Full Text Available The generic status of Lasiopodomys and its division into subgenera Lasiopodomys (L. mandarinus, L. brandtii and Stenocranius (L. gregalis, L. raddei are not generally accepted because of contradictions between the morphological and molecular data. To obtain cytogenetic evidence for the Lasiopodomys genus and its subgenera and to test the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis of sex chromosome complex origin in L. mandarinus proposed previously, we hybridized chromosome painting probes from the field vole (Microtus agrestis, MAG and the Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus, DTO onto the metaphases of a female Mandarin vole (L. mandarinus, 2n = 47 and a male Brandt's vole (L. brandtii, 2n = 34. In addition, we hybridized Arctic lemming painting probes onto chromosomes of a female narrow-headed vole (L. gregalis, 2n = 36. Cross-species painting revealed three cytogenetic signatures (MAG12/18, 17a/19, and 22/24 that could validate the genus Lasiopodomys and indicate the evolutionary affinity of L. gregalis to the genus. Moreover, all three species retained the associations MAG1bc/17b and 2/8a detected previously in karyotypes of all arvicolins studied. The associations MAG2a/8a/19b, 8b/21, 9b/23, 11/13b, 12b/18, 17a/19a, and 5 fissions of ancestral segments appear to be characteristic for the subgenus Lasiopodomys. We also validated the autosome to sex chromosome translocation hypothesis on the origin of complex sex chromosomes in L. mandarinus. Two translocations of autosomes onto the ancestral X chromosome in L. mandarinus led to a complex of neo-X1, neo-X2, and neo-X3 elements. Our results demonstrate that genus Lasiopodomys represents a striking example of rapid chromosome evolution involving both autosomes and sex chromosomes. Multiple reshuffling events including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fissions, inversions and heterochromatin expansion have led to the formation of modern species karyotypes in a very short time, about

  5. The c-myc oncogene is translocated to the involved chromosome 12 in mouse plasmacytoma.

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    Erikson, J; Miller, D A; Miller, O J; Abcarian, P W; Skurla, R M; Mushinski, J F; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    Although it is known that the c-myc oncogene is rearranged in a head-to-head fashion with the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in mouse plasmacytomas, it has not been clear whether the c-myc oncogene is translocated to the heavy chain locus on mouse chromosome 12 or whether the heavy chain locus is translocated to the c-myc locus on mouse chromosome 15. To determine which of these two possibilities is correct, we hybridized Chinese hamster fibroblasts with J558 mouse plasmacytoma cells that carry a reciprocal chromosome translocation between chromosomes 12 and 15, and we examined the segregating hybrids for the presence of the normal and rearranged mouse c-myc genes, for the presence of different regions of the mouse heavy chain locus, and for the presence of genes located on mouse chromosomes 12 and 15. The results of this analysis indicate that, as in human Burkitt lymphomas with the 8;14 chromosome translocation, the c-myc gene is translocated to the heavy chain locus in mouse plasmacytomas. Thus the orientation of the heavy chain locus on mouse chromosome 12 and of the c-myc gene on mouse chromosome 15 is the same as the orientation of the homologous loci in man. Images PMID:3923490

  6. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  7. Fungal genome and mating system transitions facilitated by chromosomal translocations involving intercentromeric recombination.

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    Sheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    rearrangements mediated by intercentromeric recombination have occurred during descent of the 2 lineages from their common ancestor. Taken together, our findings support a model in which the evolution of the bipolar mating system was initiated by an ectopic recombination event mediated by similar repetitive centromeric DNA elements shared between chromosomes. This translocation brought the P/R and HD loci onto the same chromosome, and further chromosomal rearrangements then resulted in the 2 MAT loci becoming physically linked and eventually fusing to form the single contiguous MAT locus that is now extant in the pathogenic Cryptococcus species.

  8. Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites

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    Pierce Levi CT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Human chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome especially prone to breakage, and have been implicated in various chromosome abnormalities found in cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive and quantitative examination of the location of fragile sites in relation to all chromosomal aberrations. Results Using up-to-date databases containing all cancer-specific recurrent translocations, we have examined 444 unique pairs of genes involved in these translocations to determine the correlation of translocation breakpoints and fragile sites in the gene pairs. We found that over half (52% of translocation breakpoints in at least one gene of these gene pairs are mapped to fragile sites. Among these, we examined the DNA sequences within and flanking three randomly selected pairs of translocation-prone genes, and found that they exhibit characteristic features of fragile DNA, with frequent AT-rich flexibility islands and the potential of forming highly stable secondary structures. Conclusion Our study is the first to examine gene pairs involved in all recurrent chromosomal translocations observed in tumor cells, and to correlate the location of more than half of breakpoints to positions of known fragile sites. These results provide strong evidence to support a causative role for fragile sites in the generation of cancer-specific chromosomal rearrangements.

  9. Multicolor Spectral Analyses of Mitotic and Meiotic Mouse Chromosomes Involved in Multiple Robertsonian Translocations. II. The NMRI/CD and CD/TA Hybrid Strains.

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    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Winking, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Multicolor spectral analyses (spectral karyotyping) were performed on mitotic chromosomes of NMRI, CD, and TA mice and on male meiotic chromosomes (diakineses) of NMRI/CD and CD/TA hybrids. All chromosomes, including the various centric (robertsonian) fusions, could be unequivocally identified. Apart from the robertsonian translocations, which were previously detected by conventional banding analyses, no other interchromosomal rearrangements were found in these mice. In both the CD and TA mice, the autosomes 19 and the XY sex chromosomes are not involved in robertsonian translocations. In diakineses of male meiosis of the NMRI/CD hybrid, the 9 expected trivalents were present, whereas in those of the CD/TA hybrids a stable large meiotic multivalent, formed by 15 robertsonian fusion chromosomes and 2 terminally located normal chromosomes, was observed. The specific sequential order of the robertsonian fusion chromosomes found within this meiotic chain was as theoretically predicted. In the majority of diakineses of the NMRI/CD and CD/TA hybrids, the free autosomal bivalent 19 and the XY sex bivalent formed noticeable tight spatial associations. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. An apparently de novo translocation in a neonate involving chromosomes 3 and 19 [t(3:19)(p21;q13.1)

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    Shah, H.O.; Buttice, L.S.; Chester, M. [Nassau County Medical Center, East Meadow, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 7 1/2-week-old infant female was referred for cytogenetic evaluation after she developed a left inguinal hernia containing a gonadal mass. She had been born to a 25-year-old mother after approximately 31 weeks gestation. This was the couple`s first pregnancy. She was small for gestational age. Her weight was 835 g, length was 32 cm, head circumference was 26 cm at birth. She developed hypothyroidism requiring synthroid. There were no other obvious dysmorphisms. The cytogenetic findings with G-banding revealed an apparently-balanced translocation involving chromosomes 3 and 19. The patient`s karyotype revealed 46,XX,t(3;19)(q21;q13.1). Parental chromosomes were found to be normal. Because of the increased risk for developmental and other congenital problems in an individual with a {open_quotes}de novo translocation{close_quotes} (even when the rearrangement appears balanced), this infant is being followed regularly. Evaluation at 5 months of age revealed a small but thriving female infant who is alert and developmentally appropriate. She is still receiving synthroid. We are in the process of analyzing this case further using chromosome paint probes for chromosomes 3 and 19 to identify the break points more precisely. This would allow us to assess with greater accuracy if this is a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} translocation.

  11. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. (a–i) Putative novel genes created by the breakpoints. Translocation chromosomes are shown with the translocated segment indicated in red and the untranslocated segments in black or blue. Purple arrows indicate whether the chromosome is a donor (arrow pointing up) or a recipient (arrow ...

  12. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 ... [Singh P K, Iyer V S, Sowjanya T N, Raj B K and Kasbekar D P 2010 Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in. Neurospora can ... of this work, namely, the definition of breakpoint junction sequences of 12 ...

  13. Childhood pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with translocation t(1;19)(q21.1;p13.3) and two additional chromosomal aberrations involving chromosomes 1, 6, and 13: a case report.

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    Wafa, Abdulsamad; As'sad, Manar; Liehr, Thomas; Aljapawe, Abdulmunim; Al Achkar, Walid

    2017-04-07

    The translocation t(1;19)(q23;p13), which results in the TCF3-PBX1 chimeric gene, is one of the most frequent rearrangements observed in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It appears in both adult and pediatric patients with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia at an overall frequency of 3 to 5%. Most cases of pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying the translocation t(1;19) have a typical immunophenotype with homogeneous expression of CD19, CD10, CD9, complete absence of CD34, and at least diminished CD20. Moreover, the translocation t(1;19) correlates with known clinical high risk factors, such as elevated white blood cell count, high serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, and central nervous system involvement; early reports indicated that patients with translocation t(1;19) had a poor outcome under standard treatment. We report the case of a 15-year-old Syrian boy with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal karyotype with a der(19)t(1;19)(q21.1;p13.3) and two yet unreported chromosomal aberrations: an interstitial deletion 6q12 to 6q26 and a der(13)t(1;13)(q21.1;p13). According to the literature, cases who are translocation t(1;19)-positive have a significantly higher incidence of central nervous system relapse than patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia without the translocation. Of interest, central nervous system involvement was also seen in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of childhood pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an unbalanced translocation t(1;19) with two additional chromosomal aberrations, del(6)(q12q26) and t(1;13)(q21.3;p13), which seem to be recurrent and could influence clinical outcome. Also the present case confirms the impact of the translocation t(1;19) on central nervous system relapse, which should be studied for underlying mechanisms in future.

  14. Chromosome aberrations involving 10q22: report of three overlapping interstitial deletions and a balanced translocation disrupting C10orf11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzschach, Andreas; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Kirchhoff, Maria

    2010-01-01

    and hypotonia. We also report on the results of breakpoint analysis by array painting in a mentally retarded patient with a balanced chromosome translocation 46,XY,t(10;13)(q22;p13)dn. The breakpoint in 10q22 was found to disrupt C10orf11, a brain-expressed gene in the common deleted interval of patients 1...

  15. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore...

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosomal inversion, translocation and deletion.

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    Zhang, Lin; Ren, Meihong; Song, Guining; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xuexia; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Jianliu

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform comprehensive prenatal diagnosis using various detection techniques on a fetus in a high‑risk pregnant woman, and to provide genetic counseling for the patient and her family so as to avoid birth defects. The routine karyotype analysis via amniocentesis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and whole genome microarray technique were performed for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetus. The fetal karyotype was 46,X,ish der(X) inv(X)(p22.3q28)t(X;Y)(q28;q11.2)(XYqter+,SRY‑,DXZ1+, RP11‑64L19+,STS+,XYpter+); namely, one fetal X chromosome belonged to the derivative imbalanced chromosome and this chromosome demonstrated complex chromosomal rearrangements involving inversion, translocation and deletion. Notably, pericentric inversion between Xp22.3 and Xq28 was identified, and the chromosomal microarray technique confirmed that the long arm q28 of the derivative X chromosome had a 1.241‑Mb deletion in Xq28, which included Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man genes such as coagulation factor VIII, glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase, inhibitor of nuclear factor‑κB kinase subunit γ, trimethyllysine hydroxylase ε, Ras‑related protein Rab‑39B and chloride intracellular channel 2. In addition, this chromosome also exhibited the local translocation of fragment Yq11.21‑q11.23, which did not include the sex determining region Y gene. This fetus demonstrated deletion, inversion and translocation syndrome, and may exhibit the corresponding clinical phenotypes (e.g., intellectual disability or general delayed development) (1) of such chromosome abnormalities after birth. Therefore, in prenatal diagnosis, a variety of genetic diagnostic techniques should be comprehensively used based on specific clinical situations, which may accurately reveal the nature, sources and manifestations of the derivative chromosome abnormalities and avoid the birth of children with defects.

  17. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

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    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is little doubt that chromosomal translocations can contribute to cancer, there is an active "chicken and the egg" discussion about the role translocations and other chromosomal abnormalities play—do they actually cause cancer or merely occur because of other changes within the cancer cell.  

  18. Translocation (11;14)(q13;q32) and preferential involvement of chromosomes 1, 2, 9, 13, and 17 in mantle cell lymphoma.

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    Espinet, B; Solé, F; Woessner, S; Bosch, F; Florensa, L; Campo, E; Costa, D; Lloveras, E; Vilà, R M; Besses, C; Montserrat, E; Sans-Sabrafen, J

    1999-05-01

    We have studied 13 cases of histologically confirmed mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) combining cytological-immunological features with conventional cytogenetics and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. Peripheral blood smears and lymph node biopsies expressed the typical mantle zone pattern with alpha B-cell phenotype. Most of the cases (11 of 13) had lymphomatous cells in the peripheral blood. Chromosome analysis was carried out on lymphoid cells from peripheral blood and/or lymph node biopsies. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (TPA) were used as mitogens. Biotin-labeled libraries of whole chromosomes implicated in complex karyotypes were used to improve their interpretation. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were found in 10 of 13 patients (77%); 7 of these had a complex abnormality. The most frequent recurrent structural abnormalities were: t(11;14)(q13;q32), involvement of chromosome 1 (der[1], del[1], dup[1]), chromosome 2 (del[2], der[2]), chromosome 9 (der[9], -9), chromosome 13 (add[13], t[13q]), and chromosome 17 (add[17], der[17], t[17q]). The most frequent numerical abnormalities were monosomy 21 and loss of the Y chromosome.

  19. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot.

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    Jiying Sun

    Full Text Available Chromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, increases the incidence of chromosome translocations. However, how ATM protects cells from chromosome translocations is still unclear. Chromosome translocations involving the MLL gene on 11q23 are the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemias associated with chemotherapy employing etoposide, a topoisomerase II poison. Here we show that ATM deficiency results in the excessive binding of the DNA recombination protein RAD51 at the translocation breakpoint hotspot of 11q23 chromosome translocation after etoposide exposure. Binding of Replication protein A (RPA and the chromatin remodeler INO80, which facilitate RAD51 loading on damaged DNA, to the hotspot were also increased by ATM deficiency. Thus, in addition to activating DNA damage signaling, ATM may avert chromosome translocations by preventing excessive loading of recombinational repair proteins onto translocation breakpoint hotspots.

  20. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

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    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  1. A new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9 helps to establish diagnosis of renal oncocytoma.

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    Hudacko, Rachel; May, Michael; Aviv, Hana

    2011-08-01

    Renal oncocytomas are benign epithelial tumors of the kidney. Histologically, they resemble certain malignant renal tumors, such as chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and the eosinophilic or granular form of clear cell renal carcinoma. It is, therefore, important to be able to differentiate among these tumors. Cytogenetic analysis is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of renal tumors, as the various subtypes have specific acquired chromosome abnormalities. Oncocytomas present either with loss of chromosome 1 and a sex chromosome, or with recurring translocations involving chromosome 11. We describe 2 patients with renal oncocytoma and a new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9. The tumors in both patients were histologically virtually identical. The t(6;9)(p21;p23) may be a new translocation associated with renal oncocytomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromosomal Translocation in a Child with SLI and Apraxia.

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    Weistuch, Lucille; Schiff-Myers, Naomi B.

    1996-01-01

    This case study of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with a specific expressive language impairment with verbal apraxia reports on chromosomal, neurological, speech/language, cognitive, and play evaluations. Evaluation found a chromosomal translocation and a severe expressive speech-language deficit but good nonverbal cognitive and communicative skills.…

  3. Identification of the chromosomes of the rye translocation tester set.

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    Sybenga, J; van Eden, J; van der Meijs, Q G; Roeterdink, B W

    1985-05-01

    Intercrossing the Wageningen translocation tester set of rye and the series of 'Imperial' rye additions to 'Chinese Spring' wheat of Sears yielded 29 chromosome disomic translocation hybrids. Observation of trivalents led to the identification of the chromosomes of the tester set in terms of the terminology system used in the Triticinae. The analysis was complicated by very low chiasma frequencies in some short chromosome segments in the hybrids. Nevertheless, it could be safely concluded that 1R=VII; 2R=III; 3R=II; 4R=IV; 5R=VI; 6R=V; 7R=I, which deviates slightly from previous classifications based on other methods.

  4. Identification of rye chromosomes: the Giemsa banding pattern and the translocation tester set.

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    de Vries, J M; Sybenga, J

    1976-01-01

    The Giemsa banding pattern is given for eleven reciprocal translocations of rye, Secale cereale L., together involving all chromosomes at least once, and one telocentric substitution. It is possible to correlate the identification system based on the Giemsa pattern with that based on the translocation tester set. The location of the translocation break points could be determined very exactly for a number of translocations, somewhat less exactly for others. The variations in the banding pattern, resulting from genetic, environmental and technical variation, make definite identification with the nomenclature system of the different rye additions to wheat difficult. An attempt is made, but some caution is necessary.

  5. Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered

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    Finver, S.N.; Nishikura, K.; Finger, L.R.; Haluska, F.G.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-05-01

    The authors cloned the translocation-associated and homologous normal MYC alleles from SKW-3, a leukemia T-cell line with the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) translocation, and determined the sequence of the MYC oncogene first exon and flanking 5' putative regulatory regions. S1 nuclease protection experiments utilizing a MYC first exon probe demonstrated transcriptional deregulation of the MYC gene associated with the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. locus on the 8q + chromosome of SKW-3 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the translocation-associated (8q +) MYC allele identified a single base substitution within the upstream flanking region; the homologous nontranslocated allele contained an additional substitution and a two-base deletion. None of the deletions or substitutions localized to putative 5' regulatory regions. The MYC first exon sequence was germ line in both alleles. These results demonstrate that alterations within the putative 5' MYC regulatory regions are not necessarily involved in MYC deregulation in T-cell leukemias, and they show that juxtaposition of the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. locus to a germ-line MYC oncogene results in MYC deregulation.

  6. Importance of No. 21 chromosome in translocation t(8:21) in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) to the genesis of the disease

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    Ishihara, T.; Minamihisamatsu, M.

    1986-05-01

    The results are reported of the chromosome analysis of 17 cases of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), mostly belonging to M2 of the FAB classification, especially on the translocation t(8:21) and its variant translocations. The presence of two cases with simple variant translocation not involving No. 8 chromosome seems to suggest that No. 21 chromosome is more important to the genesis of AML than the No. 8 chromosome. This assumption appears to be supported by findings on cases with complex translocation: In two cases with complex translocation, the portion translocated from No. 21 chromosome onto No. 8 was firmly maintained in the specific site (q21) on No. 8 whereas the portion translocated from No. 8 chromosome onto No. 21 was involved in further translocation with another chromosome, onto which it was re-translocated. The results of the present cytogenetic study indicate that the analysis of variant translocations in various specific chromosome translocations in leukemia and other malignant disorders is very useful to elucidate the problem as to whether the genesis of such disorders lies in either one or both of the pair of chromosomes involved in the specific translocations of the respective diseases.

  7. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

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    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  8. 3D view of chromosomes, DNA damage, and translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michal; Hakim, Ofir

    2014-04-01

    The cell nucleus is a busy and organized organelle. In this megalopolis made of billions of nucleotides, protein factors find their target loci to exert nuclear functions such as transcription and replication. Remarkably, despite the lack of internal membrane barrier, the interlinked and tightly regulated nuclear processes occur in spatially organized fashion. These processes can lead to double-strand breaks (DSBs) that compromise the integrity of the genome. Moreover, in some cells like lymphocytes, DNA damage is also targeted within the context of immunoglobulin gene recombination. If not repaired correctly, DSBs can cause chromosomal rearrangements, including translocations which are etiological in numerous tumors. Therefore, the chromosomal locations of DSBs, as well as their spatial positioning, are important contributors to formation of chromosomal translocations at specific genomic loci. To obtain a mechanistic understanding of chromosomal translocations these parameters should be accounted for in a global and integrative fashion. In this review we will discuss recent findings addressing how genome architecture, DNA damage, and repair contribute to the genesis of chromosomal translocations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...

  10. Clinical Expression of an Inherited Unbalanced Translocation in Chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Bandana Ganguly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements are not common; however, they have a significant clinical expression. The parental balanced translocation produces unbalanced chromosome, which is transmitted to next generation through fertilization of gametes carrying the derivative chromosome. The carriers of balanced rearrangements mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression. We report a family comprising of healthy and non-consanguineous young parents and their preemie newborn severely affected with congenital anomalies and systemic disorders. Conventional Gbanding analysis of somatic chromosomes identified a balanced translocation, t(6;10(p23;q24, in mother and an unbalanced rearrangement, der(6t(6:10(p23;q24mat, in the child. The child has inherited a derivative chromosome 6 with partial deletion of 6(p23-pter and partial trisomy 10(q24-qter, which has resulted in fusion of genes of two different chromosomes. The prominent phenotypic features of del(6p, including high forehead, flat nasal bridge, agenesis of left ear, atrial septal defect (ASD, craniosynostosis, and growth retardation, are overlapping with specific Axenfeld-Reiger-, Larsen-, and Ritscher-Sinzel/3-C syndromes, however, lacking in ocular anomalies, skeletal laxity, or cerebellar malformation. Therefore, this paper rules out the isolated effect of del(6p23 or trisomy 10(q24 on distinct previously reported syndromes and proposes the combined effect of unbalanced chromosomal alteration.

  11. Population-based survey of cancer risks in chromosome 3 translocation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, Emma R; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Cruger, Dorthe G

    2010-01-01

    Familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is genetically heterogeneous and may be associated with germline mutations in a number of genes. Twelve different constitutional translocations involving chromosome 3 have also been described in association with inherited RCC. In some families the lifetime risk...

  12. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    We have identified a girl with characteristic features of Rett syndrome (RTT) who carries a de novo balanced translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7. Both breakpoints were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization with selected genomic clones from the regions of interest. Southern blot...

  13. Identification of chromosomal translocation hotspots via scan statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Israel T; Rosales, Rafael A; Holanda, Adriano J; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Jankovic, Mila

    2014-09-15

    The detection of genomic regions unusually rich in a given pattern is an important undertaking in the analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Recent studies of chromosomal translocations in activated B lymphocytes have identified regions that are frequently translocated to c-myc oncogene. A quantitative method for the identification of translocation hotspots was crucial to this study. Here we improve this analysis by using a simple probabilistic model and the framework provided by scan statistics to define the number and location of translocation breakpoint hotspots. A key feature of our method is that it provides a global chromosome-wide nominal control level to clustering, as opposed to previous methods based on local criteria. While being motivated by a specific application, the detection of unusual clusters is a widespread problem in bioinformatics. We expect our method to be useful in the analysis of data from other experimental approaches such as of ChIP-seq and 4C-seq. The analysis of translocations from B lymphocytes with the method described here reveals the presence of longer hotspots when compared with those defined previously. Further, we show that the hotspot size changes substantially in the absence of DNA repair protein 53BP1. When 53BP1 deficiency is combined with overexpression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the hotspot length increases even further. These changes are not detected by previous methods that use local significance criteria for clustering. Our method is also able to identify several exclusive translocation hotspots located in genes of known tumor supressors. The detection of translocation hotspots is done with hot_scan, a program implemented in R and Perl. Source code and documentation are freely available for download at https://github.com/itojal/hot_scan. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A three-generation family with terminal microdeletion involving 5p15.33-32 due to a whole-arm 5;15 chromosomal translocation with a steady phenotype of atypical cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmakky, Amira; Carli, Diana; Lugli, Licia; Torelli, Paola; Guidi, Battista; Falcinelli, Cristina; Fini, Sergio; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Percesepe, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is characterized by cat-like cry, facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly, speech delay, intellectual disability and slow growth rate, which are present with variable frequency. The typical cri du chat syndrome, due to 5p15.2 deletion, includes severe intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, neonatal hypotonia and pre- and post-natal growth retardation, whereas more distal deletions in 5p15.3 lead to cat-like cry and speech delay and produce the clinical picture of the atypical cri du chat syndrome, with minimal or absent intellectual impairment. In this article we report a three-generation family with an unbalanced whole arm translocation between chromosome 5 and 15 and a microdeletion of 5.5 Mb involving 5p15.33-32. By reporting the smallest terminal deletion of 5p15.3 described so far and by reviewing the literature we discuss the genotype/phenotype correlations of the distal region of the cri du chat syndrome. The previously described critical region for the speech delay may be narrowed down and microcephaly, growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features can be included in the phenotypic expression of the atypical cri du chat syndrome due to 5p15.3 deletions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Distal 5q trisomy resulting from an X;5 translocation detected by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Ahsanuddin, A N; Mark, H F

    2000-10-23

    patients that depend on the nature of the autosomal chromatin. Replication studies are of limited utility in predicting expression of autosomal genes involved in X-chromosome translocations. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A balanced chromosomal translocation disrupting ARHGEF9 is associated with epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a "scaffolding" protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation ......(A) receptor subtypes involved in epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, insomnia, and learning and memory....... in a female patient presenting with a disturbed sleep-wake cycle, late-onset epileptic seizures, increased anxiety, aggressive behavior, and mental retardation, but not hyperekplexia. Fine mapping of the breakpoint indicates disruption of the collybistin gene (ARHGEF9) on chromosome Xq11, while the other...

  17. Chromosome territories, X;Y translocation and Premature Ovarian Failure: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betri Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF is a secondary hypergonadotrophic amenorrhea occurring before the age of 40 and affecting 1-3% of females. Chromosome anomalies account for 6-8% of POF cases, but only few cases are associated with translocations involving X and Y chromosomes. This study shows the cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a POF patient came to our attention as she developed a left ovary choriocarcinoma at the age of 10 and at 14 years of age she presented secondary amenorrhea with elevated levels of gonadotropins. Results Breakpoint position on X and Y chromosomes was investigated using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH with a panel of specific BAC probes, microsatellite analysis and evaluation of copy number changes and loss of heterozigosity by Affymetrix® GeneChip platform (Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patient's karyotype resulted 46, X, der(Yt(X;Y(q13.1;q11.223. X inactivation study was assessed by RBA banding and showed preferential inactivation of derivative chromosome. The reciprocal spatial disposition of sexual chromosome territories was investigated using whole chromosome painting and centromeres probes: patient's results didn't show a significant difference in comparison to normal controls. Conclusion The peculiar clinical case come to our attention highlighted the complexity of POF aetiology and of the translocation event, even if our results seem to exclude any effect on nuclear organisation. POF phenotype could be partially explained by skewed X chromosome inactivation that influences gene expression.

  18. Accumulation of numerical and structural chromosome imbalances in spermatozoa from reciprocal translocation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godo, A; Blanco, J; Vidal, F; Anton, E

    2013-03-01

    population, and to infer a more accurate possible mechanism for generating chromosomal imbalances. There was no previous data about a relationship between chromosomal numerical abnormalities and segregation of rearranged chromosomes. Our findings are consistent with a possible gathering of chromosomal abnormalities in a given nucleus. This information can be used towards a better understanding of the meiotic mechanisms involved in non-disjunction events in gametes from reciprocal translocation carriers. Also, it would help to provide a better reproductive genetic risk assessment in these patients. This work was supported by funding of projects SAF2010-2241 (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain), SGR2009-282 (Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain) and UAB CF-180034 (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain). The authors declare the lack of competing interests in this study.

  19. Centromeric alpha satellite DNA amplification and translocation in an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, S; Earle, E; Voullaire, L; Rogers, J; Choo, K H

    1989-05-01

    We report cytogenetic and molecular studies on a family that carries, in the father, an unusually large chromosome 14p+ variant [WSi-var(14)(p+)] and, in one of his children, a translocation [DSi-der(14)] involving the variant chromosome. Increase in the size of WSi-var(14)(p+) was estimated to be approximately 35% that of a normal chromosome 14. Presence of extra chromosomal material in this variant chromosome was demonstrated by G-banding using trypsin and staining with Leishman, G-banding using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Giemsa, and R-banding using BrdU and Giemsa. This material was positive using C-banding with BaOH and staining with Giemsa and negative in DAPI/distamycin staining, suggesting that it contained repetitive DNA but probably not of the types found in the heterochromatic regions of chromosomes 1, 9, 15, 16, and Y. Staining of the nucleolus organiser region (NOR) with AgNO3 indicated the retention of the NOR in WSi-var(14)(p+) but not in DSi-der(14). In situ hybridisation of metaphase cells with an alpha satellite DNA probe specific for human acrocentric chromosomes demonstrated a significantly increased amount of centromeric alpha sequences in WSi-var(14)(p+). Most or all of the extra alpha sequences were retained in DSi-der(14), indicating translocation near the very distal end of the enlarged region. The extra alpha satellite DNA material may have originated through amplification of some centromeric segments. The possible role of the amplified DNA in chromosomal translocations is discussed.

  20. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ha, Mina; Hauptmann, Michael; Bhatti, Parveen; Sram, Radim J.; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E. Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A.; Lindholm, Carita; Nakano, Mimako; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Nori; Vorobtsova, Irena; Oestreicher, Ursula; Stephan, Günther; Yong, Lee C.; Bauchinger, Manfred; Schmid, Ernst; Chung, Hai Won; Darroudi, Firouz; Roy, Laurence; Voisin, Phillipe; Barquinero, Joan F.; Livingston, Gordon; Blakey, David; Hayata, Isamu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chunyan; Bennett, L. Michelle; Littlefield, L. Gayle; Edwards, Alan A.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Tucker, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from sixteen laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages vs. a linear relationship (p <0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes. PMID:18337160

  1. The C-MYB locus is involved in chromosomal translocation and genomic duplications in human T-cell acute leukemia (T-ALL), the translocation defining a new T-ALL subtype in very young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clappier, Emmanuelle; Cuccuini, Wendy; Kalota, Anna; Crinquette, Antoine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Dik, Willem A.; Langerak, Anton W.; Montpellier, Bertrand; Nadel, Bertrand; Walrafen, Pierre; Delattre, Olivier; Aurias, Alain; Leblanc, Thierry; Dombret, Herve; Gewirtz, Alan M.; Baruchel, Andre; Sigaux, Francois; Soulier, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The C-Myb transcription factor is essential for hematopoiesis, including in the T-cell lineage. The C-Myb locus is a common site of retroviral insertional mutagenesis, however no recurrent genomic involvement has been reported in human malignancies. Here, we identified 2 types of genomic alterations

  2. A Balanced Chromosomal Translocation Disrupting ARHGEF9 Is Associated With Epilepsy, Anxiety, Aggression, and Mental Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Fuchs, Celine; Carta, Eloisa; Deas, Emma; Venkateswarlu, Kanamarlapudi; Menzel, Corinna; Ullmann, Reinhard; Tommerup, Niels; Dalprà, Leda; Tzschach, Andreas; Selicorni, Angelo; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a “scaffolding” protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation in a female patient presenting with a disturbed sleep-wake cycle, late-onset epileptic seizures, increased anxiety, aggressive behavior, and mental retardation, but not hyperekplexia. Fine mapping of the brea...

  3. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  4. The impact of imprinting: Prader-Willi syndrome resulting from chromosome translocation, recombination, and nondisjunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Olson, S.; Gunter, K. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is most often the result of a deletion of bands q11.2-q13 of the paternally derived chromosome 15, but it also occurs either because of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of this region or, rarely, from a methylation imprinting defect. A significant number of cases are due to structural rearrangements of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 15. We report two cases of PWS with UPD in which there was a meiosis I nondisjunction error involving an altered chromosome 15 produced by both a translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and recombination. In both cases, high-resolution banding of the long arm was normal, and FISH of probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3 indicated no loss of this material. Chromosome heteromorphism analysis showed that each patient had maternal heterodisomy of the chromosome 15 short arm, whereas PCR of microsatellites demonstrated allele-specific maternal isodisomy and heterodisomy of the long arm. SNRPN gene methylation analysis revealed only a maternal imprint in both patients. We suggest that the chromosome structural rearrangements, combined with recombination in these patients, disrupted normal segregation of an imprinted region, resulting in uniparental disomy and PWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evolution of the Banana Genome (Musa acuminata) Is Impacted by Large Chromosomal Translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Carreel, Françoise; Coriton, Olivier; Hervouet, Catherine; Cardi, Céline; Derouault, Paco; Roques, Danièle; Salmon, Frédéric; Rouard, Mathieu; Sardos, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique

    2017-09-01

    Most banana cultivars are triploid seedless parthenocarpic clones derived from hybridization between Musa acuminata subspecies and sometimes M. balbisiana. M. acuminata subspecies were suggested to differ by a few large chromosomal rearrangements based on chromosome pairing configurations in intersubspecies hybrids. We searched for large chromosomal rearrangements in a seedy M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis banana accession through mate-pair sequencing, BAC-FISH, targeted PCR and marker (DArTseq) segregation in its progeny. We identified a heterozygous reciprocal translocation involving two distal 3 and 10 Mb segments from chromosomes 01 and 04, respectively, and showed that it generated high segregation distortion, reduced recombination and linkage between chromosomes 01 and 04 in its progeny. The two chromosome structures were found to be mutually exclusive in gametes and the rearranged structure was preferentially transmitted to the progeny. The rearranged chromosome structure was frequently found in triploid cultivars but present only in wild malaccensis ssp. accessions, thus suggesting that this rearrangement occurred in M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis. We propose a mechanism for the spread of this rearrangement in Musa diversity and suggest that this rearrangement could have played a role in the emergence of triploid cultivars. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Specific chromosomal IG translocations have different prognoses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Chapiro, Elise; Lesty, Claude; Grelier, Aurore; Luquet, Isabelle; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Christine; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Lippert, Eric; Raggueneau, Victoria; Michaux, Lucienne; Barin, Carole; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Mugneret, Francine; Eclache, Virginie; Taviaux, Sylvie; Dastugue, Nicole; Richebourg, Steven; Struski, Stéphanie; Talmant, Pascaline; Baranger, Laurence; Gachard, Nathalie; Gervais, Carine; Quilichini, Benoit; Settegrana, Catherine; Maloum, Karim; Davi, Frederic; Merle-Béral, Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromosomal translocations are usually analyzed as a single entity, and are associated with a poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Translocations involving immunoglobulin genes are recurrent, but uncommon (published series of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with t(14;19) (BCL3-CLLs, n=29). Results Compared with BCL3-CLLs, lymphocytosis was lower in BCL2-CLLs (p4 (p<0.001) in the BCL2-CLLs group, and less CD38 expression (p<0.04). More variant BCL2-translocations were observed (t(18;22), n=11; 2t(2;18), n=2; p<0.02), and BCL2-translocation was frequently single (p<0.002). Complex karyotypes (p<0.02), trisomy 12 (p<0.03), 6q deletion (p<0.002) and TP53 deletion (p<0.02) were less frequent in BCL2-CLLs, whereas 13q deletion was more frequent (p<0.005). The IGHV gene was frequently mutated in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001). Treatment-free survival was longer in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001). Conclusions BCL2-CLL.S express CD5 and lack expression of CD38, and have a Matutes score ≥4, frequent trisomy 12, no ATM and 6q deletions, and a mutated IGHV status. Compared to BCL3-CLLs, BCL2-CLLs are much less aggressive; indicating that identifying individual translocations and cytogenetic partners would allow improved patient stratification. PMID:22432063

  7. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maluf Tomazella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70 has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814, for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and mapped the regions involved in breaks, which may be related to the chromosome evolution process. G-banding pattern showed that 21 pairs of chromosomes presented chromosomal aberrations, 60% of the total chromosome number of the species M. gouazoubira. Among chromosomes that carry aberrations, the region where they were most frequently concentrated was distal relative to the centromere. These data suggest that certain chromosomal regions may be more susceptible to chromosome fragility and consequently could be involved in karyotype differentiation in species of the family Cervidae.

  8. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae) chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazella, Iara Maluf; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-01-01

    The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70) has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814), for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes) has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and mapped the regions involved in breaks, which may be related to the chromosome evolution process. G-banding pattern showed that 21 pairs of chromosomes presented chromosomal aberrations, 60% of the total chromosome number of the species M. gouazoubira. Among chromosomes that carry aberrations, the region where they were most frequently concentrated was distal relative to the centromere. These data suggest that certain chromosomal regions may be more susceptible to chromosome fragility and consequently could be involved in karyotype differentiation in species of the family Cervidae.

  9. Fusion genes and chromosome translocations in the common epithelial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul A W

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for 25 years that fusion genes play a central role in leukaemias and sarcomas but they have been neglected in the common carcinomas, largely because of technical limitations of cytogenetics. In the last few years it has emerged that gene fusions, caused by chromosome translocations, inversions, deletions, etc., are important in the common epithelial cancers, such as prostate and lung carcinoma. Most prostate cancers, for example, have an androgen-regulated fusion of one of the ETS transcription factor gene family. Early results of genome-wide searches for gene fusions in breast and other epithelial cancers suggest that most individual tumours will have several fused genes. Fusion genes are exceptionally powerful mutations. In their simplest form they can turn on expression by promoter insertion but they can also, for example, force dimerization of a protein or change its subcellular location. They are correspondingly important clinically, in classification and management and as targets for therapy. This review surveys what we know of fusion genes in the carcinomas, summarizes the technical advances that now make it possible to search systematically for such genes, and concludes by putting fusion genes into the current picture of mutation in cancers.

  10. Preliminary analysis of numerical chromosome abnormalities in reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation preimplantation genetic diagnosis cases with 24-chromosomal analysis with an aCGH/SNP microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanxin; Xu, Yanwen; Wang, Jing; Miao, Benyu; Zeng, Yanhong; Ding, Chenhui; Gao, Jun; Zhou, Canquan

    2017-09-18

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an interchromosomal effect (ICE) occurred in embryos obtained from reciprocal translocation (rcp) and Robertsonian translocation (RT) carriers who were following a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with whole chromosome screening with an aCGH and SNP microarray. We also analyzed the chromosomal numerical abnormalities in embryos with aneuploidy in parental chromosomes that were not involved with a translocation and balanced in involved parental translocation chromosomes. This retrospective study included 832 embryos obtained from rcp carriers and 382 embryos from RT carriers that were biopsied in 139 PGD cycles. The control group involved embryos obtained from age-matched patient karyotypes who were undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) with non-translocation, and 579 embryos were analyzed in the control group. A single blastomere at the cleavage stage or trophectoderm from a blastocyst was biopsied, and 24-chromosomal analysis with an aCGH/SNP microarray was conducted using the PGD/PGS protocols. Statistical analyses were implemented on the incidences of cumulative aneuploidy rates between the translocation carriers and the control group. Reliable results were obtained from 138 couples, among whom only one patient was a balanced rcp or RT translocation carrier, undergoing PGD testing in our center from January 2012 to June 2014. For day 3 embryos, the aneuploidy rates were 50.7% for rcp carriers and 49.1% for RT carriers, compared with the control group, with 44.8% at a maternal age < 36 years. When the maternal age was ≥ 36 years, the aneuploidy rates were increased to 61.1% for rcp carriers, 56.7% for RT carriers, and 60.3% for the control group. There were no significant differences. In day 5 embryos, the aneuploidy rates were 24.5% for rcp carriers and 34.9% for RT carriers, compared with the control group with 53.6% at a maternal age < 36 years. When the maternal age was ≥ 36

  11. Identification of novel translocation between short arm of chromosome 4 and long arm of chromosome 6 in an infertile man using Interphase Chromosome Profiling (ICP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, S; Kaur, H; Vats, S K S; Chawla, J; Jindal, R; Khetarpal, P

    2018-02-07

    Conventional cytogenetics has always been a favourite to detect chromosomal aberrations. Carriers of chromosomal translocation are often phenotypically normal but are infertile. Couples are often advised to go for karyotyping, but culture failure or improper metaphase spread with poor banding often makes the analysis difficult. We report here a novel translocation between short arm of chromosome 4 and long arm of chromosome 6 in an infertile man using an advanced molecular cytogenetic technique of Interphase Chromosome Profiling (ICP). © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sun (Jiying); Y. Oma (Yukako); M. Harata (Masahiko); K. Kono (Kazuteru); H. Shima (Hiroki); A. Kinomura (Aiko); T. Ikura (Tsuyoshi); H. Suzuki (Hidekazu); S. Mizutani (Shuki); R. Kanaar (Roland); S. Tashiro (Satoshi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator,

  13. Advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Hornicek, Francis; Guo, Zheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomal translocations and fusion genes are very common in human cancer especially in subtypes of sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma. The discovery of novel chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in different tumors are due to the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies such as whole genome sequencing. Recently, many novel chromosomal translocations and gene fusions have been identified in different types of sarcoma through NGS approaches. In addition to previously known sarcoma fusion genes, these novel specific fusion genes and associated molecular events represent important targets for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of sarcomas. This review focuses on recent advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of sarcomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Interreplichore Translocations in Bacteria: A Measure of Chromosome Topology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Supriya; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2016-06-01

    Genomes evolve not only in base sequence but also in terms of their architecture, defined by gene organization and chromosome topology. Whereas genome sequence data inform us about the changes in base sequences for a large variety of organisms, the study of chromosome topology is restricted to a few model organisms studied using microscopy and chromosome conformation capture techniques. Here, we exploit whole genome sequence data to study the link between gene organization and chromosome topology in bacteria. Using comparative genomics across ∼250 pairs of closely related bacteria we show that: (a) many organisms show a high degree of interreplichore translocations throughout the chromosome and not limited to the inversion-prone terminus (ter) or the origin of replication (oriC); (b) translocation maps may reflect chromosome topologies; and (c) symmetric interreplichore translocations do not disrupt the distance of a gene from oriC or affect gene expression states or strand biases in gene densities. In summary, we suggest that translocation maps might be a first line in defining a gross chromosome topology given a pair of closely related genome sequences. Copyright © 2016 Khedkar and Seshasayee.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Interreplichore Translocations in Bacteria: A Measure of Chromosome Topology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Khedkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomes evolve not only in base sequence but also in terms of their architecture, defined by gene organization and chromosome topology. Whereas genome sequence data inform us about the changes in base sequences for a large variety of organisms, the study of chromosome topology is restricted to a few model organisms studied using microscopy and chromosome conformation capture techniques. Here, we exploit whole genome sequence data to study the link between gene organization and chromosome topology in bacteria. Using comparative genomics across ∼250 pairs of closely related bacteria we show that: (a many organisms show a high degree of interreplichore translocations throughout the chromosome and not limited to the inversion-prone terminus (ter or the origin of replication (oriC; (b translocation maps may reflect chromosome topologies; and (c symmetric interreplichore translocations do not disrupt the distance of a gene from oriC or affect gene expression states or strand biases in gene densities. In summary, we suggest that translocation maps might be a first line in defining a gross chromosome topology given a pair of closely related genome sequences.

  16. X-autosome and X-Y translocations in female carriers: X-chromosome inactivation easily detectable by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report one new case each of an X-autosome translocation (maternally derived, and an X-Y-chromosome translocation. Besides characterizing the involved breakpoints and/or imbalances in detail by molecular cyto-genetics, also skewed X-chromosome inactivation was determined on single cell level using 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU. Thus, we confirmed that the recently suggested EdU approach can be simply adapted for routine diagnostic use. The latter is important, as only by knowing the real pattern of the skewed X-chromosome inactivation, correct interpretation of obtained results and subsequent reliable genetic counseling, can be done.

  17. Diagnosis of parental balanced reciprocal translocations by trophectoderm biopsy and comprehensive chromosomal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheimer, L W; Liu, L; Buyalos, R P; Hubert, G; Al-Safi, Z; Shamonki, M

    2017-09-12

    This study investigates a case series of eight couples who underwent trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and comprehensive chromosomal screening (CCS) for routine aneuploidy screening and were found to have CCS results concerning for previously undetected parental balanced reciprocal translocations. In each case, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) yielded multiple blastocysts that each underwent CCS with high-density oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Parental translocations were suspected based on the finding of identical break point mutations in multiple embryos from each couple. Confirmation of these suspected translocations within blastocysts was performed with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Subsequent parental karyotypic evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of parental balanced reciprocal translocation in each case. We demonstrated that high-resolution aCGH and NGS on TE biopsies can accurately detect parental reciprocal translocations when previously unrecognized.

  18. Chromosome catastrophes involve replication mechanisms generating complex genomic rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Sreenath Nagamani, Sandesh C.; Dhar, Shweta U.; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E.; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V.; Cooper, M. Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A.; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R.; McLean, Scott D.; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P. J.; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R.; Bi, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism’s life cycle. PMID:21925314

  19. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae-Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies-the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage-provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential

  20. A balanced chromosomal translocation disrupting ARHGEF9 is associated with epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng; Hoffmann, Kirsten; Fuchs, Celine; Carta, Eloisa; Deas, Emma; Venkateswarlu, Kanamarlapudi; Menzel, Corinna; Ullmann, Reinhard; Tommerup, Niels; Dalprà, Leda; Tzschach, Andreas; Selicorni, Angelo; Lüscher, Bernhard; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Harvey, Kirsten; Harvey, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a "scaffolding" protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation in a female patient presenting with a disturbed sleep-wake cycle, late-onset epileptic seizures, increased anxiety, aggressive behavior, and mental retardation, but not hyperekplexia. Fine mapping of the breakpoint indicates disruption of the collybistin gene (ARHGEF9) on chromosome Xq11, while the other breakpoint lies in a region of 18q11 that lacks any known or predicted genes. We show that defective collybistin transcripts are synthesized and exons 7-10 are replaced by cryptic exons from chromosomes X and 18. These mRNAs no longer encode the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of collybistin, which we now show binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P/PtdIns-3-P), a phosphoinositide with an emerging role in membrane trafficking and signal transduction, rather than phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3/PtdIns-3,4,5-P) as previously suggested in the "membrane activation model" of gephyrin clustering. Consistent with this finding, expression of truncated collybistin proteins in cultured neurons interferes with synaptic localization of endogenous gephyrin and GABA(A) receptors. These results suggest that collybistin has a key role in membrane trafficking of gephyrin and selected GABA(A) receptor subtypes involved in epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, insomnia, and learning and memory. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Pericentromeric organization at the fusion point of mouse Robertsonian translocation chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagna, Silvia; Marziliano, Nicola; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Searle, Jeremy B.; Capanna, Ernesto; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, Robertsonian (Rb) translocation (the joining of two telo/acrocentric chromosomes at their centromere to form a metacentric) is the most effective process in chromosomal evolution leading to speciation; its occurrence also affects human health (through the induction of trisomies) and the fertility of farm animals. To understand the mechanism of Rb translocation, we used the house mouse as a model system and studied the organization of pericentromeric satellite DNAs (satDNA) of telocentrics and Rb chromosomes, both minor and major satDNA. The chromosome-orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) technique was used to analyze the major satDNA. To detect the very small amount of minor satDNA, a procedure was developed that combines CO-FISH with primed in situ labeling and conventional FISH and is five times more sensitive than the CO-FISH procedure alone. It was found that both the major and the minor satDNA tandem repeats are oriented head-to-tail in telocentric and Rb chromosomes, and their polarity is always the same relative to the centromere. We suggest that all tandemly repetitive satDNAs in a species probably are locked into such a symmetry constraint as a universal consequence of chromosomal evolution. Rb translocation breakpoints were found localized within the minor satDNA of telocentrics, and these sequences contributed symmetrically to the formation of the centromeric region of the Rb chromosomes. These results are important for an understanding of the geometry of Rb translocations and suggest the study of DNA orientation as a new tool for investigating these rearrangements. PMID:11136254

  2. Mental retardation due to chromosomal translocation in an Iranian consanguineous family: report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is defined as impaired mental capacity and ability to comply with environmental and social conditions. Chromosomal abnormalities are the most important causes of mental retardation. Carriers of balanced chromosomal translocation are phenotypically normal, although they may be at risk of infertility, recurrent miscarriage or giving birth to mentally retarded children. These abnormalities are caused because chromosomes participated in the reciprocal translocations produce quadrivalents at meiosis. These quadrivalents segregate and lead to several different meiotic outcomes, just two of which are normal or balanced. Case Presentation: A consanguineous family with three mentally retarded daughters at the ages of 24, 18 and 10 years was referred to Comprehensive Medical Genetics Centre, Shiraz, Iran in 2015. Family history showed a case of unexplained infant death as well as a spontaneous abortion. Three survived siblings had hypotonia and severe developmental delay during infantile period. In addition, they suffer from primary amenorrhea. Two siblings have vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Cytogenetic analysis of two patients showed 46,XX,t(6;12(q23;q22,der(9t(8;9(q24;p24 with partial monosomy of chromosome 9 and partial trisomy of 8q24 segment, while the other patient had 46,XX,der(12t(6;12(q23;q22 with partial monosomy of 12q22qter and partial trisomy of 6q23qter segment. Their mother had two balanced chromosomal translocations (46, XX, t(6,12(q21;q22, t(8,9(q24;p24. Conclusion: The above presented case is another example for the rare occurrence of double balanced chromosomal translocations in a phenotypically normal person. Although the most important causes of mental retardation in consanguineous marriages are autosomal recessive disorders, the role of chromosomal aberrations in mental retardation in these families must not be neglected. In other words, cytogenetic studies should be performed as a first line test in

  3. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  4. Chromosome translocation activates heterogeneously initiated, bipolar transcription of a mouse c-myc gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, F; Neuberger, M S

    1985-01-01

    In many mouse plasmacytomas, the active c-myc gene has been truncated by chromosome translocation with the resultant severance of the protein-coding sequence from the normal promoter. Transcripts of such truncated c-myc genes were analyzed by Northern blotting, nuclease S1 mapping, primer extension assays and cDNA cloning. We conclude that transcription originates from multiple initiation sites on both c-myc coding and non-coding strands with the two-sets of transcripts derived from adjacent but essentially non-overlapping regions located greater than 1 kb from the translocation junction. In X63Ag8, where c-myc is translocated to the immunoglobulin C gamma 2b gene, the c-myc non-coding strand transcripts include the translocation junction and then splice directly into the gamma 2b CH1 exon. We propose that chromosome translocation activates a cryptic promoter in the first intron and that the heterogeneously initiated, bipolar transcription reflects the absence of a suitably placed TATA box element. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3924591

  5. High-Risk Microgranular Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with a Five-Way Complex Translocation Involving PML-RARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Powers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17, resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17 which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.

  6. Chromosome 4q;10q translocations; Comparison with different ethnic populations and FSHD patients

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    Zhang Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. Methods To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. Results The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4 was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4 in all populations. Conclusions The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.

  7. Trigenomic chromosomes by recombination of Thinopyrum intermedium and Th. ponticum translocations in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Navarrete, L; Bariana, H S; Singh, R P; Gibson, J M; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J

    2007-12-01

    Rusts and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) are among the main diseases affecting wheat production world wide for which wild relatives have been the source of a number of translocations carrying resistance genes. Nevertheless, along with desirable traits, alien translocations often carry deleterious genes. We have generated recombinants in a bread wheat background between two alien translocations: TC5, ex-Thinopyrum (Th) intermedium, carrying BYDV resistance gene Bdv2; and T4m, ex-Th. ponticum, carrying rust resistance genes Lr19 and Sr25. Because both these translocations are on the wheat chromosome arm 7DL, homoeologous recombination was attempted in the double hemizygote (TC5/T4m) in a background homozygous for the ph1b mutation. The identification of recombinants was facilitated by the use of newly developed molecular markers for each of the alien genomes represented in the two translocations and by studying derived F(2), F(3) and doubled haploid populations. The occurrence of recombination was confirmed with molecular markers and bioassays on families of testcrosses between putative recombinants and bread wheat, and in F(2) populations derived from the testcrosses. As a consequence it has been possible to derive a genetic map of markers and resistance genes on these previously fixed alien linkage blocks. We have obtained fertile progeny carrying new tri-genomic recombinant chromosomes. Furthermore we have demonstrated that some of the recombinants carried resistance genes Lr19 and Bdv2 yet lacked the self-elimination trait associated with shortened T4 segments. We have also shown that the recombinant translocations are fixed and stable once removed from the influence of the ph1b. The molecular markers developed in this study will facilitate selection of individuals carrying recombinant Th. intermedium-Th. ponticum translocations (Pontin series) in breeding programs.

  8. Partial deletions of the W chromosome due to reciprocal translocation in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Seki, M; Ohbayashi, F; Tanaka, N; Yamashita, J; Fujii, T; Yokoyama, T; Takahashi, M; Banno, Y; Sahara, K; Yoshido, A; Ihara, J; Yasukochi, Y; Mita, K; Ajimura, M; Suzuki, M G; Oshiki, T; Shimada, T

    2005-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori (female, ZW; male, ZZ), femaleness is determined by the presence of a single W chromosome, irrespective of the number of autosomes or Z chromosomes. The W chromosome is devoid of functional genes, except the putative female-determining gene (Fem). However, there are strains in which chromosomal fragments containing autosomal markers have been translocated on to W. In this study, we analysed the W chromosomal regions of the Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) at the molecular level. Initially, we undertook a project to identify W-specific RAPD markers, in addition to the three already established W-specific RAPD markers (W-Kabuki, W-Samurai and W-Kamikaze). Following the screening of 3648 arbitrary 10-mer primers, we obtained nine W-specific RAPD marker sequences (W-Bonsai, W-Mikan, W-Musashi, W-Rikishi, W-Sakura, W-Sasuke, W-Yukemuri-L, W-Yukemuri-S and BMC1-Kabuki), almost all of which contained the border regions of retrotransposons, namely portions of nested retrotransposons. We confirmed the presence of eleven out of twelve W-specific RAPD markers in the normal W chromosomes of twenty-five silkworm strains maintained in Japan. These results indicate that the W chromosomes of the strains in Japan are almost identical in type. The Zebra-W strain (T(W;3)Ze chromosome) lacked the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers and the Black-egg-W strain (T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosome) lacked the W-Mikan RAPD marker. These results strongly indicate that the regions containing the W-Samurai and W-Mikan RAPD markers or the W-Mikan RAPD marker were deleted in the T(W;3)Ze and T(W;10)+(w-2) chromosomes, respectively, due to reciprocal translocation between the W chromosome and the autosome. This deletion apparently does not affect the expression of Fem; therefore, this deleted region of the W chromosome does not contain the putative Fem gene.

  9. Engineering human tumour-associated chromosomal translocations with the RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres, R; Martin, M C; Garcia, A; Cigudosa, Juan C; Ramirez, J C; Rodriguez-Perales, S

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we present a strategy for generating cancer-related human chromosomal translocations in vitro based on the ability of the RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 system to induce DSBs at defined positions...

  10. Chromosome evolution in the subtribe Bovina (Mammalia, Bovidae): the karyotype of the Cambodian banteng (Bos javanicus birmanicus) suggests that Robertsonian translocations are related to interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropiquet, Anne; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Deuve, Jane L; Gilbert, Clément; Pagacova, Eva; Chai, Norin; Rubes, Jiri; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Three subspecies of banteng (Bos javanicus) have been described: B. j. javanicus in Java, B. j. lowi in Borneo, and B. j. birmanicus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. In this paper we provide the first description of the karyotype of the Cambodian banteng. The chromosomal complement of B. j. birmanicus differs from that of B. j. javanicus, which was previously found to be similar to that of cattle, Bos taurus (2n = 60). The Cambodian banteng karyotype has a diploid number of 2n = 56 (FN = 62) and the karyotype consists of 26 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes and two pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. Comparisons with other species of the subtribe Bovina show that the two pairs of bi-armed chromosomes resulted from two centric fusions involving the equivalent of cattle chromosomes 1 and 29, and 2 and 28, respectively. Cross-species fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with B. taurus whole chromosome paints and satellite DNA I probes was used to identify the chromosomes involved in the translocations, and their orientation. We suggest that Robertsonian translocations (1;29) and (2;28) have been fixed in the common ancestor of Cambodian banteng as a consequence of hybridization with the kouprey (Bos sauveli) during the Pleistocene epoch.

  11. Evaluation of wheat chromosome translocation lines for high temperature stress tolerance at grain filling stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Prasad Pradhan

    Full Text Available High temperature (HT, heat stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production. Wild relatives of bread wheat may offer sources of HT stress tolerance genes because they grow in stressed habitats. Wheat chromosome translocation lines, produced by introgressing small segments of chromosome from wild relatives to bread wheat, were evaluated for tolerance to HT stress during the grain filling stage. Sixteen translocation lines and four wheat cultivars were grown at optimum temperature (OT of 22/14°C (day/night. Ten days after anthesis, half of the plants were exposed to HT stress of 34/26°C for 16 d, and other half remained at OT. Results showed that HT stress decreased grain yield by 43% compared with OT. Decrease in individual grain weight (by 44% was the main reason for yield decline at HT. High temperature stress had adverse effects on leaf chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm; and a significant decrease in Fv/Fm was associated with a decline in individual grain weight. Based on the heat response (heat susceptibility indices, HSIs of physiological and yield traits to each other and to yield HSI, TA5594, TA5617, and TA5088 were highly tolerant and TA5637 and TA5640 were highly susceptible to HT stress. Our results suggest that change in Fv/Fm is a highly useful trait in screening genotypes for HT stress tolerance. This study showed that there is genetic variability among wheat chromosome translocation lines for HT stress tolerance at the grain filling stage and we suggest further screening of a larger set of translocation lines.

  12. A feasible strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for carriers with chromosomal translocation: Using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chun Huang

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates an effective PGD strategy with promising outcomes. Blastocyst biopsy can retrieve more genetic material and may provide more reliable results, and aCGH offers not only detection of chromosomal translocation but also more comprehensive analysis of 24 chromosomes than traditional FISH. More cases are needed to verify our results and this strategy might be considered in general clinical practice.

  13. Unbalanced and Balanced Heterologous Acrocentric Rearrangements Involving Chromosome 21 at Amniocentesis

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Concerning heterologous acrocentric rearrangements involving chromosome 21, the frequency of unbalanced rearrangements was 0.0064% and that of balanced rearrangements was 0.0224% at amniocentesis. In this study, rob(14q21q was the most common, and rob(13q21q and rob(15q21q were the second most common rearrangements. Of the six families with an inherited heterologous acrocentric rearrangement involving chromosome 21, 50% (3/6 were aware of their parental carrier status only after prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a translocation by amniocentesis.

  14. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0·03) and red and processed meat (P = 0·01): 0·69 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·96) and 1·56 (95 % CI 1·13, 2·16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  15. Diagnostic X-ray examinations and increased chromosome translocations: evidence from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Yong, Lee C; Doody, Michele M; Preston, Dale L; Kampa, Diane M; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Edwards, Alan A; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2010-11-01

    Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below the level of approximately 50 mGy. Chromosome translocation frequency data from three separately conducted occupational studies of ionizing radiation were pooled together. Studies 1 and 2 included 79 and 150 medical radiologic technologists, respectively, and study 3 included 83 airline pilots and 50 university faculty members (total = 155 women and 207 men; mean age = 62 years, range 34-90). Information on personal history of radiographic examinations was collected from a detailed questionnaire. We computed a cumulative red bone marrow (RBM) dose score based on the numbers and types of X-ray examinations reported with 1 unit approximating 1 mGy. Poisson regression analyses were adjusted for age and laboratory method. Mean RBM dose scores were 49, 42, and 11 for Studies 1-3, respectively (overall mean = 33.5, range 0-303). Translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing dose score (P < 0.001). Restricting the analysis to the lowest dose scores of under 50 did not materially change these results. We conclude that chromosome damage is associated with low levels of radiation exposure from diagnostic X-ray examinations, including dose scores of approximately 50 and lower, suggesting the possibility of long-term adverse health effects.

  16. Incorporation of inactive x chromosomes in micronuclei of X;9 translocation individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hando, J.; Nath, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Tucker, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Several studies on aneuploidy have shown that the X is the most frequently lost chromosome in females. Recent studies have shown a significant increase in the number of X chromosome-positive micronuclei with age in females. This study was to determine if the X chromosome observed in micronuclei was active or inactive. Blood samples were obtained from two females, each with balanced X;9 translocations. The first subject was 36 years of age with a karyotype of 46,XX,t(X;9) (q13;q32). The second subject was 33 years of age with a karyotype of 46,XX,t(X;9) (p11.2;q13). Ten thousand binucleated cells were scored for the 36 year old donor, while 9500 were scored for the 33 year old donor. The kinetochore status K{sup +} or K{sup {minus}} of each micronucleau (MN) was recorded. Slides were then hybridized with the X centromere specific probe pBamX7 and a whole chromosome painting probe specific for chromosome 9. The X centromere probe was labeled with biotinylated UTP and visualized with fluorescein conjugated avidin. The chromosome 9 painting probe was directly conjugated with SpectrumOrange. All micronucleated cells were relocated and scored as X+9+, X+9-, X-9+; or X-9- depending on their probe status. The results were pooled since there was no significant difference between micronucleus frequencies, K-MN, X+MN or X+9-Mn. A total 217 mocronuclei were scored. Kinetochore labeling showed that 28.6% (62/217) were kinetochore positive, while 71.4% (155/217) were kinetochore negative. Of the 217 micronuclei, 44.2%(96/217) contained the X chromosome. Among the 96 X chromosome-positive micronuclei, 83.3% (80/96) contained the inactive X chromosome (9-), while only 16.7% (16/96) contained an active X chromosome. These data clearly show that inclusion of the inactive X chromosome in micronuclei is preferential (p <0.005; {chi}2 analysis 1 df).

  17. Down syndrome consequent to a cryptic maternal 12p;21q chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.A.; Wenger, S.L.; Chakravarti, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    A 9-year-old, mildly mentally retarded girl presented with phenotypic manifestations of Down syndrome. G-banded chromosomal analyses of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patient and her parents, and skin fibroblasts from the patient, did not detect any abnormality. Molecular analysis of 15 highly polymorphic chromosome 21 dinucleotide repeat markers demonstrated a partial duplication of the Down syndrome critical region (D21S55, subband 21q22.2) of maternal origin in the patient. The segmental trisomy was confirmed by FISH analysis using the cosmid probe D21S55. Further analysis demonstrated that the trisomy was due to segregation of an apparently balanced cryptic translocation from the mother. The patient`s karyotype is 46,XX,-12,tder(12)t(12;21)(p13.1;q22.2)mat. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Whalley

    Full Text Available Individuals carrying rare, but biologically informative genetic variants provide a unique opportunity to model major mental illness and inform understanding of disease mechanisms. The rarity of such variations means that their study involves small group numbers, however they are amongst the strongest known genetic risk factors for major mental illness and are likely to have large neural effects. DISC1 (Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 is a gene containing one such risk variant, identified in a single Scottish family through its disruption by a balanced translocation of chromosomes 1 and 11; t(1;11 (q42.1;q14.3.Within the original pedigree, we examined the effects of the t(1;11 translocation on white matter integrity, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA. This included family members with (n = 7 and without (n = 13 the translocation, along with a clinical control sample of patients with psychosis (n = 34, and a group of healthy controls (n = 33.We report decreased white matter integrity in five clusters in the genu of the corpus callosum, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, acoustic radiation and fornix. Analysis of the mixed psychosis group also demonstrated decreased white matter integrity in the above regions. FA values within the corpus callosum correlated significantly with positive psychotic symptom severity.We demonstrate that the t(1;11 translocation is associated with reduced white matter integrity in frontal commissural and association fibre tracts. These findings overlap with those shown in affected patients with psychosis and in DISC1 animal models and highlight the value of rare but biologically informative mutations in modeling psychosis.

  19. Partial monosomy 7q34-qter and 21pter-q22.13 due to cryptic unbalanced translocation t(7;21 but not monosomy of the whole chromosome 21: a case report plus review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolotii Alexei D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal monosomies in human are generally suggested to be incompatible with life; however, there is quite a number of cytogenetic reports describing full monosomy of one chromosome 21 in live born children. Here, we report a cytogenetically similar case associated with congenital malformation including mental retardation, motor development delay, craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. Results Initially, a full monosomy of chromosome 21 was suspected as only 45 chromosomes were present. However, molecular cytogenetics revealed a de novo unbalanced translocation with a der(7t(7;21. It turned out that the translocated part of chromosome 21 produced GTG-banding patterns similar to original ones of chromosome 7. The final karyotype was described as 45,XX,der(7t(7;21(q34;q22.13,-21. As a meta analysis revealed that clusters of the olfactory receptor gene family (ORF are located in these breakpoint regions, an involvement of OFR in the rearrangement formation is discussed here. Conclusion The described clinical phenotype is comparable to previously described cases with ring chromosome 21, and a number of cases with del(7(q34. Thus, at least a certain percentage, if not all full monosomy of chromosome 21 in live-borns are cases of unbalanced translocations involving chromosome 21.

  20. [A case of pervasive developmental disorder with chromosomal translocation (X; 4) (p11; q13)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzoni, A; Raja, M

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations, with or without congenital physical abnormalities, have been frequently found associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including mental retardation, psychosis, autism, and criminal behaviour. The meaning of the association frequently remains unclear. However, consistent findings of association between specific chromosomal abnormalities and clinical phenotype may provide evidence of a causal relationship and shed light on the pathogenesis of obscure disorders. Here, we present the case of a 28 year-old, Caucasian male affected by pervasive developmental disorder, associated with chromosomal translocation 46, XY, t (X; 4) (p11; q13), and abnormal facial features. A few days after birth, the patient was taken away from his parents and adopted for unknown reasons. No information is available about his biological relatives. Mild delay in the development of spoken language was reported. Since early childhood, the patient's behaviour was characterized by troublesome relationship with his parents and his fellows, and persistent violation of norms and rules at home and at school. Consequently, social and school functioning was poor. When he was eight, verbal and motor stereotypy appeared for the first time. As an adolescent, he was more and more aggressive. He exhibited countless episodes of rage and verbal and physical aggressiveness. After he had completed secondary school, his way of life was chaotic. He got into the habit of staying away from home, sleeping in the day and vagabonding at night. He began to abuse alcohol. Grandiosity and persecutory delusions became evident. He claimed to hate the Vatican, the Pope, and the Polish people and to be the Devil, the Antichrist. He feared that his food was poisoned by his mother and refused to eat at home any more. He loved to remain in a cage with two wild dogs, accumulating and keeping bottles full of his urine. He often engaged in violent fights in the street with tramps and foreigners. Finally

  1. Absence of t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Matera, Serena; Fago, Lucrezia; Arrabito, Giorgio; Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Libra, Massimo; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to pesticides represents a potential health risk for the general population and for agricultural workers in particular. Some researchers observed that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with risk of non‑Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of pesticides on t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure. Fifty-two workers occupationally exposed to pesticides (fungicides and insecticides) and 52 non-exposed were recruited. The farm workers were on average exposed to pesticides for ~3.7 h a day for 5 years. The frequency of BCL2-IGH t(14;18) translocation in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides was 10% (5 of 52) vs. 8% (4 of 52) in the control group. Overall, these data suggest that no significant association between occupational exposure to pesticides and an increased frequency of the chromosomal translocation BCL2-IGH t(14;18) in farmers was observed. However, further studies with a higher number of subjects exposed to pesticides are necessary to confirm this observation.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based concurrent screening of 24-chromosome aneuploidy and unbalanced translocations in preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Northrop, Lesley E; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Su, Jing; Levy, Brynn; Scott, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    To develop, validate, and apply a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray-based method for simultaneous preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of unbalanced inheritance of rearranged chromosomes and 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Prospective clinical research study. Academic reproductive medicine center. Eighteen couples carrying a balanced reciprocal or Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangement. PGD on blastocyst trophectoderm biopsy specimens. Aneuploidy, implantation, pregnancy, and delivery rates after SNP microarray-based aneuploidy and translocation screening. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray was capable of detecting translocation-associated imbalances as small as 9.0 megabases. In the 12 transfers performed, sustained implantation occurred for 9 (45%) of 20 balanced-normal and euploid embryos replaced. The clinical pregnancy rate in patients receiving a transfer was 75% with six singleton deliveries and three ongoing singleton pregnancies thus far. Significantly fewer embryos were eligible for transfer with the incorporation of simultaneous 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Arrested embryos were also significantly more likely to possess unbalanced chromosomes when compared with developmentally competent blastocysts. This SNP microarray-based method provides the first opportunity to improve outcomes through comprehensive identification of euploid embryos from translocation carrier couples. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel wheat-Agropyron elongatum chromosome translocation line with powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Li

    Full Text Available Agropyron elongatum (Host. Neviski (synonym, Thinopyrum ponticum Podp., 2n = 70 has been used extensively as a valuable source for wheat breeding. Numerous chromosome fragments containing valuable genes have been successfully translocated into wheat from A. elongatum. However, reports on the transfer of powdery mildew resistance from A. elongatum to wheat are rare. In this study, a novel wheat-A. elongatum translocation line, 11-20-1, developed and selected from the progenies of a sequential cross between wheat varieties (Lankaoaizaoba, Keyu 818 and BainongAK 58 and A. elongatum, was evaluated for disease resistance and characterized using molecular cytogenetic methods. Cytological observations indicated that 11-20-1 had 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe showed that the short arms of a pair of wheat chromosomes were replaced by a pair of A. elongatum chromosome arms. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using wheat D chromosome specific sequence pAs1 as a probe, suggested that the replaced chromosome arms of 11-20-1 were 5DS. This was further confirmed by wheat SSR markers specific for 5DS. EST-SSR and EST-STS multiple loci markers confirmed that the introduced A. elongatum chromosome arms belonged to homoeologous group 5. Therefore, it was deduced that 11-20-1 was a wheat-A. elongatum T5DL∙5AgS translocation line. Both resistance observation and molecular marker analyses using two specific markers (BE443538 and CD452608 of A. elongatum in a F2 population from a cross between line 11-20-1 and a susceptible cultivar Yannong 19 verified that the A. elongatum chromosomes were responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. This work suggests that 11-20-1 likely contains a novel resistance gene against powdery mildew. We expect this line to be useful for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel wheat-Agropyron elongatum chromosome translocation line with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiangdong; Song, Jie; Ren, Cuicui; Xiao, Yajuan; Gao, Xiaohui; Ru, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Agropyron elongatum (Host.) Neviski (synonym, Thinopyrum ponticum Podp., 2n = 70) has been used extensively as a valuable source for wheat breeding. Numerous chromosome fragments containing valuable genes have been successfully translocated into wheat from A. elongatum. However, reports on the transfer of powdery mildew resistance from A. elongatum to wheat are rare. In this study, a novel wheat-A. elongatum translocation line, 11-20-1, developed and selected from the progenies of a sequential cross between wheat varieties (Lankaoaizaoba, Keyu 818 and BainongAK 58) and A. elongatum, was evaluated for disease resistance and characterized using molecular cytogenetic methods. Cytological observations indicated that 11-20-1 had 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe showed that the short arms of a pair of wheat chromosomes were replaced by a pair of A. elongatum chromosome arms. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using wheat D chromosome specific sequence pAs1 as a probe, suggested that the replaced chromosome arms of 11-20-1 were 5DS. This was further confirmed by wheat SSR markers specific for 5DS. EST-SSR and EST-STS multiple loci markers confirmed that the introduced A. elongatum chromosome arms belonged to homoeologous group 5. Therefore, it was deduced that 11-20-1 was a wheat-A. elongatum T5DL∙5AgS translocation line. Both resistance observation and molecular marker analyses using two specific markers (BE443538 and CD452608) of A. elongatum in a F2 population from a cross between line 11-20-1 and a susceptible cultivar Yannong 19 verified that the A. elongatum chromosomes were responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. This work suggests that 11-20-1 likely contains a novel resistance gene against powdery mildew. We expect this line to be useful for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  5. Slit scan flow cytometry of isolated chromosomes following fluorescence hybridization: an approach of online screening for specific chromosomes and chromosome translocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, M.; Dudin, G.; Aten, J. A.; Heilig, R.; Diaz, E.; Cremer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The recently developed methods of non radioactive in situ hybridization of chromosomes offer new aspects for chromosome analysis. Fluorescent labelling of hybridized chromosomes or chromosomal subregions allows to facilitate considerably the detection of specific chromosomal abnormalities. For many

  6. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  7. Significant Role of Segmental Duplications and SIDD Sites in Chromosomal Translocations of Hematological Malignancies: A Multi-parametric Bioinformatic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Aditi; Ansari, Afzal; Pandya, Medha; Shah, Krupa; Patel, Shanaya; Rawal, Rakesh; Umrania, Valentina

    2016-11-28

    Recurrent non-random chromosomal translocations are hallmark characteristics of leukemogenesis, and however, molecular mechanisms underlying these rearrangements are less explored. The fundamental question is, why and how chromosomes break and reunite so precisely in the genome. Meticulous understanding of mechanism leading to chromosomal rearrangement can be achieved by characterizing breakpoints. To address this hypothesis, a novel multi-parametric computational approach for characterization of major leukemic translocations within and around breakpoint region was performed. To best of our knowledge, this bioinformatic analysis is unique in finding the presence of segmental duplications (SDs) flanking breakpoints of all major leukemic translocation. Breakpoint islands (BpIs) were analyzed for stress-induced duplex destabilization (SIDD) sites along with other complex genomic architecture and physicochemical properties. Our study distinctly emphasizes on the probable correlative role of SDs, SIDD sites and various genomic features in the occurrence of breakpoints. Further, it also highlights potential features which may be playing a crucial role in causing double-strand breaks, leading to translocation.

  8. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes (no.21/14) in relation to the history of spontaneous abortion in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh-NazarAbadi, Mohammad; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Namazi, Iman; Mirzaee, Salmeh

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed. Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement. six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting.

  9. Interchanges in popcorn (Zea mays L. involving the nucleolus organizer chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suely Pagliarini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microsporogenesis in endogamous plants of popcorn (S5 to S7 showed several and distinctinterchanges which involve the nucleolus organizer (chromosome 6. The detection of cells with interchanges was facilitatedby the presence of two nucleoli of different sizes in contrast to normal ones with a single big nucleolus. Interchange points donot always seem to be at the same place. Whereas in several situations the interchange point clearly involved more than twochromosome pairs, a simple terminal translocation seemed to occur in others. During diplotene, a cross-shaped configurationconnected with the nucleoli was observed in some meiocytes. Some heteromorphic bivalents were found during diakinesis,after which meiosis progressed normally to the end and gave rise to apparently normal tetrads with one normal nucleolus ineach microspore. Tests of pollen viability in fixed pollen grains showed 100% stainability in normal and in affected plants.This is the first report on chromosome interchanges in popcorn.

  10. Robertsonian translocation in a sex reversal dog (XX, SRY negative) may indicate that the causative mutation for this intersexuality syndrome resides on canine chromosome 23 (CFA23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, M; Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Kociucka, B; Bartz, M; Dzimira, S; Mikolajewska, N

    2011-01-01

    A Bernese mountain dog was subjected for clinical evaluation due to the presence of ambiguous external genitalia (enlarged clitoris). Anatomical and histological studies revealed the presence of one testicle, one ovotestis and a uterus. This dog was classified as a female-to-male sex reversal, with 2 normal X chromosomes and a lack of the Y chromosome-linked genes SRY and ZFY. It is the first case of this syndrome in this breed. Apparently a Robertsonian translocation, rob(5;23), was also identified in this dog and it is again the first case of this type of chromosome abnormality in this breed, as well as the first case of co-occurrence of the sex reversal syndrome along with a centric fusion in the dog. Since on the canine chromosome 23 (CFA23) 3 genes (FOXL2,PISRT1 and CTNNB1) involved in the sex determination process are present, further cytogenetic FISH studies were carried out with the use of BAC probes specific for this chromosome. It was found that a pericentromeric fragment of CFA23 was deleted as a result of the centric fusion. We hypothesize that a cis regulatory sequence for the sex determination genes on CFA23 (e.g. proximally located CTNNB1) is present in the deleted fragment. Thus, a causative mutation responsible for this sex reversal syndrome may reside on CFA23. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Molecular Characterization of a Chromosomal Rearrangement Involved in the Adaptive Evolution of Yeast Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Querol, Amparo; Puig, Sergi; Barrio, Eladio

    2002-01-01

    Wine yeast strains show a high level of chromosome length polymorphism. This polymorphism is mainly generated by illegitimate recombination mediated by Ty transposons or subtelomeric repeated sequences. We have found, however, that the SSU1-R allele, which confers sulfite resistance to yeast cells, is the product of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes VIII and XVI due to unequal crossing-over mediated by microhomology between very short sequences on the 5′ upstream regions of the SSU1 and ECM34 genes. We also show that this translocation is only present in wine yeast strains, suggesting that the use for millennia of sulfite as a preservative in wine production could have favored its selection. This is the first time that a gross chromosomal rearrangement is shown to be involved in the adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [The sequence data from this study have been submitted to EMBL under accession nos. AF239757, AF239758, and AJ458340–AJ458367. The following individual kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: N. Goto-Yamamoto.] PMID:12368245

  12. A feasible strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for carriers with chromosomal translocation: Using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chu-Chun; Chang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Yi-Yi; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Mei-Ya; Su, Yi-Ning; Chen, Hsin-Fu; Chen, Shee-Uan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chromosomal translocation are highly vulnerable to produce unbalanced gametes that result in recurrent miscarriages, affected offspring, or infertility. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with blastomere biopsy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to select normal/balanced embryos for transfer. However, FISH is inherent with some technical difficulties such as cell fixation and signal reading. Here we introduce a strategy of PGD using blastocyst biopsy...

  13. Cytological characterization of an interspecific hybrid in Jatropha and its progeny reveals preferential uniparental chromosome transmission and interspecific translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Shuto; Muakrong, Narathid; Kikuchi, Shinji; Tanya, Patcharin; Sassa, Hidenori; Koba, Takato; Srinives, Peerasak

    2016-12-01

    Genetic variation in Jatropha curcas, a prospective biodiesel plant, is limited, and interspecific hybridization needed for its genetic improvement. Progeny from interspecific crosses between J. curcas and Jatropha integerrima can be used to improve agronomic characters and to increase oil content and yield. However, these hybrids have not been characterized cytologically. The present study was aimed at the analysis of chromosome behavior during meiosis and chromosome composition of S1 plants derived from an interspecific F1 hybrid using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bivalents that formed as a result of interspecific pairing were frequently observed, suggesting the presence of homoeologous chromosomes from the two species. Almost half of microspores were derived from the reduction division; GISH analysis indicated random transmission of the parent chromosomes to microspores. Male fertility measured as pollen staining with acetocarmine was 48.4%. In contrast, GISH analysis of S1 plants revealed preferential transmission of J. curcas chromosomes. We also found segment exchange between chromosomes of the two species (interspecific translocation) by GISH and FISH analyses. Introgression of J. integerrima chromosome segments into the J. curcas genome would help to improve Jatropha cultivars for mass production.

  14. Isolation of subtelomeric sequences of porcine chromosomes for translocation screening reveals errors in the pig genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, R E; Fonseka, G; Frodsham, R; Archibald, A L; Lawrie, M; Walling, G A; Griffin, D K

    2017-08-01

    Balanced chromosomal aberrations have been shown to affect fertility in most species studied, often leading to hypoprolificacy (reduced litter size) in domestic animals such as pigs. With an increasing emphasis in modern food production on the use of a small population of high quality males for artificial insemination, the potential economic and environmental costs of hypoprolific boars, bulls, rams etc. are considerable. There is therefore a need for novel tools to facilitate rapid, cost-effective chromosome translocation screening. This has previously been achieved by standard karyotype analysis; however, this approach relies on a significant level of expertise and is limited in its ability to identify subtle, cryptic translocations. To address this problem, we developed a novel device and protocol for translocation screening using subtelomeric probes and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Probes were designed using BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes) from the subtelomeric region of the short (p-arm) and long (q-arm) of each porcine chromosome. They were directly labelled with FITC or Texas Red (p-arm and q-arm respectively) prior to application of a 'Multiprobe' device, thereby enabling simultaneous detection of each individual porcine chromosome on a single slide. Initial experiments designed to isolate BACs in subtelomeric regions led to the discovery of a series of incorrectly mapped regions in the porcine genome assembly (from a total of 82 BACs, only 45 BACs mapped correctly). Our work therefore highlights the importance of accurate physical mapping of newly sequenced genomes. The system herein described allows for robust and comprehensive analysis of the porcine karyotype, an adjunct to classical cytogenetics that provides a valuable tool to expedite efficient, cost effective food production. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Constitutional translocation t(1;17)(p36.31-p36.13;q11.2-q12.1) in a neuroblastoma patient. Establishment of somatic cell hybrids and identification of PND/A12M2 on chromosome 1 and NF1/SCYA7 on chromosome 17 as breakpoint flanking single copy markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laureys, G.; Speleman, F.; Versteeg, R.; van der Drift, P.; Chan, A.; Leroy, J.; Francke, U.; Opdenakker, G.; van Roy, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular studies in neuroblastoma suggest the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at the distal band p36 of human chromosome 1. We described a constitutional translocation t(1;17)(p36;q12-q21), involving the critical region 1p36, in a patient with neuroblastoma, and hypothesized

  16. Household exposure to paint and petroleum solvents, chromosomal translocations, and the risk of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scélo, Ghislaine; Metayer, Catherine; Zhang, Luoping; Wiemels, Joseph L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Selvin, Steve; Month, Stacy; Smith, Martyn T; Buffler, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between home use of solvents and paint and the risk of childhood leukemia. In this case-control study, we examined whether the use of paint and petroleum solvents at home before birth and in early childhood influenced the risk of leukemia in children. We based our analyses on 550 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 100 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and one or two controls per case individually matched for sex, age, Hispanic status, and race. We conducted further analyses by cytogenetic subtype. We used conditional logistic regression techniques to adjust for income. ALL risk was significantly associated with paint exposure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-2.15], with a higher risk observed when paint was used postnatally, by a person other than the mother, or frequently. The association was restricted to leukemia with translocations between chromosomes 12 and 21 (OR = 4.16; 95% CI, 1.66-10.4). We found no significant association between solvent use and ALL risk overall (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.87-1.51) or for various cytogenetic subtypes, but we observed a significant association in the 2.0- to 5.9-year age group (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07-2.25). In contrast, a significant increased risk for AML was associated with solvent (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.19-5.42) but not with paint exposure (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.32-1.25). The association of ALL risk with paint exposure was strong, consistent with a causal relationship, but further studies are needed to confirm the association of ALL and AML risk with solvent exposure.

  17. Identification of 2nd chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakurup Sreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

  18. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  19. The NFATc2 gene is involved in a novel cloned translocation in a Ewing sarcoma variant that couples its function in immunology to oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhai, Károly; Ijszenga, Marije; de Jong, Danielle; Karseladze, Apollon; Tanke, Hans J; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2009-04-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma and is the second most common bone sarcoma in childhood. Disease-specific t(11;22) ( approximately 85-90%), t(21;22) ( approximately 5-10%), or rarer variant translocations with the involvement of chromosome 22 ( approximately 5%) are present. At the gene level, the EWSR1 gene fuses with FLI1, ERG, or other ETS transcription factor family members. Thus far, no Ewing sarcoma has been identified with a fusion to transcription factors other than ETS. Using molecular tools such as multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization, a ring chromosome containing chromosomes 20 and 22 was identified in four Ewing sarcoma cases. The breakpoint was mapped with (fiber-) fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR followed by sequencing of the fusion partners. Molecular karyotyping showed the translocation and amplification of regions of chromosomes 20q13 and 22q12. Cloning of the breakpoint showed an in-frame fusion between the EWSR1 and NFATc2 genes, resulting in loss of the NH(2)-terminal, calcineurin-dependent control region and an intact active domain of NFATc2 controlled by the transactivation domains of EWSR1. A new translocation involving EWSRI and NFATc2 was cloned. NFATc2 is a transcription factor that is not a member of the ETS family and functions in T-cell differentiation and immune response. Direct involvement of NFATc2 has not yet been observed in oncogenesis. We show that due to the shared sequence recognition of NFATc2 and the ETS family, shared transcriptional control is possible using activating protein complex 1.

  20. Y autosome translocation and complex chromosome rearrangement in cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, J F; Mattei, M G; Coignet, J; Giraud, F

    1978-01-01

    An unbalanced Y autosome translocation t(5;Y) and an apparently balanced translocation t(2;13) are identified with the Q and R banding in a 7-year-old boy with severe encephalopathy and a multiple malformation syndrome. At birth, the clinical diagnosis of 'cri du chat' syndrome based on the characteristic crying was not confirmed after karyotyping, using conventional staining techniques. Images PMID:641952

  1. Partial trisomy 11q involving chromosome 1 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.; McCorquodale, D.J. [Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 11q was detected in an infant delivered 3-4 weeks prematurely. The phenotype included slanted palpebral fissures, high arched palate, developmental delay, microcephaly, and cardiac defects, all of which occur in the majority of cases with this syndrome. Other features included a column-shaped skull, preauricular pit, single palmar crease, short, broad great toes, flat occiput, unilateral kidney agenesis, and strabismus. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed the presence of extra material on the long arm of chromosome 1. The G-banding pattern of this extra material indicated that it might be derived from chromosome 1 or 11. Chromosomal {open_quotes}paints{close_quotes} showed that it was not chromosome 1 material, but was chromosome 11 material extending from band q21 to qter. Partial trisomy 11q arising from translocation of the 11q material to chromosome 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 17, 21, 22, and X has been reported previously, whereas translocation to chromosome 1 has not. The chromosome to which the 11q material is translocated does not alter the most frequent features of the partial trisomy 11q syndrome, but may influence other less common features.

  2. Asplenia syndrome in a child with a reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 11 and 20 [46,XX,t(11;20)(q13.1;q13.13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.B.; Muraldharan, K.; Pettay, D. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Failure to establish the left-right embryonic axis results in abnormalities of laterality; situs solitus is replaced by situs inversus totalis or various degrees of heterotaxy involving the heart, great vessels, lungs, liver, spleen, and/or bowel. Laterality syndromes are likely to be genetically heterogeneous although specific human genes have not been identified. Families with dominant, recessive, and X-linked laterality syndromes have been reported as well as individuals with situs abnormalities and chromosome rearrangements. The latter offer the possibility of narrowing the gene search to specific chromosome regions. A recent report described an infant with polysplenia syndrome and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 11 [46,XX,inv(11)(q13q25)pat]. We report the second case of a child with laterality abnormalities and a chromosome rearrangement involving a similar breakpoint on chromosome 11. The proband is a 6 y/o female with mental retardation, dysmorphic features, pulmonic stenosis, asplenia, Hirschsprung disease, and a balanced, reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 11 and 20 [46,XX,t(11;20)(q13,1;q13.13)pat]. Using DNA probes we have excluded uniparental disomy for chromosomes 11 and 20. If a gene for determination of laterality lies in the 11q13 region, the proband`s abnormalities could be the result of her receiving an allele disrupted by the paternal translocation as well as a mutant allele from her mother. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the segregation of maternal chromosome 11 markers in the proband and her balanced carrier and non-carrier siblings.

  3. Asplenia syndrome in a child with a balanced reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 11 and 20 [46,XX,t(11;20)(q13.1;q13.13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.B.; May, K.M.; Blackston, R.D.; Muralidharan, K. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-02

    We present a 6-year-old girl with a balanced 11;20 translocation [46,XX,t(11;20)(q13.1;q13.13)pat], asplenia, pulmonic stenosis, Hirschsprung disease, minor anomalies, and mental retardation. This case represents the second report of an individual with situs abnormalities and a balanced chromosome rearrangement involving a breakpoint at 11q13. Segregation analysis of markers in the 11q13 region in the proposita and her phenotypically normal carrier sibs did not show a unique combination of maternal and paternal alleles in the patient. We discuss several possible explanations for the simultaneous occurrence of situs abnormalities and a balanced 11;20 translocation. These include (1) chance, (2) a further chromosome rearrangement in the patient, (3) gene disruption and random situs determination, and (4) gene disruption plus transmission of a recessive or imprinted allele from the mother. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Novel Integrated Lab-on-Chip System for Chromosome Translocations Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Lange, Jacob Moresco; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will focus on the development of a chromosome total analysis system (C-TAS) starting from the design strategy and simulations to the integration into a final monolithic plug and play device. Individual modules which perform the sample preprocessing and analysis tasks like - cell...... isolation, cell culture, cell lysing, chromosome extraction and Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization will be presented. How we solved connecting the individual chips and adjusting the microfluidic flows, by using simulations will be discussed....

  5. A Role For Epigenetics In The Formation Of Chromosome Translocations In Acute Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gill Super, Heidi J.

    2015-01-01

    Unequivocally, cancer is a disease stemming from gene mutation. In fact, many subtypes of cancer now have an identified collection of common, consistent DNA sequence abnormalities associated with them. These DNA sequence changes range from single nucleotide substitutions to extensive, complex chromosome rearrangements. Twenty-plus years of molecular genetic analysis has elucidated hundreds of “cancer-associated” genes whose normal function contributes to cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, cel...

  6. Robertsonian translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 27, describes the occurrence of Robertsonian translocations (RTs), which refer to the recombination of whole chromosome arms, in both monocentric and dicentric chromosomes. The nonrandom participation of acrocentric chromosomes in RTs is documented by various methods, including unbiased ascertainment and ascertainment through trisomy, infertility, unspecified mental retardation, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Causes of nonrandom participation of chromosomes in RTs is presented, as are the following topics: segregation in carriers of RTs and segregation in sperm cells of RT carriers, interchromosomal effects and conclusions. 48 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fine Mapping of Chromosome 17 Translocation Breakpoints ⩾900 Kb Upstream of SOX9 in Acampomelic Campomelic Dysplasia and a Mild, Familial Skeletal Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Harfe, Katherine L.; Kaplan, Lee; Stalker, Heather J.; Zori, Roberto T.; Pop, Ramona; Scherer, Gerd; Wallace, Margaret R.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, our group reported a five-generation family in which a balanced t(13;17) translocation is associated with a spectrum of skeletal abnormalities, including Robin sequence, hypoplastic scapulae, and a missing pair of ribs. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with chromosome-specific markers to analyze DNA from somatic cell hybrids containing the derivative translocation chromosomes, we narrowed the breakpoint on each chromosome. Subsequent sequencing of PCR products spanning the breakpoints identified the breaks precisely. The chromosome 17 breakpoint maps ∼932 kb upstream of the sex-determining region Y (SRY)–related high-mobility group box gene (SOX9) within a noncoding transcript represented by two IMAGE cDNA clones. A growing number of reports have implicated chromosome 17 breakpoints at a distance of up to 1 Mb from SOX9 in some cases of campomelic dysplasia (CD). Although this multigeneration family has a disorder that shares some features with CD, their phenotype is significantly milder than any reported cases of (nonmosaic) CD. Therefore, this case may represent an etiologically distinct skeletal dysplasia or may be an extremely mild familial example of CD, caused by the most proximal translocation breakpoint from SOX9 reported to date. In addition, we have refined the breakpoint in an acampomelic CD case described elsewhere and have found that it lies ∼900 kb upstream of SOX9. PMID:15717285

  8. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of <15 m ml(-1) . The significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  10. Do Non-Genomically Encoded Fusion Transcripts Cause Recurrent Chromosomal Translocations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarz, Eric; Dingermann, Theo; Marschalek, Rolf, E-mail: Rolf.Marschalek@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology/ZAFES/DCAL, Goethe-University of Frankfurt, Biocenter, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, D-60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2012-10-18

    We among others have recently demonstrated that normal cells produce “fusion mRNAs”. These fusion mRNAs do not derive from rearranged genomic loci, but rather they are derived from “early-terminated transcripts” (ETTs). Premature transcriptional termination takes place in intronic sequences that belong to “breakpoint cluster regions”. One important property of ETTs is that they exhibit an unsaturated splice donor site. This results in: (1) splicing to “cryptic exons” present in the final intron; (2) Splicing to another transcript of the same gene (intragenic trans-splicing), resulting in “exon repetitions”; (3) splicing to a transcript of another gene (intergenic trans-splicing), leading to “non-genomically encoded fusion transcripts” (NGEFTs). These NGEFTs bear the potential risk to influence DNA repair processes, since they share identical nucleotides with their DNA of origin, and thus, could be used as “guidance RNA” for DNA repair processes. Here, we present experimental data about four other genes. Three of them are associated with hemato-malignancies (ETV6, NUP98 and RUNX1), while one is associated with solid tumors (EWSR1). Our results demonstrate that all genes investigated so far (MLL, AF4, AF9, ENL, ELL, ETV6, NUP98, RUNX1 and EWSR1) display ETTs and produce transpliced mRNA species, indicating that this is a genuine property of translocating genes.

  11. Nonrandom involvement of chromosomal segments in human hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The consistent occurrence of nonrandom chromosome changes in human malignancies suggests that they are not trivial epiphenomena. Whereas we do not understand their significance at present, one possible role which they may fulfill is to provide the chromosomally aberrant cells with a proliferative advantage as the result of alteration of the number and/or location of genes related to nucleic acid biosynthesis. It would be expected that the proliferative advantage provided by various chromosome aberrations differs in patients with different genetic constitutions.

  12. Chromosome Catastrophes Involve Replication Mechanisms Generating Complex Genomic Rearrangements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C. Sreenath; Dhar, Shweta U; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Cooper, M. Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Bacino, Carlos A; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R; McLean, Scott D; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P.J; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R; Bi, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    .... Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers...

  13. Quantitation and analysis of the formation of HO-endonuclease stimulated chromosomal translocations by single-strand annealing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Lauren; Manthey, Glenn; Pannunzio, Nicholas; Bailis, Adam

    2011-09-23

    Genetic variation is frequently mediated by genomic rearrangements that arise through interaction between dispersed repetitive elements present in every eukaryotic genome. This process is an important mechanism for generating diversity between and within organisms(1-3). The human genome consists of approximately 40% repetitive sequence of retrotransposon origin, including a variety of LINEs and SINEs(4). Exchange events between these repetitive elements can lead to genome rearrangements, including translocations, that can disrupt gene dosage and expression that can result in autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases(5), as well as cancer in humans(6-9). Exchange between repetitive elements occurs in a variety of ways. Exchange between sequences that share perfect (or near-perfect) homology occurs by a process called homologous recombination (HR). By contrast, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) uses little-or-no sequence homology for exchange(10,11). The primary purpose of HR, in mitotic cells, is to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated endogenously by aberrant DNA replication and oxidative lesions, or by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), and other exogenous DNA damaging agents. In the assay described here, DSBs are simultaneously created bordering recombination substrates at two different chromosomal loci in diploid cells by a galactose-inducible HO-endonuclease (Figure 1). The repair of the broken chromosomes generates chromosomal translocations by single strand annealing (SSA), a process where homologous sequences adjacent to the chromosome ends are covalently joined subsequent to annealing. One of the substrates, his3-Δ3', contains a 3' truncated HIS3 allele and is located on one copy of chromosome XV at the native HIS3 locus. The second substrate, his3-Δ5', is located at the LEU2 locus on one copy of chromosome III, and contains a 5' truncated HIS3 allele. Both substrates are flanked by a HO endonuclease recognition site that can be targeted for

  14. The clinical impact of chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints upstream of the SOX9 gene: two novel de novo balanced translocations associated with acampomelic campomelic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana Carolina S; Bonaldi, Adriano; Bertola, Débora R; Kim, Chong A; Otto, Paulo A; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M

    2013-05-07

    The association of balanced rearrangements with breakpoints near SOX9 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9] with skeletal abnormalities has been ascribed to the presumptive altering of SOX9 expression by the direct disruption of regulatory elements, their separation from SOX9 or the effect of juxtaposed sequences. We report on two sporadic apparently balanced translocations, t(7;17)(p13;q24) and t(17;20)(q24.3;q11.2), whose carriers have skeletal abnormalities that led to the diagnosis of acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD; MIM 114290). No pathogenic chromosomal imbalances were detected by a-CGH. The chromosome 17 breakpoints were mapped, respectively, 917-855 kb and 601-585 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene. A distal cluster of balanced rearrangements breakpoints on chromosome 17 associated with SOX9-related skeletal disorders has been mapped to a segment 932-789 kb upstream of SOX9. In this cluster, the breakpoint of the herein described t(17;20) is the most telomeric to SOX9, thus allowing the redefining of the telomeric boundary of the distal breakpoint cluster region related to skeletal disorders to 601-585 kb upstream of SOX9. Although both patients have skeletal abnormalities, the t(7;17) carrier presents with relatively mild clinical features, whereas the t(17;20) was detected in a boy with severe broncheomalacia, depending on mechanical ventilation. Balanced and unbalanced rearrangements associated with disorders of sex determination led to the mapping of a regulatory region of SOX9 function on testicular differentiation to a 517-595 kb interval upstream of SOX9, in addition to TESCO (Testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 core). As the carrier of t(17;20) has an XY sex-chromosome constitution and normal male development for his age, the segment of chromosome 17 distal to the translocation breakpoint should contain the regulatory elements for normal testis development. These two novel translocations illustrate the clinical variability in carriers of balanced

  15. Modeling of the human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma Pax3-Foxo1 chromosome translocation in mouse myoblasts using CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Lagutina

    Full Text Available Many recurrent chromosome translocations in cancer result in the generation of fusion genes that are directly implicated in the tumorigenic process. Precise modeling of the effects of cancer fusion genes in mice has been inaccurate, as constructs of fusion genes often completely or partially lack the correct regulatory sequences. The reciprocal t(2;13(q36.1;q14.1 in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (A-RMS creates a pathognomonic PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene. In vivo mimicking of this translocation in mice is complicated by the fact that Pax3 and Foxo1 are in opposite orientation on their respective chromosomes, precluding formation of a functional Pax3-Foxo1 fusion via a simple translocation. To circumvent this problem, we irreversibly inverted the orientation of a 4.9 Mb syntenic fragment on chromosome 3, encompassing Foxo1, by using Cre-mediated recombination of two pairs of unrelated oppositely oriented LoxP sites situated at the borders of the syntenic region. We tested if spatial proximity of the Pax3 and Foxo1 loci in myoblasts of mice homozygous for the inversion facilitated Pax3-Foxo1 fusion gene formation upon induction of targeted CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease-induced DNA double strand breaks in Pax3 and Foxo1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization indicated that fore limb myoblasts show a higher frequency of Pax3/Foxo1 co-localization than hind limb myoblasts. Indeed, more fusion genes were generated in fore limb myoblasts via a reciprocal t(1;3, which expressed correctly spliced Pax3-Foxo1 mRNA encoding Pax3-Foxo1 fusion protein. We conclude that locus proximity facilitates chromosome translocation upon induction of DNA double strand breaks. Given that the Pax3-Foxo1 fusion gene will contain all the regulatory sequences necessary for precise regulation of its expression, we propose that CRISPR-Cas9 provides a novel means to faithfully model human diseases caused by chromosome translocation in mice.

  16. The clinical impact of chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints upstream of the SOX9 gene: two novel de novo balanced translocations associated with acampomelic campomelic dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of balanced rearrangements with breakpoints near SOX9 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9] with skeletal abnormalities has been ascribed to the presumptive altering of SOX9 expression by the direct disruption of regulatory elements, their separation from SOX9 or the effect of juxtaposed sequences. Case presentation We report on two sporadic apparently balanced translocations, t(7;17)(p13;q24) and t(17;20)(q24.3;q11.2), whose carriers have skeletal abnormalities that led to the diagnosis of acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD; MIM 114290). No pathogenic chromosomal imbalances were detected by a-CGH. The chromosome 17 breakpoints were mapped, respectively, 917–855 kb and 601–585 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene. A distal cluster of balanced rearrangements breakpoints on chromosome 17 associated with SOX9-related skeletal disorders has been mapped to a segment 932–789 kb upstream of SOX9. In this cluster, the breakpoint of the herein described t(17;20) is the most telomeric to SOX9, thus allowing the redefining of the telomeric boundary of the distal breakpoint cluster region related to skeletal disorders to 601–585 kb upstream of SOX9. Although both patients have skeletal abnormalities, the t(7;17) carrier presents with relatively mild clinical features, whereas the t(17;20) was detected in a boy with severe broncheomalacia, depending on mechanical ventilation. Balanced and unbalanced rearrangements associated with disorders of sex determination led to the mapping of a regulatory region of SOX9 function on testicular differentiation to a 517–595 kb interval upstream of SOX9, in addition to TESCO (Testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 core). As the carrier of t(17;20) has an XY sex-chromosome constitution and normal male development for his age, the segment of chromosome 17 distal to the translocation breakpoint should contain the regulatory elements for normal testis development. Conclusions These two novel translocations illustrate

  17. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized human oocytes is unrelated to maternal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Nureddin, Aida.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Racowsky, Catherine

    2004-12-04

    Purpose: To study whether maternal meiotic errors in failed-fertilized oocytes involving chromosome 1 occur at frequencies similar to those involving other autosomes, and whether their frequency is affected by maternal age. Methods: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), frequencies of aneusomy and chromatid pre-division involving chromosomes 1, 16, 18, and 21 were determined for 273 failed-fertilized oocytes. Results: The aneuploidy rate for chromosome 1 was 15.8 percent, and was neither age-dependent nor significantly different from that for chromosomes 16,18 or 21. Only chromosome 16 exhibited an age-dependent increase in aneusomy rates. The frequency of chromatid pre-division was lower for chromosome 1 than for chromosome 18 (11.9 percent vs. 25.4 percent; P=0.01), but not different from that for chromosomes 16 or 21. Conclusion: Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized oocytes is unrelated to maternal age and occurs at a frequency similar to that for chromosomes 16, 18 and 21.

  18. MYC translocation-negative classical Burkitt lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Cocco, M; Onnis, A

    2008-01-01

    at the standardization of FISH procedures in lymphoma diagnosis, we found that five cases out of 35 classic endemic BLs were negative for MYC translocations by using a split-signal as well as a dual-fusion probe. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs predicted to target c-Myc, in BL cases, to clarify...... whether alternative pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for lymphomagenesis in cases lacking the MYC translocation. miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several studies have reported their involvement in cancer...... was observed in BL cases, compared to normal controls. More interestingly, hsa-mir-34b was found to be down-regulated only in BL cases that were negative for MYC translocation, suggesting that this event might be responsible for c-Myc deregulation in such cases. This hypothesis was further confirmed by our...

  19. Molecular studies of free and translocation trisomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Lefort, G. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Twenty cases of trisomy 13 were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Six cases had translocation trisomy: two de novo rob(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;13q)r(13). Eighteen of nineteen informative patients were consistant with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in any of the three t(13q;13q) cases indicate that all were most likely isochromosomes of post-meiotic origin. In addition, two free trisomy cases were compatible with a somatic origin. Two mosaic free trisomy-13 cases, however, were both consistent with a maternal meiotic origin. The patient with a paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13;14) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. One balanced (non-trisomic) case with a non-mosaic 45,-13,-13,+t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologs, as has been found for all homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. It is therefore also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. We cannot therefore infer anything about the origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the two cases with de novo t(13q;14q) plus a maternally derived trisomy 13.

  20. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Daza Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R. One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species.

  1. Translocations involving 8q24 in Burkitt lymphoma and other malignant lymphomas : a historical review of cytogenetics in the light of todays knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, E. G.; Siebert, R.; Kluin, P. M.; Baudis, M.

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has a characteristic clinical presentation, morphology, immunophenotype and primary chromosomal aberration, that is, the translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) or its variants. However, diagnostic dilemmas may arise in daily practice due to overlap of BL with subsets of other

  2. Multiple translocation of the AVR-Pita effector gene among chromosomes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Chuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2 is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation.

  3. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  4. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol; Impact des facteurs individuels et environnementaux sur le taux d'aberrations chromosomiques de type translocations - Partie 1: age, sexe, tabac, alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L. [IRSN, Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-04-15

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  5. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  6. Enhanced stimulation of chromosomal translocations and sister chromatid exchanges by either HO-induced double-strand breaks or ionizing radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yku70 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasullo, Michael [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)]. E-mail: mfasullo@ordwayresearch.org; St Amour, Courtney [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States); Zeng Li [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of both MAT a and MAT{alpha} inhibits NHEJ and facilitates DSB-initiated HR. We previously observed that DSB-initiated recombination between two his3 fragments, his3-{delta}5' and his3-{delta}3'::HOcs is enhanced in haploids and diploids expressing both MAT a and MAT{alpha} genes, regardless of the position or orientation of the his3 fragments. Herein, we measured frequencies of DNA damage-associated translocations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in yku70 haploid mutants, defective in NHEJ. Translocation and SCE frequencies were measured in strains containing the same his3 fragments after DSBs were made directly at trp1::his3-{delta}3'::HOcs. Wild type and yku70 cells were also exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), phleomycin, and 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4-NQO). Frequencies of X-ray-associated and DSB-initiated translocations were five-fold higher in yku70 mutants compared to wild type; however, frequencies of phleomycin-associated translocations were lower in the yku70 haploid mutant. Frequencies of DSB-initiated SCEs were 1.8-fold higher in the yku70 mutant, compared to wild type. Thus, DSB-initiated HR between repeated sequences on non-homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids occurs at higher frequencies in yku70 haploid mutants; however, higher frequencies of DNA damage-associated HR in yku70 mutants depend on the DNA damaging agent.

  7. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. An insight into the ligand-receptor interactions involved in the translocation of pathogens across blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencurova, Elena; Mlynarcik, Patrik; Bhide, Mangesh

    2011-12-01

    Traversal of pathogen across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an essential step for central nervous system (CNS) invasion. Pathogen traversal can occur paracellularly, transcellularly, and/or in infected phagocytes (Trojan horse mechanism). To trigger the translocation processes, mainly through paracellular and transcellular ways, interactions between protein molecules of pathogen and BBB are inevitable. Simply, it takes two to tango: both host receptors and pathogen ligands. Underlying molecular basis of BBB translocation of various pathogens has been revealed in the last decade, and a plethora of experimental data on protein-protein interactions has been created. This review compiles these data and should give insights into the ligand-receptor interactions that occur during BBB translocation. Further, it sheds light on cell signaling events triggered in response to ligand-receptor interaction. Understanding of the molecular principles of pathogen-host interactions that are involved in traversal of the BBB should contribute to develop new vaccine and drug strategies to prevent CNS infections. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel in vivo model of inducible multidrug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(4;11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with translocation t(4;11) is found in 60-85% of infants with ALL and is classified as high-risk due to the generally poor prognosis for survival. Using the SEM cell line established from a patient with t(4;11) ALL, we evaluated the resistance of these cells to the...

  10. The Presence of Translocation [t(16;19(q24;q12x2] between Two Copy of Non-homologous Chromosomes at a Case with Atypical Facial Appearance and Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Tanriverdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental retardation is a common handicap (2-3% of the general population with an unknown cause in more than 50% of mentally retarded patients. Important causes are chromosome abnormalities which are detectable in 4-28% of cases, depending on the patient selection and techniques used. Aim of the study was to determine possible association between atypic facial appearance, mental retardation and the translocation [t(16;19(q24;q12x2] between two copy of non homolog chromosomes. Materials and Methods: Chromosomal analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the proband and her family were performed with standart protocols at the Cukurova University hospital in Turkey. Results: We assessed the second and third generation of the family in which the translocation between chromosomes 16 and 19 segregates: one of the three progenies with the karyotype 46,XY, t(16;19(q24;q12 was heterozygote for the translocation and presented normal phenotype. One of the three progenies with the karyotype 46,XY presented normal phenotype also and the third with the karyotype 46,XY [t(16;19(q24;q12x2] was the proband. The parents were consanguinous, heterozygote for the translocation, and presented normal phenotype. Conclusions: Atypialc facial appearance and mental retardation could be associated with the homozygote translocation. These findings can be used in clinical genetics and may be used as an effective tool for reproductive guidance and genetic counseling. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 540-542

  11. Comparison of Radiosensitivity of Human Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 from One Healthy Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ramadhani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, it was assumed that the chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation is proportional to the chromosome size. From this viewpoint, the higher chromosome size, the more resistant to radiation. However, different opinions, in which chromosomes are particularly sensitive or resistant to radiation, are also still followed until now. Here in this research, we compared the chromosome sensitivity between chromosomes number 1, 2, and 4 using the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. From this research, we expect that the information obtained could show clearly whether a longer chromosome is more frequently involved in translocations and also more resistant to radiation than a shorter one. The type of chromosome aberration considered was limited only to translocation and we used one sample donor in order to avoid donor variability. The whole blood from a healthy female was irradiated with γ-rays with doses of 1, 3 and 5 Gy, respectively. Isolated lymphocytes from the whole blood were then cultured for 48 hours. After the culture process was completed, preparations of harvest and metaphase chromosomes were carried out. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were stained with different fluorochromes. The translocation of each chromosome at each dose point was subsequently evaluated from 50 images obtained from an automated metaphase finder and capturing system. An additional analysis was performed to identify which chromosome arm was more frequently involved in translocation. Further analyses were also conducted with the aim of determining which chromosome band had a higher frequency of radiation-induced breakage. The experimental results showed that chromosome number 4 was more frequently involved in translocations compared to chromosomes 1 and 2 at 5 Gy. In contrast, at doses of 1 and 3 Gy translocations involving chromosomes number 1 and 2 were more numerous compared to the ones involving chromosome 4. However, if the number of

  12. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  13. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  14. Familial cryptic translocation between chromosomes 2qter and 8qter: further delineation of the Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, E. K.; Aalfs, C. M.; Sluitjer, S.; Oude Luttikhuis, M. E.; Trembath, R. C.; Hoovers, J. M.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Recently five patients with an Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like phenotype were reported to have a subtelomeric deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2. These patients showed a striking resemblance to a number of patients from a large pedigree known to us for a long time. After

  15. Complete trisomy 5p owing to de novo translocation t(5;22)(q11;p11) with isochromosome 5p associated with a familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 2, inv 2(p21q11).

    OpenAIRE

    Orye, E; Benoit, Y; van Mele, B

    1983-01-01

    A boy with a de novo translocation (5;22) and isochromosome 5p associated with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 2 (p21q11) is described. The pericentric inversion was also present in the mother. The main clinical features of the 'complete trisomy 5p' syndrome were present in the proband.

  16. Involvement of synaptonemal complex proteins in sex chromosome segregation during marsupial male meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Page

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Marsupial sex chromosomes break the rule that recombination during first meiotic prophase is necessary to ensure reductional segregation during first meiotic division. It is widely accepted that in marsupials X and Y chromosomes do not share homologous regions, and during male first meiotic prophase the synaptonemal complex is absent between them. Although these sex chromosomes do not recombine, they segregate reductionally in anaphase I. We have investigated the nature of sex chromosome association in spermatocytes of the marsupial Thylamys elegans, in order to discern the mechanisms involved in ensuring their proper segregation. We focused on the localization of the axial/lateral element protein SCP3 and the cohesin subunit STAG3. Our results show that X and Y chromosomes never appear as univalents in metaphase I, but they remain associated until they orientate and segregate to opposite poles. However, they must not be tied by a chiasma since their separation precedes the release of the sister chromatid cohesion. Instead, we show they are associated by the dense plate, a SCP3-rich structure that is organized during the first meiotic prophase and that is still present at metaphase I. Surprisingly, the dense plate incorporates SCP1, the main protein of the central element of the synaptonemal complex, from diplotene until telophase I. Once sex chromosomes are under spindle tension, they move to opposite poles losing contact with the dense plate and undergoing early segregation. Thus, the segregation of the achiasmatic T. elegans sex chromosomes seems to be ensured by the presence in metaphase I of a synaptonemal complex-derived structure. This feature, unique among vertebrates, indicates that synaptonemal complex elements may play a role in chromosome segregation.

  17. Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new cell, the centromere serves as an attachment site for the two halves of each replicated ... of each chromosome is inherited from the female parent and the other from the male parent. This ...

  18. A complex de novo translocation of chromosomes 4, 6 and 21 in a child with dysmorphic features and unusual hematological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneer, R.S.; Hopcus, D.J.; Sarale, C. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 5 1/2-year-old white male was referred to our institution for evaluation of easy bruising confined to lower extremities since infancy. His family history is not significant with healthy parents and six normal siblings. Physical examination revealed weight and height both in 50th and 75th percentile, respectively. Major findings included macrocephaly with prominent forehead, hypertelorism with inner and outer canthus distances both above 97th percentile, epicanthus folds, normal ears with prominent upper pinnae, thin, sharp nose with pointed tip, neck with pterygium coli appearance and shortened clavicles, short thumbs with hyperconvex nails that curved around tip of fingers, abnormally bowed elbows and knee joints, prominent abdomen with omphalocele and flat feet with hypoplastic nails. He has a speech articulation problem which may be due to high arched palate. Hematological evaluation revealed PT/PTT values in normal range with prolonged bleeding time > 15 minutes. Because of abnormal elbow and knee joints, Mitromycin C Stress test was performed to rule out Fanconi`s anemia (FA). The chromosome breakage frequency was found to be within the normal range for both the patient and the control. Thus, the diagnosis of FA was ruled out. However, cytogenetic analysis revealed a three-way complex translocation between chromosomes 4, 6 and 21 with an apparent balanced carrier male karyotype: 46,XY,t(4;6;21)(4qter{r_arrow}4p16::21q21{r_arrow} 21qter;6qter{r_arrow}6p21.1::4p16{r_arrow}4pter;21pter{r_arrow} 21q21::6p21.1{r_arrow}6pter). Both parents have normal chromosomes.

  19. Reproductive Incompatibility Involving Senegalese Aedes aegypti (L) Is Associated with Chromosome Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laura B; Sharakhova, Maria V; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Fleming, Karen L; Caspary, Alex; Sylla, Massamba; Black, William C

    2016-04-01

    used to identify AT-rich regions, chromomycin A3 following pretreatment with barium hydroxide stained for GC-rich regions and stained the ribosomal RNA locus and YOYO-1 was used to test for differential staining. Chromosome patterns in SenAae strains revealed by these three stains differed from those in IB12. For FISH, 40 BAC clones previously physically mapped on Aaa chromosomes were used to test for chromosome rearrangements in SenAae relative to IB12. Differences in the order of markers identified two chromosomal rearrangements between IB12 and SenAae strains. The first rearrangement involves two overlapping pericentric (containing the centromere) inversions in chromosome 3 or an insertion of a large fragment into the 3q arm. The second rearrangement is close to the centromere on the p arm of chromosome 2. Linkage analysis of the SDL and the white-eye locus identified a likely chromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. The reproductive incompatibility observed within SenAae and between SenAae and Aaa may be generally associated with chromosome rearrangements on all three chromosomes and specifically caused by pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3.

  20. Reproductive Incompatibility Involving Senegalese Aedes aegypti (L Is Associated with Chromosome Rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Dickson

    2016-04-01

    staining was used to identify AT-rich regions, chromomycin A3 following pretreatment with barium hydroxide stained for GC-rich regions and stained the ribosomal RNA locus and YOYO-1 was used to test for differential staining. Chromosome patterns in SenAae strains revealed by these three stains differed from those in IB12. For FISH, 40 BAC clones previously physically mapped on Aaa chromosomes were used to test for chromosome rearrangements in SenAae relative to IB12. Differences in the order of markers identified two chromosomal rearrangements between IB12 and SenAae strains. The first rearrangement involves two overlapping pericentric (containing the centromere inversions in chromosome 3 or an insertion of a large fragment into the 3q arm. The second rearrangement is close to the centromere on the p arm of chromosome 2. Linkage analysis of the SDL and the white-eye locus identified a likely chromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. The reproductive incompatibility observed within SenAae and between SenAae and Aaa may be generally associated with chromosome rearrangements on all three chromosomes and specifically caused by pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3.

  1. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in a female with a de novo, balanced translocation involving 7q32: Probable disruption of an SLOS gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, M.; Zori, R.T.; Alley, T.; Whidden, E.; Gray, B.A.; Williams, C.A. [Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-05-01

    A 3-month-old infant girl had manifestations of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) including typical positional anomalies of the limbs, apparent Hirschsprung disease, cataracts, ptosis, anteverted nares, cleft of the posterior palate, small tongue, broad maxillary alveolar ridges, and abnormally low serum cholesterol levels. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation interpreted as 46,XX,t(7;20)(q32.1;q13.2). We hypothesize that the translocation breakpoint in this case interrupts one SLOS allele and that the other allele at the same locus has a more subtle mutation that was inherited from the other parent. This case, as well as cytogenetic observations in other SLOS cases, suggests that SLOS could be due to autosomal recessive mutation at a gene in 7q32. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Characterization of regions of chromosomes 12 and 16 involved in nephroblastoma tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, E; Candon, S; Henry, I; Gyapay, G; Tournade, M F; Mannens, M; Callen, D; Junien, C; Jeanpierre, C

    1995-12-01

    There are at least three loci involved in Wilms' tumor (WT) tumorigenesis: WT1 in 11p13, WT2 in 11p15.5, and WT3, as yet unmapped. A compilation of cytogenetic data published for 107 WT revealed that deletion of chromosome 16 and duplication of chromosome 12 occur as frequently as the well-documented 11p deletions. Allelic imbalance for chromosomes 16 and 12 was investigated in a series of 28 WT. By use of a large panel of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and (CA)n probes, we demonstrated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 16q in seven (25%) of the tumors. The whole length of 16q was involved in six of the tumors. Moreover, consistent with a previous report of 16q13 LOH in a sporadic WT and a constitutional breakpoint with a Beckwith-Wiedemann patient, we map a region of particular interest to between D16S308 and D16S320. The assumption that 16q LOH may be an early event was based on: 1) the detection of 16q LOH in one case of nephroblastomatosis; 2) the presence of a complete (clonal) 16q LOH in a tumor with partial (mosaic) 11p LOH; and 3) 16q LOH as the sole abnormality in one WT. By quantification of chromosome 12 allelic imbalance, we detected duplication in 18% of the total series and in 25% of the sporadic unilateral cases. The common region extended from the centromere to D12S7 in 12q21.1-q23. We also suggest that the various pathogenetically important loci are not equally involved in the different forms of WT and that their sequential involvement may differ.

  4. Expression of specific genes involved in Cd uptake, translocation, vacuolar compartmentalisation and recycling in Populus alba Villafranca clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romè, Chiara; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Danku, John; Salt, David E; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal toxic to humans and its occurrence in soils represents a significant environmental problem. Poplar trees may provide one possible option to help remove Cd contamination from soil. However, before this is practicable, the ability of poplar to accumulate Cd needs to be enhanced. A better understanding of the genes involved in Cd accumulation in poplar would help to achieve this goal. Here, we monitored the expression of genes known to be involved in Cd uptake, accumulation and translocation from other species, in order to provide information on their potential role in Cd accumulation in poplar. Cd concentration in poplar was significantly higher in roots than in stem and leaves in Cd treated plants. Expression of the poplar homologues of IRT1, NRAMP and OPT3 was initially increased after exposure to Cd but reduced after longer term Cd exposure. Exposure to Cd also influenced the accumulation of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg and Mn in poplar. In particular, Cd treated plants had a higher concentration of Fe, Ca, Cu, and Mg in leaves and stem compared to control plants after one day and one week of experiment; while in roots after one month Cd treated plants had a lower concentration of Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Mg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Autosomal dominant Brody disease cosegregates with a chromosomal (2;7)(p11.2;p12.1) translocation in an Italian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Valente, Enza Maria; Bernardini, Laura; Ceccarini, Caterina; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Caputo, Viviana; Cavalli, Pietro; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2004-07-01

    Brody disease is a rare muscle disorder characterized by exercise-induced impairment in muscle relaxation, due to a markedly reduced influx of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A subset of autosomal recessive families harbour mutations in the ATP2A1 gene, encoding the fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA1). Rare autosomal dominant families have been described, in which ATP2A1 was excluded as the causative gene, further supporting genetic heterogeneity. We report four individuals from a three-generation Italian family with a clinical phenotype of Brody disease, in which linkage analysis excluded ATP2A1 as the responsible gene. The disease cosegregates in an autosomal dominant fashion with an apparently balanced constitutional chromosome translocation (2;7)(p11.2;p12.1), suggesting a causal relationship between the rearrangement and the phenotype. FISH analysis using YAC and PAC clones as probes refined the breakpoint regions to genomic segments of about 164 and 120 kb, respectively, providing a possible clue to pinpoint the location of a novel gene responsible for this rare muscle disorder.

  6. A case of pervasive developmental disorder with chromosomal translocation 1-4 Um caso de transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento com translocação cromossômica 1-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Tarelho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl is described as pervasive developmental disorder associated to chromosome 1-4 translocation, being such association not described till this moment in specialized literature.Descrevemos uma menina de 5 anos de idade portadora de transtorno invasivo do desenvolvimento associado a translocação dos cromossomos 1-4, associação essa não descrita na literatura especializada até o presente momento.

  7. Cryptic mosaicism involving a second chromosome X in patients with Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Araújo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high abortion rate of 45,X embryos indicates that patients with Turner syndrome and 45,X karyotype could be mosaics, in at least one phase of embryo development or cellular lineage, due to the need for the other sex chromosome presence for conceptus to be compatible with life. In cases of structural chromosomal aberrations or hidden mosaicism, conventional cytogenetic techniques can be ineffective and molecular investigation is indicated. Two hundred and fifty patients with Turner syndrome stigmata were studied and 36 who had female genitalia and had been cytogenetically diagnosed as having "pure" 45,X karyotype were selected after 100 metaphases were analyzed in order to exclude mosaicism and the presence of genomic Y-specific sequences (SRY, TSPY, and DAZ was excluded by PCR. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and screened by the human androgen receptor (HUMARA assay. The HUMARA gene has a polymorphic CAG repeat and, in the presence of a second chromosome with a different HUMARA allele, a second band will be amplified by PCR. Additionally, the CAG repeats contain two methylation-sensitive HpaII enzyme restriction sites, which can be used to verify skewed inactivation. Twenty-five percent (9/36 of the cases showed a cryptic mosaicism involving a second X and approximately 14% (5/36, or 55% (5/9 of the patients with cryptic mosaicism, also presented skewed inactivation. The laboratory identification of the second X chromosome and its inactivation pattern are important for the clinical management (hormone replacement therapy, and inclusion in an oocyte donation program and prognostic counseling of patients with Turner syndrome.

  8. Structural and functional studies of FKHR-PAX3, a reciprocal fusion gene of the t(2;13 chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiande Hu

    Full Text Available Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS is an aggressive pediatric cancer of skeletal muscle. More than 70% of ARMS tumors carry balanced t(2;13 chromosomal translocation that leads to the production of two novel fusion genes, PAX3-FKHR and FKHR-PAX3. While the PAX3-FKHR gene has been intensely studied, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 gene has rarely been described. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of the FKHR-PAX3 gene as the first step towards a better understanding of its potential impact on ARMS biology. From RH30 ARMS cells, we detected and isolated three versions of FKHR-PAX3 cDNAs whose C-terminal sequences corresponded to PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3e isoforms. Unlike the nuclear-specific localization of PAX3-FKHR, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 proteins stayed predominantly in the cytoplasm. FKHR-PAX3 potently inhibited myogenesis in both non-transformed myoblast cells and ARMS cells. We showed that FKHR-PAX3 was not a classic oncogene but could act as a facilitator in oncogenic pathways by stabilizing PAX3-FKHR expression, enhancing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and matrix adhesion in vitro, and accelerating the onset of tumor formation in xenograft mouse model in vivo. In addition to these pro-oncogenic behaviors, FKHR-PAX3 also negatively affected cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these functional characteristics suggested that FKHR-PAX3 might have a critical role in the early stage of ARMS development.

  9. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  10. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  11. Non random distribution of genomic features in breakpoint regions involved in chronic myeloid leukemia cases with variant t(9;22) or additional chromosomal rearrangements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albano, Francesco; Anelli, Luisa; Zagaria, Antonella; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Casieri, Paola; Rossi, Antonella Russo; Vicari, Laura; Liso, Vincenzo; Rocchi, Mariano; Specchia, Giorgina

    2010-01-01

    ... 90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). As a result of the translocation, the 3' portion of the ABL1 oncogene is transposed from 9q34 to the 5' portion of the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to form the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene...

  12. The Actin Cytoskeleton Is Involved in Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF-Induced Ret Translocation into Lipid Rafts in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potential therapeutic factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD, exerts its biological effects through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. The redistribution of Ret into lipid rafts substantially influences Ret signaling, but the mechanisms underlying Ret translocation remain unclear. The purpose of our study was to further explore the signaling mechanisms of GDNF and to determine whether the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the GDNF-induced Ret translocation into lipid rafts. In MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells, we used density gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to separate and visualize lipid rafts, co-immunoprecipitation to analyze protein-protein interactions, and latrunculin B (Lat B and jasplakinolide (Jas to disrupt and enhance the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. The results showed that Ret translocated into lipid rafts and coimmunoprecipitated with actin in response to GDNF treatment. After Lat B or Jas treatment, the Ret–F-actin association induced by GDNF was impaired or enhanced respectively and then the levels of Ret translocated into lipid rafts were correspondingly inhibited or promoted. These data indicate that actin polymerization and cytoskeletal remodeling are integral to GDNF-induced cell signaling in dopaminergic cells and define a new role of the actin cytoskeleton in promoting Ret redistribution into lipid rafts.

  13. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A complex 1;19;11 translocation involving the gene in a patient with congenital acute monoblastic leukemia identified by molecular and cytogenetic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Braekeleer, Etienne; Meyer, Claus; Douet-Guilbert, Nathalie; Morel, Frédéric; Bris, Marie-Josée; Marschalek, Rolf; Férec, Claude; Braekeleer, Marc

    2008-01-01

    A complex 1;19;11 translocation involving the MLL gene in a patient with congenital acute monoblastic leukemia identified by molecular and cytogenetic techniques phone: +33-02-98016476 (Braekeleer, Marc) (Braekeleer, Marc) Laboratoire de Cytogenetique, Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale - 22, avenue Camille Desmoulins - CS 93837 F-29238 - Brest Cedex 3 - FRANCE (Braekeleer, Etienne) Institut Nation...

  15. Activation of Holliday junction recognizing protein involved in the chromosomal stability and immortality of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Sato, Nagato; Hayama, Satoshi; Yamabuki, Takumi; Ito, Tomoo; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Daigo, Yataro

    2007-09-15

    We identified a novel gene HJURP (Holliday junction-recognizing protein) whose activation seemed to play a pivotal role in the immortality of cancer cells. HJURP was considered a possible downstream target for ataxia telangiectasia mutated signaling, and its expression was increased by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). HJURP was involved in the homologous recombination pathway in the DSB repair process through interaction with hMSH5 and NBS1, which is a part of the MRN protein complex. HJURP formed nuclear foci in cells at S phase and those subjected to DNA damage. In vitro assays implied that HJURP bound directly to the Holliday junction and rDNA arrays. Treatment of cancer cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against HJURP caused abnormal chromosomal fusions and led to genomic instability and senescence. In addition, HJURP overexpression was observed in a majority of lung cancers and was associated with poor prognosis as well. We suggest that HJURP is an indispensable factor for chromosomal stability in immortalized cancer cells and is a potential novel therapeutic target for the development of anticancer drugs.

  16. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hengwen [Department of Radiation, Cancer Center of Guangdong General Hospital (Guangdong Academy of Medical Science), Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong (China); Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Yajie [Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China); Gao, Dongsheng [Department of Oncology, Guangdong Medical College Affiliated Pengpai Memorial Hospital, Hai Feng, 516400, Gungdong (China); Zhao, Shenting, E-mail: zhaoshenting@126.com [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, Guangdong (China)

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

  17. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  18. A cohort of balanced reciprocal translocations associated with dyslexia: identification of two putative candidate genes at DYX1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonincontri, Roberta; Bache, Iben; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders where likely many genes are involved in the pathogenesis. So far six candidate dyslexia genes have been proposed, and two of these were identified by rare chromosomal translocations in affected individuals. By systematic re......-examination of all translocation carriers in Denmark, we have identified 16 different translocations associated with dyslexia. In four families, where the translocation co-segregated with the phenotype, one of the breakpoints concurred (at the cytogenetic level) with either a known dyslexia linkage region--at 15q21...

  19. Complex three-way translocation involving MLL, ELL, RREB1, and CMAHP genes in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia and t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuborgh, A; Meyer, C; Marschalek, R

    2013-01-01

    Rearrangements affecting the MLL gene in hematological malignancies are associated with poor prognosis. Most often they are reciprocal translocations and more rarely complex forms involving at least 3 chromosomes. We describe an unusual case with cutaneous leukemic infiltrates that waxed and waned...... sequencing to characterize the genomic complement in the leukemic cells from aspirated bone marrow cells at AML diagnosis. Karyotyping showed 47,XY,t(6;19;11)(p22;p13;q23),+der(6)t(6;11)(p22;q23)[17]/48,sl,+8[3]/48,sl,+8,der(12)t(1;12)(q11;p13)[3]/ 48,sdl,der(Y)t(Y;1)(q12;q11),+8[7] conferring MLL-ELL fusion....... Oligo-aCGH analysis confirmed gains of 6p22qter and 11q23.3qter involving the CMAHP and MLL genes, respectively. DNA sequencing disclosed an additional breakpoint at 6p24.3 (at RREB1 gene). Retrospective fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed presence of the MLL-involving rearrangement...

  20. Effects of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signalling and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Chinnaiyan, Mayilvanan; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    Di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure. The present study was delineated to decipher the direct effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes, the rat skeletal muscle model. For this study we have exposed cells with 50 and 100μM DEHP and MEHP for 24h followed by insulin stimulation for 20min. GLUT4 level in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions were analysed by western blot analysis and found to be significantly decreased. Further, DEHP and MEHP treatment significantly altered the insulin signalling molecules and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation (Rab8A (Ras related proteins in skeletal muscle), insulin - regulated amino peptidase (IRAP), synaptosomal - associated protein 23 (SNAP23), Syntaxin4, Munc18c) from cytosol to plasma membrane. Impaired GLUT4 in the plasma membrane resulted in decreased 14 C-deoxy glucose uptake. 14 C-glucose oxidation and glycogen content were also significantly decreased in treated groups. In essence, the present study is first of its kind to show the direct adverse effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes. Further, MEHP is found to be more effective than DEHP as a result of its differential structure and physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A siRNA-based screen for genes involved in chromosome end protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Lackner

    Full Text Available Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes which protect the ends of linear chromosomes from detection as DNA damage and provide a sequence buffer against replication-associated shortening. In mammals, telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequence (TTAGGG and associated proteins. The telomeric core complex is called shelterin and is comprised of the proteins TRF1, TRF2, POT1, TIN2, TPP1 and RAP1. Excessive telomere shortening or de-protection of telomeres through the loss of shelterin subunits allows the detection of telomeres as DNA damage, which can be visualized as DNA damage protein foci at chromosome ends called TIF (Telomere Dysfunction-Induced Foci. We sought to exploit the TIF phenotype as marker for telomere dysfunction to identify novel genes involved in telomere protection by siRNA-mediated knock-down of a set of 386 candidates. Here we report the establishment, specificity and feasibility of such a screen and the results of the genes tested. Only one of the candidate genes showed a unique TIF phenotype comparable to the suppression of the main shelterin components TRF2 or TRF1 and that gene was identified as a TRF1-like pseudogene. We also identified a weak TIF phenotype for SKIIP (SNW1, a splicing factor and transcriptional co-activator. However, the knock-down of SKIIP also induced a general, not telomere-specific DNA damage response, which complicates conclusions about a telomeric role. In summary, this report is a technical demonstration of the feasibility of a cell-based screen for telomere deprotection with the potential of scaling it to a high-throughput approach.

  2. Isolation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences from an Alu polymerase chain reaction library to define the breakpoint in a patient with a constitutional translocation t(1;13) (q22;q12) and ganglioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, A J; Cotter, F E; Cowell, J K

    1992-08-01

    We describe the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a t(1;13)(q22;q12) constitutional rearrangement occurring in a patient with a relatively benign form of neuroblastoma, called ganglioneuroblastoma. Somatic cell hybrids were generated between mouse 3T3 cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line from this patient, D.G. One isolated subclone, DGF27C11, contained the derivative chromosome, 1pter-q22::13q12-qter, but no other material from either chromosome 1 or 13. Using available DNA probes the 13 breakpoint was assigned proximal to all reported markers. In order to generate flanking markers to define this translocation further, an Alu polymerase chain reaction library was constructed from a somatic cell hybrid containing only the proximal, 13pter-13q14, region of chromosome 13. Seven unique sequences have been isolated from the library, three of which lie below and four of which lie above the 13q12 breakpoint. More precise mapping of the distal markers was achieved using a panel of somatic cell hybrids with overlapping deletions of chromosome 13. The paucity of probes in the 1q22 region has made a precise assignment of this breakpoint difficult, however it has been shown to lie distal to c-SKI and proximal to APOA2. This refined characterization of the breakpoint is a prerequisite for its cloning, which may yield genes important in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroblastoma.

  3. Mapping of paternal-sex-ratio deletion chromosomes localizes multiple regions involved in expression and transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, BF; Beukeboom, LW; Werren, JH

    The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a submetacentric supernumerary (B chromosome). Males transmit PSR, but after fertilization it causes the loss of the paternal autosomes. Paternal genome loss caused by PSR results in the conversion of a female

  4. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the male-specific lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Philge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. Results We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Conclusions Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes.

  5. Dynamic mosaicism involving an unstable supernumerary der(22) chromosome in cat eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urioste, M; Visedo, G; Sanchís, A; Sentís, C; Villa, A; Ludeña, P; Hortigüela, J L; Martínez-Frías, M L; Fernández-Piqueras, J

    1994-01-01

    We have studied a girl, her sister and her mother who had a supernumerary marker chromosome in mosaicism. The marker was studied by cytogenetic methods and non-isotopic in situ hybridization with the single D22S9 DNA probe which maps to 22q11. The supernumerary chromosome was derived from a chromosome 22 and it did not present the same morphology in all the cells. At least 5 distinct types of the marker chromosome were detected and some of them were probably derived from each other (dynamic mosaicism). The proposita had an MCA pattern consistent with mild cat eye syndrome, while her sister and her mother had some of the manifestations described in this syndrome. A specific correlation could be established between phenotype and karyotype.

  6. Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256 and pS269-mediated aquaporin-2 apical translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Naofumi; Ando, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-08-26

    Vasopressin catalyzes aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at several serine sites in the C-terminal region. Compared with Ser-256 and Ser-269 phosphorylation, the role of Ser-261 phospho-regulation on vasopressin-regulated AQP2 apical translocation is largely unknown. In addition, recent discovery of transcytotic apical delivery of AQP2 made the concept of its intracellular trafficking even more complicated. In this study, we evaluated how intact phospho-AQP2 signals fit with the transcytosis trafficking model in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. PS256 and pS269 signals were intracellularly detectable in wild-type AQP2 at the beginning of forskolin stimulation (1 min). These phospho-signals were detectable in basolateral membranes even after 10 min of stimulation. AQP2 stably inserted in the apical membrane increased pS269 and decreased pS261 signals. In an NDI-causing mutant P262L-AQP2, in which Ser-261 phospho-regulation is impaired, the pS256 and pS269 signals were detectable in the basolateral membranes with increased pS261 signals after forskolin stimulation. These results suggest that Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256- and pS269-mediated AQP2 apical translocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and characterization of the regions involved in the nuclear translocation of the heterodimeric leishmanial DNA topoisomerase IB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Prada

    Full Text Available Leishmania donovani, the causative organism for visceral leishmaniasis, contains a unique heterodimeric DNA-topoisomerase IB (LdTopIB. LdTopIB is a heterodimer made up of a large subunit and a small subunit that must interact with each other to build an active enzyme able to solve the topological tensions on the DNA. As LdTopIB is located within the nucleus, one or more nuclear localization signals (NLS should exist to ensure its nuclear translocation. In this report three novel NLS have been identified through a sequential deletion study of the genes encoding of both subunits fused to that encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP. NLS1 is a highly basic sequence of 43 amino acids in the C-terminal extension of the large protomer. We found two well-defined sequences in the small protomer: NLS2 is a 10-amino acid motif located in the N-terminal extension of the protein; NLS3 consists of a complex region of 28 amino acids placed in the vicinity of the catalytic Tyr-222 included at the conserved SKINY signature within the C-terminal. Furthermore, by means of yeast cell viability assays, conducted with several LdTopIB chimeras lacking any of the NLS motives, we have revealed that both subunits are transported independently to the nucleus. There was no evidence of LdTopIB accumulation in mitochondria or association to the kinetoplast DNA network. The results rule out the former hypothesis, which attributes nucleocytoplasmic transport of LdTopIB entirely to the large subunit. The LdTopIB is localized to the nucleus only.

  8. New Metacentric Populations and Phylogenetic Hypotheses Involving Whole-Arm Reciprocal Translocation in Mus musculus domesticus from Sicily, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Riccardo; Capanna, Ernesto; Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Bizzoco, Domenico; Zambigli, Emanuela; Solano, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is characterized by more than 100 metacentric populations, due to the occurrence of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, together with the standard all-telocentric karyotype (2n = 40). We examined G-banded karyotypes of 18 mice from 10 localities in Sicily and describe 3 new metacentric populations: 'Ragusa Ibla' (IRAG), 2n = 33-36, Rb(2.4), Rb(5.6), Rb(9.16), Rb(13.17); 'Piana degli Albanesi' (IPIA), 2n = 23, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.5), Rb(4.12), Rb(6.11), Rb(7.8), Rb(9.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17); 'Trapani' (ITRA), 2n = 22, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.7), Rb(4.12), Rb(5.9), Rb(6.11), Rb(8.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17). Three mice belonged to the previously reported 'Castelbuono' race (ICAS), 2n = 24, which is very similar to the nearby 'Palermo' (IPAL) race, 2n = 26. Three Rb fusions not yet observed in wild mouse populations were identified: Rb(3.5), Rb(3.7) and Rb(5.9). Rb fusions shared among 4 races (IPIA, IRAG, ICAS, and IPAL) allowed us to describe their potential phylogenetic relationships. We obtained 2 alternative phylogenetic trees. The differences between them are mainly due to various modes of formation of IPIA and ITRA. In the first hypothesis, the specific Rb fusions occurred independently. In the second, those of IRAG originated from those of IPIA via whole-arm reciprocal translocations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma with L3 Morphology, Philadelphia Chromosome, MYC Gene Translocation, and Coexpression of TdT and Surface Light Chains: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Hirzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is predominantly found in children. It is a neoplasm of precursor cells or lymphoblasts committed to either a B- or T-cell lineage. The immature cells in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma can be small or medium sized with scant or moderate cytoplasm and typically express B-cell markers such as CD19, cytoplasmic CD79a, and TdT without surface light chains. These markers, along with cytogenetic studies, are vital to the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these neoplasms. We present an unusual case of a precursor B-cell ALL, in an 82-year-old woman, who presented with pancytopenia and widespread lymphadenopathy. The cells show L3 morphology (Burkitt-like lymphoma with coexpression of TdT and surface light chains in addition to an MYC gene translocation and Philadelphia chromosome.

  10. Formation of radiation induced chromosome aberrations: involvement of telomeric sequences and telomerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzio, L.

    2004-07-15

    As telomeres are crucial for chromosome integrity; we investigated the role played by telomeric sequences in the formation and in the transmission of radio-induced chromosome rearrangements in human cells. Starting from interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS) as putative region of breakage, we showed that the radiation sensitivity is not equally distributed along chromosomes and. is not affected by ITS. On the contrary, plasmid integration sites are prone to radio-induced breaks, suggesting a possible integration at sites already characterized by fragility. However plasmids do not preferentially insert at radio-induced breaks in human cells immortalized by telomerase. These cells showed remarkable karyotype stability even after irradiation, suggesting a role of telomerase in the genome maintenance despite functional telomeres. Finally, we showed that the presence of more breaks in a cell favors the repair, leading to an increase of transmissible rearrangements. (author)

  11. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies chromosomal regions involved in ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Jochumsen, Kirsten M; Mogensen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells exhibit complex karyotypic alterations causing deregulation of numerous genes. Some of these genes are probably causal for cancer formation and local growth, whereas others are causal for metastasis and recurrence. By using publicly available data sets, we have investigated...... the relation of gene expression and chromosomal position to identify chromosomal regions of importance for early recurrence of ovarian cancer. By use of *Gene Set Enrichment Analysis*, we have ranked chromosomal regions according to their association to survival. Over-representation analysis including 1...... summarized mutation load in these regions by a combined mutation score that is statistical significantly associated to survival by analysis in the data sets used for identification of the regions. Furthermore, the prognostic value of the combined mutation score was validated in an independent large data set...

  12. Sperm nuclear architecture is locally modified in presence of a Robertsonian translocation t(13;17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Acloque

    Full Text Available In mammals, the non-random organization of the sperm nucleus supports an early function during embryonic development. Altering this organization may interfere with the zygote development and reduce fertility or prolificity. Thus, rare studies on sperm cells from infertile patients described an altered nuclear organization that may be a cause or a consequence of their respective pathologies. Thereby, chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidy can be studied not only for their adverse effects on production of normal/balanced gametes at meiosis but also for their possible impact on sperm nuclear architecture and the epigenetic consequences of altered chromosome positioning. We decided to compare the global architecture of sperm nuclei from boars, either with a normal chromosome composition or with a Robertsonian translocation involving chromosomes 13 and 17. We hypothesized that the fusion between these chromosomes may change their spatial organization and we examined to what extend it could also modify the global sperm nuclear architecture. Analysis of telomeres, centromeres and gonosomes repartition does not support a global nuclear disorganization. But specific analysis of chromosomes 13 and 17 territories highlights an influence of chromosome 17 for the positioning of the fused chromosomes within the nucleus. We also observed a specific clustering of centromeres depending of the chromosome subtypes. Altogether our results showed that chromosome fusion does not significantly alter sperm nucleus architecture but suggest that centromere remodelling after chromosome fusion locally impacts chromosome positioning.

  13. Types frequencies and interchromosomal distribution of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in Anophelis messeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshkova, I.N.; Plevako, N.G. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki)

    1982-01-01

    A. messeae females impregnated in natural conditions were exposed to x-ray irradiation (1, 2, 3 kR). Chromosomes of cells of salivary glands of larvae F/sub 1/ were analyzed cytologically. Large amount of induced chromosomal aberrations was discovered. Among them paracentric inversions-41.0, pericentral-33.1, translocations-25.2 and one deletion-0.7% all the chromosomal arms of polytene set are involved in the aberrations. Amount of induced breaks are strictly proportional to the length of autosomal arms. A lesser amount of breaks in sex chromosomes is attributed to lethality or decreased survival rate of larvae with aberrations of these chromosomes.

  14. Involvement of the chromosomal region 11q13 in renal oncocytoma : Case report and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhaus, C; Dijkhuizen, T; vandenBerg, E; Storkel, S; Stockle, M; Mensch, B; Huber, C; Decker, HJ

    Renal oncocytomas comprise a cytogenetically heterogeneous group of tumors consisting potentially of cytogenetic distinguishable subgroups. Review of the literature revealed loss of chromosome 1 and Y as a possible anomaly for at least one subset of oncocytomas. The frequent finding of

  15. A rare Robertsonian translocation rob(14;22) carrier with azoospermia, meiotic defects, and testicular sperm aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Vladimir; Vozdova, Miluse; Heracek, Jiri; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a serious problem in an increasing number of couples. We report an infertile man with non-obstructive azoospermia and karyotype 45,XY,rob(14;22). The immunofluorescence analysis of his testicular tissue using antibodies to SYCP1, SYCP3, HORMAD2, MLH1, and centromeres showed delayed synapsis of the chromosomes involved in the translocation, a varying extent of trivalent asynapsis and its association with sex chromosomes. The mean frequency of meiotic recombination per cell was within the range of normal values. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 14 and 22 revealed 5.83% of chromosomally abnormal testicular spermatozoa. FISH with probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 21 showed frequencies of disomic and diploid testicular spermatozoa increased when compared to ejaculated sperm of healthy donors, but comparable with published results for azoospermic patients. PGD by FISH for the translocation and aneuploidy of chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, and 21 showed a normal chromosomal complement in one out of three analyzed embryos. A healthy carrier girl was born after the embryo transfer. This study shows the benefits of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a case of a rare Robertsonian translocation carrier with azoospermia and a relatively low frequency of chromosomally unbalanced testicular spermatozoa.

  16. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  17. Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome involving 13q31-qter: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue-Ping; Wang, Da-Jia; Niu, Zhi-Bin; Cui, Wan-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Partial deletions on the long arm of chromosome 13 lead to a number of different phenotypes depending on the size and position of the deleted region. The present study investigated 2 patients with 13q terminal (13qter) deletion syndrome, which manifested as anal atresia with rectoperineal fistula, complex type congenital heart disease, esophageal hiatus hernia with gastroesophageal reflux, facial anomalies and developmental and mental retardation. Array comparative genomic hybridization ident...

  18. Angelman Syndrome due to familial translocation: unexpected additional results characterized by Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama-Rebollar, Emiy; Ruiz-Herrera, Adriana; Lieberman-Hernández, Esther; Del Castillo-Ruiz, Victoria; Sánchez-Sandoval, Silvia; Ávila-Flores, Silvia M; Castrillo, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The 15q11q13 region is subject to imprinting and is involved in various structural rearrangements. Less than 1% of Angelman Syndrome patients are due to translocations involving 15q11q13. These translocations can arise de novo or result from the segregation of chromosomes involved in a familial balanced translocation. A 5-year-old Mexican girl presented with developmental delay, minor dysmorphic features and history of exotropia. G-banding chromosome analysis established the diagnosis of Angelman Syndrome resulting from a familial translocation t(10;15) involving the 15q11.2 region. The available family members were studied using banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization, which revealed additional unexpected results: a coincidental and smaller 15q deletion, asymptomatic duplications in 15q11.2 and Xp22.31 regions. This report demonstrates the usefulness of array CGH for a detailed characterization of familial translocations, including the detection of submicroscopic copy number variations, which would otherwise be missed by karyotype analysis alone. Our report also expands two molecularly characterized rare patient cohorts: Angelman Syndrome patients due to familial translocations and patients with 15q11.2 duplications of paternal origin.

  19. Prevalence of chromosomal rearrangements involving non-ETS genes in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Martina; Galal, Rami; Krohn, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is characterized by structural rearrangements, most frequently including translocations between androgen-dependent genes and members of the ETS family of transcription factor like TMPRSS2:ERG. In a recent whole genome sequencing study we identified 140 gene fusions that were...... unrelated to ETS genes in 11 prostate cancers. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of non-ETS gene fusions. We randomly selected 27 of these rearrangements and analyzed them by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray format containing 500 prostate cancers....... Using break-apart FISH probes for one fusion partner each, we found rearrangements of 13 (48%) of the 27 analyzed genes in 300-400 analyzable cancers per gene. Recurrent breakage, often accompanied by partial deletion of the genes, was found for NCKAP5, SH3BGR and TTC3 in 3 (0.8%) tumors each, as well...

  20. Jumping translocation of 15q24-qter resulting in partial trisomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakó, Márta; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Melegh, Béla; Kosztolányi, György

    2012-07-15

    We report on a jumping translocation with five different cell lines detected in four tissues in a 2-year-old patient. This rare type of chromosomal abnormality (not more than 30 cases published so far) proved to be a series of non-reciprocal translocations of the 15q24-qter donor chromosome segment to the telomeric region of chromosomes 5q, 10q, 16q and 19p, respectively. The process, in addition to a few cells without translocation, resulted in partial trisomy of 15q24-qter which was associated with somatic overdevelopment in the patient, with hemihypertrophy and minor anomalies. The phenotype of our patient was different from that of the other two patients found in the literature having the same donor chromosome segment involved in a similar rearrangement. Possibly, the difference in the phenotype lies in the various ratios of somatic mosaicism with five cell lines, in particular the presence of normal one which is extremely rare in patients with jumping translocation. Here we discuss the various ways on how the rearrangement could arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromosome map of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17 with locations of genes involved in xanthan gum synthesis and yellow pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y H; Choy, K T; Hung, C H; Lin, N T; Liu, J Y; Lou, C H; Yang, B Y; Wen, F S; Weng, S F; Wu, J R

    1999-01-01

    No plasmid was detected in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17, a strain of the causative agent of black rot in cruciferous plants isolated in Taiwan. Its chromosome was cut by PacI, PmeI, and SwaI into five, two, and six fragments, respectively, and a size of 4.8 Mb was estimated by summing the fragment lengths in these digests. Based on the data obtained from partial digestion and Southern hybridization using probes common to pairs of the overlapping fragments or prepared from linking fragments, a circular physical map bearing the PacI, PmeI, and SwaI sites was constructed for the X. campestris pv. campestris 17 chromosome. Locations of eight eps loci involved in exopolysaccharide (xanthan gum) synthesis, two rrn operons each possessing an unique I-CeuI site, one pig cluster required for yellow pigmentation, and nine auxotrophic markers were determined, using mutants isolated by mutagenesis with Tn5(pfm)CmKm. This transposon contains a polylinker with sites for several rare-cutting restriction endonucleases located between the chloramphenicol resistance and kanamycin resistance (Kmr) genes, which upon insertion introduced additional sites into the chromosome. The recA and tdh genes, with known sequences, were mapped by tagging with the polylinker-Kmr segment from Tn5(pfm)CmKm. This is the first map for X. campestris and would be useful for genetic studies of this and related Xanthomonas species.

  2. Chromosome Map of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17 with Locations of Genes Involved in Xanthan Gum Synthesis and Yellow Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsiung; Choy, Ka-Tim; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Liu, Jane-Yu; Lou, Chih-Hong; Yang, Bih-Ying; Wen, Fu-Shyan; Weng, Shu-Fen; Wu, Jung-Rung

    1999-01-01

    No plasmid was detected in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17, a strain of the causative agent of black rot in cruciferous plants isolated in Taiwan. Its chromosome was cut by PacI, PmeI, and SwaI into five, two, and six fragments, respectively, and a size of 4.8 Mb was estimated by summing the fragment lengths in these digests. Based on the data obtained from partial digestion and Southern hybridization using probes common to pairs of the overlapping fragments or prepared from linking fragments, a circular physical map bearing the PacI, PmeI, and SwaI sites was constructed for the X. campestris pv. campestris 17 chromosome. Locations of eight eps loci involved in exopolysaccharide (xanthan gum) synthesis, two rrn operons each possessing an unique I-CeuI site, one pig cluster required for yellow pigmentation, and nine auxotrophic markers were determined, using mutants isolated by mutagenesis with Tn5(pfm)CmKm. This transposon contains a polylinker with sites for several rare-cutting restriction endonucleases located between the chloramphenicol resistance and kanamycin resistance (Kmr) genes, which upon insertion introduced additional sites into the chromosome. The recA and tdh genes, with known sequences, were mapped by tagging with the polylinker-Kmr segment from Tn5(pfm)CmKm. This is the first map for X. campestris and would be useful for genetic studies of this and related Xanthomonas species. PMID:9864320

  3. GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscle studied with a cell-free assay: involvement of phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, S; Nielsen, J N; Bourgoin, S; Klip, A; Franco, M; Richter, E A

    2001-09-01

    GLUT-4-containing membranes immunoprecipitated from insulin-stimulated rat skeletal muscle produce the phospholipase D (PLD) product phosphatidic acid. In vitro stimulation of PLD in crude membrane with ammonium sulfate (5 mM) resulted in transfer of GLUT-4 (3.0-fold vs. control) as well as transferrin receptor proteins from large to small membrane structures. The in vitro GLUT-4 transfer could be blocked by neomycin (a PLD inhibitor), and neomycin also reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in intact incubated soleus muscles. Furthermore, protein kinase B(beta) (PKB(beta)) was found to associate with the GLUT-4 protein and was transferred to small vesicles in response to ammonium sulfate in vitro. Finally, addition of cytosolic proteins, prepared from basal skeletal muscle, and GTP nucleotides to an enriched GLUT-4 membrane fraction resulted in in vitro transfer of GLUT-4 to small membranes (6.8-fold vs. unstimulated control). The cytosol and nucleotide-induced GLUT-4 transfer could be blocked by neomycin and N-ethylmaleimide. In conclusion, we have developed a cell-free assay that demonstrates in vitro GLUT-4 transfer. This transfer may suggest release of GLUT-4-containing vesicles from donor GLUT-4 membranes involving PLD activity and binding of PKB(beta) to GLUT-4.

  4. Mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy: the significance of chromosome loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Seoane

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The induction of aneuploidy by physical and chemical agents using different test systems was evaluated. The effect of X-rays, caffeine, acetaldehyde, ethanol, diethylstilbestrol, propionaldehyde, and chloral hydrate was studied by chromosome counting in Chinese hamster embryonic diploid cells. Aneugenic ability of cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate, chromium chloride, nickel chloride, and nickel sulfate was assessed by means of anaphase-telophase analysis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Chromosome counting in human fibroblasts (MRC-5 cell line was employed to evaluate the effect of cacodilic acid, cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, and potassium dichromate. Finally, the induction of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore negative micronuclei by cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate, chromium chloride, and nickel chloride was studied using CREST antibodies. When the effect of different agents was determined by chromosome counting, an increase of hypoploid but not of hyperploid cells was observed. Anaphase-telophase analysis showed that metal salts increased the frequency of lagging chromosomes. This finding has been confirmed by the increment of kinetochore-positive micronuclei using CREST antibodies. Therefore, chromosome loss could be considered as the main cause of induced aneuploidy.A indução de aneuploidia por agentes físicos e químicos usando diferentes sistemas de teste foi avaliada. O efeito de raios-X, cafeína, acetaldeído, etanol, dietilestilbestrol, propionaldeído e hidrato de cloral foi estudado por contagem cromossômica em células diplóides embriônicas de hamster chinês. A habilidade aneugênica de cloreto de cádmio, sulfato de cádmio, dicromato de potássio, cloreto de crômio, cloreto de níquel e sulfato de níquel foi avaliada por meio de análise de anáfase-telófase em células de ovário de hamster chinês. A contagem cromossômica em fibroblastos humanos (linhagem celular

  5. Fragility in the 14q21q translocation region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Denison

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphidicolin (APC-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom chromosomal breakage at the translocation region in all three individuals examined. The APC-inducible fragility at the 14q21q translocation region suggests that this rearrangement was the result of chromosomal mutation at fragile site(s in the progenitor chromosomes, or that this fragility was the result of the fusion of nonfragile progenitor chromosomes.

  6. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.

    1984-12-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Cryptic genomic imbalances in patients with de novo or familial apparently balanced translocations and abnormal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavakis Emanuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carriers of apparently balanced translocations are usually phenotypically normal; however in about 6% of de novo cases, an abnormal phenotype is present. In the current study we investigated 12 patients, six de novo and six familial, with apparently balanced translocations and mental retardation and/or congenital malformations by applying 1 Mb resolution array-CGH. In all de novo cases, only the patient was a carrier of the translocation and had abnormal phenotype. In five out of the six familial cases, the phenotype of the patient was abnormal, although the karyotype appeared identical to other phenotypically normal carriers of the family. In the sixth familial case, all carriers of the translocations had an abnormal phenotype. Results Chromosomal and FISH analyses suggested that the rearrangements were "truly balanced" in all patients. However, array-CGH, revealed cryptic imbalances in three cases (3/12, 25%, two de novo (2/12, 33.3% and one familial (1/12, 16.6%. The nature and type of abnormalities differed among the cases. In the first case, what was identified as a de novo t(9;15(q31;q26.1, a complex rearrangement was revealed involving a ~6.1 Mb duplication on the long arm of chromosome 9, an ~10 Mb deletion and an inversion both on the long arm of chromosome 15. These imbalances were located near the translocation breakpoints. In the second case of a de novo t(4;9(q25;q21.2, an ~6.6 Mb deletion was identified on the short arm of chromosome 7 which is unrelated to the translocation. In the third case, of a familial, t(4;7(q13.3;p15.3, two deletions of ~4.3 Mb and ~2.3 Mb were found, each at one of the two translocation breakpoints. In the remaining cases the translocations appeared balanced at 1 Mb resolution. Conclusion This study investigated both de novo and familial apparently balanced translocations unlike other relatively large studies which are mainly focused on de novo cases. This study provides additional

  8. The study of the mechanisms of the different phenotypical manifestations in patients with reciprocal translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozynskyi, Rostyslav; Lozynska, Maria

    2006-04-01

    Cytogenetical study of lymphocytes using the light microscopy could reveal a large amount of chromosomal abnormalities, which determine corresponding hereditary disorders. However, geneticists sometimes observe the cases where the same chromosomal rearrangements seen in light microscope cause quite different phenotype (from normal to abnormal) in relatives. The aim of the study was to explain the mechanisms of the different phenotype appearance in family members carrying the same reciprocal translocations. It was carried out the standard chromosome analysis in 12 families, where some relatives had reciprocal translocations. Chromosomes were differentially stained using G-method. The samples were analysed in optical microscope (x1000). Using OMIM gene map, UCSC Genome Browser, eGenome Release v2.3 and Unigene databases it was revealed transposons and transposon derivates in chromosome regions involved in translocations. We suppose that the variability of clinical manifestations in translocation-bearing patient is caused by the influence of the transposons, such as Hsmar2, Alu-elements or some others. We propose the following mechanisms of transposone action in these patients. The first may lie on recombination between the 2 specific DNA-transposon containing sites on different chromosomes resulting in balanced reciprocal translocation with no significant influence on the most genes' activity in corresponding regions. The weakening of transposase repression, which may follow in gametes, increases the transposase activity, and hereby, the probability of transposon dislocation. Dislocation can change the activity of groups of genes, because transposons often carry the regulatory sequences. This can induce multiply innate disorders in the progeny of the phenotypically healthy parents, carrying the translocation. According to the second mechanism, the reciprocal translocation is caused by recombination between 2 Alu repeats. These repeats can undergo reverse

  9. Semen quality in men with Y chromosome aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, A; Marcucci, L; Elli, R; Tanzi, N; Paoli, D; Radicioni, A; Lombardo, F; Lenzi, A; Gandini, L

    2011-10-01

    Infertile males sometimes bear structurally balanced chromosome aberrations, such as translocations and inversions, which involve both autosomes and sex chromosomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations in a sample of infertile men with various types of Y chromosome abnormalities. In particular, we examined the effect of (i) balanced structural aberrations such as translocations between sex chromosomes and autosomes; (ii) unbalanced structural aberrations such as deletions or isodicentrics, both [idic(Yp)] and [idic(Yq)]. We studied 13 subjects bearing Y chromosome aberrations. Each patient underwent seminal fluid examination, andrological inspection, hormone study, testicular ultrasound, conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis and study of Y chromosome microdeletions. Comparison of genotype and sperm phenotype in infertile patients with various Y chromosome aberrations revealed the key role of meiotic pairing defects in arresting spermatogenesis, both in the presence and in the absence of azoospermic factor microdeletions and cell mosaicism. The failure of meiosis and, in consequence, spermatogenesis may be a result of the failure to inactivate the X chromosome in the meiotic prophase, which is necessary for normal male spermatogenesis to take place. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Systematic Triple-Mutant Analysis Uncovers Functional Connectivity between Pathways Involved in Chromosome Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Haber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions reveal the functional relationships between pairs of genes. In this study, we describe a method for the systematic generation and quantitation of triple mutants, termed triple-mutant analysis (TMA. We have used this approach to interrogate partially redundant pairs of genes in S. cerevisiae, including ASF1 and CAC1, two histone chaperones. After subjecting asf1Δ cac1Δ to TMA, we found that the Swi/Snf Rdh54 protein compensates for the absence of Asf1 and Cac1. Rdh54 more strongly associates with the chromatin apparatus and the pericentromeric region in the double mutant. Moreover, Asf1 is responsible for the synthetic lethality observed in cac1Δ strains lacking the HIRA-like proteins. A similar TMA was carried out after deleting both CLB5 and CLB6, cyclins that regulate DNA replication, revealing a strong functional connection to chromosome segregation. This approach can reveal functional redundancies that cannot be uncovered through traditional double-mutant analyses.

  11. Roles of the Y chromosome genes in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of various tissues. Deletions or translocation of the sex-determining gene, SRY, from the Y chromosome causes disorders of sex development (previously termed as an intersex condition with dysgenic gonads. Failure of gonadal development results not only in infertility, but also in increased risks of germ cell tumor (GCT, such as gonadoblastoma and various types of testicular GCT. Recent studies demonstrate that either loss of Y chromosome or ectopic expression of Y chromosome genes is closely associated with various male-biased diseases, including selected somatic cancers. These observations suggest that the Y-linked genes are involved in male health and diseases in more frequently than expected. Although only a small number of protein-coding genes are present in the male-specific region of Y chromosome, the impacts of Y chromosome genes on human diseases are still largely unknown, due to lack of in vivo models and differences between the Y chromosomes of human and rodents. In this review, we highlight the involvement of selected Y chromosome genes in cancer development in men.

  12. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  13. Chromosomal distribution patterns of the (AC)10microsatellite and other repetitive sequences, and their use in chromosome rearrangement analysis of species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Araceli; Loarce, Yolanda; Montes, Alexander; Ferrer, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the physical location of the (AC) 10 microsatellite in metaphase chromosomes of six diploid species (AA or CC genomes), two tetraploid species (AACC genome), and five cultivars of two hexaploid species (AACCDD genome) of the genus Avena, a genus in which genomic relationships remain obscure. A preferential distribution of the (AC) 10 microsatellite in the pericentromeric and interstitial regions was seen in both the A- and D-genome chromosomes, while in C-genome chromosomes the majority of signals were located in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions. New large chromosome rearrangements were detected in two polyploid species: an intergenomic translocation involving chromosomes 17AL and 21DS in Avena sativa 'Araceli' and another involving chromosomes 4CL and 21DS in the analyzed cultivars of Avena byzantina. The latter 4CL-21DS intergenomic translocation differentiates clearly between A. sativa and A. byzantina. Searches for common hybridization patterns on the chromosomes of different species revealed chromosome 10A of Avena magna and 21D of hexaploid oats to be very similar in terms of the distribution of 45S and Am1 sequences. This suggests a common origin for these chromosomes and supports a CCDD rather than an AACC genomic designation for this species.

  14. Translocation of an immunoglobulin kappa locus to a region 3' of an unrearranged c-myc oncogene enhances c-myc transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, J; Nishikura, K; ar-Rushdi, A; Finan, J; Emanuel, B; Lenoir, G; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

    1983-01-01

    We have studied somatic cell hybrids between mouse myeloma and JI Burkitt lymphoma cells carrying a t(2;8) chromosome translocation for the expression of human kappa chains. and for the presence and rearrangements of the human c-myc oncogene and kappa chain genes. Our results indicate that the c-myc oncogene is unrearranged and remains on the 8q+ chromosome of JI cells. Two rearranged C kappa genes were detected: the expressed allele on normal chromosome 2 and the excluded kappa allele that was translocated from chromosome 2 to the involved chromosome 8 (8q+). The distribution of V kappa and C kappa genes in hybrid clones retaining different human chromosomes indicated that C kappa is distal to V kappa on 2p and that the breakpoint in this Burkitt lymphoma is within the region carrying V kappa genes. High levels of transcripts of the c-myc gene were found when it resided on the 8q+ chromosome but not on the normal chromosome 8, demonstrating that translocation of a kappa locus to region distal to the c-myc oncogene enhances c-myc transcription. Images PMID:6424112

  15. Complex biallelic IGH rearrangements in IgM-expressing Z-138 cell line : Involvement of downstream immunoglobulin class switch recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Fenton, JAL; de Boer, C; Kleiverda, K; Brink, AATP; Raap, AK; Estrov, Z; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor loci usually disrupt and silence these loci. On the basis of observations in follicular lymphoma (FL) with downstream Ig heavy chain (IGH) class switch recombination (CSR), we hypothesized that downstream CSR-mediated chromosomal

  16. An unusual translocation t(5;21) (q13;q22) in a case of acute myelogenous leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellam, S.P.; da Costa, M.; Gogineni, S.K. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a disease often characterized by consistant chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells. When specific abnormalities are detected, a specific disease classification can be established. Often, however, disease presentation is confusing and aberrations are unusual. We report a case presenting with anemia and leukocytosis. Cytological markers were mixed lymphoid/myeloid; however, the majority of markers supported a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis with Q and G banding revealed an unusual t(5;21) translocation. Whole chromosome five-specific (Cambio, England) and whole chromosome 21-specific (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD) painting probes confirmed the involvement of each chromosome and established the breakpoints at band 5q13 and band 21q22. It is very rare for chromosome 5 to be in translocation with chromosome 21 and this appears to be the first time it has been reported with these two breakpoints. Although the translocation is unique, the breakpoints are common in AML: The 5q13 is associated with multiple classifications and the 21q22 is the same breakpoint in the t(8;21), the hallmark of the M2 classification. Thus, molecular cytogenetic techniques were able to support a diagnosis of AML.

  17. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Aberrations of the X chromosome as cause of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenetic failure, clinically noted as oligo- or a-zoospermia. Today, in approximately 20% of azoospermic patients, a causal genetic defect can be identified. The most frequent genetic causes of azoospermia (or severe oligozoospermia) are Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. Consistent with Ohno's law, the human X chromosome is the most stable of all the chromosomes, but contrary to Ohno's law, the X chromosome is loaded with regions of acquired, rapidly evolving genes, which are of special interest because they are predominantly expressed in the testis. Therefore, it is not surprising that the X chromosome, considered as the female counterpart of the male-associated Y chromosome, may actually play an essential role in male infertility and sperm production. This is supported by the recent description of a significantly increased copy number variation (CNV) burden on both sex chromosomes in infertile men and point mutations in X-chromosomal genes responsible for male infertility. Thus, the X chromosome seems to be frequently affected in infertile male patients. Four principal X-chromosomal aberrations have been identified so far: (1) aneuploidy of the X chromosome as found in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY or mosaicism for additional X chromosomes). (2) Translocations involving the X chromosome, e.g. nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (XX-male syndrome) or X-autosome translocations. (3) CNVs affecting the X chromosome. (4) Point mutations disrupting X-chromosomal genes. All these are reviewed herein and assessed concerning their importance for the clinical routine diagnostic workup of the infertile male as well as their potential to shape research on spermatogenic failure in the next years. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Somasekar, A. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Alcolado, R. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Williams, J.G. [Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Griffiths, A.P. [Department of Histopathology, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Baxter, J.N. [Department of Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Jenkins, G.J.S., E-mail: g.j.jenkins@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-02

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-{kappa}B) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-{kappa}B was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-{kappa}B analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be

  19. Molecular sublocalization and characterization of the 11; 22 translocation breakpoint in a malignant rhabdoid tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, I.; Daub, D.; Besnard-Guerin, C.; Cavenee, W. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors are extremely aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that tend to be widely metastatic at diagnosis. These tumors were first described as variants of the kidney neoplasm Wilms' tumor, although tumors of similar clinicopathologic features have been cited in a variety of extrarenal sites. Here, the authors have characterized the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(p15.5;q11.23) from a retroperitoneal rhabdoid tumor. Somatic cell hybrids with segregated copies of the derivative 11 and derivative 22 chromosomes allowed sublocalization of the chromosome 11 breakpoint to a 1- to 2-Mb region between the proximal marker D11S12 and the distal locus tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Translocation-associated aberrant fragments were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the smallest resulting from BssHII digestion as detected with a probe for TH. These data indicate that the locus or loci disrupted by this genetic abnormality might lie less than 60 kb proximal to this marker and place it in the chromosomal vicinity of genes involved in the etiologies of rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, and the congenital overgrowth disorder, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Analysis of two other tumor-associated loci, EWS1 and NF2, that have been mapped to the general region of 22q11.2 indicated that they were not involved in this translocation breakpoint. Isolation of the genes present at this translocation junction on both chromosomes 11 and 22 may yield important clinicopathologic and genetic markers for this enigmatic tumor as well as other pediatric diseases. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A yeast artificial chromosome contig that spans the RB1-D13S31 interval on human chromosome 13 and encompasses the frequently deleted region in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorn, L; Roberts, T; Verlind, E; Kooy, RF; Cowell, JK

    1995-01-01

    Abnormalities involving chromosome 13 have been reported as the only cytogenetic change in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL). Deletions are the most common cytogenetic abnormality and always involve 13q14, but when translocations are seen, the consistent breakpoint is always in 13q14. It is

  1. A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Das, P J; Avila, F; Thwaits, B K; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-02-01

    Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Two patients with balanced translocations and autistic disorder: CSMD3 as a candidate gene for autism found in their common 8q23 breakpoint area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Chiara; Rassu, Stefania; Boccone, Loredana; Gasperini, Daniela; Cao, Antonio; Crisponi, Laura

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies estimated a rate of 3-5% of cytogenetic abnormalities involving many different chromosomes in autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we report on two unrelated male patients with de novo translocations, autistic behaviour and psychomotor delay. These two patients carry a balanced chromosome translocation t(5;8)(q14.3;q23.3) and t(6;8)(q13;q23.2), respectively. A detailed physical map covering the regions involved in the translocations was constructed using BAC clones mapping on chromosomes 5q14.3, 6q13 and 8q23. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analyses were carried out using these genomic clones. We fine mapped the two translocation breakpoints on chromosomes 8 identifying their position within a short 5 Mb genomic region. Breakpoints on chromosomes 8 in both patients do not interrupt any known gene but both map in a region containing the CSMD3 gene, which thereby can be considered as a candidate for ASDs.

  3. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  4. Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K.G. Grebe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland and result primarily from mutations of the RET protooncogene, germ line mutations of which give rise to the various forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The most common of the follicular cell-derived cancers are papillary carcinomas, (PTC, followed by follicular carcinomas (FTC and its Hurthle cell variant (HCC and finally anaplastic carcinomas (ATC. The pathogenesis of many thyroid cancers, of both PTC and FTC morphotype, involves chromosomal translocations. Rearrangements of the RET protoconcogene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ca. 50% of PTC. A similar proportion of FTC have been associated with a t(2;3(q13;p25 translocation, fusing the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ nuclear receptor, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These rearrangements have analogy with translocations in erythropoetic cells, which form the only other known group of human malignancies that are largely the result of chromosomal translocation events. In this review we compare and contrast the oncogenic properties of thyroid and erythroid chromosomal transformations and speculate on mechanisms leading to their formation.

  5. WARBURG EFFECT AND TRANSLOCATION-INDUCED GENOMIC INSTABILITY: TWO YEAST MODELS FOR CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eTosato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast has been established as an efficient model system to study biological principles underpinning human health. In this review we focus on yeast models covering two aspects of cancer formation and progression i the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK, which recapitulates metabolic features of cancer cells, including the Warburg effect, and ii Bridge-Induced chromosome Translocation (BIT mimicking genome instability in cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to study cancer cell metabolism, as exponentially growing yeast cells exhibit many metabolic similarities with rapidly proliferating cancer cells. The metabolic reconfiguration includes an increase in glucose uptake and fermentation, at the expense of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation (the Warburg effect, and involves a broad reconfiguration of nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Both in yeast and humans, the regulation of this process seems to have a central player, pyruvate kinase, which is up-regulated in cancer, and to occur mostly on a post-transcriptional and posttranslational basis. Furthermore, BIT allows to generate selectable translocation-derived recombinants (translocants, between any two desired chromosomal locations, in wild-type yeast strains transformed with a linear DNA cassette carrying a selectable marker flanked by two DNA sequences homologous to different chromosomes. Using the Bridge-Induced Translocation system, targeted non-reciprocal translocations in mitosis are easily inducible. An extensive collection of different yeast translocants exhibiting genome instability and aberrant phenotypes similar to cancer cells has been produced and subjected to analysis. In this review, we hence provide an overview upon two yeast cancer models, and extrapolate general principles for mimicking human disease mechanisms in yeast.

  6. Trisomy greatly enhances interstitial crossing over in a translocation heterozygote of Secale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybenga, J; Verhaar, H M; Botje, D G A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including reciprocal translocations, may prevent recombinational transfer of genes from a donor genotype to a recipient, especially when the gene is located in an interstitial segment. The effect of trisomy of chromosome arm 1RS on recombination was studied in translocation heterozygote T248W of rye ( Secale cereale ), involving chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS. (Pro)metaphase I configuration frequencies were analyzed. Crossing over, estimated as chiasma parameters, in five genetically different euploid heterozygotes was compared with those of 10 different single arm trisomics. The addition of 1RS greatly altered the crossing over pattern around the translocation break point, with a special increase in the interstitial segment of 6RS and adjoining regions, normally hardly accessible to recombination. Furthermore, there was considerable variation between plants of closely related genotypes. Heterogeneity widens the distribution of crossing overs, including segments normally not accessible to recombination, but decreases average recombination in other segments. The extra chromosome and abnormal segregants are eliminated by using the trisomic as the pollen parent.

  7. Nonrandom chromosomal changes in human malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J D

    1977-01-01

    The role of chromosomal changes in human malignant cells has been the subject of much debate. The observation of nonrandom chromosomal changes has become well recognized in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and more recently in acute myelogenous leukemia. In the present report, data are presented on the sites of duplication of chromosome No. 1 in hematologic disorders. Trisomy for region lq25 to lq32 was observed in every one of 34 patients whose cells showed duplication of some part of chromosome No. 1. Adjacent regions lq21 to lq25, and lq32 to lqter, also were trisomic in the majority of patients. Two patients had deletions, one of lq32 to qter, and the other, of lp32 to pter. The sites of chromosomal breaks leading to trisomy differ from those involved in balanced reciprocal translocations. Some of these sites are sometimes, but not always, vulnerable in constitutional chromosomal abnormalities. The nature of the proliferative advantage conferred on myeloid cells by these chromosomal changes is unknown.

  8. Evolutionary breakpoint analysis on Y chromosomes of higher primates provides insight into human Y evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, R; Kirsch, S; Rappold, G A; Schempp, W

    2005-01-01

    Comparative FISH mapping of PAC clones covering almost 3 Mb of the human AZFa region in Yq11.21 to metaphases of human and great apes unravels breakpoints that were involved in species-specific Y chromosome evolution. An astonishing clustering of evolutionary breakpoints was detected in the very proximal region on the long arm of the human Y chromosome in Yq11.21. These breakpoints were involved in deletions, one specific for the human and another for the orang-utan Y chromosome, in a duplicative translocation/transposition specific for bonobo and chimpanzee Y chromosomes and in a pericentric inversion specific for the gorilla Y chromosome. In addition, our comparative results allow the deduction of a model for the human Y chromosome evolution. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Sec61β, a subunit of the Sec61 protein translocation channel at the Endoplasmic Reticulum, is involved in the transport of Gurken to the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelkar Anshuman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein translocation across the membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER is the first step in the biogenesis of secretory and membrane proteins. Proteins enter the ER by the Sec61 translocon, a proteinaceous channel composed of three subunits, α, β and γ. While it is known that Sec61α forms the actual channel, the function of the other two subunits remains to be characterized. Results In the present study we have investigated the function of Sec61β in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe its role in the plasma membrane traffic of Gurken, the ligand for the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF receptor in the oocyte. Germline clones of the mutant allele of Sec61β show normal translocation of Gurken into the ER and transport to the Golgi complex, but further traffic to the plasma membrane is impeded. The defect in plasma membrane traffic due to absence of Sec61β is specific for Gurken and is not due to a general trafficking defect. Conclusion Based on our study we conclude that Sec61β, which is part of the ER protein translocation channel affects a post-ER step during Gurken trafficking to the plasma membrane. We propose an additional role of Sec61β beyond protein translocation into the ER.

  10. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  11. Adaptive response to chronic mild ethanol stress involves ROS, sirtuins and changes in chromosome dosage in wine yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Potocki, Leszek; Rawska, Ewa; Pabian, Sylwia; Kaplan, Jakub; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis revealed that yeast genome was shaped during passages. The gains of chromosomes I, III and VI and significant changes in the gene copy number in nine functional gene categories involved in metabolic processes and stress responses were observed. Ethanol-mediated gains of YRF1 and CUP1 genes were the most accented. Ethanol also induced nucleolus fragmentation that confirms that nucleolus is a stress sensor in yeasts. Taken together, we postulate that wine yeasts of different origin may adapt to mild alcohol stress by shifts in intracellular redox state promoting growth capacity, upregulation of key regulators of longevity, namely sirtuins and changes in the dosage of genes involved in the telomere maintenance and ion detoxification. PMID:27074556

  12. The Involvement of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN in the Regulation of Inflammation Following Coronary Microembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyou Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Growing evidence shows that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN is involved in regulating inflammation in different pathological conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the upregulation of PTEN correlates with the impairment of cardiac function in swine following coronary microembolization (CME. Methods: To possibly disclose an anti-inflammatory effect of PTEN, we induced swine CME by injecting inertia plastic microspheres (42 μm in diameter into the left anterior descending coronary artery and analyzed the myocardial tissue by immunochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. In addition, we downregulated PTEN using siRNA. Results: Following CME, PTEN mRNA and protein levels were elevated as early as 3 h, peaked at 12 h, and then continuously decreased at 24 h and 48 h but remained elevated. Through linear correlation analysis, the PTEN protein level positively correlated with cTnI and TNF-α but was negatively correlated with LVEF. Furthermore, PTEN siRNA reduced the microinfarct volume, improved cardiac function (LVEF, reduced the release of cTnI, and suppressed PTEN and TNF-α protein expression. Conclusion: This study demonstrated, for the first time, that PTEN is involved in CME-induced inflammatory injury. The data generated from this study provide a rationale for the development of PTEN-based anti-inflammatory strategies.

  13. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  14. Detection of structural abnormalities in spermatozoa of a translocation carrier t(3;11)(q27.3;q24.3) by triple FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, E; von Bergh, A R; Coonen, E; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hopman, A H; Ramaekers, F C; Geraedts, J P

    1998-02-01

    Structural chromosome abnormalities in spermatozoa represent an important category of paternally transmittable genetic damage. A couple was referred to our centre because of repetitive abortions and the man was found to be a carrier of a reciprocal translocation t(3;11)(q27.3;q24.3). A tailored fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) approach was developed to study the meiotic segregation patterns in spermatozoa from this translocation carrier. A combination of three DNA probes was used, a centromeric probe for chromosome 11, a cosmid probe for chromosome 11q and a YAC probe for chromosome 3q. The frequency of spermatozoa carrying an abnormal chromosome constitution was compared with baseline frequencies in control semen specimens and it was found that a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa carried an abnormal constitution for the chromosomes involved in the translocation. A normal or balanced chromosome constitution was found in 44.3% of the analysed spermatozoa, while the remainder exhibited an abnormal chromosome constitution reflecting different modes of segregation (15.9% adjacent I segregation, 6.5% adjacent II segregation, 28.9% 3:1 segregation, 0.8% 4:0 segregation, 3.6% aberrant segregation). The frequency of aneuploidy for chromosomes X, Y, 13 and 21 was assessed using specific probes but there was no evidence of interchromosomal effects or variations in the sex ratio in spermatozoa from the translocation carrier. In conclusion, structural aberrations can be reliably assessed in interphase spermatozoa using unique DNA probe cocktails, and this method provides insight into the genetic constitution of germ cells and enables evaluation of potential risks for the offspring.

  15. De novo unbalanced translocations in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome might be the reciprocal product of inv dup(15s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rossi

    Full Text Available The 15q11-q13 region is characterized by high instability, caused by the presence of several paralogous segmental duplications. Although most mechanisms dealing with cryptic deletions and amplifications have been at least partly characterized, little is known about the rare translocations involving this region. We characterized at the molecular level five unbalanced translocations, including a jumping one, having most of 15q transposed to the end of another chromosome, whereas the der(15(pter->q11-q13 was missing. Imbalances were associated either with Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome. Array-CGH demonstrated the absence of any copy number changes in the recipient chromosome in three cases, while one carried a cryptic terminal deletion and another a large terminal deletion, already diagnosed by classical cytogenetics. We cloned the breakpoint junctions in two cases, whereas cloning was impaired by complex regional genomic architecture and mosaicism in the others. Our results strongly indicate that some of our translocations originated through a prezygotic/postzygotic two-hit mechanism starting with the formation of an acentric 15qter->q1::q1->qter representing the reciprocal product of the inv dup(15 supernumerary marker chromosome. An embryo with such an acentric chromosome plus a normal chromosome 15 inherited from the other parent could survive only if partial trisomy 15 rescue would occur through elimination of part of the acentric chromosome, stabilization of the remaining portion with telomere capture, and formation of a derivative chromosome. All these events likely do not happen concurrently in a single cell but are rather the result of successive stabilization attempts occurring in different cells of which only the fittest will finally survive. Accordingly, jumping translocations might represent successful rescue attempts in different cells rather than transfer of the same 15q portion to different chromosomes. We also hypothesize that

  16. Sperm fluorescent in situ hybridisation study of interchromosomal effect in six Tunisian carriers of reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajlaoui, A; Slimani, W; Kammoun, M; Sallem, A; Braham, S; Bibi, M; Saad, A; Mougou-Zerelli, S

    2018-01-15

    Carriers of structural chromosomal anomalies, translocations and inversions are at increased risk of aneuploid gametes production. Besides the direct effect on the involved chromosomes, these rearrangements might disturb the segregation of other structurally normal chromosomes during meiosis. Such event is known as interchromosomal effect. In this study, six male carriers of translocations, four reciprocals and two Robertsonians, were investigated. In addition, seven fertile men with normal 46,XY karyotypes and normal sperm characteristics were enrolled as a control group. Spermatic fluorescent in situ hybridisation specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 21 and 22 was carried out. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the aneuploidy rates between patients and controls. All translocation carriers showed significantly increased frequencies of disomy of all investigated chromosomes, and diploid gametes compared with the control group (p  .05). We have also observed a considerable interindividual variability in disomy and diploidy rates. These results confirm that the interchromosomal effect seems to exist and could contribute to higher rates of abnormal prenatal aneuploidy, resulting in a small increase in the risk of miscarriage and birth of children with congenital abnormalities and a potential reduction in fertility. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The orphan nuclear receptor ROR{alpha} (RORA) maps to a conserved region of homology on human chromosome 15q21-q22 and mouse chromosome 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giguere, V. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Beatty, B.; Squire, J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    ROR{alpha} is a novel member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid receptor superfamily with unique DNA-binding properties. We have mapped the RORA gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 15q21-q22. To map the mouse Rora gene, a partial mouse cDNA clone was isolated from brain. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we have mapped the Rora gene to mouse chromosome 9. This places the human RORA gene in the proximity of the PML gene, which is involved in a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(15:17) with the RARA gene in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Translocation (Y;22) resulting in the loss of SHOX and isolated short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borie, C; Léger, J; Dupuy, O; Hassan, M; Ledu, N; Lebbar, A; Czernichow, P; Eydoux, P

    2004-03-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving both chromosome Y and chromosome 22 are rare, and may result in a number of different phenotypes. We report on a 4-year-old child with short stature and a dicentric chromosome with a deletion of the distal end of chromosome Yp. The pregnancy was uneventful, until intra-uterine growth retardation was noted. Prenatal karyotyping showed a (Y;22) translocation. No structural fetal abnormality was shown at ultrasound examination, and the pregnancy went to term. A growth-retarded boy with an otherwise normal physical examination was delivered at 39 weeks. At age 4, the child had short stature (-3 SD) without mental retardation. Radiological examination of the wrist was normal. A blood karyotype confirmed the chromosomal rearrangement previously seen on the amniotic fluid cells. C-banding showed a dicentric chromosome, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromeric probes confirmed the presence of both chromosome Y and 22 centromeres on the derivative chromosome. The karyotype was thus 45,X,der(Y;22)(p11;q11)del(Y)(p11p11). Our patient's phenotype and chromosomal rearrangement prompted us to further investigate the distal Yp region. FISH using a subtelomeric probe showed a deletion of the distal Yp region. This technique also revealed that this chromosomal rearrangement resulted in the deletion of SHOX but not SRY. Although haploinsufficiency of SHOX may result in Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis, this diagnosis did not seem obvious in this young patient. This observation confirms the importance of FISH in the investigation of chromosomal abnormalities, and further delineates the phenotype of SHOX deleted patients. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, IRCCS, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela [Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Drago, Lorenzo; Banfi, Giuseppe [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, IRCCS, Milano (Italy); Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartiimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    The present study deals with the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of E-cadherin expression under hypoxia, because the adjustment of the amount of E-cadherin due to physical stimuli of the microenvironment might influence the colonization of metastasis to skeleton. We analyzed the effect of 1% oxygen tension, that is similar to that encountered in the bone marrow by metastatic cells spreading from breast carcinoma. The purpose was to evaluate the hypoxia-orchestrated control of E-cadherin transactivation via hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and the involvement of Hippo pathway members, as regulators of transcription factors. To give a translational significance to the study, we took into consideration human pair-matched ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis: E-cadherin and Wwox were expressed in bone metastasis but not in breast carcinoma, while HIF-1α and TAZ seemed localized principally in nuclei of metastasis and were found in all cell compartments of breast carcinoma. A close examination of the regulatory mechanisms underlying E-cadherin expression in bone metastasis was done in 1833 clone derived from MDA-MB231 cells. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin only in 1833 clone, but not in parental cells, through HIF-1 and PPARγ activities, while Wwox decreased. Since Wwox was highly expressed in bone metastasis, the effect of ectopic Wwox was evaluated, and we showed E-cadherin transactivation and enhanced invasiveness in WWOX transfected 1833 cells. Also, hypoxia was additive with ectopic Wwox remarkably enhancing HIF-1α nuclear shuttle and accumulation due to the lengthening of the half-life of HIF-1α protein; under this experimental condition HIF-1α appeared as a slower migrated band compared with control, in agreement with the phosphorylation state. The in vitro data strongly supported the almost exclusive presence of HIF-1α in nuclei of human-bone metastasis. Thus, we identified

  20. Integration of biological data by kernels on graph nodes allows prediction of new genes involved in mitotic chromosome condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hériché, Jean-Karim; Lees, Jon G.; Morilla, Ian; Walter, Thomas; Petrova, Boryana; Roberti, M. Julia; Hossain, M. Julius; Adler, Priit; Fernández, José M.; Krallinger, Martin; Haering, Christian H.; Vilo, Jaak; Valencia, Alfonso; Ranea, Juan A.; Orengo, Christine; Ellenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi)–based screens puts us in the position to identify genes for all functions human cells carry out. However, for many functions, assay complexity and cost make genome-scale knockdown experiments impossible. Methods to predict genes required for cell functions are therefore needed to focus RNAi screens from the whole genome on the most likely candidates. Although different bioinformatics tools for gene function prediction exist, they lack experimental validation and are therefore rarely used by experimentalists. To address this, we developed an effective computational gene selection strategy that represents public data about genes as graphs and then analyzes these graphs using kernels on graph nodes to predict functional relationships. To demonstrate its performance, we predicted human genes required for a poorly understood cellular function—mitotic chromosome condensation—and experimentally validated the top 100 candidates with a focused RNAi screen by automated microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the images demonstrated that the candidates were indeed strongly enriched in condensation genes, including the discovery of several new factors. By combining bioinformatics prediction with experimental validation, our study shows that kernels on graph nodes are powerful tools to integrate public biological data and predict genes involved in cellular functions of interest. PMID:24943848

  1. Segregation of chromosomes in sperm of a t(X;18)(q11;p11.1) carrier inherited from his mother: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, A; Douet-Guilbert, N; Le Bris, M J; Keromnes, G; Langlois, M L; Barrière, P; Amice, J; Amice, V; De Braekeleer, M; Morel, F

    2008-01-01

    Balanced reciprocal translocations are the most common structural abnormalities; most involve two autosomes while a few involve a gonosome (X or Y chromosome) and an autosome. These rearrangements are usually associated with infertility and/or a higher risk of chromosomal imbalances among offspring. This 26 years old man was first seen because of a 3-year history of primary infertility. He had been found to have a translocation, t(X;18)(q11;p11.1), inherited from his mother when he was 9 years old. Semen analysis showed a very severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). A total of 447 spermatozoa were analysed using three-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The alternate segregation pattern, leading to a normal or balanced chromosomal content, was found in 54.36% of the spermatozoa studied. The frequencies of Adjacent I, Adjacent II, 3:1 segregation and diploidy (or 4:0 segregation) were 8.28, 5.14, 22.37 and 2.01%, respectively. Balanced reciprocal translocations between an autosome and the X chromosome lead to important disruptions in human spermatogenesis. Almost all the males with an X-autosome translocation have azoospermia. The man reported here had very severe OAT and is the first in whom the meiotic segregation pattern was analysed. This case further emphasizes the interest in performing FISH studies in infertile males with a chromosomal translocation to provide them with a personalized imbalance risk.

  2. Array based characterization of a terminal deletion involving chromosome subband 15q26.2: an emerging syndrome associated with growth retardation, cardiac defects and developmental delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkhem Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. Methods In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. Results After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb region, ranging from 93.86–100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. Conclusion In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome.

  3. Three Unusual but Cytogenetically Similar Cases With up to Five Different Cell Lines Involving Structural and Numerical Abnormalities of Chromosome 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Isabel M.; Mascarenhas, Alexandra; Matoso, Eunice; Couceiro, Ana B.; Ramos, Lina; Dufke, Andreas; Mazauric, Marie; Stressig, Rüdiger; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Melo, Joana B.; Liehr, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We report two prenatal and two postnatal diagnosed cases (the latter monozygotic twins) with ring chromosomes after GTG banding. All four, de novo r(18), cases turned out to be more complex after application of high-resolution molecular cytogenetics techniques such as use of fluorescence in situ hybridization, centromeric probes, multicolor banding, and locus-specific probes for chromosome 18. All four cases are mosaics involving chromosome 18 in up to five different cell lines, including 46,r(18); 46,dr(18); 47,r(18)x2; 46,mar(18); and 45,-18. Mosaicism sharing both numerical and structural anomalies is rare, but rings often appear as mosaics due to their mitotic instability. Overall, patients with ring chromosome 18 usually share clinical features of 18q- syndrome and, less frequently, those of 18p- syndrome. High-resolution molecular cytogenetics techniques were useful in the characterization of cases with dynamic mosaicism and in establishing the relationship between loss or gain of chromosomal material and the phenotype. PMID:17595336

  4. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  5. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bourhis, J. [Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et Tissus sains, PR1, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  6. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  7. Multicolor-FISH applied to resolve complex chromosomal changes in a case of T-ALL (FAB L2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkrtchyan, H.; Glaser, M.; Gross, M.; Wedding, U.; Hoeffken, K.; Liehr, T.; Aroutiounian, R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a patient with a clinically diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with partial unrecorded complex translocation events especially involving chromosomes 5,9 and 18. At the GTG-band level the karyotype was abnormal in 20% of the analyzed cells. The complex karyotype was studied in

  8. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  9. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  10. A de novo X;13 translocation with abnormal phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, S V; Barber, J C; Dowie, A; Dubowitz, V

    1986-01-01

    We describe a female infant who presented with hypotonia and developmental delay. Her karyotype showed a de novo balanced translocation between the X chromosome and chromosome 13, with breakpoints at Xq13 and 13p11. The normal X was late replicating in all cells examined. The cause of this patient's abnormal phenotype is discussed.

  11. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Manterola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  12. A High Incidence of Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapsed Chromatin Is Not Associated with Substantial Pachytene Loss in Heterozygous Male Mice Carrying Multiple Simple Robertsonian Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Chiara; Berríos, Soledad; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Rufas, Julio S.; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., γH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR). These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading of Robertsonian

  13. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL, considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static "contact first" model. The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic "breakage first" model. Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4 and a less frequent partner gene (ENL, should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Methods Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. Results In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19(q23;p13.3 compared to t(4;11(q21;q23. However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. Conclusion The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static "contact first" model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic "breakage first" model offers an attractive alternative explanation.

  14. Inversion duplication deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 13: phenotypic description of additional three fetuses and genotype-phenotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelin, Chloe; Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Khung-Savatovsky, Suonavy; Dupont, Celine; Pasquier, Laurent; Loeuillet, Laurence; Jaillard, Sylvie; Lucas, Josette; Marcorelles, Pascale; Journel, Hubert; Pluquailec-Bilavarn, Khantaby; Bazin, Anne; Verloes, Alain; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Aboura, Azzedine; Guimiot, Fabien

    2014-10-01

    Inversion duplication and terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 (inv dup del 13q) is a rare chromosomal rearrangement: only five patients have been reported, mostly involving a ring chromosome 13. We report on additional three fetuses with pure inv dup del 13q: Patient 1 had macrosomia, enlarged kidneys, hypersegmented lungs, unilateral moderate ventriculomegaly, and a mild form of hand and feet preaxial polydactyly; Patient 2 had intrauterine growth retardation, widely spaced eyes, left microphthalmia, right anophthalmia, short nose, bilateral absent thumbs, cutaneous syndactyly of toes 4 and 5, bifid third metacarpal, a small left kidney, hyposegmented lungs, and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum; Patient 3 had widely spaced eyes, long and smooth philtrum, low-set ears, median notch in the upper alveolar ridge, bifid tongue, cutaneous syndactyly of toes 2 and 3, enlarged kidneys and pancreas, arhinencephaly, and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. We compared the phenotypes of these patients to those previously reported for ring chromosome 13, pure 13q deletions and duplications. We narrowed some critical regions previously reported for lung, kidney and fetal growth, and for thumb, cerebral, and eye anomalies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Meiotic segregation and interchromosomal effect in the sperm of a double translocation carrier: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchniuk de Vozzi, Maria S; Santos, Silvio A; Pereira, Ciro S; Cuzzi, Juliana F; Laureano, Lucimar Af; Franco, José G; Martelli, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    Infertility is a natural mechanism of selection intended to prevent the delivery of a child with malformations or mental retardation. Male infertility is closely related to chromosomal abnormalities. This study was focused on the analysis of meiotic segregation involving a Robertsonian translocation, 45,XY,der(13;13) [56]/45,XY,der(13;14) [44] and the evaluation of possible interchromosomal effects. Hybridisation with LSI 13q14 and subtelomere 14q probes and WCP13 SpectrumGreen and WCP14 SpectrumOrange probes showed a high proportion of unbalanced gametes, corresponding to 71.2% of the spermatozoa. The disomic frequencies of the sexual chromosomes and chromosome 18 of the patient were higher (5.28% and 2.55%, respectively) than those of the control (0.6% and 0.59%, respectively). Meiotic segregation studies in sperm are an important tool for genetic counselling of chromosomal aberrations, allowing for a prediction of the risks and consequent implications for the reproductive life. The patient with this rare translocation exhibited meiotic segregation fidelity, and a high rate of unbalanced gametes with disomic spermatozoa.

  16. Meiotic segregation and interchromosomal effect in the sperm of a double translocation carrier: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Lucimar AF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a natural mechanism of selection intended to prevent the delivery of a child with malformations or mental retardation. Male infertility is closely related to chromosomal abnormalities. This study was focused on the analysis of meiotic segregation involving a Robertsonian translocation, 45,XY,der(13;13 [56]/45,XY,der(13;14 [44] and the evaluation of possible interchromosomal effects. Results Hybridisation with LSI 13q14 and subtelomere 14q probes and WCP13 SpectrumGreen and WCP14 SpectrumOrange probes showed a high proportion of unbalanced gametes, corresponding to 71.2% of the spermatozoa. The disomic frequencies of the sexual chromosomes and chromosome 18 of the patient were higher (5.28% and 2.55%, respectively than those of the control (0.6% and 0.59%, respectively. Conclusion Meiotic segregation studies in sperm are an important tool for genetic counselling of chromosomal aberrations, allowing for a prediction of the risks and consequent implications for the reproductive life. The patient with this rare translocation exhibited meiotic segregation fidelity, and a high rate of unbalanced gametes with disomic spermatozoa.

  17. A novel relaxase homologue is involved in chromosomal DNA processing for type IV secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salgado-Pabon, Wilmara; Jain, Samta; Turner, Nicholas; van der Does, Chris; Dillard, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IV secretion system secretes chromosomal DNA that acts in natural transformation. To examine the mechanism of DNA processing for secretion, we made mutations in the putative relaxase gene traI and used nucleases to characterize the secreted DNA. The nuclease

  18. QTL dissection of Lag phase in wine fermentation reveals a new translocation responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to sulfite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Zimmer

    Full Text Available Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity.

  19. Contrasting origin of B chromosomes in two cervids (Siberian roe deer and grey brocket deer) unravelled by chromosome-specific DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makunin, Alexey I; Kichigin, Ilya G; Larkin, Denis M; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Proskuryakova, Anastasiya A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina N; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Trifonov, Vladimir A

    2016-08-11

    B chromosomes are dispensable and variable karyotypic elements found in some species of animals, plants and fungi. They often originate from duplications and translocations of host genomic regions or result from hybridization. In most species, little is known about their DNA content. Here we perform high-throughput sequencing and analysis of B chromosomes of roe deer and brocket deer, the only representatives of Cetartiodactyla known to have B chromosomes. In this study we developed an approach to identify genomic regions present on chromosomes by high-throughput sequencing of DNA generated from flow-sorted chromosomes using degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR. Application of this method on small cattle autosomes revealed a previously described KIT gene region translocation associated with colour sidedness. Implementing this approach to B chromosomes from two cervid species, Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira), revealed dramatically different genetic content: roe deer B chromosomes consisted of two duplicated genomic regions (a total of 1.42-1.98 Mbp) involving three genes, while grey brocket deer B chromosomes contained 26 duplicated regions (a total of 8.28-9.31 Mbp) with 34 complete and 21 partial genes, including KIT and RET protooncogenes, previously found on supernumerary chromosomes in canids. Sequence variation analysis of roe deer B chromosomes revealed a high frequency of mutations and increased heterozygosity due to either amplification within B chromosomes or divergence between different Bs. In contrast, grey brocket deer B chromosomes were found to be more homogeneous and resembled autosomes in patterns of sequence variation. Similar tendencies were observed in repetitive DNA composition. Our data demonstrate independent origins of B chromosomes in the grey brocket and roe deer. We hypothesize that the B chromosomes of these two cervid species represent different stages of B chromosome sequences evolution

  20. Diversity of breakpoints of variant Philadelphia chromosomes in chronic myeloid leukemia in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome or t(9;22(q34.1;q11.2, resulting in the break-point cluster regionAbelson tyrosine kinase fusion gene, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase protein. The Philadelphia chromosome is detected by karyotyping in around 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia patients, but 5-10% may have variant types. Variant Philadelphia chromosomes are characterized by the involvement of another chromosome in addition to chromosome 9 or 22. It can be a simple type of variant when one other chromosome is involved, or complex, in which two or more chromosomes take part in the translocation. Few studies have reported the incidence of variant Philadelphia chromosomes or the breakpoints involved among Brazilian chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Objective: The aim of this report is to describe the diversity of the variant Philadelphia chromosomes found and highlight some interesting breakpoint candidates for further studies. Methods: the Cytogenetics Section Database was searched for all cases with diagnoses of chronic myeloid leukemia during a 12-year period and all the variant Philadelphia chromosomes were listed. Results: Fifty (5.17% cases out of 1071 Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia were variants. The most frequently involved chromosome was 17, followed by chromosomes: 1, 20, 6, 11, 2, 10, 12 and 15. Conclusion: Among all the breakpoints seen in this survey, six had previously been described: 11p15, 14q32, 15q11.2, 16p13.1, 17p13 and 17q21. The fact that some regions get more fre- quently involved in such rare rearrangements calls attention to possible predisposition that should be further studied. Nevertheless, the pathological implication of these variants remains unclear.

  1. The dynamic right-to-left translocation of Cerl2 is involved in the regulation and termination of Nodal activity in the mouse node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Inácio

    Full Text Available The determination of left-right body asymmetry in mouse embryos depends on the interplay of molecules in a highly sensitive structure, the node. Here, we show that the localization of Cerl2 protein does not correlate to its mRNA expression pattern, from 3-somite stage onwards. Instead, Cerl2 protein displays a nodal flow-dependent dynamic behavior that controls the activity of Nodal in the node, and the transmission of the laterality information to the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. Our results indicate that Cerl2 initially localizes and prevents the activation of Nodal genetic circuitry on the right side of the embryo, and later its right-to-left translocation shutdowns Nodal activity in the node. The consequent prolonged Nodal activity in the node by the absence of Cerl2 affects local Nodal expression and prolongs its expression in the LPM. Simultaneous genetic removal of both Nodal node inhibitors, Cerl2 and Lefty1, sustains even longer and bilateral this LPM expression.

  2. Molecular analysis of chromosomal rearrangements using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and somatic cell hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.M. (Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Many human genetic diseases, including some cancers, are characterized by consistent chromosome abnormalities, such as deletions and translocations. Analyses of these mutations often prove crucial to the eventual cloning and characterization of the gene(s) responsible for the disease. Two methods for analyzing these chromosome abnormalities have been developed in recent years: somatic cell hybridization and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Somatic cell hybridization is a technique for segregating an aberrant chromosome from its normal homologue in a cell derived from an unrelated species, which is usually a rodent. Demonstrations of these analytic techniques are presented, using as an example chromosomal abnormalities involving human chromosome band 11p13, the locus for the Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormality, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome.

  3. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  4. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  6. Chromosome Map of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17 with Locations of Genes Involved in Xanthan Gum Synthesis and Yellow Pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Yi-Hsiung; Choy, Ka-Tim; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Liu, Jane-Yu; Lou, Chih-Hong; Yang, Bih-Ying; Wen, Fu-Shyan; Weng, Shu-Fen; Wu, Jung-Rung

    1999-01-01

    No plasmid was detected in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17, a strain of the causative agent of black rot in cruciferous plants isolated in Taiwan. Its chromosome was cut by PacI, PmeI, and SwaI into five, two, and six fragments, respectively, and a size of 4.8 Mb was estimated by summing the fragment lengths in these digests. Based on the data obtained from partial digestion and Southern hybridization using probes common to pairs of the overlapping fragments or prepared from linking ...

  7. De novo reciprocal translocation t(5;11)(q22;p15) associated with hydrops fetalis (reciprocal translocation and hydrops fetalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Halil Gursoy; Artunc-Ulkumen, Burcu; Uyar, Yildiz; Bal, Filiz; Baytur, Yesim Bulbul; Koyuncu, Faik Mumtaz

    2015-02-01

    This is a case of a prenatally diagnosed non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) associated with translocation t(5;11)(q22;p15). An association between NIHF and this translocation has not been reported previously. The patient was referred to the perinatology clinic with hydrops fetalis diagnosis at 23 weeks' gestation. We noted that the fetus had bilateral pleural effusion, ascites, widespread subcutaneous edema, membranous ventricular septal defect, hypoplastic fifth finger middle phalanx, clinodactyly, single umbilical artery. We performed cordocentesis. Chromosomal analysis on blood showed a balanced translocation between the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosome 11 with karyotype of 46,XX,t(5;11)(q22;p15). We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo translocation (5;11) in a hydropic fetus with ultrason abnormalities. In our case, karyotype analysis of the fetus, mother and father provided evidence of a de novo translocation, that might explain the NIHF.

  8. FISH studies in a girl with sporadic aniridia and an apparently balanced de novo t(11;13(p13;q33 translocation detect a microdeletion involving the WAGR region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llerena Jr. J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cytogenetic studies on a female infant with sporadic aniridia revealed what appeared to be a balanced de novo t(11;13 (p13;q33 translocation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH investigations, however, detected the presence of a cryptic 11p13p14 deletion which included the WAGR region and involved approximately 7.5 Mb of DNA, including the PAX6 and WT1 genes. These results account for the patient's aniridia, and place her at high risk for developing Wilms' tumour. The absence of mental retardation in the patient suggests that the position of the distal breakpoint may also help to refine the mental retardation locus in the WAGR contiguous gene syndrome (Wilms', aniridia, genital anomalies and mental retardation.

  9. A family with Robertsonian translocation: a potential mechanism of speciation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieping; Li, Xi; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shuqin; Liu, Nian; Yao, Yanyi; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Weipeng; Rong, Han; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Robertsonian translocations occur in approximately one in every 1000 newborns. Although most Robertsonian translocation carriers are healthy and have a normal lifespan, they are at increased risk of spontaneous abortions and risk of producing unbalanced gametes and, therefore unbalanced offspring. Here we reported a previously undescribed Robertsonian translocation. We identified three Robertsonian translocation carriers in this family. Two were heterozygous translocation carriers of 45,XX or XY,der(14;15)(q10;q10) and their son was a homozygous translocation carrier of a 44,XY,der(14;15)(q10;q10), der(14;15)(q10;q10) karyotype. Chromosomal analysis of sperm showed 99.7 % of sperm from the homozygous translocation carrier were normal/balanced while only 79.9 % of sperm from the heterozygous translocation carrier were normal/balanced. There was a significantly higher frequency of aneuploidy for sex chromosome in the heterozygous translocation carrier. The reproductive fitness of Robertsonian translocation carriers is reduced. Robertsonian translocation homozygosity can be a potential speciation in humans with 44 chromosomes.

  10. Detailed comparison between the wheat chromosome group 7 short arms and the rice chromosome arms 6S and 8L with special reference to genes involved in starch biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhongyi; Huang, Bingyan; Rampling, Lynette

    2004-01-01

    Rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have been identified that contain sequences orthologous to each EST localized to wheat chromosome 7AS deletion stocks by Southern blot hybridization. This information has been used to relate the DNA sequence included in each wheat deletion stock...... on wheat chromosome 7AS and the virtual rice contig covering wheat chromosome 7AS. A preliminary comparison between the short arms of chromosome 7A and 7D in wheat showed that both chromosomes had a similar level of sequence synteny with rice. Therefore, there appears to be considerable variation in gene...

  11. A novel relaxase homologue is involved in chromosomal DNA processing for type IV secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Jain, Samta; Turner, Nicholas; van der Does, Chris; Dillard, Joseph P

    2007-11-01

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae type IV secretion system secretes chromosomal DNA that acts in natural transformation. To examine the mechanism of DNA processing for secretion, we made mutations in the putative relaxase gene traI and used nucleases to characterize the secreted DNA. The nuclease experiments demonstrated that the secreted DNA is single-stranded and blocked at the 5' end. Mutation of traI identified Tyr93 as required for DNA secretion, while substitution of Tyr201 resulted in intermediate levels of DNA secretion. TraI exhibits features of relaxases, but also has features that are absent in previously characterized relaxases, including an HD phosphohydrolase domain and an N-terminal hydrophobic region. The HD domain residue Asp120 was required for wild-type levels of DNA secretion. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated that the TraI N-terminal region promotes membrane interaction. We propose that Tyr93 initiates DNA processing and Tyr201 is required for termination or acts in DNA binding. Disruption of an inverted-repeat sequence eliminated DNA secretion, suggesting that this sequence may serve as the origin of transfer for chromosomal DNA secretion. The TraI domain architecture, although not previously described, is present in 53 uncharacterized proteins, suggesting that the mechanism of TraI function is a widespread process for DNA donation.

  12. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  13. Biological characterization of adult MYC-translocation-positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, Sietse M.; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W.; Rosolowski, Maciej; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hummel, Michael; Kueppers, Ralf; Lenze, Dido; Ott, German; Pott, Christiane; Richter, Julia; Rosenwald, Andreas; Szczepanowski, Monika; Schwaenen, Carsten; Stein, Harald; Trautmann, Heiko; Wessendorf, Swen; Truemper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Spang, Rainer; Kluin, Philip M.; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biological hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation-positive (MYC+) lymphomas are

  14. Physiology in conservation translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  15. Post-translocational adaptation drives evolution through genetic selection and transcriptional shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, Valentina; Sims, Jason; West, Nicole; Colombin, Martina; Bruschi, Carlo V

    2017-05-01

    Adaptation by natural selection might improve the fitness of an organism and its probability to survive in unfavorable environmental conditions. Decoding the genetic basis of adaptive evolution is one of the great challenges to deal with. To this purpose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been largely investigated because of its short division time, excellent aneuploidy tolerance and the availability of the complete sequence of its genome with a thorough genome database. In the past, we developed a system, named bridge-induced translocation, to trigger specific, non-reciprocal translocations, exploiting the endogenous recombination system of budding yeast. This technique allows users to generate a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and increased phenotypic variation. In this work, we demonstrate that ad hoc chromosomal translocations might induce adaptation, fostering selection of thermo-tolerant yeast strains with improved phenotypic fitness. This "yeast eugenomics" correlates with a shift to enhanced expression of genes involved in stress response, heat shock as well as carbohydrate metabolism. We propose that the bridge-induced translocation is a suitable approach to generate adapted, physiologically boosted strains for biotechnological applications.

  16. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.

  17. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Sakellariou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines.We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted.We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

  18. Physical mapping of a 7A.7D translocation in the wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploid BE-1 using multicolour genomic in situ hybridization and microsatellite marker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsi, A; Molnár, I; Molnár-Láng, M

    2009-09-01

    The absence of chromosome 7D in the wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploid BE-1 was detected previously by multicolour genomic in situ hybridization, sequential FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) using repetitive DNA probes, and SSR marker analysis. In the present study the previous cytogenetic and SSR marker analyses were expanded to include 25 other SSR markers assigned to wheat chromosomes 7A and 7D to confirm the presence of a 7A.7D translocation and to specify its composition. An almost complete chromosome 7A and a short chromosome segment derived from the terminal region of 7DL were detected, confirming the presence of a terminal translocation involving the distal regions of 7AL and 7DL. In both cases the position of the translocation breakpoint was different from that of known deletion lines. The identification of the 7AL.7DL translocation and its breakpoint position provides a new physical landmark for future physical mapping studies, opening up the possibility of more precise localization of genes or molecular markers within the terminal regions of 7DL and 7AL.

  19. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.

  20. Further evidence for a non-random chromosomal abnormality in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.; Golomb, H.M.; Vardiman, J.; Fukahara, S.; Dougherty, C.; Potter, D.

    1977-01-01

    We have previously reported on two patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who had what appeared to be a deletion of chromosome No. 17. We now describe a third patient with APL. All three patients had a structural rearrangement involving No. 15 and No. 17. Our current interpretation of the chromosomal abnormality is that it is a reciprocal translocation, t (15; 17) (q22; q21). Evidence that this is a consistent rearrangement associated with APL comes not only from our three patients, but also from two other published cases of APL, studied with banding, who also had an identical abnormality.

  1. Balanced reciprocal translocation 5,18: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Savad

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: A balanced reciprocal translocation carrier is phenotypically normal, but during meiosis І, carrier chromosomes cant pair normally and form quadrivalant instead of bivalant that depend on type of their segregation (alternate, adjacent 1, adjacent 2,3:1,4:0, produce gametes that are chromosomally unbalanced which can result in early fetus abortion. Considering the number of abnormal gametes, the most effective way to help couples with this problem seems to be PGD 24sure, since it can identify reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation and allows concurrent screening of all chromosomes for aneuploidy. Another technique that can be compared with PGD 24sure is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, but it has several technical limitations such as it is expensive and complexity, in addition it has only few probes (for chromosomes 21, 13, 18, X, Y so sometimes necessary to create patient specific protocols.

  2. Complex chromosomal rearrangement-a lesson learned from PGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Tsvia; Peleg, Sagit; Gold, Veronica; Reches, Adi; Asaf, Shiri; Azem, Foad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Malcov, Mira

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to report a case of non-diagnosed complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) identified by preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) which resulted in a pregnancy and delivery of healthy offspring. A 29-year-old woman and her spouse, both diagnosed previously with normal karyotypes, approached our IVF-PGD center following eight early spontaneous miscarriages. PGS using chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed on biopsied trophectoderm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), as well as re-karyotype, were performed on metaphase derived from peripheral blood of the couple. Subsequently, in the following PGD cycle, a total of seven blastocysts underwent CMA. A gain or loss at three chromosomes (3, 7, 9) was identified in six out of seven embryos in the first PGS-CMA cycle. FISH analysis of parental peripheral blood samples demonstrated that the male is a carrier of a CCR involving those chromosomes; this was in spite of a former diagnosis of normal karyotypes for both parents. Re-karyotype verified the complex translocation of 46,XY,t (3;7;9)(q23;q22;q22). Subsequently, in the following cycle, a total of seven blastocysts underwent PGD-CMA for the identified complex translocation. Two embryos were diagnosed with balanced chromosomal constitution. A single balanced embryo was transferred and pregnancy was achieved, resulting in the birth of a healthy female baby. PGS employing CMA is an efficient method to detect unrevealed chromosomal abnormalities, including complicated cases of CCR. The combined application of array CGH and FISH technologies enables the identification of an increased number of CCR carriers for which PGD is particularly beneficial.

  3. Alterations of chromosome 11q13 in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, N.C.; Zimonjic, D.B. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    In cervical cancer, evidence for the existence of a tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 11 has been generated from studies with somatic cell hybrids, chromosome microcell transfer, or deletion analysis of DNA markers. As suggested by somatic cell hybrids analysis, chromosome 11 harbors at least three distinctive tumor-suppressor genes, two on the short arm and one on the long arm. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 16 markers, 10 of which were microsatellite-based, placed the region of a putative tumor-suppressor gene to 11q22-24. Recently, 11q13 was assigned as another possible site on the basis of molecular rearrangements, deletions, and translocations, nonrandomly involving this region in four of eight cervical carcinoma cell lines. Abnormal chromosomes 11 were found in HeLa, SiHa, and Caski lines and in C33A, a human papilloma virus-negative cell line. 18 refs.

  4. Acampomelic campomelic syndrome and sex reversal associated with de novo t(12;17) translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Shinsuke; Narahara, Kouji; Tsuji, Kazushiro [Okayama Univ. Medical School (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    The association of rare chromosomal rearrangements involving a specific 17q breakpoint with campomelic syndrome (CMPS) and/or sex reversal (SR) has led to an assignment of the CMPS1/SRA1 locus to 17q24.3 {yields} q25.1. We describe a patient with multiple anomalies and SR, who had a de novo t(12;17) translocation. The phenotype was consistent with that of CMPS except for the lack of lower limb bowing and talipes equinovarus. Chromosome painting indicated that the breakpoints appeared to have occurred at 12q21.32 and 17q24.3 or q25.1. CMPD with SR represents a variant of the CMPS1/SRA1 locus disorder. We emphasize the likelihood that CMPS may be a contiguous gene syndrome. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Identification of a centromeric exchange of acrocentric chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.W.; Immken, L.; Curry, C.J.R. [UCSF, Fresno, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Exchanges of the peri-centromeric area of acrocentric chromosomes are difficult to identify using the conventional cytogenetic techniques. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides a new way for precisely identifying such rearrangements. Here we report a case of centromeric rearrangement in an amniotic fluid specimen with an extra marker chromosome. M.G., a 41-year-old G1, was referred for advanced maternal age. Chromosome studies revealed a 47,XX +mar karyotype. The marker appeared to be bi-satallited with a single C band. Chromosome studies from the parents were normal. The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy. Anatomical examination of the abortus revealed a very short neck, posteriorly rotated ears, high set cecum, absent hepatic lobation and low abdominal kidneys with short ureters. FISH studies with alpha-satellite probes of 13/21, 14/22, and 15, and the DiGeorge probe, indicated that there is a translocation of 21 alpha-satellite to the 22, and that the marker chromosome probably consists of 14/22 alpha-satellite material. FISH analysis of the parents chromosome revealed that father had the translocation of 21 alpha-satellite to the 22 as well. Exchanges of centromeric material among the acrocentric chromosomes may not be an uncommon event in humans. Although it probably has no clinical significance, it may result in non-disjunction or marker chromosome formation from an uncommon satellite association. With the use of FISH techniques, exchanges involving the centromeric regions of acrocentric chromosomes can be identified.

  6. A and C genome distinction and chromosome identification in brassica napus by sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elaine C; Kearsey, Michael J; Jones, Gareth H; King, Graham J; Armstrong, Susan J

    2008-12-01

    The two genomes (A and C) of the allopolyploid Brassica napus have been clearly distinguished using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) despite the fact that the two extant diploids, B. rapa (A, n = 10) and B. oleracea (C, n = 9), representing the progenitor genomes, are closely related. Using DNA from B. oleracea as the probe, with B. rapa DNA and the intergenic spacer of the B. oleracea 45S rDNA as the block, hybridization occurred on 9 of the 19 chromosome pairs along the majority of their length. The pattern of hybridization confirms that the two genomes have remained distinct in B. napus line DH12075, with no significant genome homogenization and no large-scale translocations between the genomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-with 45S rDNA and a BAC that hybridizes to the pericentromeric heterochromatin of several chromosomes-followed by GISH allowed identification of six chromosomes and also three chromosome groups. Our procedure was used on the B. napus cultivar Westar, which has an interstitial reciprocal translocation. Two translocated segments were detected in pollen mother cells at the pachytene stage of meiosis. Using B. oleracea chromosome-specific BACs as FISH probes followed by GISH, the chromosomes involved were confirmed to be A7 and C6.

  7. Studies of X inactivation and isodisomy in twins provide further evidence that the X chromosomes is not involved in Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; Dunn, M.A.; Schmeckpeper, B.J.; Naidu, S. [Johns Hophins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Kennedy-Kreiger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rett syndrome (RS), a progressive encephalopathy with onset in infancy, has been attributed to an X-linked mutation, mainly on the basis of its occurrence almost exclusively in females and its concordance in female MZ twins. The underlying mechanisms proposed are an X-linked dominant mutation with male lethality, uniparental disomy of the X chromosome, and/or some disturbance in the process of X inactivation leading to unequal distribution of cells expressing maternal or paternal alleles (referred to as a {open_quotes}nonrandom{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}skewed {close_quotes} inactivation). To determine if the X chromosome is in fact involved in RS, we studied a group of affected females including three pairs of MZ twins, two concordant for RS and one uniquely discordant for RS. Analysis of X-inactivation patterns confirms the frequent nonrandom X inactivation previously observed in MZ twins but indicates that this is independent of RS. Analysis of 29 RS females reveals not one instance of uniparental X disomy, extending the observations previously reported. Therefore, our findings contribute no support for the hypothesis that RS is an X-linked disorder. Furthermore, the concordant phenotype in most MZ females twins with RS, which has not been observed in female twins with known X-linked mutations, argues against an X mutation. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  8. A new chromosome nomenclature system for oat (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) based on FISH analysis of monosomic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M J; Jellen, E N; Loarce, Y; Irigoyen, M L; Ferrer, E; Fominaya, A

    2010-11-01

    chromosomes could be involved in intergenomic translocations. By comparing the identities of individually translocated chromosomes in the two hexaploid species with those of other hexaploids, we detected different types of intergenomic translocations.

  9. Microdeletion syndromes, balanced translocations, and gene mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzel, A

    1988-01-01

    High resolution prometaphase chromosome banding has allowed the detection of discrete chromosome aberrations which escaped earlier metaphase examinations. Consistent tiny deletions have been detected in some well established malformation syndromes: an interstitial deletion in 15q11/12 in the majority of patients with the Prader-Willi syndrome and in a minority of patients with the Angelman (happy puppet) syndrome; a terminal deletion of 17p13.3 in most patients examined with the Miller-Dieker syndrome; an interstitial deletion of 8q23.3/24.1 in a large majority of patients with the Giedion-Langer syndrome; an interstitial deletion of 11p13 in virtually all patients with the WAGR (Wilms' tumour-aniridia-gonadoblastoma-retardation) syndrome; and an interstitial deletion in 22q11 in about one third of patients with the DiGeorge sequence. In addition, a combination of chromosome prometaphase banding and DNA marker studies has allowed the localisation of the genes for retinoblastoma and for Wilms' tumour and the clarification of both the autosomal recessive nature of the mutation and the possible somatic mutations by which the normal allele can be lost in retina and kidney cells. After a number of X linked genes had been mapped, discrete deletions in the X chromosome were detected by prometaphase banding with specific attention paid to the sites of the gene(s) in males who had from one to up to four different X linked disorders plus mental retardation. Furthermore, the detection of balanced translocations in probands with disorders caused by autosomal dominant or X linked genes has allowed a better insight into the localisation of these genes. In some females with X linked disorders, balanced X; autosomal translocations have allowed the localisation of X linked genes at the breakpoint on the X chromosome. Balanced autosome; autosome translocations segregating with autosomal dominant conditions have provided some clues to the gene location of these conditions. In two

  10. Chromosome Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XX), and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY). The mother and father each contribute one ... chromosome has attached to another at the centromere. Inversions: A portion of the chromosome has broken off, turned upside down, and reattached. ...

  11. Using SNP array to identify aneuploidy and segmental imbalance in translocation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, B.; Tan, K.; Tan, Y.Q.; Gong, F.; Zhang, S.P.; Lu, C.F.; Luo, K.L.; Lu, G.X.; Lin, G.

    2014-01-01

    Translocation is one of the more common structural rearrangements of chromosomes, with a prevalence of 0.2%. The two most common types of chromosomal translocations, Robertsonian and reciprocal, usually result in no obvious phenotypic abnormalities when balanced. However, these are still associated with reproductive risks, such as infertility, spontaneous abortion and the delivery of babies with mental retardation or developmental delay. In recent years, array-based whole-genome amplification...

  12. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  13. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) was used to screen embryos for chromosome imbalances. Methods. Embryo biopsy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis using a 24sure+ kit to detect translocations in embryos. Results. Of 10 embryos tested, 2 were found to have an unbalanced translocation, ...

  14. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for X;autosome translocations : lessons from a case of misdiagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Echten-Arends, J.; Coonen, E.; Reuters, B.; Suijkerbuijk, R. F.; Dul, E. C.; Land, J. A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered to couples carrying a reciprocal translocation in an attempt to increase their chance of phenotypically normal offspring. For the selection of embryos that are balanced for the translocation chromosomes, it is critical to use a combination of DNA

  15. Chromosomal locations and modes of action of genes of the retinoid (vitamin A) system support their involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A.B. [Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-08-14

    Vitamin A (retinoid), an essential nutrient for fetal and subsequent mammalian development, is involved in gene expression, cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and death. Retinoic acid (RA) the morphogenic derivative of vitamin A is highly teratogenic. In humans retinoid excess or deficit can result in brain anomalies and psychosis. This review discusses chromosomal loci of genes that control the retinoid cascade in relation to some candidate genes in schizophrenia. The paper relates the knowledge about the transport, delivery, and action of retinoids to what is presently known about the pathology of schizophrenia, with particular reference to the dopamine hypothesis, neurotransmitters, the glutamate hypothesis, neurotransmitters, the glutamate hypothesis, retinitis pigmentosa, dermatologic disorders, and craniofacial anomalies. 201 refs., 1 tab.

  16. The JAK2 V617F mutation involves B- and T-lymphocyte lineages in a subgroup of patients with Philadelphia-chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2007-01-01

    to phenotype. The mutation is found in the majority of patients with PV and about half of the patients with ET and IMF. These diseases are clonal stem cell disorders arising in an early stem cell progenitor. The level in the stem cell hierarchy on which the initiating genetic events and the JAK2 V617F mutation......The JAK2 V617F mutation is a frequent genetic event in the three classical Philadelphia-chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative disorders (Ph(neg.)-CMPD), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF). Its occurrence varies in frequency in regards...... occurs is not known. The mutation has so far been detected in all cells of the myeloid lineage, whereas the potential clonal involvement of the lymphoid lineage is controversial. In this study, we detected the JAK2 V617F mutation by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in both B-lymphocytes and T...

  17. A homologous subfamily of satellite III DNA on human chromosomes 14 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, K H; Earle, E; McQuillan, C

    1990-10-11

    We describe a new subfamily of human satellite III DNA that is represented on two different acrocentric chromosomes. This DNA is composed of a tandemly repeated array of diverged 5-base-pair monomer units of the sequence GGAAT or GGAGT. These monomers are organised into a 1.37-kilobase higher-order structure that is itself tandemly reiterated. Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing specific human chromosomes, this higher-order structure is demonstrated on chromosomes 14 and 22, but not on the remaining acrocentric chromosomes. In situ hybridisation studies have localised the sequence to the proximal p-arm region of these chromosomes. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) reveals that 70-110 copies of the higher-order structure are tandemly organised on a chromosome into a major domain which appears to be flanked on both sides by non-tandemly repeated genomic DNA. In addition, some of the satellite III sequences are interspersed over a number of other PFGE fragments. This study provides fundamental knowledge on the structure and evolution of the acrocentric chromosomes, and should extend our understanding of the complex process of interchromosomal interaction which may be responsible for Robertsonian translocation and meiotic nondisjunction involving these chromosomes.

  18. Fusion of the NUP98 gene with the LEDGF/p52 gene defines a recurrent acute myeloid leukemia translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mario

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NUP98 gene is involved in multiple rearrangements in haematological malignancy. The leukemic cells in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML patient with a t(9;11(p22;p15 were recently shown to have a fusion between the NUP98 gene and the LEDGF gene but it was not demonstrated that this fusion was recurrent in other leukaemia patients with the same translocation. Results We used RT-PCR to analyse the leukemic cells from an AML patient who presented with a cytogenetically identical translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. A NUP98-LEDGF fusion transcript was observed and confirmed by sequencing. The reciprocal transcript was also observed. The fusion transcript was not detectable during remission and recurred at relapse. The breakpoints in the NUP98 and LEDGF genes were different to those previously reported. The NUP98 breakpoint occurs in the intron between exons 8 and 9. It is the most 5' breakpoint reported in a translocation involving the NUP98 gene. All of the LEDGF gene is included in the fusion except for exon 1 which codes for the first 24 amino terminal amino acids. Conclusions Our results show that fusion of the NUP98 and LEDGF genes is a new recurrent translocation in AML.

  19. Cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia in a child with a partial monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 5 and partial trisomy for the short arm of chromosome 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, W F M; Hofstee, Y; Drejer, G F; Beverstock, G C; Oosterwijk, J C

    A child with hypoplasia of the cerebellum and brainstem in association with an unbalanced translocation, resulting in a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and a partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10, is described. A balanced translocation was present in his mother and

  20. Severe hemophilia A in a female by cryptic translocation: Order and orientation of factor VIII within Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; McGinniss, M.J.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Axelman, J.; Stasiowski, B.A.; Youssoufian, H.; Kearns, W.G.; Chung, A.; Pearson, P.L.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Muneer, R.S. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report studies of a female with severe hemophilia A resulting from a complex de novo translocation of chromosomes X and 17 (46,X,t(X; 17)). Somatic cell hybrids containing the normal X, the der(X), or the der(17) were analyzed for coagulation factor VIII (F8C) sequences using Southern blots and polymerase chain reaction. The normal X, always late replicating, contains a normal F8C gene, whereas the der(X) has no F8C sequences. The der(17) chromosome containing Xq24-Xq28 carries a functional G6PD locus and a deleted F8C allele that lacks exons 1--15. Also, it lacks the DXYS64-X locus, situated between the F8C locus and the Xq telomere. These results indicate that a cryptic breakpoint within Xq28 deleted the 5[prime] end of F8C, but left the more proximal G6PD locus intact on the der(17)chromosome. As the deleted segment includes the 5[prime] half of F8C as well as the subtelomeric DXYS64 locus, F8C must be oriented on the chromosome with its 5[prime] region closest to the telomere. Therefore, the order of these loci is Xcen-G6PD-3[prime]F8C-5[prime]F8C-DXYS64-Xqtel. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids has elucidated the true nature of the F8C mutation in the pro-band, revealing a more complex rearrangement (three chromosomes involved) than that expected from cytogenetic analysis, chromosome painting, and Southern blots. A 900-kb segment within Xq28 has been translocated to another autosome. Hemophilia A in this heterozygous female is due to the decapitation of the F8C gene on the der(17) and inactivation of the intact allele on the normal X. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A novel mode of chromosomal evolution peculiar to filamentous Ascomycete fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene loss, inversions, translocations, and other chromosomal rearrangements vary among species, resulting in different rates of structural genome evolution. Major chromosomal rearrangements are rare in most eukaryotes, giving large regions with the same genes in the same order and orientation across species. These regions of macrosynteny have been very useful for locating homologous genes in different species and to guide the assembly of genome sequences. Previous analyses in the fungi have indicated that macrosynteny is rare; instead, comparisons across species show no synteny or only microsyntenic regions encompassing usually five or fewer genes. To test the hypothesis that chromosomal evolution is different in the fungi compared to other eukaryotes, synteny was compared between species of the major fungal taxa. Results These analyses identified a novel form of evolution in which genes are conserved within homologous chromosomes, but with randomized orders and orientations. This mode of evolution is designated mesosynteny, to differentiate it from micro- and macrosynteny seen in other organisms. Mesosynteny is an alternative evolutionary pathway very different from macrosyntenic conservation. Surprisingly, mesosynteny was not found in all fungal groups. Instead, mesosynteny appears to be restricted to filamentous Ascomycetes and was most striking between species in the Dothideomycetes. Conclusions The existence of mesosynteny between relatively distantly related Ascomycetes could be explained by a high frequency of chromosomal inversions, but translocations must be extremely rare. The mechanism for this phenomenon is not known, but presumably involves generation of frequent inversions during meiosis. PMID:21605470

  2. Chromosomal Rainbows detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Benjamin; Jossart, Gregg H.; Ito, Yuko; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Munne, Santiago; Clark, Orlo H.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2010-08-19

    Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'-end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners. We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabase-pair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding

  3. Chromosomal Rainbows’ Detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Benjamin; Jossart, Gregg H.; Ito, Yuko; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Munne, Santiago; Clark, Orlo H.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as ‘TRKA’), RET (‘Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene’, OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3′- end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners. We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabasepair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC’s). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding techniques for fine

  4. 'Chromosomal Rainbows' Detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin; Jossart, Gregg H; Ito, Yuko; Greulich-Bode, Karin M; Weier, Jingly F; Munne, Santiago; Clark, Orlo H; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'- end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners.We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabasepair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding techniques for fine mapping of

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Jaganathan; Kujur, Smita B; Selvaraj, Kamala; Suruli, Muthiah S; Haripriya, Geetha; Samuel, Chandra R

    2015-07-01

    Male infertility has been associated with aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletions and specific gene mutations and/or polymorphisms. Besides genetic factors, any block in sperm delivery, endocrine disorders, testicular tumours, infectious diseases, medications, lifestyle factors and environmental toxins can also play a causative role. This study aimed to determine the constitutional karyotype in infertile males having normal female partners in a south Indian population. A total of 180 men with a complaint of primary infertility ranging from 1 to 25 years were screened for chromosomal abnormalities through conventional analysis of GTG-banded metaphases from cultured lymphocytes. Four individuals were diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome. Two cases exhibited reciprocal translocations and one showed a maternally inherited insertion. Polymorphisms were seen in sixty-seven patients (37.2%). The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 4.6% and variants involving the heterochromatic regions of Y, chromosome 9 and the acrocentric chromosomes in 38.2% of the infertile men with an abnormal seminogram strongly reiterates the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing and counselling in the diagnostic work-up prior to the use of assisted reproduction technologies.

  6. Multiple sex chromosome system in penguins (Pygoscelis, Spheniscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunski, Ricardo José; Cañedo, Andrés Delgado; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Ledesma, Mario Angel; Coria, Nestor; Montalti, Diego; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga

    2017-01-01

    Penguins are classified in the order Sphenisciformes into a single family, Spheniscidae. The genus Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832, is composed of three species, Pygoscelis antarcticus Forster, 1781, P. papua Forster, 1781 and P. adeliae Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841. In this work, the objective was to describe and to compare the karyotypes of Pygoscelis penguins contributing genetic information to Sphenisciformes. The metaphases were obtained by lymphocyte culture, and the diploid number and the C-banding pattern were determined. P. antarcticus has 2n = 92, P. papua 2n = 94 and P. adeliae exhibited 2n = 96 in males and 2n = 95 in females. The difference of diploid number in P. adeliae was identified as a multiple sex chromosome system where males have Z1Z1Z2Z2 and females Z1Z2W. The C-banding showed the presence of a heterochromatic block in the long arm of W chromosome and Z2 was almost entirely heterochromatic. The probable origin of a multiple system in P. adeliae was a translocation involving the W chromosome and the chromosome ancestral to Z2. The comparison made possible the identification of a high karyotype homology in Sphenisciformes which can be seen in the conservation of macrochromosomes and in the Z chromosome. The karyotypic divergences in Pygoscelis are restricted to the number of microchromosomes and W, which proved to be highly variable in size and morphology. The data presented in this work corroborate molecular phylogenetic proposals, supporting the monophyletic origin of penguins and intraspecific relations.

  7. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  8. Oncogene Translocations and NHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colloboration with several large population-based cohorts to determine whether the prevalence or level of t14;18 is associated with risk of NHL and to investigate the clonal relationship between translocation-bearing cells and subsequent tumors

  9. Location of a High-Lysine Gene and the DDT-Resistance Gene on Barley Chromosome 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.

    1979-01-01

    mutants, nos 1508.18, and 19. Linkage studies with translocations locate the Lys3 locus in the centromere region ofchromosome 7. A linkage study involving the loci lys3 and ddt (resistance to DDT) together with the marker locifi (fragile stem), s(short rachilla hairs), and r (smooth awn) show...... that the order of the five loci on chromosome 7 from the long to the short chromosome arm is Y, s,fi, lys3, ddt. The distance from locus I to locus ddt is about 100 centimorgans....

  10. [Abnormal Karyotypes Involving 1q21 and 12p13 and Their Clinical Significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Sun, Wan-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Many hematological malignances involve recurrent chromosomal abnormalities, and the reciprocal translocation is one of them. However, there are a lot of chromosomal abnormalities with lower incidence and unclear clinical significance. Among them, the one abnormal karyotype translocation, t (1;12) (q21; p13) is a rare karyotype change. Only 6 patients had been reported to have this karyotype and all of them suffered from hematologic diseases, including one case of acute myeloid leukemia, one case of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, two children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, one case of chronic myeloid leukemia at accelerated phase and one case of multiple myeloma. Among them, the fusion gene were detectable in two cases. In this article, the common chromoscme karyotype abnormality involving 1q21 and 12p13, and genes involving in these regious are summarized, moreover the reported cases of t(1;12) (q21;p13) are reviewed.

  11. Bridge-Induced Translocation betweenNUP145andTOP2Yeast Genes Models the Genetic Fusion between the Human Orthologs Associated With Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, Valentina; West, Nicole; Zrimec, Jan; Nikitin, Dmitri V; Del Sal, Giannino; Marano, Roberto; Breitenbach, Michael; Bruschi, Carlo V

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT) that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation. In this work, thanks to a complex pop-out methodology of the marker used for the selection of translocants, we succeeded by BIT technology to precisely reproduce in yeast the peculiar chromosome translocation that has been associated with AML, characterized by the fusion between the human genes NUP98 and TOP2B . To shed light on the origin of the DNA fragility within NUP98 , an extensive analysis of the curvature, bending, thermostability, and B-Z transition aptitude of the breakpoint region of NUP98 and of its yeast ortholog NUP145 has been performed. On this basis, a DNA cassette carrying homologous tails to the two genes was amplified by PCR and allowed the targeted fusion between NUP145 and TOP2 , leading to reproduce the chimeric transcript in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae . The resulting translocated yeast obtained through BIT appears characterized by abnormal spherical bodies of nearly 500 nm of diameter, absence of external membrane and defined cytoplasmic localization. Since Nup98 is a well-known regulator of the post-transcriptional modification of P53 target genes, and P53 mutations are occasionally reported in AML, this translocant yeast strain can be used as a model to test the constitutive expression of human P53 . Although the abnormal phenotype of the translocant yeast was never rescued by its expression, an exogenous P53 was recognized to confer increased vitality to the translocants, in spite of its

  12. Predictive and Prognostic Implications of Variant Philadelphia Translocations in CML: Experience From a Tertiary Oncology Center in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasetty, Govind Babu; Kuntejowdahalli, Lakshmaiah; Thanky, Aditi Harsh; Dasappa, Lokanatha; Jacob, Linu Abraham; Mallekavu, Suresh Babu; Kumari, Prasanna

    2017-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome with classical t(9;22)(q34;q11) seen in up to 90% of cases. However 5% to 10% of patients who present with variant Ph translocations (vPh) have been an area of research for their significance in predicting response to various therapies including tyrosine kinase inhibitors as well as prognosticating survival outcomes for many years involving varied patient populations, with conflicting results. We retrospectively analyzed our data from January 2002 to December 2014. Patients with vPh in chronic phase of CML (CML-CP) were analyzed with respect to their demographic parameters, response to imatinib therapy, and survival and their data were compared with data of patients with classical Ph translocation (cPh). Of 615 patients diagnosed with CML-CP, 72 patients (11.7%) showed vPh. Most common chromosomes involved in these translocations were 14 (13.9%), 11 (12.5%), 19 (9.7%), and 7 (8.3%). Rates of complete hematological response, complete cytogenetic response, and major molecular response were not statistically different between the groups. At 5 years, event-free survival, failure-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 60% versus 67.9%, 62.7% versus 69.7%, 84.7% versus 92.1%, and 87.5% versus 92.4%, respectively, in vPh and cPh. The differences in survival were statistically not significant. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of variant translocations in CML-CP, pertaining to the Indian population. Our data suggest that the presence of vPh in CML has no significant effect in predicting response to imatinib as well as in prognosticating survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trisomy greatly enhances interstitial crossing over in a translocation heterozygote of Secale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.; Verhaar, H.M.; Botje, D.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including reciprocal translocations, may prevent recombinational transfer of genes from a donor genotype to a recipient, especially when the gene is located in an interstitial segment. The effect of trisomy of chromosome arm 1RS on recombination was studied in

  14. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Final report, January 1--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    It has been clear for the last 15 years that cloning translocation breakpoints in both AML de novo and t-AML would provide the DNA probes required to determine whether the breakpoints in cytogenetically apparently similar translocations were identical at the level of DNA. Therefore the author has pursued an analysis of rearrangements in both types of leukemia simultaneously. She has also cloned and sequenced several translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and in chronic lymphatic leukemia. Recently she cloned the breakpoint in a number of translocations involving chromosome bands 11q23 and 21q22. She has cloned the gene which she called MLL, that is located in 11q23 that is involved in the 6;11, 9;11, and 11;19 translocations that are seen in AML de novo as well as in t-AML. She has evidence that the breakpoint in 11q23 and in the t(9;11) is relatively similar in de novo and secondary AML. In addition, she has cloned the gene at the breakpoint in chromosome 21 in the t(3;21). These studies have provided DNA probes that will be very important for diagnosis and for monitoring the patient`s response to treatment.

  15. A South American origin of the genus Dynastes (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) demonstrated by chromosomal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, B; Dutrillaux, A-M

    2013-01-01

    The karyotypes of 5 species of Dynastes, D. hercules, D. tityus, D. granti, D. satanas, and D. neptunus, and 2 subspecies of D. hercules are compared with those of 6 other selected Dynastinae species. In the 3 former species, there are 18 chromosomes, including neo-sex chromosomes formed by the fusion of an acrocentric autosome with the X and Y chromosomes. In all other species, including D. neptunus and D. satanas, free X and Y chromosomes are observed in 20,Xyp karyotypes. The acrocentric autosome presumably involved in the fusion is present in D. neptunus and D. satanas (pair No. 8). It replaces a submetacentric observed in the other Dynastinae species. Thus, the karyotypes of D. neptunus and D. satanas derive from that of ancestral Dynastinae by an inversion in chromosome 8, and those of D. hercules, D. granti and D. tityus derive from that of D. neptunus by the translocation of this inverted chromosome to sex chromosomes. Because the Dynastes species with the most derived karyotype occur in North and Central America and Lesser Antilles, while D. neptunus and D. satanas are limited to the northern part of the South American Andes, we suggest a South American origin of the genus Dynastes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Chromosome analyses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H; Nolte, I

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetics is the study of normal and abnormal chromosomes. Every species is characterized by a given number of chromosomes that can be recognized by their specific shape. The chromosomes are arranged according to standard classification schemes for the respective species. While pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses investigate the constitutional karyotype, tumor cytogenetics is focused on the detection of clonal acquired, tumor-associated chromosome aberrations. Cytogenetic investigations in dogs are of great value especially for breeders dealing with fertility problems within their pedigrees, for veterinarians and last but not least for the dog owners. Dogs and humans share a variety of genetic diseases, including cancer. Thus, the dog has become an increasingly important model for genetic diseases. However, cytogenetic analyses of canine cells are complicated by the complex karyotype of the dog. Only just 15 years ago, a standard classification scheme for the complete canine karyotype was established. For chromosome analyses of canine cells the same steps of chromosome preparation are used as in human cytogenetics. There are few reports about cytogenetic changes in non-neoplastic cells, involving predominantly the sex chromosomes. Cytogenetic analyses of different entities of canine tumors revealed that, comparable to human tumors, tumors of the dog are often characterized by clonal chromosome aberrations, which might be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. The integration of modern techniques (molecular genetic approaches, adaptive computer programs) will facilitate and complete conventional cytogenetic studies. However, conventional cytogenetics is still non-replaceable.

  17. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF)3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF)3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  18. Cytogenetics and reproduction of sheep with multiple centric fusions (Robertsonian translocations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruère, A N; Ellis, P M

    1979-11-01

    The significance of centric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) in domestic animals, with special reference to sheep, is reviewed. The mating is described of a further 856 ewes with either a normal chromosome number 2n = 54 or carrying one or more of the three different translocations (centric fusions) t1, t2 and t3 in various heterozygous and homozygous arrangements. Rams which were used in the matings were homozygous for one of the translocation chromosomes (2n = 52), double heterozygotes (2n = 52), triple heterozygotes (2n = 51) or were carriers of 4 translocation chromosomes (2n = 50) and 5 translocation chromosomes (2n = 49). A remarkably even distribution of segregation products was recorded in the progeny of all combinations of translocation ewes x translocation rams in those groups in which sufficient animals were available for statistical analysis. Forty-eight chromosomally different groups of animals were mated. Further, the overall fertility of the translocation sheep, measured by conception rate to first service, lambing percentage and number of ewes which did not breed a lamb, was not significantly different from New Zealand national sheep breeding data. In some groups the poorer reproductive performance could be explained by the age structure of the flock and inbreeding depression, which probably affected the performance of some animals. Sheep with progressively decreasing chromosome numbers, due to centric fusion, 2n = 50, 2n = 49 and 2n = 48, are reported. The 2n = 48 category represents a triple homozygous ewe and a triple homozygous ram and is the first report of the viable evolution of such domestic animals. Less than 1% of phenotypically abnormal lambs were recorded in a total of 1995 progeny born over 10 years. It is now considered that there is little or no evidence to suggest that centric fusions in a variety of combinations affect the total productive fitness of domestic sheep. It is suggested that future research should be more actively

  19. Increased chromosomal breakage in Tourette syndrome predicts the possibility of variable multiple gene involvement in spectrum phenotypes: Preliminary findings and hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gericke, G.S.; Simonic, I.; Cloete, E.; Buckle, C. [Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Increased chromosomal breakage was found in 12 patients with DSM-IV Tourette syndrome (TS) as compared with 10 non-TS control individuals with respect to untreated, modified RPM1-, and BrdU treated lymphocyte cultures (P < 0.001 in each category). A hypothesis is proposed that a major TS gene is probably connected to genetic instability, and associated chromosomal marker sites may be indicative of the localization of secondary genes whose altered expression could be responsible for associated comorbid conditions. This concept implies that genes influencing higher brain functions may be situated at or near highly recombigenic areas allowing enhanced amplification, duplication and recombination following chromosomal strand breakage. Further studies on a larger sample size are required to confirm the findings relating to chromosomal breakage and to analyze the possible implications for a paradigmatic shift in linkage strategy for complex disorders by focusing on areas at or near unstable chromosomal marker sites. 32 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1982-06-01

    The observations that two particular translocations are consistently associated with specific differentiation stages of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia were confirmed. These are the translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21 in acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation and the translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. The observation of others that structural rearrangements involving the long arm of No. 11 are frequently seen in acute monoblastic leukemia was also confirmed. The chromosome aberrations that are observed in the great majority of patients with acute leukemia secondary to cytotoxic therapy were defined. Thus of 47 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, an aneuploid clone was seen in 44, and 39 of the 44 had a loss of part or all of No. 5 and/or No. 7. I have been able to localize the region of chromosome No. 7, loss of which is important for the development of leukemia was localized. Patients with ANLL de novo whose occupational histories suggest exposure to potentially mutagenic agents have a higher frequency of aberrations involving Nos. 5 and/or 7, than do patients not so exposed. Thus 50% of exposed versus 10% of nonexposed patients had aberrations of Nos. 5 or 7.

  1. A novel translocation breakpoint within the BPTF gene is associated with a pre-malignant phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Buganim

    Full Text Available Partial gain of chromosome arm 17q is an abundant aberrancy in various cancer types such as lung and prostate cancer with a prominent occurrence and prognostic significance in neuroblastoma--one of the most common embryonic tumors. The specific genetic element/s in 17q responsible for the cancer-promoting effect of these aberrancies is yet to be defined although many genes located in 17q have been proposed to play a role in malignancy. We report here the characterization of a naturally-occurring, non-reciprocal translocation der(Xt(X;17 in human lung embryonal-derived cells following continuous culturing. This aberrancy was strongly correlated with an increased proliferative capacity and with an acquired ability to form colonies in vitro. The breakpoint region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to the 17q24.3 locus. Further characterization by a custom-made comparative genome hybridization array (CGH localized the breakpoint within the Bromodomain PHD finger Transcription Factor gene (BPTF, a gene involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Interestingly, this translocation led to elevation in the mRNA levels of the endogenous BPTF. Knock-down of BPTF restricted proliferation suggesting a role for BPTF in promoting cellular growth. Furthermore, the BPTF chromosomal region was found to be amplified in various human tumors, especially in neuroblastomas and lung cancers in which 55% and 27% of the samples showed gain of 17q24.3, respectively. Additionally, 42% percent of the cancer cell lines comprising the NCI-60 had an abnormal BPTF locus copy number. We suggest that deregulation of BPTF resulting from the translocation may confer the cells with the observed cancer-promoting phenotype and that our cellular model can serve to establish causality between 17q aberrations and carcinogenesis.

  2. Association of the Philadelphia chromosome and 5q- in secondary blood disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dastugue, N.; Demur, C.; Pris, F.; Bugat, R.; Attal, M.; Bourrouillou, G.; Colombies, P.

    1988-02-01

    A patient developed a secondary blood disorder 7 years after radiotherapy for a gastric lymphoma. The initial myelodysplastic syndrome evolved to a myeloproliferative phase with transient polycythemia, progressive thrombocythemia, and hyperleukocytosis. Chromosome analysis performed in the terminal phase showed del(5)(q13q31),t(9;22)(q34;q11), and a complex rearrangement involving chromosomes number2 and number3. A correlation between chromosomal abnormalities and hematologic findings could be established. In this case, we have assumed that the Philadelphia translocation is a late event, due to prior mutagen exposure, and its association with a common secondary abnormality (5q-), followed by a progressively developing myeloproliferative phase. Furthermore, the association of Ph and 5q- in a single clone seems to indicate that the same stem cell is affected by these two abnormalities.

  3. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels.We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content.Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in the rhabdomere.

  4. Polymer modeling of the E. coli genome reveals the involvement of locus positioning and macrodomain structuring for the control of chromosome conformation and segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Ivan; Boccard, Frédéric; Espéli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that control chromosome conformation and segregation in bacteria have not yet been elucidated. In Escherichia coli, the mere presence of an active process remains an open question. Here, we investigate the conformation and segregation pattern of the E. coli genome by performing numerical simulations on a polymer model of the chromosome. We analyze the roles of the intrinsic structuring of chromosomes and the forced localization of specific loci, which are observed in vivo. Specifically, we examine the segregation pattern of a chromosome that is divided into four structured macrodomains (MDs) and two non-structured regions. We find that strong osmotic-like organizational forces, which stem from the differential condensation levels of the chromosome regions, dictate the cellular disposition of the chromosome. Strikingly, the comparison of our in silico results with fluorescent imaging of the chromosome choreography in vivo reveals that in the presence of MDs the targeting of the origin and terminus regions to specific positions are sufficient to generate a segregation pattern that is indistinguishable from experimentally observed patterns. PMID:24194594

  5. Further delineation of complex chromosomal rearrangements in fertile male using multicolor banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Anja

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs are defined as structural chromosomal rearrangements with at least three breakpoints and exchange of genetic material between two or more chromosomes. Complex chromosomal translocations are rarely seen in the general population but the frequency of occurrence is anticipated to be much higher due balanced states with no phenotypic presentation. Here, we report a severely mentally retarded fertile male patient in whom further delineation of CCR involving chromosomes 1, 4 and 2 was carried out by using high resolution multicolor banding (MCB technique. As a FISH based novel chromosome banding approach, high resolution MCB allows for the differentiation of chromosome region specific areas at band and subband levels. Results Cytogenetic studies using high resolution banding of the proband necessitated further delineation of the breakpoints because of their uncertainty: 46,XY,t(1;4;2(p21~31;q31.3;q31. After using high resolution MCB based on microdissection derived region-specific libraries, the exact nature of chromosomal rearrangements for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were revealed and these breakpoints were located on 1p31.1, 1q24.3 and 4q31.3 giving rise to a balanced situation. Conclusion Further delineations are certainly required to provide detailed information about the relationship between balanced CCRs and their phenotypes in order to offer proper counseling to the families concerned. Carriers must be investigated with high resolution banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques to determine the exact locations of the breakpoints. High resolution MCB is an alternative and an efficient method to other FISH based chromosome banding techniques and can serve in clarifying the nature of CCR.

  6. Partial trisomy 9p derivatived from a maternal reciprocal translocation 9;15. Case reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodia Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to highlight the importance of performing karyotype in children with congenital malformations in order to have a confirmatory diagnosis, in parents to exclude the possibility of being carriers of chromosomal abnormalities and perform the genetic counseling. Clinical cases description: Female patient with 3 years and 2 months old to whom karyotype was performed by global neurodevelopmental delay and microcephaly, and her mother with 34 years old without any clinical manifestations, to both patients, lymphocyte culture and chromosomal analysis with a High Resolution Banding techniques GTG and C were performed. The mother’s karyotype was 46,XX,t(9;15(q10;q10(p10;p10,add14p. The father’s karyotype was normal, 46,XY, and the girl’s karyotype resulted in a pure Trisomy 9p:  47,XX,+del(9(q11. Discussion: This chromosomal rearrangement in mother included a nonhomologous reciprocal translocation between the long arms of pair chromosomes 9 and 15 and between the short arms of the same chromosomes, additional to it, an unknown origin material was also observed in short arm from one chromosome of the 14 pair. In meiosis of this type of rearrangement, the father’s normal homologous chromosomes are paired with the mother’s translocated chromosomes and as a result of 3:1 segregation a gamete with one chromosome else was originated that after fertilization resulted in an unbalanced translocation confirming the pure trisomy in the patient.

  7. A major locus involved in the formation of the radial oxygen loss barrier in adventitious roots of teosinte Zea nicaraguensis is located on the short-arm of chromosome 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Saori; Nishiuchi, Shunsaku; Omori, Fumie; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Mano, Yoshiro; Nakazono, Mikio

    2017-02-01

    A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation. A segment of the short-arm of chromosome 3 of Z. nicaraguensis conferred ROL barrier formation in the genetic background of maize. This chromosome segment also decreased apoplastic solute permeability across the hypodermis/exodermis. However, the IL and maize were similar for suberin staining in the hypodermis/exodermis at 40 mm and further behind the root tip. Z. nicaraguensis contained suberin in the hypodermis/exodermis at 20 mm and lignin at the epidermis. The IL with ROL barrier, however, did not contain lignin in the epidermis. Discovery of the Z. nicaraguensis chromosomal region responsible for root ROL barrier formation has improved knowledge of this trait and is an important step towards improvement of waterlogging tolerance in maize. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clonal analysis of stable chromosome rearrangements in Bloom's syndrome fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, H; Salk, D

    1984-04-01

    In situ cytogenetic analysis was performed on colonies derived from single cells of cultured skin fibroblast-like strains from two patients with Bloom's syndrome (GM 1492 and GM 2520). Metaphases in all of the colonies displayed structural chromosome rearrangements. Among 212 metaphases from 24 colonies of GM 1492, only 16% were pseudodiploid, and there was a high incidence of de novo rearrangements within individual colonies. There were two "families" of 16 and five colonies, respectively, each containing identical or related aneusomies, and these could be arranged into pedigrees showing clonal evolution. The heterochromatic region of chromosome #1 and the telomeric regions of chromosome arms 2q, 3q, 4p, and 11q were most frequently involved in the rearrangements. In contrast, strain GM 2520 showed less intraclonal variation, was primarily pseudodiploid, and displayed only three clonal types, one of which had extensive subclonal variation (19 of 24 clones). A remarkable finding in GM 2520 was that, in some clones, extra copies of specific chromosome segments were present as translocations. These results caution against the use of strain GM 1492 as a prototype Bloom's syndrome strain for cell biological studies.

  9. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, July 1991--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    This comprehensive progress report provides a synopsis of major research accomplishments during the years of 1991-1994, including the technical aspects of the project. The objectives and accomplishments are as follows: 1. Defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation and chemically-induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, t-AML); A. Continued genetic analysis of chromosomes 5 and 7, B. Correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced translocations. 2. Cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML; A. Clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, B. Clone the t(3,21)(q26,q22) breakpoint, C. Determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 3. Compare the breakpoint junctions in patients who have the same translocations in t-AML and AML de novo. 4. Map the scaffold attachment regions in the genes that are involved in balanced translocations in t-AML. Plans for the continuation of present objectives and possible new objectives in consideration of past results are also provided.

  10. A chromosomally located traHIJKCLMN operon encoding a putative type IV secretion system is involved in the virulence of Yersinia ruckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, J; Fernández, L; Menéndez, A; Reimundo, P; Pérez-Pascual, D; Navais, R; Guijarro, J A

    2009-02-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the region surrounding the pIVET8 insertion site in Yersinia ruckeri 150RiviXII, previously selected by in vivo expression technology (IVET), revealed the presence of eight genes (traHIJKCLMN [hereafter referred to collectively as the tra operon or tra cluster]), which are similar both in sequence and organization to the tra operon cluster found in the virulence-related plasmid pADAP from Serratia entomophila. Interestingly, the tra cluster of Y. ruckeri is chromosomally encoded, and no similar tra cluster has been identified yet in the genomic analysis of human pathogenic yersiniae. A traI insertional mutant was obtained by homologous recombination. Coinfection experiments with the mutant and the parental strain, as well as 50% lethal dose determinations, indicate that this operon is involved in the virulence of this bacterium. All of these results suggest the implication of the tra cluster in a virulence-related type IV secretion/transfer system. Reverse transcriptase PCR studies showed that this cluster is transcribed as an operon from a putative promoter located upstream of traH and that the mutation of traI had a polar effect. A traI::lacZY transcriptional fusion displayed higher expression levels at 18 degrees C, the temperature of occurrence of the disease, and under nutrient-limiting conditions. PCR detection analysis indicated that the tra cluster is present in 15 Y. ruckeri strains from different origins and with different plasmid profiles. The results obtained in the present study support the conclusion, already suggested by different authors, that Y. ruckeri is a very homogeneous species that is quite different from the other members of the genus Yersinia.

  11. Fine mapping of the human renal oncocytoma-associated translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, RJ; Dijkhuizen, T; Janssen, B; Weghuis, DO; Merkx, G; vandenBerg, E; Schuuring, E; Meloni, AM; deJong, B; vanKessel, AG

    1997-01-01

    Recent cytogenetic analysis of a series of human renal oncocytomas revealed the presence of a recurring chromosomal translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) as sole anomaly in a subset of the tumors. The molecular characterization of this translocation was initiated using two primary t(5;11)-positive renal

  12. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in insulin dependent diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1991-01-01

    of Klinefelter's syndrome and one case of de novo translocation. This is comparable to the overall incidence of chromosome abnormality found at birth and is also comparable to the incidence of fetal chromosome abnormality (1.0%) found by amniocentesis at our Department in a group of 2,264 young non...

  13. Characterization of a t(5;8)(q31;q21) translocation in a patient with mental retardation and congenital heart disease: implications for involvement of RUNX1T1 in human brain and heart development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Litu; Tümer, Zeynep; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    of the translocation break points in a t(5;8)(q32;q21.3) patient with mild-to-moderate mental retardation and congenital heart disease revealed that one of the break points was within the RUNX1T1 gene. Analysis of RUNX1T1 expression in human embryonic and fetal tissues suggests a role of RUNX1T1 in brain and heart...

  14. Psychiatric disorder in a familial 15;18 translocation and sublocalization of myelin basic protein to 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolari, E.; Aiello, V.; Palazzi, P.; Sensi, A. [Universita Ferrara (Italy)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    Two related patients with similar clinical features consisting of a few dysmorphic signs and psychiatric disturbance were reported to have a partial trisomy of chromosomes 15(pter-q13.3) and 18(q23-qter) deriving from a familial translocation t(15;18). One patient is affected by bipolar disorder and the other by schizoaffective disorder. Both cases have a predominantly affective course; nevertheless, a clear diagnosis is difficult in the first patient, who is 15 years of age, and only a longitudinal course will allow us to establish a definite diagnosis. The possibility that these two pathologies belong to a single category is discussed, and the presence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 18 is hypothesized. Cytogenetic data, FISH, and DNA studies indicate that the myelin basic protein (MPB) gene is not involved in the translocation, and localize it centromeric to the breakpoint on chromosome 18(q22.3). Thus, it is unlikely to be involved in the disease. 58 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Testis development in the absence of SRY: chromosomal rearrangements at SOX9 and SOX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Annalisa; Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Kraoua, Lilia; Giorda, Roberto; Beri, Silvana; Cardarelli, Laura; Merico, Maurizio; Manolakos, Emmanouil; Parada-Bustamante, Alexis; Castro, Andrea; Radi, Orietta; Camerino, Giovanna; Brusco, Alfredo; Sabaghian, Marjan; Sofocleous, Crystalena; Forzano, Francesca; Palumbo, Pietro; Palumbo, Orazio; Calvano, Savino; Zelante, Leopoldo; Grammatico, Paola; Giglio, Sabrina; Basly, Mohamed; Chaabouni, Myriam; Carella, Massimo; Russo, Gianni; Bonaglia, Maria Clara; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2015-08-01

    Duplications in the ~2 Mb desert region upstream of SOX9 at 17q24.3 may result in familial 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD) without any effects on the XY background. A balanced translocation with its breakpoint falling within the same region has also been described in one XX DSD subject. We analyzed, by conventional and molecular cytogenetics, 19 novel SRY-negative unrelated 46,XX subjects both familial and sporadic, with isolated DSD. One of them had a de novo reciprocal t(11;17) translocation. Two cases carried partially overlapping 17q24.3 duplications ~500 kb upstream of SOX9, both inherited from their normal fathers. Breakpoints cloning showed that both duplications were in tandem, whereas the 17q in the reciprocal translocation was broken at ~800 kb upstream of SOX9, which is not only close to a previously described 46,XX DSD translocation, but also to translocations without any effects on the gonadal development. A further XX male, ascertained because of intellectual disability, carried a de novo cryptic duplication at Xq27.1, involving SOX3. CNVs involving SOX3 or its flanking regions have been reported in four XX DSD subjects. Collectively in our cohort of 19 novel cases of SRY-negative 46,XX DSD, the duplications upstream of SOX9 account for ~10.5% of the cases, and are responsible for the disease phenotype, even when inherited from a normal father. Translocations interrupting this region may also affect the gonadal development, possibly depending on the chromatin context of the recipient chromosome. SOX3 duplications may substitute SRY in some XX subjects.

  16. Recurrent deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 in human renal cell carcinoma: shift of the c-raf 1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, J R; Henry, I; Dozier, C; Ferre, D; Adnet, J J; Pluot, M

    1986-12-01

    A cytogenetic study performed on 6 human renal cell carcinomas after short-term culture on extracellular matrix with serum-free medium showed aneuploidy without structural changes in 2 tumors and a rearrangement of the short arm of chromosome 3 in 4 tumors, including deletions and a translocation involving the 3p14 and 3p21 bands. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with a c-raf 1 probe demonstrated that in 2 renal cancers with del3(p14 or 21) the cellular oncogene had shifted from 3p25 to 3p14 as a result of an interstitial deletion.

  17. Microcephaly in a 14-month male with minimal developmental delay (speech) and mild dysmorphology with unusual mosaicism involving a ring chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, V.; Lieber, E.; Yu, M.T. [Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This male at birth weighed 5 lbs, 14 oz and was full term. His mother was G3 P2012. His height and weight follow the 3rd percentile; however, his head circumference is below the 3rd percentile. His hearing is age-appropriate; however, his speech is poor to absent. His hearing is intact. He had 2-5 cafe-au-lait spots (0.5 to 1.0 cm) on his trunk and extremities. His face showed mild dysmorphology (non-specific). His tone and central nervous system are intact. Because of the microcephaly, a chromosome study was performed. A skin fibroblast culture was performed because of his appropriate milestones. One cell in the peripheral blood and one cell in the skin biopsy demonstrated two normal chromosome 5s. FISH studies using chromosome 5 painting probe confirmed the observations of routine cytogenetic studies. The marker chromosome was identified as part of chromosome 5. At 14 months, the patient does not have the appearance associated with the Cri-du-chat syndrome. Additional studies with probes for the specific region associated with this syndrome are planned.

  18. Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal localization of porcine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes ... Prawochenskiego 5, 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland; Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznan University of Life Science, Wolynska 33, 60-637 Poznan, ...

  19. Histone deacetylase 3 promotes RCAN1 stability and nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Ah; Kang, Hye Seon; Lee, Jee Won; Yoo, Lang; Im, Eunju; Hong, Ahyoung; Lee, Yun Ju; Shin, Woo Hyun; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1) is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S) interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.

  20. Histone deacetylase 3 promotes RCAN1 stability and nuclear translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ah Han

    Full Text Available Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1; also referred as DSCR1 or MCIP1 is located in close proximity to a Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. Although RCAN1 is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling that controls lymphocyte activation, apoptosis, heart development, skeletal muscle differentiation, and cardiac function, it is not yet clear whether RCAN1 might be involved in other cellular activities. In this study, we explored the extra-functional roles of RCAN1 by searching for novel RCAN1-binding partners. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S interacts with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in mammalian cells. We also demonstrate that HDAC3 deacetylates RCAN1. In addition, HDAC3 increases RCAN1 protein stability by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination. Furthermore, HDAC3 promotes RCAN1 nuclear translocation. These data suggest that HDAC3, a new binding regulator of RCAN1, affects the protein stability and intracellular localization of RCAN1.

  1. The rare translocation, t(12;22)(p13;q12) is characteristic of myeloid leukemia, but not restricted to a particular FAB subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhter-Levin, S.; Sherer, M.E.; Gollin, S.M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The translocation, t(12;22)(p13;q12) was first described as a clonal chromosome rearrangement in two patients with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL), FAB subtype M4. Five additional patients with this translocation have been reported in the literature. Only one of these had AMMoL-M4, while four others were diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M1), acute megakaryocytic leukemia (M7), acute meylomegakaryocytic leukemia, or atypical chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) without the BCR/ABL gene rearrangement. The resemblance of the der(22) t(12;22)(p13;q12) to the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) suggested that it might be a cryptic PH variant. However, three patients examined were BCR/ABL gene rearrangement-negative. We present a 77-year-old woman with a 5 yr history of anemia, followed by leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The bone marrow morphology was consistent with AML-M2. Chromosome analysis of 20 trypsin-Giemsa banded metaphase cells from 24- and 72-hour harvests of unstimulated bone marrow aspirate cell cultures revealed a 46,XX,add(9)(p22),t(12;22)(p13;q12)(19)/46,XX(1) karyotype. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the BCR/ABL gene rearrangement was negative, ruling out a cryptic Ph variant. The patient had a very aggressive clinical course and died two months after diagnosis. In examining these eight cases, we suggest that the t(12;22)(p13;q12) represents a rare acquired chromosome rearrangement in acute myeloid leukemia that has no significant association with a particular FAB subtype. The genes involved in this translocation remain to be elucidated.

  2. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy. It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

  3. Chromosome aberrations in a series of 120 multiple myeloma cases with abnormal karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Anwar N; Bentley, Gail; Bonnett, Michelle L; Zonder, Jeff; Al-Katib, Ayad

    2007-12-01

    We identified 120 multiple myeloma (MM) cases with satisfactory cytogenetic evaluation and abnormal karyotypes. Hyperdiploid karyotype was found in 77 cases (64%), hypodiploid in 30 cases (25%), and the remaining 13 cases (11%) had a pseudodiploid karyotype. The most common numerical abnormalities were gains of chromosomes 15, 9, 3 followed by chromosomes 19, 11, 7, 21, and 5. Whole chromosome losses were also frequent involving primarily chromosomes X/Y, 8, 13, 14, and 22. Most cases showed also structural rearrangements leading to del(1p), dup(1q), del(5q), del(6q), del(8p), del(9p), del(13q), and del(17p). Chromosome 13/13q deletion was found in 52% of cases; complete loss of 13 was observed in 73% of cases, whereas 27% had interstitial deletions. In addition, 13/13q deletions occurred in 75% of nonhyperdiploid myeloma but only 39% of the hyperdiploid had 13/13q deletions. Translocations affecting 14q32/IGH region was seen 40 cases; t(11;14)(q13;q32) in 17 cases, t(14;16)(q32;q23) and t(8;14)(q24;q32) in three cases each, and t(6;14)(p21;q32) and t(1;14)(q21;q32) in two cases each. The remaining 14q32 translocations had various t(V;14) partners or of an undetermined origin. Remarkably, the 14q32/IGH translocations were less frequent in the hyperdiploid karyotypes than the nonhyperdiploid karyotypes (17 vs. 63%). Fourteen cases showed break at 8q24/CMYC site; seven of those had Burkitt's-type translocations. Our results revealed that conventional cytogenetics remains an important tool in elucidating the complex and divers genetic anomalies of MM. Cytogenetics identifies two distinct groups of MM, hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid, and establishes the presence of prognostic chromosomal markers such as 13/13q, 17p, 8q24, and 16q aberrations.

  4. A case of de novo complex chromosomal abnormality involving a t(8;10) and an interstitial deletion 5q(q33.1-q34) characterized by GTG banding, FISH and cCGH

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Teles, Natália; Pires, Silvia; Aguiar, Joaquim; Mota Freitas, Manuela; Marques, Bárbara; Correia, Hildeberto; Sales Marques, Jorge; Furtuna, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 involving the region 5q33.1-q34 are rare occurrences. The clinical features of patients carrying similar deletions include dysmorphic facial features, such as epicanthus, retrognatia, protruding left ear and asymmetric mouth, high-arched palate, four inger lines and clinodactyly of digits II and V on both hands. We report on a female child aged 13 presenting with development delay, agenesis of the corpus callosum, hallux diverted into,...

  5. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Partial trisomy 2q due to a maternal balanced translocation t(2;22) (q31;p12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, L.S.; Bleiman, M.; Punnett, H.H. [St. Christopher`s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Features consistent among reported patients with 2q duplications due to familial translocations or de novo duplications include pre- and postnatal growth failure, ocular defects such as congenital glaucoma, cardiac defects, micrognathia, urogenital defects, renal defects, connective tissue laxity, neurologic defects, and dermatologic abnormalities. Genotype/phenotype correlations of patients with trisomy 2q due to familial translocations are complicated by the presence of the deletions of the other chromosome involved. We have had the opportunity to observe `pure` trisomy 2q31-qter resulting from adjacent-1 segregation from 46,XX,t(2;22)(q31;p12) in a carrier mother with apparent loss of the 22 NOR region. He was the 2453 gm product of a gestation complicated by gestational diabetes to a 29-year-old G1 P0 mother and a 30-year-old father. At birth, he was noted to have hypotonia, micrognathia, microphthalmia, left cryptorchidism, hypospadias, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth digits, mild hyperextensibility of the joints, dry skin disorder, and bilateral hydronephrosis by ultrasound. He was treated for hypoglycemia in the nursery and had a vesicostomy at two months for vesicoureteral reflux. A hearing test at two months found moderate hearing loss in the right ear and mild to moderate hearing loss in the left ear. At 3 months he had surgery for a PDA and bilateral glaucoma and was treated for periods of hypothermia and type IV renal tubular acidosis. This patient and others with unbalanced translocations involving the NOR region of an acrocentric chromosome allow for genotype/phenotype correlation of the `pure` trisomic region.

  7. A network of clinically and functionally relevant genes is involved in the reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells after transfer of human chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Susanne; Frege, Renate; Jacobsen, Anja; Weimer, Jörg; Arnold, Wolfgang; von Haefen, Clarissa; Niederacher, Dieter; Schmutzler, Rita; Arnold, Norbert; Scherneck, Siegfried

    2005-01-27

    Several investigations have supposed that tumor suppressor genes might be located on human chromosome 8. We used microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 8 into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and generated independent hybrids with strongly reduced tumorigenic potential. Loss of the transferred chromosome results in reappearance of the malignant phenotype. Expression analysis identified a set of 109 genes (CT8-ps) differentially expressed in microcell hybrids as compared to the tumorigenic MDA-MB-231 and rerevertant cells. Of these, 44.9% are differentially expressed in human breast tumors. The expression pattern of CT8-ps was associated with prognostic factors such as tumor size and grading as well as loss of heterozygosity at the short arm of chromosome 8. We identified CT8-ps networks suggesting that these genes act cooperatively to cause reversion of tumorigenicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings provide a conceptual basis and experimental system to identify and evaluate genes and gene networks involved in the development and/or progression of breast cancer.

  8. A Novel Three-Colour Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Approach for the Detection of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Reveals New Cryptic Three Way Translocation t(7;12;16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiel, Abdulbasit [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Vetter, Michael [MetaSystems, Altlussheim 68804 (Germany); Plekhanova, Olga [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Fleischman, Elena; Sokova, Olga [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tsaur, Grigory [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Cell Technologies, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Harbott, Jochen [Oncogenetic Laboratory, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen 35392 (Germany); Tosi, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.tosi@brunel.ac.uk [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-11

    The t(7;12)(q36;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosome abnormality that involves the ETV6 gene on chromosome 12 and has been identified in 20–30% of infant patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The detection of t(7;12) rearrangements relies on the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) because this translocation is hardly visible by chromosome banding methods. Furthermore, a fusion transcript HLXB9-ETV6 is found in approximately 50% of t(7;12) cases, making the reverse transcription PCR approach not an ideal screening method. Considering the report of few cases of variant translocations harbouring a cryptic t(7;12) rearrangement, we believe that the actual incidence of this abnormality is higher than reported to date. The clinical outcome of t(7;12) patients is believed to be poor, therefore an early and accurate diagnosis is important in the clinical management and treatment. In this study, we have designed and tested a novel three-colour FISH approach that enabled us not only to confirm the presence of the t(7;12) in a number of patients studied previously, but also to identify a cryptic t(7;12) as part of a complex rearrangement. This new approach has proven to be an efficient and reliable method to be used in the diagnostic setting.

  9. Colocalization of somatic and meiotic double strand breaks near the Myc oncogene on mouse chromosome 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siemon H; Maas, Sarah A; Petkov, Petko M; Mills, Kevin D; Paigen, Kenneth

    2009-10-01

    Both somatic and meiotic recombinations involve the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that occur at preferred locations in the genome. Improper repair of DSBs during either mitosis or meiosis can lead to mutations, chromosomal aberration such as translocations, cancer, and/or cell death. Currently, no model exists that explains the locations of either spontaneous somatic DSBs or programmed meiotic DSBs or relates them to each other. One common class of tumorigenic translocations arising from DSBs is chromosomal rearrangements near the Myc oncogene. Myc translocations have been associated with Burkitt lymphoma in humans, plasmacytoma in mice, and immunocytoma in rats. Comparing the locations of somatic and meiotic DSBs near the mouse Myc oncogene, we demonstrated that the placement of these DSBs is not random and that both events clustered in the same short discrete region of the genome. Our work shows that both somatic and meiotic DSBs tend to occur in proximity to each other within the Myc region, suggesting that they share common originating features. It is likely that some regions of the genome are more susceptible to both somatic and meiotic DSBs, and the locations of meiotic hotspots may be an indicator of genomic regions more susceptible to DNA damage. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Interphase chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Interphase chromosomes. Genomes within interphase nuclei occupy discrete, three-dimensional regions known as 'chromosome territories' (Bridger and Bickmore, 1998, Cremer and Cremer, 2001, Parada and Misteli, 2002). The non-randomness of CT organization within an ...

  11. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  12. HOMOZYGOUS DELETION IN A SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER CELL-LINE INVOLVING A 3P21 REGION WITH A MARKED INSTABILITY IN YEAST ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, K; van den Berg, Anke; VELDHUIS, PMJF; VANDERVEEN, AY; FRANKE, M; SCHOENMAKERS, EFPM; HULSBEEK, MMF; VANDERHOUT, AH; DELEIJ, L; VANDEVEN, W; BUYS, CHCM

    1994-01-01

    All types of lung carcinoma are characterized by a high frequency of loss of sequences from the short arm of chromosome 3, the smallest region of overlap containing D3F15S2 in band p21. Here we characterize a 440-kilobase segment from this region, which we found homozygously deleted in one of our

  13. Long-range epigenetic silencing of chromosome 5q31 protocadherins is involved in early and late stages of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of oncogenic pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallosso, A R; Øster, Bodil; Greenhough, A

    2012-01-01

    Loss of tumour suppressor gene function can occur as a result of epigenetic silencing of large chromosomal regions, referred to as long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES), and genome-wide analyses have revealed that LRES is present in many cancer types. Here we utilize Illumina Beadchip methylatio...

  14. Critical role of Yp inversion in PRKX/PRKY-mediated Xp;Yp translocation in a patient with 45,X testicular disorder of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoriko; Okada, Junichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Eiko; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    45,X testicular disorder of sex development (TDSD), previously known as 45,X maleness, with unbalanced Xp;Yp translocation is an extremely rare condition caused by concomitant occurrence of loss of an X chromosome of maternal origin and an aberrant Xp;Yp translocation during paternal meiosis. We identified a Japanese male infant with an apparently 45,X karyotype who exhibited chondrodysplasia punctata and growth failure. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a 45,X.ish der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.33;p11.2)(DXZ1+,SRY+) karyotype. Array comparative genome hybridization analysis showed a simple Xp terminal deletion involving SHOX and ARSE with the breakpoint just centromeric to PRKX, and an apparently complex Yp translocation with the middle Yp breakpoint just telomeric to PRKY and the centromeric and the telomeric Yp breakpoints around the long inverted repeats for the generation of a common paracentric Yp inversion. Subsequently, a long PCR product was obtained with an X-specific and a Y-specific primers that were designed on the assumption of the presence of a Yp inversion that permits the alignment of PRKX and PRKY in the same direction, and the translocation fusion point was determined to reside within a 246 bp X-Y homologous segment at the "hot spot A" in the 5' region of PRKX/PRKY, by sequential direct sequencing for the long PCR product. These results argue not only for the presence of rare 45,X-TDSD with Xp;Yp translocation, but also for a critical role of a common paracentric Yp inversion in the occurrence of PRKX/PRKY-mediated unbalanced Xp;Yp translocation.

  15. Candidate genes on murine chromosome 8 are associated with susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and are involved with Staphylococcus aureus septicemia in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yan

    Full Text Available We previously showed that chromosome 8 of A/J mice was associated with susceptibility to S. aureus infection. However, the specific genes responsible for this susceptibility are unknown. Chromosome substitution strain 8 (CSS8 mice, which have chromosome 8 from A/J but an otherwise C57BL/6J genome, were used to identify the genetic determinants of susceptibility to S. aureus on chromosome 8. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping of S. aureus-infected N2 backcross mice (F1 [C8A] × C57BL/6J identified a locus 83180780-88103009 (GRCm38/mm10 on A/J chromosome 8 that was linked to S. aureus susceptibility. All genes on the QTL (n~ 102 were further analyzed by three different strategies: 1 different expression in susceptible (A/J and resistant (C57BL/6J mice only in response to S. aureus, 2 consistently different expression in both uninfected and infected states between the two strains, and 3 damaging non-synonymous SNPs in either strain. Eleven candidate genes from the QTL region were significantly differently expressed in patients with S. aureus infection vs healthy human subjects. Four of these 11 genes also exhibited significantly different expression in S. aureus-challenged human neutrophils: Ier2, Crif1, Cd97 and Lyl1. CD97 ligand binding was evaluated within peritoneal neutrophils from A/J and C57BL/6J. CD97 from A/J had stronger CD55 but weaker integrin α5β1 ligand binding as compared with C57BL/6J. Because CD55/CD97 binding regulates immune cell activation and cytokine production, and integrin α5β1 is a membrane receptor for fibronectin, which is also bound by S. aureus, strain-specific differences could contribute to susceptibility to S. aureus. Down-regulation of Crif1 with siRNA was associated with increased host cell apoptosis among both naïve and S. aureus-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages. Specific genes in A/J chromosome 8, including Cd97 and Crif1, may play important roles in host defense against S. aureus.

  16. PprA Protein Is Involved in Chromosome Segregation via Its Physical and Functional Interaction with DNA Gyrase in Irradiated Deinococcus radiodurans Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devigne, Alice; Guérin, Philippe; Lisboa, Johnny; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Armengaud, Jean; Sommer, Suzanne; Bouthier de la Tour, Claire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, was previously shown to be required for cell survival and accurate chromosome segregation after exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, we used an in vivo approach to determine, by shotgun proteomics, putative PprA partners coimmunoprecipitating with PprA when cells were exposed to gamma rays. Among them, we found the two subunits of DNA gyrase and, thus, chose to focus our work on characterizing the activities of the deinococcal DNA gyrase in the presence or absence of PprA. Loss of PprA rendered cells hypersensitive to novobiocin, an inhibitor of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. We showed that treatment of bacteria with novobiocin resulted in induction of the radiation desiccation response (RDR) regulon and in defects in chromosome segregation that were aggravated by the absence of PprA. In vitro, the deinococcal DNA gyrase, like other bacterial DNA gyrases, possesses DNA negative supercoiling and decatenation activities. These two activities are inhibited in vitro by novobiocin and nalidixic acid, whereas PprA specifically stimulates the decatenation activity of DNA gyrase. Together, these results suggest that PprA plays a major role in chromosome decatenation via its interaction with the deinococcal DNA gyrase when D. radiodurans cells are recovering from exposure to ionizing radiation. IMPORTANCE D. radiodurans is one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known. This bacterium is able to cope with high levels of DNA lesions generated by exposure to extreme doses of ionizing radiation and to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Here, we identified partners of PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, previously shown to be required for radioresistance. Our study leads to three main findings: (i) PprA interacts with DNA gyrase after irradiation, (ii) treatment of cells with novobiocin results in defects in chromosome segregation

  17. PprA Protein Is Involved in Chromosome Segregation via Its Physical and Functional Interaction with DNA Gyrase in Irradiated Deinococcus radiodurans Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devigne, Alice; Guérin, Philippe; Lisboa, Johnny; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Armengaud, Jean; Sommer, Suzanne; Bouthier de la Tour, Claire; Servant, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, was previously shown to be required for cell survival and accurate chromosome segregation after exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, we used an in vivo approach to determine, by shotgun proteomics, putative PprA partners coimmunoprecipitating with PprA when cells were exposed to gamma rays. Among them, we found the two subunits of DNA gyrase and, thus, chose to focus our work on characterizing the activities of the deinococcal DNA gyrase in the presence or absence of PprA. Loss of PprA rendered cells hypersensitive to novobiocin, an inhibitor of the B subunit of DNA gyrase. We showed that treatment of bacteria with novobiocin resulted in induction of the radiation desiccation response (RDR) regulon and in defects in chromosome segregation that were aggravated by the absence of PprA. In vitro, the deinococcal DNA gyrase, like other bacterial DNA gyrases, possesses DNA negative supercoiling and decatenation activities. These two activities are inhibited in vitro by novobiocin and nalidixic acid, whereas PprA specifically stimulates the decatenation activity of DNA gyrase. Together, these results suggest that PprA plays a major role in chromosome decatenation via its interaction with the deinococcal DNA gyrase when D. radiodurans cells are recovering from exposure to ionizing radiation. IMPORTANCE D. radiodurans is one of the most radiation-resistant organisms known. This bacterium is able to cope with high levels of DNA lesions generated by exposure to extreme doses of ionizing radiation and to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Here, we identified partners of PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, previously shown to be required for radioresistance. Our study leads to three main findings: (i) PprA interacts with DNA gyrase after irradiation, (ii) treatment of cells with novobiocin results in defects in chromosome segregation that are

  18. Molecular Dissection Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Clinical Evaluation of An Infertile Male Carrier of An Unbalanced Y;21 Translocation: A Case Report and Review of The Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Orrico

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal defects are relatively frequent in infertile men however, translocations between the Y chromosome and autosomes are rare and less than 40 cases of Y-autosome translocation have been reported. In particular, only three individuals has been described with a Y;21 translocation, up to now. We report on an additional case of an infertile man in whom a Y;21 translocation was associated with the deletion of a large part of the Y chromosome long arm. Applying various techniques, including conventional cytogenetic procedures, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH studies, we identified a derivative chromosome originating from a fragment of the short arm of the chromosome Y translocated on the short arm of the 21 chromosome. The Y chromosome structural rearrangement resulted in the intactness of the entire short arm, including the sex-determining region Y (SRY and the short stature homeobox (SHOX loci, although translocated on the 21 chromosome, and the loss of a large part of the long arm of the Y chromosome, including azoospermia factor-a (AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. This is the first case in which a (Yp;21p translocation has been ascertained using an array-CGH approach, thus reporting details of such a rearrangement at higher resolution.

  19. Sequencing of individual chromosomes of plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Turgeon, B Gillian; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Arie, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    A small chromosome in reference isolate 4287 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) has been designated as a 'pathogenicity chromosome' because it carries several pathogenicity related genes such as the Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes. Sequence assembly of small chromosomes in other isolates, based on a reference genome template, is difficult because of karyotype variation among isolates and a high number of sequences associated with transposable elements. These factors often result in misassembly of sequences, making it unclear whether other isolates possess the same pathogenicity chromosome harboring SIX genes as in the reference isolate. To overcome this difficulty, single chromosome sequencing after Contour-clamped Homogeneous Electric Field (CHEF) separation of chromosomes was performed, followed by de novo assembly of sequences. The assembled sequences of individual chromosomes were consistent with results of probing gels of CHEF separated chromosomes with SIX genes. Individual chromosome sequencing revealed that several SIX genes are located on a single small chromosome in two pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum, beyond the reference isolate 4287, and in the cabbage yellows fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The particular combination of SIX genes on each small chromosome varied. Moreover, not all SIX genes were found on small chromosomes; depending on the isolate, some were on big chromosomes. This suggests that recombination of chromosomes and/or translocation of SIX genes may occur frequently. Our method improves sequence comparison of small chromosomes among isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PprA Protein Is Involved in Chromosome Segregation via Its Physical and Functional Interaction with DNA Gyrase in Irradiated Deinococcus radiodurans Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Devigne, Alice; Guérin, Philippe; Lisboa, Johnny; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Armengaud, Jean; Sommer, Suzanne; Bouthier de la Tour, Claire; Servant, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PprA, a radiation-induced Deinococcus-specific protein, was previously shown to be required for cell survival and accurate chromosome segregation after exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, we used an in vivo approach to determine, by shotgun proteomics, putative PprA partners coimmunoprecipitating with PprA when cells were exposed to gamma rays. Among them, we found the two subunits of DNA gyrase and, thus, chose to focus our work on characterizing the activities of the deinococcal ...

  1. Early and Late Chromosome Damages in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma Rays and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations and inversions are considered stable, and cells containing these types of chromosome aberrations can survive multiple cell divisions. An efficient method to detect an inversion is multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) which allows identification of both inter- and intrachromosome aberrations simultaneously. Post irradiation, chromosome aberrations may also arise after multiple cell divisions as a result of genomic instability. To investigate the stable or late-arising chromosome aberrations induced after radiation exposure, we exposed human lymphocytes to gamma rays and Fe ions ex vivo, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis and at several time intervals during the culture period post irradiation. With gamma irradiation, about half of the damages observed at first mitosis remained after 7 day- and 14 day- culture, suggesting the transmissibility of damages to the surviving progeny. Detailed analysis of chromosome break ends participating in exchanges revealed a greater fraction of break ends involved in intrachromosome aberrations in the 7- and 14-day samples in comparison to the fraction at first mitosis. In particular, simple inversions were found at 7 and 14 days, but not at the first mitosis, suggesting that some of the aberrations might be formed days post irradiation. In contrast, at the doses that produced similar frequencies of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations as observed at first mitosis, a significantly lower yield of aberrations remained at the same population doublings after Fe ion exposure. At these equitoxic doses, more complex type aberrations were observed for Fe ions, indicating that Fe ion-induced initial chromosome damages are more severe and may lead to cell death. Comparison between low and high doses of Fe ion irradiation in the induction of late damages will also be discussed.

  2. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  3. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  4. Sequence analysis of the breakpoint regions of an X;5 translocation in a female with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, I. van; Holt, S.; Craig, I. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    X;autosome translocations in females with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms responsible for chromosomal rearrangements that occur in the germ line. We describe here a detailed molecular analysis of the translocation breakpoints of an X;autosome reciprocal translocation, t(X;5) (p21;q31.1), in a female with DMD. Cosmid clones that contained the X-chromosome breakpoint region were identified, and subclones that hybridized to the translocation junction fragment in restriction digests of the patient`s DNA were isolated and sequenced. Primers designed from the X-chromosomal sequence were used to obtain the junction fragments on the der(X) and the der(5) by inverse PCR. The resultant clones were also cloned and sequenced, and this information used to isolate the chromosome 5 breakpoint region. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the junction fragments with those of the breakpoint regions on chromosomes X and 5 revealed that the translocation arose by nonhomologous recombination with an imprecise reciprocal exchange. Four and six base pairs of unknown origin are inserted at the exchange points of the der(X) and der(5), respectively, and three nucleotides are deleted from the X-chromosome sequence. Two features were found that may have played a role in the generation of the translocation. These were (1) a repeat motif with an internal homopyrimidine stretch 10 bp upstream from the X-chromosome breakpoint and (2) a 9-bp sequence of 78% homology located near the breakpoints on chromosomes 5 and X. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a gene located on the X chromosome is expressed in males more often than in females? For most genes ..... Disease results in light sensitive skin lesions, fragile skin due to deficiency of uroporphyrinogen dicarboxylase, an enzyme involved in biosynthesis of ... Aufwomall'SctlSSlve protein. PX MPl Zellweger syndrome (ZS).

  6. Structural insights into ribosome translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2016-09-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF-G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single-molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the 'head' domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward- and back-swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF-G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF-G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620-636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chromosomes in the genesis and progression of ependymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, S R; Casartelli, C; Rainho, C A

    1993-01-01

    chromosomes in three cases. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 2 were a finding for all cases and involved loss of material at 2q32-34. Other structural chromosome abnormalities detected involved chromosomes 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, and X. We also reviewed data on 22 cases previously reported....

  8. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, C. I. [UNESP; Abril, V. V. [UNESP; Duarte, J. M B [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a mul...

  9. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kuhn

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+ currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK Ca(2+ activated K(+ current (I(K,f, which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  10. Leiomyoma of uterus in a patient with ring chromosome 12: Case presentation and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajianpour, M.J.; Habibian, R.; Hajianpour, A.K. [Children`s Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-17

    We report on a 30-year-old woman with de novo ring chromosome 12 mosaicism, 46,XX,r(12)(p13.3q24.3)/46,XX. In addition to the clinical manifestations generally observed in {open_quotes}ring syndrome{close_quotes} cases such as growth retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and mental deficiency, she had a broad nasal bridge, micrognathia with overbite, underdeveloped breasts, mild dorsal scoliosis, clinodactyly of the fifth fingers with a single interdigital crease, symphalangism of thumbs, tapering fingers, mild cutaneous syndactyly between the second and third toes, multiple cafe-au-lait spots, sebaceous acne on the face and back, and mild dystrophic toenails. She developed a large, pedunculated uterine leiomyoma at age 28 years. To our knowledge, uterine leiomyoma in association with r(12) has not been reported previously. However, a gain of chromosome 12 and translocations involving 12q14-15 have been described. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Rapid detection of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells by mFISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.M.; Rhein, A.P.; Brueckner, M.; Molls, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, D-81675 Munich (Germany); Kreja, L. [Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Heinze, B. [Department of Medical Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Weier, H.-U.G. [Life Sciences Division, E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, P. [Vysis GmbH, Bergisch-Gladbach (Germany)

    2000-07-20

    Structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) are sensitive indicators of a preceding exposure of the hematopoietic system to ionizing radiation. Cytogenetic investigations have therefore become routine tools for an assessment of absorbed radiation doses and their biological effects after occupational exposure or radiation accidents. Due to its speed and ease of use, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome painting (WCP) probes has become a method of choice to visualize SCAs. Until recently, this technique was limited to a rather small number of chromosomes, which could be tested simultaneously. As a result, only a fraction of the structural aberrations present in a sample could be detected and the overall dose effect had to be calculated by extrapolation. The recent introduction of two genome-wide screening techniques in tumor research, i.e., Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) and multicolor FISH (mFISH) now allows the detection of translocations involving any two non-homologous chromosomes. The present study was prompted by our desire to bring the power of mFISH to bear for the rapid identification of radiation-induced SCAs. We chose two model systems to investigate the utility of mFISH: lymphocytes that were exposed in vitro to 3 Gy photons and single hematopoietic progenitor cell colonies isolated from a Chernobyl victim 9 years after in vivo exposure to 5.4 Sv. In lymphocytes, we found up to 15 different chromosomes involved in rearrangements indicating complex radiation effects. Stable aberrations detected in hematopoietic cell colonies, on the other hand, showed involvement of up to three different chromosomes. These results demonstrated that mFISH is a rapid and powerful approach to detect and characterize radiation-induced SCAs in the hemopoietic system. The application of mFISH is expected to result in a more detailed and, thus, more informative picture of radiation effects. Eventually, this technique will allow researchers to rapidly delineate

  12. Sperm FISH analysis of a 44,X,der(Y),t(Y;15)(q12;q10)pat,rob(13;14)(q10;q10)mat complex chromosome rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfouri, F; Boitrelle, F; Clement, P; Molina Gomes, D; Selva, J; Vialard, F

    2014-06-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) with two independent chromosome rearrangements are rare. Although CCRs lead to high unbalanced gamete rates, data on meiotic segregation in this context are scarce. A male patient was referred to our clinic as part of a family screening programme prompted by the observation of a 44,X,der(Y),t(Y;15)(q12;q10)pat,rob(13;14)(q10;q10)mat karyotype in his brother. Karyotyping identified the same CCR. Sperm FISH (with locus-specific probes for the segments involved in the translocations and nine chromosomes not involved in both rearrangements) was used to investigate the rearrangements meiotic segregation products and establish whether or not an inter-chromosomal effect was present. Sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation was also evaluated. For rob(13;14) and der(Y), the proportions of unbalanced products were, respectively, 26.4% and 60.6%. Overall, 70.3% of the meiotic segregation products were unbalanced. No evidence of an inter-chromosomal effect was found, and the sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation rate was similar to our laboratory's normal cut-off value. In view of previously published sperm FISH analyses of Robertsonian translocations (and even though the mechanism is still unknown), we hypothesise that cosegregation of der(Y) and rob(13;14) could modify rob(13;14) meiotic segregation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of 25 Chilean patients with a variant Ph translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legues, Maria E; Encina, Andrea; Valenzuela, Mercedes; Palma, Tamara; Undurraga, Maria S

    2011-07-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), which results from a balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, the t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). In 5-10% of the cases, variants of the Ph (vPh) are detected, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11.2. Deletions on the der(9) and der(22) can be detected in approximately 10-15% of CML patients. The frequency of a deletion of the der(9) in vPh CML is variable. Most studies have shown high frequencies (30-45%) in this subgroup. We report the cytogenetic evaluation of 25 vPh cases, which represents 6.8% of the CML cases diagnosed at one institution in 20 years. The breakpoints of the partners of the vPh in our patients agree with those reported previously, except for a novel 18q23. We found a low incidence of deletions of the der(9) (10%) and der(22) (5%) in these patients, contrasting with several reports in the literature. This finding may reflect the extensive spectrum of aberrations in vPh, and the possibility that a considerable group of these aberrations may not affect the genetic stability of 5'ABL1 and 3'BCR. Epidemiologic differences may also exist and could explain our results. These differences would require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation in 11 cases of human ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinniss, M J; Kazazian, H H; Stetten, G

    1992-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of ring chromosome 21 (r(21)) formation in 13 patients (11 unique r(21)s), consisting of 7 from five families with familial r(21) and 6 with de novo r(21). The copy number of chromosome 21 sequences in the rings of these patients was determined by quantitative dosage......), resulting in deletion of varying amounts of 21q22.1 to 21qter. The data from one individual who had a Down syndrome phenotype were consistent with asymmetric breakage and reunion of 21q sequences from an intermediate isochromosome or Robertsonian translocation chromosome as reported by Wong et al. Another......). The phenotype of patients correlated well with the extent of deletion or duplication of chromosome 21 sequences. These data demonstrate three mechanisms of r(21) formation and show that the phenotype of r(21) patients varies with the extent of chromosome 21 monosomy or trisomy....

  15. The translocated c-myc oncogene of Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells is not expressed in human lymphoblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikura, K; Erikson, J; ar-Rushdi, A; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    We hybridized Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells, which carry a t(8;14) chromosome translocation, with human lymphoblastoid cells to study the expression of the translocated cellular myc oncogene (c-myc) in the hybrid cells. In Raji cells the c-myc oncogene is translocated to a switch region of the gamma heavy chain locus (S gamma). Because of sequence alterations in the 5' exon of the translocated c-myc oncogene in this cell line, it is possible to distinguish the transcripts of the translocated c-myc gene and of the normal c-myc gene. S1 nuclease protection experiments with a c-myc first exon probe indicate that Raji cells express predominantly the translocated c-myc gene, while the level of expression of the normal c-myc gene is less than 2% of that of the translocated c-myc gene. Somatic cell hybrids between Raji and human lymphoblastoid cells retain the lymphoblastoid phenotype and express only the normal c-myc oncogene. This result indicates that the activation of a c-myc oncogene translocated to a S region depends on the stage of B-cell differentiation of the cells harboring the translocated c-myc gene and not on alterations in the structure of the translocated c-myc oncogene. Images PMID:3857623

  16. Elucidation of structural abnormalities of the X chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with a Y chromosome painting probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, R T; Millener, R; Thorne, S; O'Loughlin, J; Brassey, J; McDermott, A

    1994-01-01

    Particular regions of the X and Y chromosomes share DNA sequence homology to the extent that cross hybridisation occurs. Thus, chromosome painting with a whole Y chromosome probe consistently results in fluorescence on specific regions of the X chromosome as well as the complete Y chromosome. This phenomenon has been exploited to elucidate the structure of unusual X chromosome rearrangements, without Y involvement, in two females.

  17. LOH at chromosome 9q34.3 and the Notch1 gene methylation are less involved in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Krogdahl, Annelise; Eiberg, Hans

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of oral carcinomas have shown that both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and hypermethylation at chromosome 9q33 to 9q34.2 are frequent. The present study investigates the frequency of Notch1 gene methylation and LOH at 9q34.3 region. METHODS: Gene promoter hypermethylation...... of the Notch1 gene was analysed by methylation-specific PCR and LOH was analysed using microsatellite markers. RESULTS: We found LOH at 9q34.3 in three patients and methylation of the Notch1 gene only in two patients with oral carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Comparing with the alterations at 9q33 to 34.2 regions, LOH...

  18. Co-Localization of Somatic and Meiotic Double Strand Breaks Near the Myc Oncogene on Mouse Chromosome 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siemon H.; Maas, Sarah A.; Petkov, Petko M.; Mills, Kevin D.; Paigen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Both somatic and meiotic recombinations involve the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that occur at preferred locations in the genome. Improper repair of DSBs during either mitosis or meiosis can lead to mutations, chromosomal aberration such as translocations, cancer and/or cell death. Currently, no model exists that explains the locations of either spontaneous somatic DSBs or programmed meiotic DSBs or relates them to each other. One common class of tumorigenic translocations arising from DSBs is chromosomal rearrangements near the Myc oncogene. Myc translocations have been associated with Burkitt lymphoma in humans, plasmacytoma in mice and immunocytoma in rats. Comparing the locations of somatic and meiotic DSBs near the mouse Myc oncogene, we demonstrated that the placement of these DSBs is not random and that both events clustered in the same short discrete region of the genome. Our work shows that both somatic and meiotic DSBs tend to occur in proximity to each other within the Myc region, suggesting that they share common originating features. It is likely that some regions of the genome are more susceptible to both somatic and meiotic DSBs, and the locations of meiotic hotspots may be an indicator of genomic regions more susceptible to DNA damage. PMID:19603522

  19. Chromosomal evolution in the plant family Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feinan; Tanksley, Steven D

    2010-03-17

    Over the past decades, extensive comparative mapping research has been performed in the plant family Solanaceae. The recent identification of a large set of single-copy conserved orthologous (COSII) markers has greatly accelerated comparative mapping studies among major solanaceous species including tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper and diploid Nicotiana species (as well as tetraploid tobacco). The large amount of comparative data now available for these species provides the opportunity to describe the overall patterns of chromosomal evolution in this important plant family. The results of this investigation are described herein. We combined data from multiple COSII studies, and other comparative mapping studies performed in tomato, potato, eggplant, pepper and diploid Nicotiana species, to deduce the features and outcomes of chromosomal evolution in the Solanaceae over the past 30 million years. This includes estimating the rates and timing of chromosomal changes (inversions and translocations) as well as deducing the age of ancestral progenitor species and predicting their genome configurations. The Solanaceae has experienced chromosomal changes at a modest rate compared with other families and the rates are likely conserved across different lineages of the family. Chromosomal inversions occur at a consistently higher rate than do translocations. Further, we find evidences for non-random positioning of the chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints. This finding is consistent with the similar finding in mammals, where hot spots for chromosomal breakages have apparently played a significant role in shaping genome evolution. Finally, by utilizing multiple genome comparisons we were able to reconstruct the most likely genome configuration for a number of now-extinct progenitor species that gave rise to the extant solanaceous species used in this research. The results from this study provide the first broad overview of chromosomal evolution in the family Solanaceae, and

  20. Induction of apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma by reactive oxygen species: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38delta/gamma, cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulation, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, Monica

    2012-02-03

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Unfortunately, RCCs are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be sought for the successful treatment of RCCs. We now report that 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583), an inhibitor of cyclic GMP production, induced growth arrest and apoptosis of the RCC cell line 786-0. It did not prove deleterious to normal renal epithelial cells, an important aspect of chemotherapy. To address the cellular mechanism(s), we used both genetic and pharmacological approaches. LY83583 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in RCC apoptosis through dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1\\/2 and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and -2. In addition, we observed a decrease in Elk-1 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) down-regulation. We were surprised that we failed to observe an increase in either c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38alpha and -beta mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contradiction, reintroduction of p38delta by stable transfection or overexpression of p38gamma dominant negative abrogated the apoptotic effect. Cell death was associated with a decrease and increase in Bcl-x(L) and Bax expression, respectively, as well as release of cytochrome c and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. These events were associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species formation. The antioxidant N-acetyl l-cysteine, however, opposed LY83583-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, ERK1\\/2 inactivation, COX-2 down-regulation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LY83583 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RCC, which remains highly refractory to antineoplastic agents. Our data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer activity of LY83583.

  1. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  2. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  3. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  4. An unusually large 5q duplication in an adult female subject: spreading of inactivation and in vitro instability of the derivative Xp/5q chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovescalli, A; Ghidoni, A

    1989-01-01

    An unbalanced translocation resulting in an unusually large partial 5q trisomy (5q11-5qter) and partial Xp monosomy (Xp11-Xpter) is reported in a 24 yr old woman with phenotypic abnormalities including gonadal dysgenesis and mental retardation. The karyotypes of the parents and the brother were found normal. Peripheral blood stimulated lymphocytes and cutaneous fibroblasts of the proband exhibited constantly, after BrdU incorporation, selective inactivation of the derivative X;5 chromosome spreading to the 5q duplicate segment. A variety of numerical and structural changes involving the derivative chromosome were observed in about 10% of cells of the cultured lymphoblastoid line established from the subject's lymphocytes. The extended 5q duplication, according to the literature, is generally accompanied by a severe phenotype and by developmental failure; it is therefore believe that genetic inactivation of the 5q duplicated region permitted the proband's development to adult age, despite the profound chromosomal imbalance.

  5. Chromosome 15 anomalies and the Prader-Willi syndrome: cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, M G; Souiah, N; Mattei, J F

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of chromosome 15 is very different from that of the other acrocentric chromosomes. The cytogenetic characteristics of rearrangements associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are analyzed as similar rearrangements irrespective of the associated phenotype (reciprocal translocations of chromosome 15, small bisatellited additional chromosomes, Robertsonian translocations, interstitial deletions, pericentric inversions). This study suggests that: (1) The proximal ( 15q ) region and PWS seem to be indissociable ; (2) chromosome 15 has an indisputable cytogenetic originality which could be related to its histochemical properties. Chromosome 15 constitutive heterochromatin usually contains much 5-methylcytosine-rich DNA and a large amount of each of the four satellite DNAs. Furthermore the existence in the proximal ( 15q ) region of one or several palindromic sequences could be postulated to explain the great lability of this region of chromosome 15.

  6. Cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for reciprocal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghui; Luo, Yuqin; Qian, Yuli; Xu, Chenming; Jin, Fan

    2011-07-01

    To report the first case of cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for reciprocal translocation. Case report. In vitro fertilization center in a university affiliated hospital. A woman carrying a t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was performed, and the woman became pregnant. Successful PGD for reciprocal translocation and diagnosis of Cri du chat syndrome for the baby. A male baby was born at 36 weeks' gestation. However, the baby presented with a high-pitched, cat-like cry. Cytogenetic study revealed a rare case of cri du chat syndrome associated with t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Chromosomal abnormalities, including the rare cru du chat syndrome, may occur after fluorescent in situ hybridization-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neo-sex chromosomes of Ronderosia bergi: insight into the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, O M; Marti, D A; Cabral-de-Mello, D C

    2015-09-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved many times from morphologically identical autosome pairs, most often presenting several recombination suppression events, followed by accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. In Orthoptera, most species have an X0♂ sex chromosome system. However, in the subfamily Melanoplinae, derived variants of neo-sex chromosomes (neo-XY♂ or neo-X1X2Y♂) emerged several times. Here, we examined the differentiation of neo-sex chromosomes in a Melanoplinae species with a neo-XY♂/XX♀ system, Ronderosia bergi, using several approaches: (i) classical cytogenetic analysis, (ii) mapping via fluorescent in situ hybridization of some selected repetitive DNA sequences and microdissected sex chromosomes, and (iii) immunolocalization of distinct histone modifications. The microdissected sex chromosomes were also used as sources for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA-coding multigene families, to study variants related to the sex chromosomes. Our data suggest that the R. bergi neo-Y has become differentiated after its formation by a Robertsonian translocation and inversions, and has accumulated repetitive DNA sequences. Interestingly, the ex autosomes incorporated into the neo-sex chromosomes retain some autosomal post-translational histone modifications, at least in metaphase I, suggesting that the establishment of functional modifications in neo-sex chromosomes is slower than their sequence differentiation.

  8. Cloning and characterization of the t(15;17) translocation breakpoint region in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, R S; Eilender, D; Waldmann, R A; Rebentisch, M; Frej, A K; Ledbetter, D H; Willman, C; McConnell, T; O'Connell, P

    1990-07-01

    A reciprocal chromosomal translocation, t(15;17)(q22;q11.2-12), is characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) of French-American-British (FAB) subtype M3, and is not associated with any other human malignancy. The non-random pattern of the APL translocations suggests that specific genes on chromosomes 15 and 17 are somehow altered or deregulated as a consequence of the rearrangement. Translocation breakpoints in APL patients provide physical landmarks that suggest an approach to isolating the APL gene(s). Genetic and physical maps constructed for the APL breakpoint region on chromosome 17 have indicated that two fully-linked DNA markers, defining loci for THRA1 and D17S80, map to opposite sides of an APL breakpoint yet reside on a common 350-kb Clal fragment. Cosmid-walking experiments to clone this APL breakpoint have revealed a 38-kilobase deletion on chromosome 17. Studies in additional APL patients have shown that the breakpoint region on chromosome 17 spans at least 80 kilobases.

  9. Chromosome breakage in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome deletions may involve recombination between a repeat at the proximal and distal breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos-Landgraf J.; Nicholls, R.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gottlieb, W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes most commonly arise from large deletions of 15q11-q13. Deletions in PWS are paternal in origin, while those in AS are maternal in origin, clearly demonstrating genomic imprinting in these clinically distinct neurobehavioural disorders. In at least 90% of PWS and AS deletion patients, the same 4 Mb region within 15q11-q13 is deleted with breakpoints clustering in single YAC clones at the proximal and distal ends. To study the mechanism of chromosome breakage in PWS and AS, we have previously isolated 25 independent clones from these three YACs using Alu-vector PCR. Four clones were selected that appear to detect a low copy repeat that is located in the proximal and distal breakpoint regions of chromosome 15q11-q13. Three clones detect the same 4 HindIII bands in genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13, with differing intensities for the probes located at the proximal or distal breakpoints region, respectively. This suggests that these probes detect related members of a low-copy repeat at either location. Moreover, the 254RL2 probe detects a novel HindIII band in two unrelated PWS deletion patients, suggesting that this may represent a breakpoint fragment, with recombination occurring within a similar interval in both patients. A fourth clone, 318RL3 detects 5 bands in HindIII-digested genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13. This YAC endclone itself is not deleted in PWS and AS deletion patients, as seen by an invariant strong band. Two other strong bands are variably intact or deleted in different PWS or AS deletion patients, suggesting a relationship of this sequence to the breakpoints. Moreover, PCR using 318RL3 primers from the distal 93C9 YAC led to the isolation of a related clone with 96% identity, demonstrating the existence of a low-copy repeat with members close to the proximal and distal breakpoints. Taken together, our data suggest a complex, low-copy repeat with members at both the proximal and distal boundaries.

  10. Identification of disrupted AUTS2 and EPHA6 genes by array painting in a patient carrying a de novo balanced translocation t(3;7) with intellectual disability and neurodevelopment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anouck; Puechberty, Jacques; Ng, Bee Ling; Coubes, Christine; Gatinois, Vincent; Tournaire, Magali; Girard, Manon; Dumont, Bruno; Bouret, Pauline; Magnetto, Julia; Baghdadli, Amaria; Pellestor, Franck; Geneviève, David

    2015-12-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a frequent feature but is highly clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The establishment of the precise diagnosis in patients with ID is challenging due to this heterogeneity but crucial for genetic counseling and appropriate care for the patients. Among the etiologies of patients with ID, apparently balanced de novo rearrangements represent 0.6%. Several mechanisms explain the ID in patients with apparently balanced de novo rearrangement. Among them, disruption of a disease gene at the breakpoint, is frequently evoked. In this context, technologies recently developed are used to characterize precisely such chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report the case of a boy with ID, facial features and autistic behavior who is carrying a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(3;7)(q11.2;q11.22)dn. Using microarray analysis, array painting (AP) technology combined with molecular study, we have identified the interruption of the autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) and EPH receptor A6 gene (EPHA6). We consider that the disruption of AUTS2 explains the phenotype of the patient; the exact role of EPHA6 in human pathology is not well defined. Based on the observation of recurrent germinal and somatic translocations involving AUTS2 and the molecular environment content, we put forward the hypothesis that the likely chromosomal mechanism responsible for the translocation could be due either to replicative stress or to recombination-based mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A novel system for correcting large-scale chromosomal aberrations: ring chromosome correction via reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Plona, Kathleen; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Approximately 1 in 500 newborns are born with chromosomal abnormalities that include trisomies, translocations, large deletions, and duplications. There is currently no therapeutic approach for correcting such chromosomal aberrations in vivo or in vitro. When we attempted to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models from patient-derived fibroblasts that contained ring chromosomes, we found that the ring chromosomes were eliminated and replaced by duplicated normal copies of chromosomes through a mechanism of uniparental isodisomy (Bershteyn et al. 2014, Nature 507:99). The discovery of this previously unforeseen system for aberrant chromosome correction during reprogramming enables us for the first time to model and understand this process of cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes during human patient somatic cell reprograming to iPSCs. This knowledge could lead to a potential therapeutic strategy to correct common large-scale chromosomal aberrations, termed "chromosome therapy".

  12. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  13. Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathy Radha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP and Fanconi anemia (FA patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy-induced chromosome aberrations (CA. The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in slides stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique. An increase in all types of CA was observed in XP and FA lymphocytes irradiated at G0 when compared to controls. The frequency of dicentrics and rings was 6 to 27% higher (at 1 and 2 Gy in XP lymphocytes and 37% higher (at 2 Gy in FA lymphocytes than in controls, while chromosome deletions were higher in irradiated (30% in 1 Gy and 72% in 2 Gy than in control XP lymphocytes and 28 to 102% higher in FA lymphocytes. In G2-irradiated lymphocytes the frequency of CA was 24 to 55% higher in XP lymphocytes than in controls. In most cases the translocation frequencies were higher than the frequencies of dicentrics (21/19.

  14. A Novel Cryptic Three-Way Translocation t(2;9;18(p23.2;p21.3;q21.33 with Deletion of Tumor Suppressor Genes in 9p21.3 and 13q14 in a T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeb A. K. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia often presents with pure chromosomal resolution; thus, aberrations may not be detected by banding cytogenetics. Here, a case of 26-year-old male diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL and a normal karyotype after standard GTG-banding was studied retrospectively in detail by molecular cytogenetic and molecular approaches. Besides fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH were applied. Thus, cryptic chromosomal aberrations not observed before were detected: three chromosomes were involved in a cytogenetically balanced occurring translocation t(2;9;18(p23.2;p21.3;q21.33. Besides a translocation t(10;14(q24;q11 was identified, an aberration known to be common in T-ALL. Due to the three-way translocation deletion of tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/INK4A/p16, CDKN2B/INK4B/p15, and MTAP/ARF/p14 in 9p21.3 took place. Additionally RB1 in 13q14 was deleted. This patient, considered to have a normal karyotype after low resolution banding cytogenetics, was treated according to general protocol of anticancer therapy (ALL-BFM 95.

  15. Prenatally diagnosed de novo complex chromosome rearrangements: Two new cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Grubs, R.E.; Jewett, T. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCR) are rare structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes with three or more breakpoints. Although there have been numerous reports of individuals with CCR, most have been ascertained through the presence of multiple congenital anomalies, recurrent pregnancy loss, or infertility. Few cases have been ascertained prenatally. We present two new cases of prenatally ascertained CCR. In the first case, an amniocentesis revealed an apparently balanced de novo rearrangement in which chromosomes 5, 6 and 11 were involved in a three-way translocation: 46,XY,t(6;5)(5;11)(q23;p14.3;q15;p13). The pregnancy was unevenful. Recently, at the age of 9 months, a physical and developmental evaluation were normal but, height, weight, and head circumference were below the 5th percentile. In the second case an amniocentesis revealed an unbalanced de novo rearrangement involving separate translocations and an interstitial deletion: 46,XY,del(6)(q25.3q27),t(3;8)(p13;q21.3),t(6;18)(p11.2;q11.2). A meconium plug was present at birth and at 6 months of age surgery for Hirschsprung`s disease was required. Currently, at 10 months of age, the patient has hypotonia and developmental delay. The paucity of information regarding prenatally diagnosed CCR poses a problem in counseling families. Of the four prenatally diagnosed balanced de novo CCR cases, three had abnormal outcomes. In a review of the literature, approximately 70% of the postnatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR cases were associated with congenital anomalies, growth retardation and/or mental retardation. More information regarding the outcome of prenatally ascertained balanced de novo CCR is required for accurate risk assessment.

  16. mBAND Analysis of Late Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma Rays and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations and inversions are considered stable, and cells containing these types of chromosome aberrations can survive multiple cell divisions. An efficient method to detect an inversion is multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) which allows identification of both inter- and intrachromosome aberrations simultaneously. Post irradiation, chromosome aberrations may also arise after multiple cell divisions as a result of genomic instability. To investigate the stable or late-arising chromosome aberrations induced after radiation exposure, we exposed human lymphocytes to gamma rays and Fe ions ex vivo, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis and at several time intervals during the culture period post irradiation. With gamma irradiation, about half of the damages observed at first mitosis remained after 7 day- and 14 day- culture, suggesting the transmissibility of damages to the surviving progeny. Detailed analysis of chromosome break ends participating in exchanges revealed a greater fraction of break ends involved in intrachromosome aberrations in the 7- and 14-day samples in comparison to the fraction at first mitosis. In particular, simple inversions were found at 7 and 14 days, but not at the first mitosis, suggesting that some of the aberrations might be formed days post irradiation. In contrast, at the doses that produced similar frequencies of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations as observed at first mitosis, a significantly lower yield of aberrations remained at the same population doublings after Fe ion exposure. At these equitoxic doses, more complex type aberrations were observed for Fe ions, indicating that Fe ion-induced initial chromosome damages are more severe and may lead to cell death. Comparison between low and high doses of Fe ion irradiation in the induction of late damages will also be discussed.

  17. Camplyobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Louwen, R.; Marrewijk, L. van; Horst, D.; Ruiter, L. de; Heikema, A.P.; Wamel, W.J. van; Wagenaar, J.A.; Endtz, H.P.; Samsom, J.N.; Baarlen, P. van; Akhmanova, A.S.; Belkum, A. van

    2012-01-01

    Translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study we investigated whether sialylation of C.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni Translocation across Intestinal Epithelial Cells Is Facilitated by Ganglioside-Like Lipooligosaccharide Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Marrewijk, van L.; Horst-Kreft, D.; Ruiter, de L.; Heikema, A.P.; Wamel, van W.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Endtz, H.P.; Samsom, J.; Baarlen, van P.; Akhmanova, A.; Belkum, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study, we investigated whether sialylation of C.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis (Edward); L. van Marrewijk (Leonie); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); L.F. de Ruiter (Lilian); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); P. van Baarlen (Peter); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTranslocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study, we investigated whether

  20. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Computer simulation of viral-assembly and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, Jyoti Prakash

    We investigated four different problems using coarse grained computational models : self-assembly of single stranded (ss) DNA virus, ejection dynamics of double stranded(ds) DNA from phages, translocation of ssDNA through MspA protein pore, and segmental dynamics of a polymer translocating through a synthetic nanopore. In the first part of the project, we investigated the self-assembly of a virus with and without its genome. A coarse-grained model was proposed for the viral subunit proteins and its genome (ssDNA). Langevin dynamics simulation, and replica exchange method were used to determine the kinetics and energetics of the self-assembly process, respectively. The self-assembly follows a nucleation-growth kind of mechanism. The ssDNA plays a crucial role in the self-assembly by acting as a template and enhancing the local concentration of the subunits. The presence of the genome does not changes the mechanism of the self-assembly but it reduces the nucleation time and enhances the growth rate by almost an order of magnitude. The second part of the project involves the investigation of the dynamics of the ejection of dsDNA from phages. A coarse-grained model was used for the phage and dsDNA. Langevin dynamics simulation was used to investigate the kinetics of the ejection. The ejection is a stochastic process and a slow intermediate rate kinetics was observed for most ejection trajectories. We discovered that the jamming of the DNA at the pore mouth at high packing fraction and for a disordered system is the reason for the intermediate slow kinetics. The third part of the project involves translocation of ssDNA through MspA protein pore. MspA protein pore has the potential for genome sequencing because of its ability to clearly distinguish the four different nucleotides based on their blockade current, but it is a challenge to use this pore for any practical application because of the very fast traslocation time. We resolved the state of DNA translocation

  2. Association mapping and haplotype analysis of a 3.1-Mb genomic region involved in Fusarium head blight resistance on wheat chromosome 3BS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Hao

    Full Text Available A previous study provided an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics of European and Asian wheat gene pools using a sequenced 3.1-Mb contig (ctg954 on chromosome 3BS. This region is believed to carry the Fhb1 gene for response to Fusarium head blight. In this study, 266 wheat accessions were evaluated in three environments for Type II FHB response based on the single floret inoculation method. Hierarchical clustering (UPGMA based on a Manhattan dissimilarity matrix divided the accessions into eight groups according to five FHB-related traits which have a high correlation between them; Group VIII comprised six accessions with FHB response levels similar to variety Sumai 3. Based on the compressed mixed linear model (MLM, association analysis between five FHB-related traits and 42 molecular markers along the 3.1-Mb region revealed 12 significant association signals at a threshold of P0.1 and P0.05 within each HapB at r(2>0.1 and P<0.001 showed significant differences between the Hap carried by FHB resistant resources, such as Sumai 3 and Wangshuibai, and susceptible genotypes in HapB3 and HapB6. These results suggest that Fhb1 is located within HapB6, with the possibility that another gene is located at or near HapB3. SSR markers and Haps detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of FHB resistance, and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection of Fhb1 in wheat breeding.

  3. [Comparative analysis of a new human cell line 4BL karyotype at long-term cultivation. Ploidy of chromosomal set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, H R; Huleiuk, N L; Kushniruk, V O; Mykytenko, D O; Iatsyshyna, A P; Lukash, L L

    2013-01-01

    Long-term cultivation of human cells, including stem cells, can lead to substantial transformation of the karyotype and occurrence of genetic instability. The aim of this research was a comparative cytogenetic study of the karyotype of a new human stem cell line 4BL at 160 and 205 passages. The absence of 10 and 13 pairs of chromosomes and the monosomy of chromosomes 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, X were observed; also six regular marker chromosomes were detected. Chromosomes 1, 15 and 21 are involved in translocations t(l;11), t(5;15), t(12; 15), t(16;21). Modal class of the karyotype is within 41-43 chromosomes at both 160 and 205 passages. The frequency of polyploid cells have been increased from 2.8% at 160 passage up to 36% at 205 passage. Cells with a near-haploid karyotype were not detected at 205 passage (in contrast to 24.6% at 160 passages) and a decline of the level of premature separation of chromatids was observed. We assume stabilization of karyotype of the cell line 4BL at 205 passage and consider that further research is needed to predict the direction of karyotypic evolution of these cells in vitro.

  4. Combined FISH and PRINS sperm analysis of complex chromosome rearrangement t(1;19;13): an approach facilitating PGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loup, V; Bernicot, I; Janssens, P; Hedon, B; Hamamah, S; Pellestor, F; Anahory, T

    2010-02-01

    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are structural aberrations involving three or more breakpoints on two or more chromosomes. These CCRs result in a high rate of chromosome imbalances potentially leading to subfertility and congenital abnormality. In this study, we analysed meiotic segregation in the sperm of a patient with a familial CCR 46, XY,t(1;19;13)(p31;q13.2;q31)mat included in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection program because of oligoasthenozoospermia. The rearrangement was first identified using conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods. Primed in situ labelling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were then combined allowing the simultaneous use of five fluorochromes on the same sperm preparation, for the segregation analysis and the evaluation of the reproductive options for this patient. Segregation analysis was performed in a total of 1822 sperm nuclei from the translocation carrier. The percentage of unbalanced sperm was 75.9%, including 34.1% from 3:3 segregation, 38.2% from 4:2 segregation, 3.5% from 5:1 segregation and 0.05% from 6:0 segregation. Only 14.8% of sperm nuclei were consistent with a normal or balanced chromosome complement. In conclusion, chromosome segregation analysis combining FISH and PRINS was performed in sperm from a CCR carrier using five fluorochromes. These results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of meiotic segregation, and facilitate the assessment of the usefulness of preimplantation genetic diagnosis procedures in CCR couples.

  5. Dose Response for Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes and Fibroblasts after Exposure to Very Low Doses of High LET Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between biological effects and low doses of absorbed radiation is still uncertain, especially for high LET radiation exposure. Estimates of risks from low-dose and low-dose-rates are often extrapolated using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors with either linear or linear quadratic models of fit. In this study, chromosome aberrations were measured in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal skin fibroblasts cells after exposure to very low dose (1-20 cGy) of 170 MeV/u Si-28- ions or 600 MeV/u Fe-56-ions. Chromosomes were analyzed using the whole chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique during the first cell division after irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving greater than 2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). The curves for doses above 10 cGy were fitted with linear or linear-quadratic functions. For Si-28- ions no dose response was observed in the 2-10 cGy dose range, suggesting a non-target effect in this range.

  6. Cryptic duplication of the distal segment of 22q due to a translocation (21;22): three case reports and a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, I.; Koolen, D.A.; Pas, J. van der; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mieloo, H.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van

    2006-01-01

    Duplications of the proximal segment of chromosome 22q are not uncommon, like Cat-eye syndrome and duplications due to familial (11;22) translocations. However, duplications of the distal long arm of chromosome 22 (22qter) seem to be exceedingly rare. So far, duplications of 22q12 or 22q13 to 22qter

  7. Black Rhino Translocations within Africa | Knight | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responsibility for the conservation of the critically endangered Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, lies within Africa. This species is managed at the subspecies level and we document nine international translocation case studies involving South Africa since 1962 aimed at re-establishing or boosting populations ...

  8. Novel insights into mitotic chromosome condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskadlo, Ewa; Oliveira, Raquel A.

    2016-01-01

    The fidelity of mitosis is essential for life, and successful completion of this process relies on drastic changes in chromosome organization at the onset of nuclear division. The mechanisms that govern chromosome compaction at every cell division cycle are still far from full comprehension, yet recent studies provide novel insights into this problem, challenging classical views on mitotic chromosome assembly. Here, we briefly introduce various models for chromosome assembly and known factors involved in the condensation process (e.g. condensin complexes and topoisomerase II). We will then focus on a few selected studies that have recently brought novel insights into the mysterious way chromosomes are condensed during nuclear division. PMID:27508072

  9. The Pontin series of recombinant alien translocations in bread wheat: single translocations integrating combinations of Bdv2, Lr19 and Sr25 disease-resistance genes from Thinopyrum intermedium and Th. ponticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Navarrete, L I; Mechanicos, A A; Gibson, J M; Singh, D; Bariana, H S; Fletcher, J; Shorter, S; Larkin, Philip J

    2013-10-01

    Two bread wheat lines each with a translocation on chromosome 7DL from either Thinopyrum intermedium (TC5 and TC14) or Thinopyrum ponticum (T4m), were hybridized in a ph1b mutant background to enhance recombination between the two translocated chromosomal segments. The frequency of recombinants was high in lines derived from the larger and similar-sized translocations (TC5/T4m), but much lower when derived from different-sized translocations (TC14/T4m). Recombinant translocations contained combinations of resistance genes Bdv2, Lr19 and Sr25 conferring resistance to Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), leaf rust and stem rust, respectively. Their genetic composition was identified using bioassays and molecular markers specific for the two progenitor Thinopyrum species. This set of 7DL Th. ponticum/intermedium recombinant translocations was termed the Pontin series. In addition to Thinopyrum markers, the size of the translocation was estimated with the aid of wheat markers mapped on each of the 7DL deletion bins. Bioassays for BYDV, leaf rust and stem rust were performed under greenhouse and field conditions. Once separated from ph1b background, the Pontin recombinant translocations were stable and showed normal inheritance in successive backcrosses. The reported Pontin translocations integrate important resistance genes in a single linkage block which will allow simultaneous selection of disease resistance. Combinations of Bdv2 + Lr19 or Lr19 + Sr25 in both long and short translocations, are available to date. The smaller Pontins, comprising only 20 % of the distal portion of 7DL, will be most attractive to breeders.

  10. [Frequency of chromosome variants in human populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, N P; Kulieva, L M

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome variants were analyzed in the course of the population chromosome investigation of 6000 newborns and clinical cytogenetic studies of 403 married couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions, stillbirths or offsprings having congenital malformations or Down's syndrome. The following variants were determined: 1) Igh+, 9gh+, 16gh+ - the enlargement of the secondary constrictions of the size, more than 1/4 of the long arm of the chromosome; 2) Dp+ or Gp+ - the enlargement of the short arms of acrocentrics, their size being more than the short arm of the chromosome 18; 3) Ds+ or Gs - large satellites of the acrocentrics which are equal or more than the thickness of the chromatids of the long arms; 4) Es+ - satellites on the short arms of the chromosomes 17 or 18; 5) Dss of Gss - double satellites; 6) Yq+ - the enlargement of the long arm of Y chromosome, the size of which being more than G chromosome; 7) Yq- - deletion of the long arm of Y chromosome, the size of the long arm being less than chromosomes 21--22. The total frequency of variants in newborns was 12.8/1000 births. The incidence of different types of variants per 1000 births was as follows: Igh+ - 0.33; 9gh+ - 0.17; 16gh+ - 0.50; Ds+ - 2.33; Dp+ - 1.50; Dp- - 0.17; Gs+ - 0.83; Gp+ - 2.17; Yq+ - 6.91/1000 males; Yg- - 0.99/1000 males; double variants - 0.33; other variants - 0.33. 4.0% of married couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions had major chromosome aberrations, 14.6% - extreme variants of chromosomes. Among 113 couples with the history of congenital malformations in their offsprings major chromosome abnormalities were found in 4.4%, chromosome variants - 13.3%. The frequency of chromosome variants among 139 patients with Down's syndrome was 7.2%. In one case Robertsonian translocation t(DqGa) was determined. The most frequent types of variant chromosomes were Ds+, Dp+, Es+, Yq+.

  11. [Discovery of analogous balanced translocation syndrome and its clinical genetics research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-xiang; Liu, Li; Wu, Han-wen

    2003-04-01

    To find out the clinical genetic law of relation between a group of special chromosomal structural abnormality including bit Y, inv(9), S+, No. 1, 9, 16 chromosomal qh+/-, and the balanced translocation. By means of binomial distribution method, 980 cases were analyzed for balanced chromosome translocation, big Y, inv(9), S+ and qh+/-, and according to the clinical features the 980 cases were divided into 4 groups: spontaneous abortion, abnormal sexual development, labouring disease and disabled or diseased condition of the patient. In these 980 cases of balanced translocation, big Y, inv(9), S+ and qh+/-, the chief clinical features caused by the various different conditions have a high similarity (P > 0.20-0.50). The big Y, inv(9), S+, and qh+/- leading to the occurrence of the chief clinical features belong to the analogous balanced translocation syndrome. This fact indicates that in the process of sexual reproduction, the minute unequivalent exchange in the molecular level of gamete is possible to have genetic effect in the descendants, and may cause a corresponding clinical feature, present the abnormal sex differentiation, in varying degrees, and influence the abnormal phenotype or the health of individuals.

  12. FAMILI AUTOSOME TRANSLACATION (13/14 AT PARENTS WITH TRISOMYC CHILD IN 21-Th. CHROMOSOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LAKOVSKI

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a case study about family autosome translocation is presented. On the basis of the evidence of chromosome`s abnormalities at the on parent (it was proved that the father has translocation between acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 or well known as Robertson’s or centric fusion’s it was discovered that predisposition for nondisjunction could be expected. This is precondition for hereditary abnormality or for trisomia`s child to be born. These well-known facts are based on the proven risks for born of the children with trisomia because of the evidences that the bearers of the translocations have not any possibilities for child-bird of healthy descendants, nor descendants with balanced homological translocations, that were proved in our researched case.

  13. Influence of different chromosomal abnormalities in Ph-positive bone marrow cells on the chronic myeloid leukemia course during tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Vinogradova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The additional molecular and chromosomal abnormalities (ACA in Phositive cells usually considered as a genetic marker of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML progression. 457 patients in different CML phases received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1st and 2nd generation were studied. During therapy 50 cases with additional chromosomal abnormalities in Ph+ clone (22 of them in chronic CML phase were revealed (median follow-up from CML diagnosis – 117 months, median imatinib therapy – 62 months. 86 % of patients in chronic phase with Ph+- cell abnormalities were cytogenetic resistance, and their 5-years overall survival was 80 % which was significantly lower than in patients without ACA (p < 0.005. The treatment results depend on chromosomal abnormalities detected. In patients with additional chromosome 8 imatinib therapy is effective, although complete cytogenetic response (CCR is achieved only in the later therapy stages. In patients with additional translocations CCR also achieved with imatinib or 2nd generation TKI. Only a third of patients with additional Ph-chromosome or BCR/ABL amplification achieved complete suppression of Ph+ clone using 2nd generation TKI. The presence of additional chromosome 7 abnormalities and complex karyotype disorders involving isochromosome i(17(q10 are poor prognostic factors of TKI treatment failures.

  14. Clonal chromosomal abnormalities in congenital bile duct dilatation (Caroli's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, L A; Hallén, M; Hägerstrand, I; Tranberg, K G; Johansson, B

    1999-11-01

    Caroli's disease is a rare congenital disorder characterised by cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts and an increased risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma. The cause is unknown, but occasional familial clustering suggests that some cases are inherited, in particular when occurring in association with polycystic kidney disease and germline PKD1 gene mutations. To date, no gene responsible for familial isolated Caroli's disease has been identified, and no genetic investigations of liver tissue from patients with Caroli's disease have been reported. A liver biopsy specimen from a patient with isolated Caroli's disease, without any signs of cholangiocellular carcinoma, was short term cultured and cytogenetically investigated after G banding with Wright's stain. Cytogenetic analysis disclosed the karyotype 45-47,XX,der(3)t(3;8)(p23;q13), +2mar[cp6]/46,XX[18]. The finding of an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 3 and 8 suggests that loss of distal 3p and/or gain of 8q is of pathogenetic importance in Caroli's disease. Alternatively, structural rearrangements of genes located in 3p23 and 8q13 may be of the essence. These chromosomal breakpoints may also pinpoint the location of genes involved in inherited forms of Caroli's disease not associated with polycystic kidney disease.

  15. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, C I; Abril, V V; Duarte, J M B

    2013-09-13

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter- and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a multiple sex chromosome system (XY₁Y₂). The synaptonemal complex in spermatocytes showed normal chromosome pairings for all chromosomes, including the autosomal and sex trivalents. The electromicrographs showed homology among B chromosomes since they formed bivalents, but they also appeared as univalents, indicating their anomalous behavior and non-Mendelian segregation. Thus, synaptonemal complex analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the role of B chromosomes and rearrangements during meiosis on the intraspecific chromosomal variation that is observed in the majority of Mazama species.

  16. Formation of new chromosomes as a virulence mechanism in yeast Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláková, Silvia; Blume, Christian; Zárate, Julián Alvarez; Mentel, Marek; Jørck-Ramberg, Dorte; Stenderup, Jørgen; Piskur, Jure

    2009-02-24

    In eukaryotes, the number and rough organization of chromosomes is well preserved within isolates of the same species. Novel chromosomes and loss of chromosomes are infrequent and usually associated with pathological events. Here, we analyzed 40 pathogenic isolates of a haploid and asexual yeast, Candida glabrata, for their genome structure and stability. This organism has recently become the second most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans. Although the gene sequences were well conserved among different strains, their chromosome structures differed drastically. The most frequent events reshaping chromosomes were translocations of chromosomal arms. However, also larger segmental duplications were frequent and occasionally we observed novel chromosomes. Apparently, this yeast can generate a new chromosome by duplication of chromosome segments carrying a centromere and subsequently adding novel telomeric ends. We show that the observed genome plasticity is connected with antifungal drug resistance and it is likely an advantage in the human body, where environmental conditions fluctuate a lot.

  17. Bordetella effector BopN is translocated into host cells via its N-terminal residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akio; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Kuwae, Asaomi

    2017-06-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a wide variety of mammals, the type III secretion system (T3SS) being involved in long-term colonization by Bordetella of the trachea and lung. T3SS translocates virulence factors (commonly referred to as effectors) into host cells, leading to alterations in the host's physiological function. The Bordetella effectors BopN and BteA are known to have roles in up-regulation of IL-10 and cytotoxicity, respectively. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which BopN is translocated into host cells has not been examined in sufficient detail. Therefore, to determine the precise mechanisms of translocation of BopN into host cells, truncated derivatives of BopN were built and the derivatives' ability to translocate into host cells evaluated by adenylate cyclase-mediated translocation assay. It was found that N-terminal amino acid (aa) residues 1-200 of BopN are sufficient for its translocation into host cells. Interestingly, BopN translocation was completely blocked by deletion of the N-terminal aa residues 6-50, indicating that the N-terminal region is critical for BopN translocation. Furthermore, BopN appears to play an auxiliary role in BteA-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, BopN can apparently translocate into host cells and may facilitate activity of BteA. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, L.; MartInez-AbraIn, A.; Mayol, J.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Mañas, F.; Jimenez, J.; Gomez, J.A.; Oro, D.

    2016-07-01

    Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. (Author)

  19. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  20. MECP2 duplications in six patients with complex sex chromosome rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breman, Amy M; Ramocki, Melissa B; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Williams, Misti; Freedenberg, Debra; Patel, Ankita; Bader, Patricia I; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2011-04-01

    Duplications of the Xq28 chromosome region resulting in functional disomy are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by infantile hypotonia, severe developmental delay, progressive neurological impairment, absent speech, and proneness to infections. Increased expression of the dosage-sensitive MECP2 gene is considered responsible for the severe neurological impairments observed in affected individuals. Although cytogenetically visible duplications of Xq28 are well documented in the published literature, recent advances using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) led to the detection of an increasing number of microduplications spanning MECP2. In rare cases, duplication results from intrachromosomal rearrangement between the X and Y chromosomes. We report six cases with sex chromosome rearrangements involving duplication of MECP2. Cases 1-4 are unbalanced rearrangements between X and Y, resulting in MECP2 duplication. The additional Xq material was translocated to Yp in three cases (cases 1-3), and to the heterochromatic region of Yq12 in one case (case 4). Cases 5 and 6 were identified by array CGH to have a loss in copy number at Xp and a gain in copy number at Xq28 involving the MECP2 gene. In both cases, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a recombinant X chromosome containing the duplicated material from Xq28 on Xp, resulting from a maternal pericentric inversion. These cases add to a growing number of MECP2 duplications that have been detected by array CGH, while demonstrating the value of confirmatory chromosome and FISH studies for the localization of the duplicated material and the identification of complex rearrangements.

  1. Investigating the role of X chromosome breakpoints in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baronchelli Simona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of the genetic factor in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF is emphasized by the high percentage of familial cases and X chromosome abnormalities account for 10% of chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we report the detailed analysis of 4 chromosomal abnormalities involving the X chromosome and associated with POF that were detected during a screening of 269 affected women. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics were valuable tools for locating the breakpoint regions and thus the following karyotypes were defined: 46,X,der(Xt(X;19(p21.1;q13.42mat, 46,X,t(X;2(q21.33;q14.3dn, 46,X,der(Xt(X;Y(q26.2;q11.223mat and 46,X,t(X;13(q13.3;q31dn. A bioinformatic analysis of the breakpoint regions identified putative candidate genes for ovarian failure near the breakpoint regions on the X chromosome or on autosomes that were involved in the translocation event. HS6ST1, HS6ST2 and MATER genes were identified and their functions and a literature review revealed an interesting connection to the POF phenotype. Moreover, the 19q13.32 locus is associated with the age of onset of the natural menopause. These results support the position effect of the breakpoint on flanking genes, and cytogenetic techniques, in combination with bioinformatic analysis, may help to improve what is known about this puzzling disorder and its diagnostic potential.

  2. Chromosome structure and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risley, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

  3. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  5. Dose Response for Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes and Fibroblasts After Exposure to Very Low Dose of High Let Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; George, K.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between biological effects and low doses of absorbed radiation is still uncertain, especially for high LET radiation exposure. Estimates of risks from low-dose and low-dose-rates are often extrapolated using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivor with either linear or linear quadratic models of fit. In this study, chromosome aberrations were measured in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal skin fibroblasts cells after exposure to very low dose (0.01 - 0.20 Gy) of 170 MeV/u Si-28 ions or 600 MeV/u Fe-56 ions, including doses where on average less than one direct ion traversal per cell nucleus occurs. Chromosomes were analyzed using the whole-chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique during the first cell division after irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). The responses for doses above 0.1 Gy (more than one ion traverses a cell) showed linear dose responses. However, for doses less than 0.1 Gy, both Si-28 ions and Fe-56 ions showed a dose independent response above background chromosome aberrations frequencies. Possible explanations for our results are non-targeted effects due to aberrant cell signaling [1], or delta-ray dose fluctuations [2] where a fraction of cells receive significant delta-ray doses due to the contributions of multiple ion tracks that do not directly traverse cell nuclei where chromosome aberrations are scored.

  6. Correlation of chromosome patterns in leukemic cells of patients with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.

    1989-10-01

    We have identified two new recurring translocations involving chromosome 5; one is a 3;5 translocation and the other involves a rearrangement between chromosomes 5 and 7. The first is t(3;5)(q25.1;q35). We studied five patients with AML and a t(3;5) in their leukemic cells. At diagnosis, four of the patients had a t(3;5) as their sole karyotypic anomaly; the remaining patient had additional structural and numerical abnormalities. Careful cytogenetic analysis indicated that the breakpoints of this rearrangement were 3q25.1 and 5q34, in contrast to the various breakpoints reported in earlier studies (3q21 to 3q25 and 5q31 to 5q35). The karyotypic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics of this group, as well as those of 15 previously reported patients with the t(3;5), were compared to identify any features that might warrant consideration of this anomaly as a specific syndrome. The median age of the group, 37 years, as younger than that of all patients with AML, 49 years. A preceding myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in three patients. We have no information regarding the occupation of most of these patients. Except for acute promyelocytic leukemia, each morphologic subtype occurred in these patients; however, the frequency of erythroleukemia (M6) was much greater than expected. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  8. Structure of a translocation signal domain mediating conjugative transfer by type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzej, Adam; Ilangovan, Aravindan; Lang, Silvia; Gruber, Christian J; Topf, Maya; Zangger, Klaus; Zechner, Ellen L; Waksman, Gabriel

    2013-07-01

    Relaxases are proteins responsible for the transfer of plasmid and chromosomal DNA from one bacterium to another during conjugation. They covalently react with a specific phosphodiester bond within DNA origin of transfer sequences, forming a nucleo-protein complex which is subsequently recruited for transport by a plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system. In previous work we identified the targeting translocation signals presented by the conjugative relaxase TraI of plasmid R1. Here we report the structure of TraI translocation signal TSA. In contrast to known translocation signals we show that TSA is an independent folding unit and thus forms a bona fide structural domain. This domain can be further divided into three subdomains with striking structural homology with helicase subdomains of the SF1B family. We also show that TSA is part of a larger vestigial helicase domain which has lost its helicase activity but not its single-stranded DNA binding capability. Finally, we further delineate the binding site responsible for translocation activity of TSA by targeting single residues for mutations. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that translocation signals can be part of larger structural scaffolds, overlapping with translocation-independent activities. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins JA. Diseases of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 13.

  10. Effect of americium-241 alpha-particles on the dose-response of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquinero, J F; Stephan, G; Schmid, E

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate by the fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique the dose-response and intercellular distribution of alpha-particle-induced chromosome aberrations. In particular, the validity of using the yield of characteristic types of chromosome abnormalities in stable cells as quantitative indicators for retrospective dose reconstruction has been evaluated. Monolayers of human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed at doses from 0.02 to 1 Gy to alpha-particles emitted from a source of americium-241. The most probable energy of the alpha-particles entering the cells was 2.7 MeV. FISH painting was performed using DNA probes for chromosomes 2, 4 and 8 in combination with a pan-centromeric probe. In complete first-division cells, identified by harlequin staining, aberrations involving painted target chromosomal material were recorded as well as aberrations involving only unpainted chromosomal material. In total, the percentage of complex aberrations was about 35% and no dose dependence was observed. When complex-type exchanges were reduced to simple base types, the different cell distributions were clearly over-dispersed, and the linear coefficients of the dose-effect curves for translocations were significantly higher than for dicentrics. For past dose reconstruction, only a few complex aberrations were in stable cells. The linear coefficient obtained for transmissible aberrations in stable cells was more than seven times lower than that obtained in all analysed cells, i.e. including unstable cells. FISH-based analysis of complex rearrangements allows discrimination between partial-body exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiation and high-linear energy transfer exposures. In assessing past or chronic exposure to alpha-particles, the use of a dose-effect curve obtained by FISH-based translocation data, which had not excluded data determined in unstable cells, would underestimate the dose. Insertions are ineffective biomarkers because their frequency is too

  11. An Updated View of Translocator Protein (TSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Denora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decades of study on the role of mitochondria in living cells have evidenced the importance of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO, first discovered in the 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam in the kidneys. This protein participates in a variety of cellular functions, including cholesterol transport, steroid hormone synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular target for the early detection of disease states that involve the overexpression of this protein and the selective mitochondrial drug delivery. This special issue was programmed with the aim of summarizing the latest findings about the role of TSPO in eukaryotic cells and as a potential subcellular target of diagnostics or therapeutics. A total of 9 papers have been accepted for publication in this issue, in particular, 2 reviews and 7 primary data manuscripts, overall describing the main advances in this field.

  12. Karyotype diversity and chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA in Tityus obscurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Bruno Rafael Ribeiro de; Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues da; Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Coelho, Johne Souza; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2017-04-17

    Holocentric chromosomes occur in approximately 750 species of eukaryotes. Among them, the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) has a labile karyotype that shows complex multivalent associations during male meiosis. Thus, taking advantage of the excellent model provided by the Buthidae scorpions, here we analyzed the chromosomal distribution of several repetitive DNA classes on the holocentric chromosomes of different populations of the species Tityus obscurus Gervais, 1843, highlighting their involvement in the karyotypic differences found among them. This species shows inter- and intrapopulational karyotype variation, with seven distinct cytotypes: A (2n = 16), B (2n = 14), C (2n = 13), D (2n = 13), E (2n = 12), F (2n = 12) and G (2n = 11). Furthermore, exhibits achiasmatic male meiosis and lacks heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Trivalent and quadrivalent meiotic associations were found in some cytotypes. In them, 45S rDNAs were found in the terminal portions of two pairs, while TTAGG repeats were found only at the end of the chromosomes. In the cytotype A (2n = 16), the U2 snRNA gene mapped to pair 1, while the H3 histone cluster and C 0 t-1 DNA fraction was terminally distributed on all pairs. Mariner transposons were found throughout the chromosomes, with the exception of one individual of cytotype A (2n = 16), in which it was concentrated in heterochromatic regions. Chromosomal variability found in T. obscurus are due to rearrangements of the type fusion/fission and reciprocal translocations in heterozygous. These karyotype differences follow a geographical pattern and may be contributing to reproductive isolation between populations analyzed. Our results also demonstrate high mobility of histone H3 genes. In contrast, other multigene families (45S rDNA and U2 snRNA) have conserved distribution among individuals. The accumulation of repetitive sequences in distal regions of T. obscurus chromosomes, suggests that end of

  13. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Determining the role of skewed X-chromosome inactivation in developing muscle symptoms in carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Ergoli, Manuela; Picillo, Esther; Politano, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Duchenne and Becker dystrophinopathies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that lead to absent or reduced expression of dystrophin in both skeletal and heart muscles. DMD/BMD female carriers are usually asymptomatic, although about 8 % may exhibit muscle or cardiac symptoms. Several mechanisms leading to a reduced dystrophin have been hypothesized to explain the clinical manifestations and, in particular, the role of the skewed XCI is questioned. In this review, the mechanism of XCI and its involvement in the phenotype of BMD/DMD carriers with both a normal karyotype or with X;autosome translocations with breakpoints at Xp21 (locus of the DMD gene) will be analyzed. We have previously observed that DMD carriers with moderate/severe muscle involvement, exhibit a moderate or extremely skewed XCI, in particular if presenting with an early onset of symptoms, while DMD carriers with mild muscle involvement present a random XCI. Moreover, we found that among 87.1 % of the carriers with X;autosome translocations involving the locus Xp21 who developed signs and symptoms of dystrophinopathy such as proximal muscle weakness, difficulty to run, jump and climb stairs, 95.2 % had a skewed XCI pattern in lymphocytes. These data support the hypothesis that skewed XCI is involved in the onset of phenotype in DMD carriers, the X chromosome carrying the normal DMD gene being preferentially inactivated and leading to a moderate-severe muscle involvement.

  15. Deletion of chromosome 13 in Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, J J; Smart, R D; Viljoen, D L

    1991-01-01

    A girl aged 2 1/2 years with Moebius syndrome was found to have a deletion of band q12.2 in chromosome 13 (46,XX,del(13)(q12.2]. This is the second report concerning involvement of chromosome 13q and Moebius syndrome. The observation raises the possibility that a gene responsible for Moebius syndrome is located in this region of chromosome 13. Images PMID:1870098

  16. Deletion of chromosome 13 in Moebius syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, J J; Smart, R D; Viljoen, D L

    1991-01-01

    A girl aged 2 1/2 years with Moebius syndrome was found to have a deletion of band q12.2 in chromosome 13 (46,XX,del(13)(q12.2]. This is the second report concerning involvement of chromosome 13q and Moebius syndrome. The observation raises the possibility that a gene responsible for Moebius syndrome is located in this region of chromosome 13.

  17. The effects of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskid, O; Dusek, Z; Solanský, I; Srám, R J

    2006-02-22

    The pattern of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (whole chromosomes #1 and #4 painting) in workers occupationally exposed to any of the four following conditions: acrylonitrile (ACN), ethyl benzene (EB), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs), and irradiation in nuclear power plants (NPP), respectively. Decrease in the relative frequency of translocations was observed in EB group, and an increase in reciprocal translocations in ACN and NPP-exposed groups. An increase in a relative number of insertions was registered under all four conditions (significant at ACN, EB, c-PAHs, quasisignificant at NPP-exposed groups). Significant differences in the percentage of lymphocytes with aberrations on chromosome #1 (58.8+/-32.7%, versus 73.8+/-33.6% in the controls, P < 0.05), and chromosome #4 (47.0+/-34.1%, versus 29.4+/-32.2%, P < 0.01) were found in workers exposed to ACN. Similarly, a decrease in the proportion of cells with aberration on chromosome #1 (61.0+/-24.0%, versus 73.8+/-33.6%, P < 0.05) and an increase on chromosome #4 (45.6+/-24.6%, versus 29.4+/-32.2%, P < 0.05) were observed in workers exposed to EB. Frequency of aberrant cells (%AB.C.) as well as genomic frequency of translocations (F(G)/100) increased with age (P < 0.001). Aging also increased the percentage of translocations and reciprocal translocations (P < 0.05), but decreased the relative number of acentric fragments (P < 0.01). Smoking led to significantly increased F(G)/100 (P < 0.05), but did not affect the pattern of chromosomal aberrations. Our results seem to indicate that different carcinogens may induce a different pattern of chromosomal aberrations.

  18. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies.

  19. The Potential of Lr19 and Bdv2 Translocations to Improve Yield and Disease Resistance in the High Rainfall Wheat Zones of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rosewarne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations in wheat derived from alien species are a valuable source of genetic diversity that have provided increases in resistance to various diseases and improved tolerance to abiotic stresses in wheat. These alien genomic segments can also affect multiple traits, with a concomitant ability to alter yield potential in either a positive or negative fashion. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects on yield of two types of translocations, namely T4-derived translocations from Thinopyrum ponticum, carrying the leaf rust resistance gene Lr19, and the TC14 translocation from Th. intermedium, carrying the barley yellow dwarf virus resistance gene Bdv2, in Australian adapted genetic backgrounds and under Australian conditions. A large range of germplasm was developed by crossing donor sources of the translocations into 24 Australian adapted varieties producing 340 genotypes. Yield trials were conducted in 14 environments to identify effects on yield and yield components. The T4 translocations had a positive effect on yield in one high yielding environment, but negatively affected yield in low-yielding environments. The TC14 translocation was generally benign, however, it was associated with a negative impact on yield and reduced height in two genetic backgrounds. The translocation was also associated with a delayed maturity in several backgrounds. The T4 translocations results were consistent with previously published data, whilst this is the first time that such an investigation has been undertaken on the TC14 translocation. Our data suggests a limited role for each of these translocations in Australia. The T4 translocations may be useful in high yielding environments, such as under irrigation in NSW and in the more productive high rainfall regions of south-eastern Australia. Traits associated with the TC14 translocation, such as BYDV resistance and delayed maturity, would make this translocation useful in BYDV

  20. Chromosomal Diversity and Karyotype Evolution in South American Macaws (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Furo, Ivanete; Kretschmer, Rafael; O’Brien, Patrícia C.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Most species of macaws, which represent the largest species of Neotropical Psittacidae, characterized by their long tails and exuberant colours, are endangered, mainly because of hunting, illegal trade and habitat destruction. Long tailed species seem to represent a monophyletic group within Psittacidae, supported by cytogenetic data. Hence, these species show karyotypes with predominance of biarmed macrochromosomes, in contrast to short tailed species, with a predominance of acro/telocentric macrochromosomes. Because of their similar karyotypes, it has been proposed that inversions and translocations may be the main types of rearrangements occurring during the evolution of this group. However, only one species of macaw, Ara macao, that has had its genome sequenced was analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics. Hence, in order to verify the rearrangements, we analyzed the karyotype of two species of macaws, Ara chloropterus and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, using cross-species chromosome painting with two different sets of probes from chicken and white hawk. Both intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements were observed. Chicken probes revealed the occurrence of fusions, fissions and inversions in both species, while the probes from white hawk determined the correct breakpoints or chromosome segments involved in the rearrangements. Some of these rearrangements were common for both species of macaws (fission of GGA1 and fusions of GGA1p/GGA4q, GGA6/GGA7 and GGA8/GGA9), while the fissions of GGA 2 and 4p were found only in A. chloropterus. These results confirm that despite apparent chromosomal similarity, macaws have very diverse karyotypes, which differ from each other not only by inversions and translocations as postulated before, but also by fissions and fusions. PMID:26087053

  1. Detection by the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique of MYC translocations in paraffin-embedded lymphoma biopsy samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haralambieva, E; Banham, AH; Bastard, C; Delsol, G; Gaulard, P; Ott, G; Pileri, S; Fletcher, JA; Mason, DY

    The detection of chromosomal translocations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely performed, but very few studies have attempted to apply this technique to paraffin-embedded routine biopsy samples. We report the analysis of paraffin sections from 36 B-cell lymphoma biopsies for MYC

  2. Can epigenetic control explain pronounced within plant heterogeneity of meiosis in a translocation trisome of Secale L.?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic metaphase I configuration frequencies were determined in different tillers of genetically related plants of rye (Secale cereale L.) heterozygous for reciprocal translocation T248W (between chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS) and with an additional (telocentric) arm 1RS. Seventeen different

  3. Interstitial deletion 1p as a result of a de novo reciprocal 1p;2p translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P H

    1985-01-01

    A 5-month-old female patient with psychomotor retardation and minor dysmorphisms is described. Cytogenetic analysis using high-resolution banding technique revealed an interstitial deletion of the short arm of one chromosome 1 (p21----p22.2) resulting from a de novo translocation t(1;2)(p22;p25)....

  4. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  5. Robertsonian (15q;15q) translocation in a child with Angelman syndrome: Evidence of uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, V.; Schultz, R.A.; Wilson, G.N.; Schultz, R.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-30

    A balanced Robertsonian translocation 45,XY,t(15q15q) was detected in a patient with mental retardation, microcephaly, and hypertonia. Deletion of the 15q11q13 region was unlikely based on fluorescence in situ hybridization studies that revealed hybridization of appropriate DNA probes to both arms of the Robertsonian chromosome. Inheritance of alleles from 13 highly polymorphic DNA markers on chromosome 15 showed paternal uniparental isodisomy. The clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular results are consistent with a diagnosis of Angelman syndrome. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of two different unbalanced forms of an inherited (Y;12) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Morales, Carme; Madrigal, Irene; Margarit, Ester; Bruguera, Jordi; Clusellas, Núria; Martínez, José M; Borrell, Antoni; Sánchez, Aurora; Soler, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The identification of an unexpected structural chromosome rearrangement at prenatal diagnosis can be problematic and raises unique genetic counseling issues. We describe two consecutive prenatal cases within a family with an inherited unbalanced (Y;12) translocation and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. The first fetus presented with 12qter monosomy and pseudoautosomal region 2 trisomy, while the second fetus had the alternative unbalanced state. Although the first fetus had a structural heart defect, such small imbalances might not give sonographic findings, making their prenatal diagnosis difficult. However, congenital abnormalities are expected in both unbalanced forms of the translocation, including mental retardation, which could be explained by the gene dosage variation of P2RX2. To our knowledge, these are the first published cases reporting this subtype of (Y;12) translocation, in both balanced and unbalanced states.

  7. A cryptic translocation leading to NUP98-PHF23 fusion in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Chromosome translocations leading to gene fusions have emerged as important oncogenic drivers of various types of malignancies. Detection and characterization of these fusion genes not only help diagnosis and management of specific malignancies, but also contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis and pathogenesis of these diseases. NUP98 gene encodes a 98 kDa nucleoporin, which is a component of the nuclear pore complex that mediates transport of mRNA and proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Due to its participation in translocations leading to the formation of fusion with at least 29 different partner genes, NUP98 is considered one of the most promiscuous fusion genes in hematologic malignancies. We discuss our identification and characterization of a NUP98-PHF23 fusion from a cryptic translocation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Balanced Reciprocal Translocations Detected at Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Balanced reciprocal translocations detected at amniocentesis may be associated with fetal anomalies in cases of concomitant aneuploidy, de novo X-autosome translocation or de novo CCR. Genetic counseling of a de novo simple reciprocal translocation at amniocentesis remains difficult because approximately one-fourth of the parents opt for termination of the pregnancy, and detailed ultrasonography and array comparative genomic hybridization are helpful for parental counseling under such circumstances.

  9. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22(q24.13;q11.21 in a young girl with dysgerminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorio Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22 in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN, a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA.

  10. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianying; Albert, Victor A

    2011-09-12

    Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS) to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus) to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS) sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements--for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions--but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These results make the genus a model system for the study of

  11. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Victor A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These

  12. Polymer translocation through nanopore into active bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2016-11-01

    Polymer translocation through nanopores into a crowded environment is of ubiquitous importance in many biological processes. Here we investigate polymer translocation through a nanopore into an active bath of self-propelled particles in two-dimensional space using Langevin dynamics simulations. Interestingly, we find that the mean translocation time can show a bell-shape dependence on the particle activity Fa at a fixed volume fraction ϕ, indicating that the translocation process may become slower for small activity compared to the case of the passive media, and only when the particle activity becomes large enough can the translocation process be accelerated. In addition, we also find that can show a minimum as a function of ϕ if the particle activity is large enough, implying that an intermediate volume fraction of active particles is most favorable for the polymer translocation. Detailed analysis reveals that such nontrivial behaviors result from the two-fold effect of active bath: one that active particles tend to accumulate near the pore, providing an extra pressure hindering the translocation, and the other that they also aggregate along the polymer chain, generating an effective pulling force accelerating the translocation. Such results demonstrate that active bath plays rather subtle roles on the polymer translocation process.

  13. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... She predicted many of the features of X inactivation, for e.g., .... feature that locks silencing, i.e. DNA methylation at CpG islands of X-linked ..... 1996 XIST RNA paints the inactive X chromosome at interphase: evidence for a novel RNA involved in nuclear/chromosome structure. J. Cell Biol. 132, 259–275.

  14. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  15. Mechanisms of Chromosome Congression during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Maiato

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression. Thus, chromosome congression and maintenance of alignment are determined by different principles. Moreover, it is now clear that not all chromosomes use the same mechanism for congressing to the spindle equator. Those chromosomes that are favorably positioned between both poles when the nuclear envelope breaks down use the so-called “direct congression” pathway in which chromosomes align after bi-orientation and the establishment of end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This favors the balanced action of kinetochore pulling forces and polar ejection forces along chromosome arms that drive chromosome oscillatory movements during and after congression. The other pathway, which we call “peripheral congression”, is independent of end-on kinetochore microtubule-attachments and relies on the dominant and coordinated action of the kinetochore motors Dynein and Centromere Protein E (CENP-E that mediate the lateral transport of peripheral chromosomes along microtubules, first towards the poles and subsequently towards the equator. How the opposite polarities of kinetochore motors are regulated in space and time to drive congression of peripheral chromosomes only now starts to be understood. This appears to be regulated by position-dependent phosphorylation of both Dynein and CENP-E and by spindle

  16. Non-Target Effect for Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes and Fibroblasts After Exposure to Very Low Doses of High LET Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between biological effects and low doses of absorbed radiation is still uncertain, especially for high LET radiation exposure. Estimates of risks from low-dose and low-dose-rates are often extrapolated using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivor with either linear or linear quadratic models of fit. In this study, chromosome aberrations were measured in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal skin fibroblasts cells after exposure to very low dose (.01 - 0.2 Gy) of 170 MeV/u Si-28-ions or 600 MeV/u Fe-56-ions. Chromosomes were analyzed using the whole chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique during the first cell division after irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). The curves for doses above 0.1 Gy were more than one ion traverses a cell showed linear dose responses. However, for doses less than 0.1 Gy, Si-28-ions showed no dose response, suggesting a non-targeted effect when less than one ion traversal occurs. Additional findings for Fe-56 will be discussed.

  17. FtsK translocation on DNA stops at XerCD-dif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James E; Sivanathan, Viknesh; Sherratt, David J; Arciszewska, Lidia K

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsK is a powerful, fast, double-stranded DNA translocase, which can strip proteins from DNA. FtsK acts in the late stages of chromosome segregation by facilitating sister chromosome unlinking at the division septum. KOPS-guided DNA translocation directs FtsK towards dif, located within the replication terminus region, ter, where FtsK activates XerCD site-specific recombination. Here we show that FtsK translocation stops specifically at XerCD-dif, thereby preventing removal of XerCD from dif and allowing activation of chromosome unlinking by recombination. Stoppage of translocation at XerCD-dif is accompanied by a reduction in FtsK ATPase and is not associated with FtsK dissociation from DNA. Specific stoppage at recombinase-DNA complexes does not require the FtsKgamma regulatory subdomain, which interacts with XerD, and is not dependent on either recombinase-mediated DNA cleavage activity, or the formation of synaptic complexes.

  18. P chromosomes involved in intergenomic rearrangements of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-08

    Apr 8, 2014 ... 2013BAD01B02) is gratefully appreciated. We are very grateful to BioMedES Ltd (Inverurie, Aberdeenshire,. AB51 0LX, UK) for improving the article linguistically. References. Chen Z. 2007 Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expres- sion and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids. Annu. Rev.

  19. Translocality in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Krishna, S.

    2017-01-01

    What happens when agile methods are introduced in global outsourcing set-ups? Agile methods are designed to empower IT developers in decision-making through self-managing collocated teams. We studied how agile methods were introduced into global outsourcing from the Indian IT vendor’s perspective....... We explored how agile processes in global outsourcing impacts work conditions of the Indian IT developers, and were surprised to find that agile methodologies, even after 3 years of implementation, created a stressful and inflexible work environment negatively impacting their personal lives. Many...... of the negative aspects of work, which agile methodologies were developed to reduce, were evident in the global agile outsourcing set-up. We propose translocality to repudiate the dichotomy of global/local reminding us that methodologies and technologies must be understood as immediately localized and situated...

  20. Comparative physical mapping between wheat chromosome arm 2BL and rice chromosome 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tong Geon; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2010-12-01

    Physical maps of chromosomes provide a framework for organizing and integrating diverse genetic information. DNA microarrays are a valuable technique for physical mapping and can also be used to facilitate the discovery of single feature polymorphisms (SFPs). Wheat chromosome arm 2BL was physically mapped using a Wheat Genome Array onto near-isogenic lines (NILs) with the aid of wheat-rice synteny and mapped wheat EST information. Using high variance probe set (HVP) analysis, 314 HVPs constituting genes present on 2BL were identified. The 314 HVPs were grouped into 3 categories: HVPs that match only rice chromosome 4 (298 HVPs), those that match only wheat ESTs mapped on 2BL (1), and those that match both rice chromosome 4 and wheat ESTs mapped on 2BL (15). All HVPs were converted into gene sets, which represented either unique rice gene models or mapped wheat ESTs that matched identified HVPs. Comparative physical maps were constructed for 16 wheat gene sets and 271 rice gene sets. Of the 271 rice gene sets, 257 were mapped to the 18-35 Mb regions on rice chromosome 4. Based on HVP analysis and sequence similarity between the gene models in the rice chromosomes and mapped wheat ESTs, the outermost rice gene model that limits the translocation breakpoint to orthologous regions was identified.

  1. Stabilization of dicentric translocations through secondary rearrangements mediated by multiple mechanisms in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pennaneach

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs observed in S. cerevisiae mutants with increased rates of accumulating GCRs include predicted dicentric GCRs such as translocations, chromosome fusions and isoduplications. These GCRs resemble the genome rearrangements found as mutations underlying inherited diseases as well as in the karyotypes of many cancers exhibiting ongoing genome instabilityThe structures of predicted dicentric GCRs were analyzed using multiple strategies including array-comparative genomic hybridization, pulse field gel electrophoresis, PCR amplification of predicted breakpoints and sequencing. The dicentric GCRs were found to be unstable and to have undergone secondary rearrangements to produce stable monocentric GCRs. The types of secondary rearrangements observed included: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ-dependent intramolecular deletion of centromeres; chromosome breakage followed by NHEJ-mediated circularization or broken-end fusion to another chromosome telomere; and homologous recombination (HR-dependent non-reciprocal translocations apparently mediated by break-induced replication. A number of these GCRs appeared to have undergone multiple bridge-fusion-breakage cycles. We also observed examples of chromosomes with extensive ongoing end decay in mec1 tlc1 mutants, suggesting that Mec1 protects chromosome ends from degradation and contributes to telomere maintenance by HR.HR between repeated sequences resulting in secondary rearrangements was the most prevalent pathway for resolution of dicentric GCRs regardless of the structure of the initial dicentric GCR, although at least three other resolution mechanisms were observed. The resolution of dicentric GCRs to stable rearranged chromosomes could in part account for the complex karyotypes seen in some cancers.

  2. A new reciprocal translocation in a subfertile bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darré Roland

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three bulls of the Montbéliarde breed that exhibited fertility rates lower than 30% following more than 400 artificial inseminations were examined. Semen quality (sperm motility and morphology from these bulls was normal. Fertilizing ability estimated from in vitro embryo production results was studied for two of them. In vitro production rate was very low for one bull (A and normal for the other (B. Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the three bulls using chromosome banding techniques. These analyses revealed a reciprocal translocation (12;17(q22;q14 in bull B. Based on family analyses, the hypothesis of a de novo origin of this rearrangement is proposed.

  3. The equilibrium distribution for a generalized Sankoff-Ferretti model accurately predicts chromosome size distributions in a wide variety of species

    OpenAIRE

    De, Arkendra; Ferguson, Michael; Sindi, Suzanne; Durrett, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Sankoff and Ferretti (1996) introduced several models of the evolution of chromosome size by reciprocal translocations, where for simplicity they ignored the existence of centromeres. However, when they compared the models to data on six organisms they found that their short chromosomes were too short, and their long chromosomes were too long. Here, we consider a generalization of their proportional model with explicit chromosome centromeres and introduce fitness functions based on recombinat...

  4. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  5. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  6. RNA polymerase stalls in a post-translocated register and can hyper-translocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedialkov, Yuri A; Nudler, Evgeny; Burton, Zachary F

    2012-01-01

    Exonuclease (Exo) III was used to probe translocation states of RNA polymerase (RNAP) ternary elongation complexes (TECs). Escherichia coli RNAP stalls primarily in a post-translocation register that makes relatively slow excursions to a hyper-translocated state or to a pre-translocated state. Tagetitoxin (TGT) strongly inhibits hyper-translocation and inhibits backtracking, so, as indicated by Exo III mapping, TGT appears to stabilize both the pre- and probably a partially post-translocation state of RNAP. Because the pre-translocated to post-translocated transition is slow at many template positions, these studies appear inconsistent with a model in which RNAP makes frequent and rapid (i.e., millisecond phase) oscillations between pre- and post-translocation states. Nine nucleotides (9-nt) and 10-nt TECs, and TECs with longer nascent RNAs, have distinct translocation properties consistent with a 9-10 nt RNA/DNA hybrid. RNAP mutant proteins in the bridge helix and trigger loop are identified that inhibit or stimulate forward and backward translocation.

  7. Meiotic cohesin-based chromosome structure is essential for homologous chromosome pairing in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Da-Qiao; Matsuda, Atsushi; Okamasa, Kasumi; Nagahama, Yuki; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    Chromosome structure is dramatically altered upon entering meiosis to establish chromosomal architectures necessary for the successful progression of meiosis-specific events. An early meiotic event involves the replacement of the non-SMC mitotic cohesins with their meiotic equivalents in most part of the chromosome, forming an axis on meiotic chromosomes. We previously demonstrated that the meiotic cohesin complex is required for chromosome compaction during meiotic prophase in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. These studies revealed that chromosomes are elongated in the absence of the meiotic cohesin subunit Rec8 and shortened in the absence of the cohesin-associated protein Pds5. In this study, using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we found that Rec8 forms a linear axis on chromosomes, which is required for the organized axial structure of chromatin during meiotic prophase. In the absence of Pds5, the Rec8 axis is shortened whereas chromosomes are widened. In rec8 or pds5 mutants, the frequency of homologous chromosome pairing is reduced. Thus, Rec8 and Pds5 play an essential role in building a platform to support the chromosome architecture necessary for the spatial alignment of homologous chromosomes.

  8. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  9. Habitat drives dispersal and survival of translocated juvenile desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia G.; Esque, Todd C.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2017-01-01

    1.In spite of growing reliance on translocations in wildlife conservation, translocation efficacy remains inconsistent. One factor that can contribute to failed translocations is releasing animals into poor quality or otherwise inadequate habitat.

  10. [Chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes in carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Auger, Nathalie; Lacroix, Ludovic; Bénard, Jean

    2011-12-01

    In the last decades, rarity of chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes detected in epithelial cancers in using classical karyotyping led to consider these genomic events as specifically restricted to haematological neoplasia and mesenchymal tumors. Today, gene positioning as well as bio-informatics approaches has enabled identifying in carcinoma various fusion genes subsequent to chromosomal translocations, inversions, or deletions. Thus, gene fusion formation appears as a common mechanism in oncology that concerns most of human cancers, independent of original tissue lineage. At a clinical point of view, applications of fusion genes in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics can be envisioned. This review will present current knowledge about fusion genes in common carcinoma (prostate, breast, colon). Following a structural and functional description of various fusion genes so far found in human malignant solid tumors, as well as techniques used for their detection, the review will integrate fusion genes in epithelia oncogenesis general scheme. Finally, promising clinical issues of fusion genes will be surveyed.

  11. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  12. New Advances in Chromosome Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the "architecture" of chromosomes has grown enormously in the past decade. This new insight has been enabled largely through advances in interdisciplinary research methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. Importantly this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular biology approaches which enable investigation of chromosome structure and function in living cells. Also, there are new and emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the spatial and temporal resolution of quantitative measurements, such as in vivo super-resolution and powerful new single-molecule biophysics methods, which facilitate probing of dynamic chromosome processes hitherto impossible. And there are also important advances in the methods of theoretical biophysics which have enabled advances in predictive modeling of this high quality experimental data from molecular and physical biology to generate new understanding of the modes of operation of chromosomes, both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on the current state of our knowledge of chromosome architecture and speculate where future advances may lead.

  13. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shen; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L; Magriñá, Maria A; Bacino, Carlos A; Lalani, Seema R; Breman, Amy M; Smith, Janice L; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R

    2016-11-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.

  14. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.

  15. Chromosomal Microarray versus Karyotyping for Prenatal Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapner, Ronald J.; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C.; Eng, Christine M.; Zachary, Julia M.; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D.; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A.; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Ledbetter, David H.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Jackson, Laird

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Methods Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. Results We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down’s syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. Conclusions In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.) PMID:23215555

  16. Chromosomal Analysis of Couples with Repeated Spontaneous Abortions in Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ghazaey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytogenetic study of reproductive wastage is an important aspect in determining the genetic background of early embryogenesis. Approximately 15 to 20% of all pregnancies in humans are terminated as recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs. The aim of this study was to detect chromosome abnormalities in couples with RSAs and to compare our results with those reported previously. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated during a six-year period from 2005 to 2011. The population under study was 728 couples who attended genetic counseling services for their RSAs at Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory, Mashhad, Iran. Results: In this study, about 11.7% of couples were carriers of chromosomal aberrations. The majority of abnormalities were found in couples with history of abortion, without stillbirth or livebirth. Balanced reciprocal translocations, Robertsonian translocations, inversions and sex chromosome aneuploidy were seen in these cases. Balanced reciprocal translocations were the most frequent chromosomal anomalies (62.7% detected in current study. Conclusion: These findings suggest that chromosomal abnormalities can be one of the important causes of RSAs. In addition, cytogenetic study of families who experienced RSAs may prevent unnecessary treatment if RSA are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. The results of cytogenetic studies of RSA cases will provide a standard protocol for the genetic counselors in order to follow up and to help these families.

  17. Estudo cromossômico no sangue periférico de pacientes com diferentes tipos de leucemia do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto - SP Chromosomal study of peripheral blood in patients with different types of leukemia from Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes C. Fett-Conte

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise das alterações cromossômicas em leucemias tem uma aplicação direta no diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento dos pacientes. Além disso, permite o entendimento dos processos biológicos envolvidos na carcinogênese. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados do estudo cariotípico de 51 casos de diferentes tipos de leucemias. Os cromossomos foram obtidos através de cultura de células de sangue periférico, realizadas por 24 ou 48 horas, sem estimulação mitogênica. Em 74% dos pacientes foram observadas anomalias cromossômicas clonais como translocações, deleções, monossomias e trissomias. Muitas alterações foram compatíveis com outras previamente descritas e outras não, como a translocação envolvendo os cromossomos 9 e 22, que origina o cromossomo Philadelphia e uma translocação complexa envolvendo os cromossomos 4, 7 e 11. Os resultados reforçam a importância da análise cromossômica em leucemia e seus benefícios para o paciente.The analysis of chromosomal changes in leukemia has had a direct involvement in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients. Furthermore, it has allowed the understanding of biological processes involved in carcinogenesis. This work presents the results of a kariotypic study of 51 cases of different types of leukemia. The chromosomes were obtained through a 24 or 48 hour culture of cells of the peripheral blood with no mitogenic stimulation. In 74,5% of patients clonal chromosomic abnormalities were observed such as translocations, deletions, monosomies and trisomies. Many of the alterations were similar to results previously published and others were not such as the translocation involving the chromosomes 9 and 22, which leads to the Philadelphia chromosome and the complex translocation involving the chromosomes 4, 7 and 11. The results emphasized the importance of chromosomal analysis in leukemia, its benefits to the patient and to the knowledge of the biological mechanisms

  18. Chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of immunologically classified mitotic cells in hematologic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Tiainen, Marianne; Knuutila, Sakari; Popp, Susanne; Emmerich, Patricia; Cremer, Thomas; Parlier, Valerie; Jotterand Bellomo, Martine; Ruutu, Tapani

    1992-01-01

    Chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization was performed with library DNA from sorted human chromosomes 8, 9, 15, 17, 21, and 22 on immunologically stained bone marrow cells of four patients with a hematologic neoplasm, including two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and trisomy 8, one patient with promyelocytic leukemia bearing the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q11-12), and one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11). In all patients, the resu...

  19. Sex chromosomes and sex chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu

    2011-12-01

    This article focuses on constitutional sex chromosome abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The author discusses the two general classifications of abnormalities: numerical and structural. Also included are descriptions of unique aspects of X and Y chromosomes, technological advances in detection, and future perspectives.

  20. Isolation and characterization of sex chromosome rearrangements generating male muscle dystrophy and female abnormal oogenesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T; Yokoyama, T; Ninagi, O; Kakehashi, K; Obara, Y; Nenoi, M; Ishikawa, T; Mita, K; Shimada, T; Abe, H

    2007-07-01

    In deletion-mapping of W-specific RAPD (W-RAPD) markers and putative female determinant gene (Fem), we used X-ray irradiation to break the translocation-carrying W chromosome (W( Ze )). We succeeded in obtaining a fragment of the W( Ze ) chromosome designated as Ze (W), having 3 of 12 W-RAPD markers (W-Bonsai, W-Yukemuri-S, W-Yukemuri-L). Inheritance of the Ze (W) fragment by males indicates that it does not include the Fem gene. On the basis of these results, we determined the relative positions of W-Yukemuri-S and W-Yukemuri-L, and we narrowed down the region where Fem gene is located. In addition to the Ze (W) fragment, the Z chromosome was also broken into a large fragment (Z(1)) having the +( sch ) (1-21.5) and a small fragment (Z(2)) having the +( od ) (1-49.6). Moreover, a new chromosomal fragment (Ze (W)Z(2)) was generated by a fusion event between the Ze (W) and the Z(2) fragments. We analyzed the genetic behavior of the Z(1) fragment and the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment during male (Z/Z(1) Ze (W)Z(2)) and female (Z(1) Ze (W)Z(2)/W) meiosis using phenotypic markers. It was observed that the Z(1) fragment and the Z or the W chromosomes separate without fail. On the other hand, non-disjunction between the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment and the Z chromosome and also between the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment and the W chromosome occurred. Furthermore, the females (2A: Z/Ze (W)Z(2)/W) and males (2A: Z/Z(1)) resulting from non-disjunction between the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment and the W chromosome had phenotypic defects: namely, females exhibited abnormal oogenesis and males were flapless due to abnormal indirect flight muscle structure. These results suggest that Z(2) region of the Z chromosome contains dose-sensitive gene(s), which are involved in oogenesis and indirect flight muscle development.

  1. Computer simulations and theory of protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Dmitrii E

    2009-02-17

    The translocation of proteins through pores is central to many biological phenomena, such as mitochondrial protein import, protein degradation, and delivery of protein toxins to their cytosolic targets. Because proteins typically have to pass through constrictions that are too narrow to accommodate folded structures, translocation must be coupled to protein unfolding. The simplest model that accounts for such co-translocational unfolding assumes that both translocation and unfolding are accomplished by pulling on the end of the polypeptide chain mechanically. In this Account, we describe theoretical studies and computer simulations of this model and discuss how the time scales of translocation depend on the pulling force and on the protein structure. Computationally, this is a difficult problem because biologically or experimentally relevant time scales of translocation are typically orders of magnitude slower than those accessible by fully atomistic simulations. For this reason, we explore one-dimensional free energy landscapes along suitably defined translocation coordinates and discuss various approaches to their computation. We argue that the free energy landscape of translocation is often bumpy because confinement partitions the protein's configuration space into distinct basins of attraction separated by large entropic barriers. Favorable protein-pore interactions and nonnative interactions within the protein further contribute to the complexity. Computer simulations and simple scaling estimates show that forces of just 2-6 pN are often sufficient to ensure transport of unstructured polypeptides, whereas much higher forces are typically needed to translocate folded protein domains. The unfolding mechanisms found from simulations of translocation are different from those observed in the much better understood case of atomic force microscopy (AFM) pulling studies, in which proteins are unraveled by stretching them between their N- and C-termini. In contrast to

  2. Inherited 5p deletion syndrome due to paternal balanced translocation: Phenotypic heterogeneity due to duplication of 8q and 12p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Neerja; Chowdhury, Madhumita R; Sapra, Savita; Shukla, Rashmi; Lall, Meena; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-09-01

    5p deletion syndrome or Cri du Chat syndrome is a autosomal deletion syndrome, caused by the de novo deletion of chromosome 5p in the majority of the cases. Clinical features include developmental delay, microcephaly, subtle facial dysmorphism and high-pitched cry. With the advent of newer techniques such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, rapid diagnosis is possible and chromosomal microarray helps in accurate delineation of the breakpoints. In this study, we characterized probands from two Indian families who had duplication of another chromosome in addition to deletion of 5p region. In the first family, two females of 3 and 5 yr of age had deletion of 5p15.33p15.2 (14.7 Mb) and duplication of 8q24.21q24.3 (15.4 Mb). Proband in the second family was a 2-year-old female and had deletion of 5p15.33p14.3 (22.55 Mb) along with duplication of 12p13.33p13.31 (7.7 Mb). In both the families, father was balanced translocation carrier of the chromosomes involved. Patients in family 1 had overwhelming features of 5p deletion while patient in family 2, besides having features of 5p deletion, showed many features of 12p duplications. Prenatal diagnosis was possible in both the families. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis report of 5p deletion syndrome from India.

  3. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit our Photo Gallery Education, Advocacy, Information & Support Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc is a non-profit organization. ... Inc. All Rights Reserved You are donating to : Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc, a 501c non-profit organization. ...

  4. Localisation of the gene for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome by FISH using four cases with apparently balanced translocations at 7p21.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, C.S.P.; King, A.A.J.; Winter, R.M. [Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Saethre-Chotzen is a common autosomal dominant form of craniosynostosis, which results in the premature fusion of cranial sutures. The Saethre-Chotzen gene locus has been mapped to 7p by linkage with genetic markers. We have analyzed four patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome associated with apparently balanced translocations involving band 7p21.2 and different reciprocal chromosomes. We have used YACs corresponding to the Genethon series of markers as probes for FISH, and in all four patients we show that the breakpoints in 7p are situated between D7S488 and D7S493, a maximum distance of 6 centimorgans. A previous patient has been described with a translocation t(6;7) and hemizygosity for D7S135. D7S135 is contained within the same YAC as D7S488, indicating that the breakpoint in the previous patient lies close to D7S488 and in the same region as the cases described here.

  5. Chromosome Damage Caused by Accidental Chronic Whole-Body Gamma Radiation Exposure in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Ulsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2000, a radiation incident involving a medical 60Co source occurred in a metal scrapyard in Thailand. Several individuals were suspected to have received chronic or fractionated exposures ranging from a few mGy to a several Gy. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to paint chromosomes, we determined the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 13 people who entered the scrapyard, 3 people who involved in recovering the source, and 9 nearby residents. Aberration frequencies greater than controls were observed in 13 of the donors at 3 months postexposure. The predominant form of aberration observed was simple, complete, symmetrical translocations. An approximate 50% decrease in these aberrations and in total color junctions was observed in 7 donors resampled at 16 months postexposure. Although high, acute exposures are known to have detrimental effects, the biological consequences of chronic, low dose-rate radiation exposures are unclear. Thirteen of the donors had elevated aberration frequencies, and 6 also had symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. If there are any long-term health consequences of this incident, it will most likely occur among this group of individuals. The consequences for the remaining donors, who presumably received lower total doses delivered at lower dose rates, are less clear.

  6. Physical mapping of genetic markers on the short arm of chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 is associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. In addition, loss of this portion of a chromosome is a common cytogenetic marker in a number of malignancies. However, to date, no genes associated with these disorders have been identified. Physical maps are the first step in isolating causative genes, and genes involved in autosomal recessive disorders are now routinely mapped through the identification of linked markers. Extensive genetic maps based upon polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs) have provided researchers with a large number of markers to which such disorders can be genetically mapped. However, the physical locations of many of these STRs have not been determined. Toward the goal of integrating the human genetic maps with the physical maps, a 5p somatic cell hybrid deletion mapping panel that was derived from patients with 5p deletions or translocations was used to physically map 47 STRs that have been used to construct genetic maps of 5p. These data will be useful in the localization of disease genes that map to 5p and may be involved in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Identification of copy number variations and translocations in cancer cells from Hi-C data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Ay, Ferhat

    2017-10-18

    Eukaryotic chromosomes adapt a complex and highly dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structure, which profoundly affects different cellular functions and outcomes including changes in epigenetic landscape and in gene expression. Making the scenario even more complex, cancer cells harbor chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations) altering their genomes both at the sequence level and at the level of 3D organization. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques (e.g., Hi-C), which are originally developed for decoding the 3D structure of the chromatin, provide a great opportunity to simultaneously identify the locations of genomic rearrangements and to investigate the 3D genome organization in cancer cells. Even though Hi-C data has been used for validating known rearrangements, computational methods that can distinguish rearrangement signals from the inherent biases of Hi-C data and from the actual 3D conformation of chromatin, and can precisely detect rearrangement locations de novo have been missing. In this work, we characterize how intra and inter-chromosomal Hi-C contacts are distributed for normal and rearranged chromosomes to devise a new set of algorithms (i) to identify genomic segments that correspond to CNV regions such as amplifications and deletions (HiCnv), (Nurtdinov et al.) to call inter-chromosomal translocations and their boundaries (HiCtrans) from Hi-C experiments, and (iii) to simulate Hi-C data from genomes with desired rearrangements and abnormalities (AveSim) in order to select optimal parameters for and to benchmark the accuracy of our methods. Our results on 10 different cancer cell lines with Hi-C data show that we identify a total number of 105 amplifications and 45 deletions together with 90 translocations, whereas we identify virtually no such events for two karyotypically normal cell lines. Our CNV predictions correlate very well with whole genome sequencing (WGS) data among chromosomes

  8. New molecular techniques for chromosome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergament, E

    2000-08-01

    The advent of molecular genetic technology has significantly advanced knowledge about the structure of chromosomes and their behaviour during meiosis and mitosis, as well as delineating cytogenetic aberrations that cannot be identified by conventional chromosome analysis. Molecular cytogenetics, the visualization of genetic loci using the dynamic recombinant technology of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), now provides the obstetrician and gynaecologist with increasingly important diagnostic and prognostic information heretofore unavailable. The technical principles underlying FISH are briefly discussed. Emphasis is placed on the clinical applications of FISH and technologies derived from FISH, in particular comparative genome hybridization, microdissection FISH and multiplex FISH. These technologies play increasingly significant roles in preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis, in the identification of microdeletion syndromes, cryptic translocations and marker chromosomes, and in defining chromosome mosaicism. FISH and related technologies also constitute essential diagnostic modalities in follow-up of organ transplantation, in a variety of haematological disorders and in determining the amplification of oncogenes associated with specific forms of cancer and neoplasia. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  9. Ancestral chromosomal blocks are triplicated in Brassiceae species with varying chromosome number and genome size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Cheung, Kwok; Kitschke, Michaela; Bures, Petr

    2007-10-01

    The paleopolyploid character of genomes of the economically important genus Brassica and closely related species (tribe Brassiceae) is still fairly controversial. Here, we report on the comparative painting analysis of block F of the crucifer Ancestral Karyotype (AK; n = 8), consisting of 24 conserved genomic blocks, in 10 species traditionally treated as members of the tribe Brassiceae. Three homeologous copies of block F were identified per haploid chromosome complement in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14, 18, 20, 32, and 36. In high-polyploid (n >or= 30) species Crambe maritima (2n = 60), Crambe cordifolia (2n = 120), and Vella pseudocytisus (2n = 68), six, 12, and six copies of the analyzed block have been revealed, respectively. Homeologous regions resembled the ancestral structure of block F within the AK or were altered by inversions and/or translocations. In two species of the subtribe Zillineae, two of the three homeologous regions were combined via a reciprocal translocation onto one chromosome. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence of an ancient hexaploidization event and corresponding whole-genome triplication shared by the tribe Brassiceae. No direct relationship between chromosome number and genome size variation (1.2-2.5 pg/2C) has been found in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14 to 36. Only two homeologous copies of block F suggest a whole-genome duplication but not the triplication event in Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), and confirm a phylogenetic position of this species outside the tribe Brassiceae. Chromosome duplication detected in Orychophragmus as well as chromosome rearrangements shared by Zillineae species demonstrate the usefulness of comparative cytogenetics for elucidation of phylogenetic relationships.

  10. Ancestral Chromosomal Blocks Are Triplicated in Brassiceae Species with Varying Chromosome Number and Genome Size1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A.; Cheung, Kwok; Kitschke, Michaela; Bureš, Petr

    2007-01-01

    The paleopolyploid character of genomes of the economically important genus Brassica and closely related species (tribe Brassiceae) is still fairly controversial. Here, we report on the comparative painting analysis of block F of the crucifer Ancestral Karyotype (AK; n = 8), consisting of 24 conserved genomic blocks, in 10 species traditionally treated as members of the tribe Brassiceae. Three homeologous copies of block F were identified per haploid chromosome complement in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14, 18, 20, 32, and 36. In high-polyploid (n ≥ 30) species Crambe maritima (2n = 60), Crambe cordifolia (2n = 120), and Vella pseudocytisus (2n = 68), six, 12, and six copies of the analyzed block have been revealed, respectively. Homeologous regions resembled the ancestral structure of block F within the AK or were altered by inversions and/or translocations. In two species of the subtribe Zillineae, two of the three homeologous regions were combined via a reciprocal translocation onto one chromosome. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence of an ancient hexaploidization event and corresponding whole-genome triplication shared by the tribe Brassiceae. No direct relationship between chromosome number and genome size variation (1.2–2.5 pg/2C) has been found in Brassiceae species with 2n = 14 to 36. Only two homeologous copies of block F suggest a whole-genome duplication but not the triplication event in Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24), and confirm a phylogenetic position of this speci