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Sample records for chromosome region-specific libraries

  1. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1991-01-01

    We have made important progress since the beginning of the current grant year. We have further developed the microdissection and PCR- assisted microcloning techniques using the linker-adaptor method. We have critically evaluated the microdissection libraries constructed by this microtechnology and proved that they are of high quality. We further demonstrated that these microdissection clones are useful in identifying corresponding YAC clones for a thousand-fold expansion of the genomic coverage and for contig construction. We are also improving the technique of cloning the dissected fragments in test tube by the TDT method. We are applying both of these PCR cloning technique to human chromosomes 2 and 5 to construct region-specific libraries for physical mapping purposes of LLNL and LANL. Finally, we are exploring efficient procedures to use unique sequence microclones to isolate cDNA clones from defined chromosomal regions as valuable resources for identifying expressed gene sequences in the human genome. We believe that we are making important progress under the auspices of this DOE human genome program grant and we will continue to make significant contributions in the coming year. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  3. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  4. Rapid generation of region-specific probes by chromosome microdissection: Application to the identification of chromosomal rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.M.; Guan, X.Y.; Zang, J.; Meltzer, P.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The authors present results using a novel strategy for chromosome microdissection and direct in vitro amplification of specific chromosomal regions, to identify cryptic chromosome alterations, and to rapidly generate region-specific genomic probes. First, banded chromosomes are microdissected and directly PCR amplified by a procedure which eliminates microchemistry (Meltzer, et al., Nature Genetics, 1:24, 1992). The resulting PCR product can be used for several applications including direct labeling for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to normal metaphase chromosomes. A second application of this procedure is the extremely rapid generation of chromosome region-specific probes. This approach has been successfully used to determine the derivation of chromosome segments unidentifiable by standard chromosome banding analysis. In selected instances these probes have also been used on interphase nuclei and provides the potential for assessing chromosome abnormalities in a variety of cell lineages. The microdissection probes (which can be generated in <24 hours) have also been utilized in direct library screening and provide the possibility of acquiring a significant number of region-specific probes for any chromosome band. This procedure extends the limits of conventional cytogenetic analysis by providing an extremely rapid source of numerous band-specific probes, and by enabling the direct analysis of essentially any unknown chromosome region.

  5. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.G.; Bobrow, M.; Bentley, D.R.; Dunham, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and St. Thomas Hospitals, London Bridge, London, England (United Kingdom)); Patel, K.; Shipley, J.; Sheer, D. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACS) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). The authors describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Identification of region-specific yeast artificial chromosomes using pools of Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction probes labeled via linear amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C G; Patel, K; Shipley, J; Sheer, D; Bobrow, M; Bentley, D R; Dunham, I

    1992-12-01

    The ability to identify large numbers of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) specific to any given genomic region rapidly and efficiently enhances both the construction of clone maps and the isolation of region-specific landmarks (e.g., polymorphic markers). We describe a method of preparing region-specific single-stranded hybridization probes from Alu element-mediated polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR) products of somatic cell hybrids for YAC library screening. Pools of up to 50 cloned Alu-PCR products from an irradiation-reduced hybrid containing 22q11.2-q13.1 were labeled to high specific activity by linear amplification using a single vector primer. The resulting single-stranded probes were extensively competed to remove repetitive sequences, while retaining the full complexity of the probe. Extensive coverage of the region by YACs using multiple probe pools was demonstrated as many YACs were detected more than once. In situ analysis using chosen YACs confirmed that the clones were specific for the region. Thus, this pooled probe approach constitutes a rapid method to identify large numbers of YACs relevant to a large chromosomal region.

  7. Construction of libraries enriched for sequence repeats and jumping clones, and hybridization selection for region-specific markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandpal, R.P.; Kandpal, G.; Weissman, S.M. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1994-01-04

    The authors describe a simple and rapid method for constructing small-insert genomic libraries highly enriched for dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric nucleotide repeat motifs. The approach involves use of DNA inserts recovered by PCR amplification of a small-insert sonicated genomic phage library or by a single-primer PCR amplification of Mbo I-digested and adaptor-ligated genomic DNA. The genomic DNA inserts are heat denatured and hybridized to a biotinylated oligonucleotde. The biotinylated hybrids are retained on a Vectrex-avidin matrix and eluted specifically. The eluate is PCR amplified and cloned. More than 90% of the clones in a library enriched for (CA)[sub n] microsatellites with this approach contained clones with inserts containing CA repeats. They have also used this protocol for enrichment of (CAG)[sub n] and (AGAT)[sub n] sequence repeats and for Not I jumping clones. They have used the enriched libraries with an adaptation of the cDNA selection method to enrich for repeat motifs encoded in yeast artificial chromosomes.

  8. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  9. Construction of BAC libraries from flow-sorted chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Šafář, J.; Šimková, H; Doležel, J

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by construct...

  10. Construction and characterization of genomic libraries from specific human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumlauf, R; Jeanpierre, M; Young, B D

    1982-05-01

    Highly purified fractions of human chromosomes 21 and 22 were isolated from a suspension of metaphase chromosomes stained with ethidium bromide by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS II). Two recombinant DNA libraries, representing chromosomes 21 and 22, were constructed by complete digestion of DNA from these fractions with EcoRI and insertion into the vector lambda gtWES lambda B. Twenty clones selected at random from the chromosome 22 library hybridized to EcoRI-digested human DNA, and five of these clones hybridized to single bands identical in size to the phage inserts. These five single-copy sequences and a clone coding for an 8S RNA isolated by screening the chromosome 22 library for expressed sequences were characterized in detail. Hybridization of all six clones to a panel of sorted chromosomes and hybrid cell lines confirmed the assignment of the sequences to chromosome 22. The sequences were localized to regions of chromosome 22 by hybridization to translocated chromosomes sorted from a cell line having a balanced translocation t(17;22)(p13;q11) and to hybrid cell lines containing the various portions of another translocation t(X;22)(q13;q112). Five clones reside on the long arm of chromosome 22 between q112 and pter, while one clone and an 18S rRNA gene isolated from the chromosome 22 library reside pter and g112. The construction of chromosome-specific libraries by this method has the advantage of being direct and applicable to nearly all human chromosomes and will be important in molecular analysis of human genetic diseases.

  11. Construction and characterization of human chromosome 2-specific cosmid, fosmid, and PAC clone libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, J.C.; Boehrer, D.M.; Garnes, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the construction and characterization of three human chromosome 2-specific clone libraries. A chromosome 2-specific PAC library was also constructed from a hybrid cell line. The chromosome 2 coverage of each of the three libraries was further determined by PCR screening clone pools with 82 chromosome 2-specific STSs. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Mapping to mouse chromosome 3 of the gene encoding latexin (Lxn) expressed in neocortical neurons in a region-specific manner

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    Jin, Ming-hao; Uratani, Yoshihiko; Arimatsu, Yasuyoshi [Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Latexin was first found as a 29-kDa antigen expressed in a subset of neurons in infragranular layers of lateral, but not dorsal, neocortical areas in the rat using a monoclonal antibody PC3.1. It was found that the vast majority of latexin-expressing neurons in both layers V and VI within the lateral neocortex were generated concurrently at Embryonic Day 15, demonstrating a strict correlation between the molecular identity of neurons and the time of their generation. Since neurons expressing latexin are located in the restricted part of the neocortex, latexin has been used as a useful molecular marker to elucidate the mechanism underlying cortical regional specification. The latexin cDNA isolated from a cDNA library of the rat cerebral cortex encodes a protein composed of 223-amino-acid residues containing two potential Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase sites and one cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site. The absence of any signal peptide or potential transmembrane domain is consistent with the apparent cytosolic localization of latexin in the rat brain. The transcripts of latexin were expressed in not only neutral but also nonneural tissues (e.g., lung, spleen, kidney, heart, and digestive tracts). Recently, it has been demonstrated that latexin purified from the rat brain has inhibitory activity against carboxypeptidase A1, carboxypeptidase A2, and mast cell carboxypeptidase A, with less carboxypeptidase B-inhibiting activity. The amino acid sequence deduced from the rat latexin cDNA has no strict homology to any sequences so far known. Genomic Southern blot analysis using a cDNA probe of rat latexin suggested that the gene encoding latexin in the rat has homologues in other mammalian species and in the chicken, but not in the nematode, fly, or frog. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Human genome libraries. Final progress report, February 1, 1994--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Fa-Ten

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this program is to use a novel technology of chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct chromosome region-specific libraries as resources for various human genome program studies. Region specific libraries have been constructed for the entire human chromosomes 2 and 18.

  14. Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležel Jaroslav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of closely related genomes in polyploid species makes the assembly of total genomic sequence from shotgun sequence reads produced by the current sequencing platforms exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. Genomes of polyploid species could be sequenced following the ordered-clone sequencing approach employing contigs of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and BAC-based physical maps. Although BAC contigs can currently be constructed for virtually any diploid organism with the SNaPshot high-information-content-fingerprinting (HICF technology, it is currently unknown if this is also true for polyploid species. It is possible that BAC clones from orthologous regions of homoeologous chromosomes would share numerous restriction fragments and be therefore included into common contigs. Because of this and other concerns, physical mapping utilizing the SNaPshot HICF of BAC libraries of polyploid species has not been pursued and the possibility of doing so has not been assessed. The sole exception has been in common wheat, an allohexaploid in which it is possible to construct single-chromosome or single-chromosome-arm BAC libraries from DNA of flow-sorted chromosomes and bypass the obstacles created by polyploidy. Results The potential of the SNaPshot HICF technology for physical mapping of polyploid plants utilizing global BAC libraries was evaluated by assembling contigs of fingerprinted clones in an in silico merged BAC library composed of single-chromosome libraries of two wheat homoeologous chromosome arms, 3AS and 3DS, and complete chromosome 3B. Because the chromosome arm origin of each clone was known, it was possible to estimate the fidelity of contig assembly. On average 97.78% or more clones, depending on the library, were from a single chromosome arm. A large portion of the remaining clones was shown to be library contamination from other chromosomes, a feature that is unavoidable during the

  15. Construction and characterization of a Schistosoma mansoni bacterial artificial chromosome library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Paslier, M C; Pierce, R J; Merlin, F; Hirai, H; Wu, W; Williams, D L; Johnston, D; LoVerde, P T; Le Paslier, D

    2000-04-15

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library has been established from genomic DNA isolated from the trematode parasite of human, Schistosoma mansoni. This library consists of more than 21,000 recombinant clones carrying inserts in the pBeloBAC11 vector. The mean insert size was 100 kb, representing an approximate 7.95-fold genome coverage. Library screening with eight chromosome-specific or single-copy gene probes yielded between 1 and 9 positive clones, and none of those tested was absent from the library. End sequences were obtained for 93 randomly selected clones, and 37 showed sequence identity to S. mansoni sequences (ESTs, genes, or repetitive sequences). A preliminary analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization localized 8 clones on schistosome chromosomes 1 (2 clones), 2, 3, 5, Z, and W (3 clones). This library provides a new resource for the physical mapping and sequencing of the genome of this important human pathogen.

  16. Preparation of high molecular weight gDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Siddanagouda S; Nie, Xiaojun; Feng, Kewei; Weining, Song

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable large-insert DNA libraries for physical mapping, positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis, complete genome sequencing, and evolutionary studies. Due to their stability and relative simplicity BAC libraries are most preferred over other approaches for cloning large genomic DNA fragments for large-insert libraries. Isolation of intact high molecular weight (HMW) DNA is a critical step underlying the success of large-insert genomic DNA library construction. It requires the isolation of purified nuclei, embedding them into LMP agarose plugs, restriction digestion of the plugs, and quite often size selection using PFGE and electro-elution of insert DNA. The construction of BAC libraries is complex and challenging for most molecular laboratories. To facilitate the construction of BAC libraries, we present a step-by-step protocol for isolation of HMW DNA and construction of plant BAC libraries.

  17. Construction of a DNA library from chromosome 4 of rice (Oryza sativa) by microdissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOYINGWEI; SIYUANLIANG; 等

    1998-01-01

    A simple method to create a chromosome-specific DNA librqary of rice,including microdissection,amplification,charterization and cloning,is described.Rice chromosome 4 from a metaphase cell has been isolated and amplified by the Linker Adapter PCR (LA-PCR).The PCR products were labeled as probes with DIG-11-dUTP using the random priming method.Southern blot analysis with rice genomic DNA and specific RFLP markers demonstrated that the PCR products were derived from rice chromosome 4.A large library comprising over 100,000 recombinant plasmid microclones from rice chromosome 4 was constructed.Colony hybridization showed that 58% of the clones contained single or low-copy sequences and 42% contained repetitive sequences.The size of inserts generated by PCR ranged from 140bp to 500bp.This method will facilitate cloning of the specific chromosome DNA markers and important genes of rice.

  18. Exploring the power of rice (O. sativa x O. rufipogon) chromosome segment substitution line libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation was reported as an increase in grain yield for several rice (Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon) advanced backcross mapping populations. The objective of this study was to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) libraries to further dissect the reported transgressive var...

  19. Development of inter-specific chromosomes segment substitution libraries (CSSL) in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six libraries of inter-specific Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs) of rice are being developed as pre-breeding materials and genetic stocks. Three accessions of O. rufipogon were selected as donors, based on phylogenetic, geographical and morphological divergence, and crossed with two rec...

  20. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for Zhikong Scallop Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Xiaojun; Chantel F.SCHEURING; ZHANG Hongbin; LI Fuhua; XIANG Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Two Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri were constructed to promote our genetic and genomic research.High-quality megabase-sized DNA was isolated from the adductor muscle of the scallop and partially digested by BamH I and Mbo I,respectively.The BamH I library consisted of 53760 clones while the Mbo I library consisted of 7680 clones.Approximately 96% of the clones in BamH I library contained nuclear DNA inserts in average size of 100 kb,providing a coverage of 5.3 haploid genome equivalents.Similarly,the Mbo I library with an average insert of 145 kb and no insert-empty clones,thus providing a genome coverage of 1.1 haploid genome equivalents.

  1. Construction of a llama bacterial artificial chromosome library with approximately 9-fold genome equivalent coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airmet, K W; Hinckley, J D; Tree, L T; Moss, M; Blumell, S; Ulicny, K; Gustafson, A K; Weed, M; Theodosis, R; Lehnardt, M; Genho, J; Stevens, M R; Kooyman, D L

    2012-01-01

    The Ilama is an important agricultural livestock in much of South America. The llama is increasing in popularity in the United States as a companion animal. Little work has been done to improve llama production using modern technology. A paucity of information is available regarding the llama genome. We report the construction of a llama bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of about 196,224 clones in the vector pECBAC1. Using flow cytometry and bovine, human, mouse, and chicken as controls, we determined the llama genome size to be 2.4 × 10⁹ bp. The average insert size of the library is 137.8 kb corresponding to approximately 9-fold genome coverage. Further studies are needed to further characterize the library and llama genome. We anticipate that this new library will help facilitate future genomic studies in the llama.

  2. Construction of a DNA library representing 15q11-13 by subtraction of two flow sorted marker chromosome-specific libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, E.; Werelius, B.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Constitutional extra {open_quotes}marker chromosomes{close_quotes} are found in {approx}0.5/1000 of newborns. Of these, 50% are inverted duplications of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 15, including two variants; (1) inv dup(15)(pter{yields}q11:q11{yields}pter) and (2) inv dup(15) (pter{yields}q12-13::q12-13{yields}pter). Variant (1) is found in phenotypically normal individuals, whereas variant (2) will produce a typical clinical picture including mental retardation, autism, hyperactivity and discrete dysmorphic features. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using single copy probes from the Prader-Willi region confirms these observations as well as chromosome painting using a flow-sorted marker chromosome-specific library from a variant (1) marker, hybridized to the chromosomes of a patient with a variant (2) marker chromosome. Followingly, a flow-sorted biotinylated variant (1) library was subtracted from a non-labeled variant (2) library using magnetic beads and subsequent amplification by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). The successful result was demonstrated by using the amplified material for chromosome painting on chromosome slides from variant (1) and variant (2) patients. We have constructed a library from 15q11-13. This region contains genes producing a specific abnormal phenotype when found in a tri- or tetrasomic state. The region also contains the genes responsible for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes when the paternal/maternal copy is missing, respectively. It is therefore a region where parental imprinting plays an important role. The isolated library may be used to isolate single copy clones which will allow further investigations of this region.

  3. Quality control of the sheep bacterial artificial chromosome library, CHORI-243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkness Ewen F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sheep CHORI-243 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library is being used in the construction of the virtual sheep genome, the sequencing and construction of the actual sheep genome assembly and as a source of DNA for regions of the genome of biological interest. The objective of our study is to assess the integrity of the clones and plates which make up the CHORI-243 library using the virtual sheep genome. Findings A series of analyses were undertaken based on the mapping the sheep BAC-end sequences (BESs to the virtual sheep genome. Overall, very few plate specific biases were identified, with only three of the 528 plates in the library significantly affected. The analysis of the number of tail-to-tail (concordant BACs on the plates identified a number of plates with lower than average numbers of such BACs. For plates 198 and 213 a partial swap of the BESs determined with one of the two primers appear to have occurred. A third plate, 341, also with a significant deficit in tail-to-tail BACs, appeared to contain a substantial number of sequences determined from contaminating eubacterial 16 S rRNA DNA. Additionally a small number of eubacterial 16 S rRNA DNA sequences were present on two other plates, 111 and 338, in the library. Conclusions The comparative genomic approach can be used to assess BAC library integrity in the absence of fingerprinting. The sequences of the sheep CHORI-243 library BACs have high integrity, especially with the corrections detailed above. The library represents a high quality resource for use by the sheep genomics community.

  4. Construction of representative NotI linking libraries specific for the total human genome and for human chromosome 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarovsky, E R; Allikmets, R; Kholodnyuk, I; Zabarovska, V I; Paulsson, N; Bannikov, V M; Kashuba, V I; Dean, M; Kisselev, L L; Klein, G

    1994-03-15

    NotI linking clones represent valuable tools for both physical and genetic mapping. Using procedures that we have previously described, several chromosome 3-specific NotI linking libraries have been constructed. Here, we describe the construction of six independent NotI linking libraries specific for the total human genome. These libraries were made using three different vectors and two combinations of restriction enzymes. Altogether, these six libraries contain more than 1 million recombinant phages. Considering that the human genome contains about 3000-5000 NotI sites, it is likely that all clonable NotI sites are present in these libraries. Two of the six libraries were transferred into plasmid form. At the same time, a chromosome 3-specific EcoRI-NotI library (NRL1) was constructed. This library considerably increases the representation of cloned NotI sites in combination with previously constructed libraries that were made using BamHI-NotI digestion. All libraries are available on request.

  5. Construction of representative NotI linking libraries specific for the total human genome and for human chromosome 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabarovsky, E.R.; Kholodnyuk, I.; Zabarovska, V.I.; Paulsson, N.; Bannikov, V.M.; Kashuba, V.I.; Klein, G. (Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Allikmets, R.; Dean, M. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)); Kisselev, L.L. (Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-15

    NotI linking clones represent valuable tools for both physical and genetic mapping. Using procedures previously described, several chromosome 3-specific NotI linking libraries have been constructed. Here, the authors describe the construction of six independent NotI linking libraries specific for the total human genome. These libraries were made using three different vectors and two combinations of restriction enzymes. Altogether, these six libraries contain more than 1 million recombinant phages. Considering that the human genome contains about 3000-5000 NotI sites, it is likely that all clonable NotI sites are present in these libraries. Two of the six libraries were transferred into plasmid form. At the same time, a chromosome 3-specific EcoRI-NotI library (NRL1) was constructed. This library considerably increases the representation of cloned NotI sites in combination with previously constructed libraries that were made using BamHI-NotI digestion. All libraries are available on request. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen M Adema

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide a novel resource for analysis of the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, members of the international Biomphalaria glabrata Genome Initiative (biology.unm.edu/biomphalaria-genome.html, working with the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI and supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI, produced a high quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library. The BB02 strain B. glabrata, a field isolate (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil that is susceptible to several strains of Schistosoma mansoni, was selfed for two generations to reduce haplotype diversity in the offspring. High molecular weight DNA was isolated from ovotestes of 40 snails, partially digested with HindIII, and ligated into pAGIBAC1 vector. The resulting B. glabrata BAC library (BG_BBa consists of 61824 clones (136.3 kb average insert size and provides 9.05 × coverage of the 931 Mb genome. Probing with single/low copy number genes from B. glabrata and fingerprinting of selected BAC clones indicated that the BAC library sufficiently represents the gene complement. BAC end sequence data (514 reads, 299860 nt indicated that the genome of B. glabrata contains ~ 63% AT, and disclosed several novel genes, transposable elements, and groups of high frequency sequence elements. This BG_BBa BAC library, available from AGI at cost to the research community, gains in relevance because BB02 strain B. glabrata is targeted whole genome sequencing by NHGRI.

  7. Construction, Characterization, and Chromosomal Mapping of a Fosmid Library of the White-Cheeked Gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping; Chen; Jianping; Ye; Yan; Liu; Jinghuan; Wang; Weiting; Su; Fengtang; Yang; Wenhui; Nie

    2007-01-01

    Gibbons have experienced extensive karyotype rearrangements during evolution and represent an ideal model for studying the underlying molecular mechanism of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements. It is anticipated that the cloning and sequence characterization of evolutionary chromosomal breakpoints will provide vital insights into the molecular force that has driven such a radical karyotype reshuffle in gibbons. We constructed and characterized a high-quality fosmid li- brary of the white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) containing 192,000 non- redundant clones with an average insert size of 38 kb and 2.5-fold genome coverage. By end sequencing of 100 randomly selected fosmid clones, we generated 196 se- quence tags for the library. These end-sequenced fosmid clones were then mapped onto the chromosomes of the white-cheeked gibbon by fluorescence in situ hy- bridization, and no spurious chimeric clone was detected. BLAST search against the human genome showed a good correlation between the number of hit clones and the number of chromosomes, an indication of unbiased chromosomal distribu- tion of the fosmid library. The chromosomal distribution of the mapped clones is also consistent with the BLAST search result against human and white-cheeked gibbon genomes. The fosmid library and the mapped clones will serve as a valu- able resource for further studying gibbons' chromosomal rearrangements and the underlying molecular mechanism as well as for comparative genomic study in the lesser apes.

  8. Generation of chicken Z-chromosome painting probes by microdissection for screening large-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, R; King, W A; Verrinder Gibbins, A M

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for rapid generation of chicken sex chromosome-Z painting probes has been developed using microdissection. Whole chromosome painting probes (WCPs) were prepared from 10-15 copies of mitotic metaphase chicken Z chromosomes. The microisolated chromosomes were subjected to PEG/proteinase K treatment in a collection drop to release DNA, which was then amplified using a degenerate oligonucleotide-primed shuttle PCR (DOP-Shuttle-PCR) strategy. Size distributions of the PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and smears of DNA were revealed that ranged in size from 200-800 bp, without any evidence of preferential amplification. Both specificity and complexity of the probes have been analyzed by Southern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Non-specific hybridization was efficiently blocked by using chicken competitor DNA. Analysis of the WCPs produced shows that collectively they provide uniform hybridization signals along the entire length of the chicken Z chromosome. To demonstrate one possible application of these complex probes, we screened a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) chicken genomic library to select Z chromosome-specific clones. To address specificity of the selected clones and to physically map them to the Z chromosome, FISH analysis was used. Of the 3 clones initially tested, one clone (C3) carrying a 250-kb insert mapped to the distal portion of the short arm of the chicken Z chromosome. Therefore, this technique has provided appropriate probes for screening large-insert genomic libraries. Further application of these probes includes the analysis of chromosome rearrangements, studies of cases of heteroploidy involving the Z chromosome, positional cloning of Z-linked genes and studies on mechanisms of sex-chromosome evolution in birds.

  9. Construction and characterization of the transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) libraries of Leymus multicaulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YueYu; ZHOU YuLei; SONG LinLin; ZHANG Yan; ZHAO MaoLin

    2008-01-01

    Transformation-competent artificial chromosome system is able to clone and transfer genes efficiently in plants. In order to clone genes highly tolerant to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Aphids, drought and salt from Leymus multicaulis, the two TAC genomic libraries Ⅰ and Ⅱ were constructed in vector pYLTAC17 and pYLTAC747H/sacB, which contain about 165000 and 236000 recombinant clones sepa-rately. The genome coverage of the two libraries was totally estimated to be about 3-5 haploid genome equivalents, as size selection of genomic DNA fragments was approximately from 9 to 300 kb. Clones of the genomic libraries were collected as bulked pools each containing 500 clones or so, stored in twelve 96-deep-well plates and then were gridding in triplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 3×3 pattern using a GeneTACTM G3 arraying robot after being transferred manually into three 384-well plates. Meanwhile 2501 and 2890 clones of Library in pYLTAC17 and in pYLTAC747H/sacB were stored individually in fourteen 384-well plates and then were automatically gridding in duplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 6×6 pattern after a replication of plates. Nineteen positive clones were detected by using the probe glutahione reductase gene of L. Multicaulis. TAC libraries constructed here can be used to isolate genomic clones containing target genes, and to carry out genome walking for positional cloning. Once the target TAC clones were isolated, they could be immediately transferred into plant genomes with the Agrobacterium system.

  10. Construction and characterization of the transformation-competent artificial chromosome(TAC)libraries of Leymus multicaulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Transformation-competent artificial chromosome system is able to clone and transfer genes efficiently in plants.In order to clone genes highly tolerant to barley yellow dwarf virus(BYDV),Aphids,drought and salt from Leymus multicaulis,the two TAC genomic libraries I and II were constructed in vector pYLTAC17 and pYLTAC747H/sacB,which contain about 165000 and 236000 recombinant clones sepa-rately.The genome coverage of the two libraries was totally estimated to be about 3―5 haploid genome equivalents,as size selection of genomic DNA fragments was approximately from 9 to 300 kb.Clones of the genomic libraries were collected as bulked pools each containing 500 clones or so,stored in twelve 96-deep-well plates and then were gridding in triplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 3×3 pattern using a GeneTAC?G3 arraying robot after being transferred manually into three 384-well plates.Meanwhile 2501 and 2890 clones of Library in pYLTAC17 and in pYLTAC747H/sacB were stored individually in fourteen 384-well plates and then were automatically gridding in duplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 6×6 pattern after a replication of plates.Nineteen positive clones were detected by using the probe glutahione reductase gene of L.multicaulis.TAC libraries constructed here can be used to isolate genomic clones containing target genes,and to carry out genome walking for positional cloning.Once the target TAC clones were isolated,they could be immediately transferred into plant genomes with the Agrobacterium system.

  11. Construction and Preliminary Characterization Analysis of Wuzhishan Miniature Pig Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 8-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries have been invaluable tools for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. Here, we report the construction and characterization of a high-redundancy BAC library from a very valuable pig breed in China, Wuzhishan miniature pig (Sus scrofa, using its blood cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The library contains approximately 153,600 clones ordered in 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 152.3 kb, representing approximately 7.68 genome equivalents of the porcine haploid genome and a 99.93% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence in the library. 19 pairs of microsatellite marker primers covering porcine chromosomes were used for screening the BAC library, which showed that each of these markers was positive in the library; the positive clone number was 2 to 9, and the average number was 7.89, which was consistent with 7.68-fold coverage of the porcine genome. And there were no significant differences of genomic BAC library from blood cells and fibroblast cells. Therefore, we identified 19 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. As a result, this BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for gene identification, physical mapping, and comparative genomics and large-scale genome sequencing in the porcine.

  12. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  13. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12, consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger.

  14. Construction and analysis of Siberian tiger bacterial artificial chromosome library with approximately 6.5-fold genome equivalent coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-03-07

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger.

  15. Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of TM-1, a Standard Line for Genetics and Genomics in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hu; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for Gossyplum hirsutum acc. TM-1, a genetic and genomic standard line for Upland cotton. The library consists of 147 456 clones with an average insert size of 122.8 kb ranging from 97 to 240 kb. About 96.0% of the clones have inserts over 100 kb. Therefore, this library represents theoretically 7.4 haploid genome equivalents based on an AD genome size of 2 425 Mb. Clones were stored in 384 384- well plates and arrayed into multiplex pools for rapid and reliable library screening. BAC screening was carded out by four-round polymerase chain reactions using 23 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, three sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and one pair of pdmere for a gene associated with fiber development to test the quality of the library. Correspondingly, in total 92 positive BAC clones were Identified with an average four positive clones per SSR marker, ranging from one to eight hits. Additionally, since these SSR markers have been localized to chromosome 12 (A12) and 26 (D12) according to the genetic map, these BAC clonee are expected to serve as seeds for the physical mapping of these two homologous chromosomes, sequentially map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci or genes associated with Important agronomic traits.

  16. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for the Lake Malawi cichlid (Metriaclima zebra), and the blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Federica; Kidd, Celeste; Borowsky, Richard; Kocher, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Teleost fishes have become important models for studying the evolution of the genetic mechanisms of development. A key resource for comparative genomics and positional cloning are large-insert libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosomes. We have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for two species of teleost fish that are important models for the study of developmental evolution. Metriaclima zebra is one of several hundred closely related, morphologically diverse, haplochromine cichlids which have evolved over the last one million years in Lake Malawi, East Africa. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, is well known for adaptations related to the recent evolution of blind cave-dwelling forms. Clones and high-density filters for each library are available to the scientific community through the Hubbard Center for Genome Studies.

  17. Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, L.; Zee, R.Y.L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schalkwyk, L.C. [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing approximately 40,000 clones in the AB1380 host using the pCGS966 vector. An average size of 736 kb was estimated from 166 randomly chosen clones; thus the library provides 10-fold coverage of the genome, with a 99.99% probability of containing a unique sequence. Eight of 39 YACs analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization were found to be chimeric, indicating a proportion of about 20-30% of chimeric clones. The library was spotted on high-density filters to allow the identification of YAC clones by hybridization and was pooled using a 3-dimensional scheme for screening by PCR. Among 48 probes used to screen the library, an average of 9.3 positive clones were found, consistent with the calculated 10-fold genomic coverage of the library. This YAC library represents the first large-insert genomic library for the rat. It will be made available to the research community at large as an important new resource for complex genome analysis in this species. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...

  19. Development of new transformation-competent artificial chromosome vectors and rice genomic libraries for efficient gene cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Guang; Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Letian; Qiu, Weihua; Zhang, Qunyu; Wu, Hao; Yang, Chunyi; Su, Jing; Wang, Zhonghua; Tian, Dongsheng; Mei, Mantong

    2002-01-09

    The transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector (TAC) system has been shown to be very useful for efficient gene isolation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1998) 6535). To adapt the vector system for gene isolation in crops, two new TAC vectors and rice genomic libraries were developed. The new vectors pYLTAC17 and pYLTAC27 use the Bar gene and Hpt gene driven by the rice Act1 promoter as the plant selectable markers, respectively, and are suitable for transformation of rice and other grasses. Two representative genomic libraries (I and II) of an Indica rice variety Minghui63, a fertility restorer line for hybrid rice, were constructed with pYLTAC17 using different size classes of partially digested DNA fragments. Library I and library II consisted of 34,560 and 1.2 x 10(5) clones, with average insert sizes of approximately 77 and 39 kb, respectively. The genome coverage of the libraries I and II was estimated to be about 5 and 11 haploid genome equivalents, respectively. Clones of the library I were stored individually in ninety 384-well plates, and those of the library II were collected as bulked pools each containing 30-50 clones and stored in eight 384-well plates. A number of probes were used to hybridize high-density colony filters of the library I prepared by an improved replicating method and each detected 2-9 positive clones. A method for rapid screening of the library II by pooled colony hybridization was developed. A TAC clone having an 80 kb rice DNA insert was successfully transferred into rice genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The new vectors and the genomic libraries should be useful for gene cloning and genetic engineering in rice and other crops.

  20. Construction of Agropyrum intermedium 2Ai-2 Chromosome DNA Library and Cloning of Species-Specific DNA Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; MA You-zhi; XIN Zhi-yong; XU Qiong-fang; LI Lian-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The univalent from the meiosis-metaphase spreads of F1 (Z2× wheat variety Wan7107) was identified to be Agropyrum intermedium 2Ai-2 chromosome by GISH. The 2Ai-2 chromosomes were microisolated and collected. After two rounds of PCR amplification, the PCR products were ranged from 150 - 3 000 bp,with predominant fragments at about 200 - 2 000 bp. Using Ag.intermediumgenomic DNA as a probe, Southern blotting analysis confirmed the products originated from Ag. intermediumgenome. The products were purified, ligated to pUC18 and then transformed into competence E.coli DH5α to produce a 2Ai-2 chromosome DNA library. The microcloning experiments produced approximately 5×105 clones, the size range of the cloned inserts was 200- 1 500 bp, with an average of 580bp. Using Ag. intermediumgenomic DNA as a probe, dot blotting results showed that 56% clones are unique/low copy sequences, 44% are repetitive sequences in the library. Four Ag. intermedium clones were screened from the library by RFLP, and three clones(Mag065, Mag088, Mag139)belong to low/single sequences, one clone(Mag104)was repetitive sequence, and GISH results indicated that Mag104 was Ag.intermedium species-specific repetitive DNA sequence.

  1. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for soybean PI 437654 and identification of clones associated with cyst nematode resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, J P; Mahalingam, R; Smith, H; Goicoechea, J L; Knap, H T; Wing, R A

    1999-09-01

    We have constructed a soybean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using the plant introduction (PI) 437654. The library contains 73 728 clones stored in 192 384-well microtiter plates. A random sampling of 230 BACs indicated an average insert size of 136 kb with a range of 20 to 325 kb, and less than 4% of the clones do not contain inserts. Ninety percent of BAC clones in the library have an average insert size greater than 100 kb. Based on a genome size of 1115 Mb, library coverage is 9 haploid genome equivalents. Screening the BAC library colony filters with cpDNA sequences showed that contamination of the genomic library with chloroplast clones was low (1.85%). Library screening with three genomic RFLP probes linked to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance genes resulted in an average of 18 hits per probe (range 7 to 30). Two separate pools of forward and reverse suppression subtractive cDNAs obtained from SCN-infected and uninfected roots of PI437654 were hybridized to the BAC library filters. The 488 BACs identified from positive signals were fingerprinted and analyzed using FPC software (version 4.0) resulting in 85 different contigs. Contigs were grouped and analyzed in three categories: (1) contigs of BAC clones which hybridized to forward subtracted cDNAs, (2) contigs of BAC clones which hybridized to reverse subtracted cDNAs, and (3) contigs of BAC clones which hybridized to both forward and reverse subtracted cDNAs. This protocol provides an estimate of the number of genomic regions involved in early resistance response to a pathogenic attack.

  2. Construction and Identification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for 0-613-2R in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing a large genomic DNA insert is an important tool for genome physical mapping, map-based cloning, and genome sequencing. To isolate genes via a map-based cloning strategy and to perform physical mapping of the cotton genome, a high-quality BAC library containing large cotton DNA inserts is needed. We have developed a BAC library of the restoring line 0-613-2R for isolating the fertility restorer (Rf1) gene and genomic research in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The BAC library contains 97 825 clones stored in 255 pieces of a 384-well microtiter plate. Random samples of BACs digested with the Notl enzyme indicated that the average insert size is approximately 130 kb, with a range of 80-275 kb,and 95.7% of the BAC clones in the library have an average insert size larger than 100 kb. Based on a cotton genome size of 2 250 Mb, library coverage is 5.7 x haploid genome equivalents. Four clones were selected randomly from the library to determine the stability of the BAC clones. There were no different fingerprints for 0 and 100 generations of each clone digested with Notl and Hindlll enzymes. Thus, the stability of a single BAC clone can be sustained at least for 100 generations. Eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers flanking the Rf1 gene were chosen to screen the BAC library by pool using PCR method and 25 positive clones were identified with 3.1 positive clones per SSR marker.

  3. Isolation and characterization of DNA probes for human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, P C

    1990-01-01

    ., 1988; Van Keuren et al., 1989). Methods based on using region-specific chromosome 21 DNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization show promise for the rapid diagnosis of trisomy 21 (Lichter et al., 1988). The continued development of chromosome 21 DNA probes and advances in the technology of molecular cytogenetics will facilitate the study of the genetic organization of chromosome 21 and its role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome.

  4. Use of laser microdissection for the construction of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae sex chromosome-specific DNA library and cytogenetics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Yakovin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioecy is relatively rare among plant species, and distinguishable sex chromosomes have been reported in few dioecious species. The multiple sex chromosome system (XX/XY1Y2 of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 differs from that of other members of the family Cannabaceae, in which the XX/XY chromosome system is present. Sex chromosomes of H. japonicus were isolated from meiotic chromosome spreads of males by laser microdissection with the P.A.L.M. MicroLaser system. The chromosomal DNA was directly amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR. Fast fluorescence in situ hybridization (FAST-FISH using a labeled, chromosome-specific DOP-PCR product as a probe showed preferential hybridization to sex chromosomes. In addition, the DOP-PCR product was used to construct a short-insert, H. japonicus sex chromosomes-specific DNA library. The randomly sequenced clones showed that about 12% of them have significant homology to H. lupulus and 88% to Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, 1753 sequences from GenBank database. Forty-four percent of the sequences show homology to plant retroelements. It was concluded that laser microdissection is a useful tool for isolating the DNA of sex chromosomes of H. japonicus and for the construction of chromosome-specific DNA libraries for the study of the structure and evolution of sex chromosomes. The results provide the potential for identifying unique or sex chromosome-specific sequence elements in H. japonicus and could aid in the identification of sex chromosome-specific repeat and coding regions through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction.

  5. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile rice 5460S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱芳; 金德敏; 伏健民; 张超良; 谢纬武; 王斌; 杨仁崔; 张洪斌

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a detailed physical map of the thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile (TGMS) gene-encompassing region and finally clone the TGMS gene, a high-quality rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from TGMS rice 5460S was constructed. The method of constructing BAC library was examined and optimized. The 5460S library consists of 19 584 BAC clones with an average insert size of 110 kb, which represents about 5 times rice haploid genome equivalents. Rice inserts of up to 140 kb and 250 kb were isolated and appeared stable after 100 generations of serial growth. Hybridization of BAC clones with mitochondrial and chloroplastic genes as probes demonstrated that this library has no organellar contamination. The 5460S library was screened with 3 molecular markers linked to tmsl gene as probes and at least 1 BAC clone was identified with each probe. The insert ends of positive clones were successfully isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) technique.

  6. Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for the A-Genome of Cotton (G. arboreum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library for the A-genome of cotton has been constructed from the leaves of G. arboreum L cv. Jianglinzhongmian. It is used as elite A-genome germplasm resources in the present cotton breeding program and has been used to build a genetic reference map of cotton. The BAC library consists of 123,648 clones stored in 322 384-well plates. Statistical analysis of a set of 103 randomly selected BAC clones indicated that each clone has an average insert length of 100.2 kb per plasmid, with a range of 30 to 190 kb. Theoretically, this represents 7.2 haploid genome equivalents based on an A-genome size of 1697 Mb. The BAC library has been arranged in column pools and superpools allowing screening with various PCR-based markers. In the future, the A-genome cotton BAC library will serve as both a giant gene resource and a valuable tool for map-based gene isolation, physical mapping and comparative genome analysis.

  7. Construction of male and female PAC genomic libraries suitable for identification of Y-chromosome-specific clones from the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, S; Fujisawa, M; Sone, T; Nakayama, S; Nishiyama, R; Takenaka, M; Yamaoka, S; Sakaida, M; Kono, K; Takahama, M; Yamato, K T; Fukuzawa, H; Brennicke, A; Ohyama, K

    2000-11-01

    Unlike higher plants, the dioecious liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, has uniquely small sex chromosomes, with X chromosomes present only in female gametophytes and Y chromosomes only in male gametophytes. We have constructed respective genomic libraries for male and female plantlets using a P1-derived artificial chromosome (pCYPAC2). With an average insert size of approximately 90 kb, each PAC library is estimated to cover the entire genome with a probability of more than 99.9%. Male-specific PAC clones were screened for by differential hybridization using male and female genomic DNAs as separate probes. Seventy male-specific PAC clones were identified. The male specificity of one of the clones, pMM4G7, was verified by Southern hybridization and PCR analysis. This clone was indeed located on the Y chromosome as verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This result shows that the Y chromosome contains unique sequences that are not present either on the X chromosome or any of the autosomes. Thus, the respective male and female libraries for M. polymorpha offer an opportunity to identify key genes involved in the process of sex differentiation and this unique system of sex determination.

  8. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and a preliminary genome survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoko Hidetoshi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Results The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 × 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6–28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50–90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. Conclusion We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  9. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of S-type CMS maize mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to isolate mitochondrial genes easily, we have developed a new method to construct S-type CMS maize mitochondrial gene library by means of embedding mitochondria and enzymatic digesting mitochondria in situ, preparing mtDNA by electrophoresis, digesting LMP agarose with β-agarase, using BAC vector and electroporation. About 2 500 white clones of Mo17 CMS-J mitochondrial gene library were obtained with the average size of 18.24 kb, ranging from 5 to 40 kb, 63.6% inserts came from mitochondrial genome and represented 48 ′ mitochondrial genome equivalents. All the probes had detected the positive clones in the gene library. It is helpful to elucidating the maize mitochondrial genome structure and mechanism of S-type CMS, and may give some valuable reference to the construction of other plant mitochondrial genome library.

  10. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  11. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  12. A Chromosome Segment Substitution Library of Weedy Rice for Genetic Dissection of Complex Agronomic and Domestication Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Subudhi

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are a powerful alternative for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL, analyzing gene interactions, and providing starting materials for map-based cloning projects. We report the development and characterization of a CSSL library of a U.S. weedy rice accession 'PSRR-1' with genome-wide coverage in an adapted rice cultivar 'Bengal' background. The majority of the CSSLs carried a single defined weedy rice segment with an average introgression segment of 2.8 % of the donor genome. QTL mapping results for several agronomic and domestication traits from the CSSL population were compared with those obtained from two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations involving the same weedy rice accession. There was congruence of major effect QTLs between both types of populations, but new and additional QTLs were detected in the CSSL population. Although, three major effect QTLs for plant height were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 8 in the CSSL population, the latter two escaped detection in both RIL populations. Since this was observed for many traits, epistasis may play a major role for the phenotypic variation observed in weedy rice. High levels of shattering and seed dormancy in weedy rice might result from an accumulation of many small effect QTLs. Several CSSLs with desirable agronomic traits (e.g. longer panicles, longer grains, and higher seed weight identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding. Since weedy rice is a reservoir of genes for many weedy and agronomic attributes, the CSSL library will serve as a valuable resource to discover latent genetic diversity for improving crop productivity and understanding the plant domestication process through cloning and characterization of the underlying genes.

  13. Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Michael H. Vos

    1999-12-09

    Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

  14. Construction of a full bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Oryza sativa genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOQUANZHOU; HAIYINGZHAO; 等

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a full BAC library for the superior early indica variety of Oryza sativa,Guang Lu Ai 4.The MAX Efficiency DH10B with increased stability of inserts was used as BAC host cells.The potent pBelo BACII with double selection markers was used as cloning vector.The cloning efficiency we have reached was as high as 98%,and the transformation efficiency was raised up to 106 transformants/μg of large fragment DNA.The BAC recombinant transformants were picked at random and analyzed for the size of inserts,which turned out to be of 120 kb in length on average.We have obtained more than 20,000 such BAC clones.According to conventional probability equation,they covered the entire rice genome of 420,000 kb in length.The entire length of inserts of the library obtained has the 5-to 6-fold coverage of the genome.To our knowledge,this is the first reported full BAC library for a complex genome.

  15. Isolation and characterization of DNA probes from a flow-sorted human chromosome 8 library that detect restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, S.; Starr, T V; Shukin, R J

    1986-01-01

    We have used a recombinant DNA library constructed from flow-sorted human chromosome 8 as a source of single-copy human probes. These probes have been screened for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by hybridization to Southern transfers of genomic DNA from five unrelated individuals. We have detected six RFLPs distributed among four probes after screening 741 base pairs for restriction site variation. These RFLPs all behave as codominant Mendelian alleles. Two of the probes dete...

  16. THE CONSTRUCTION OF X CHROMOSOME LIBRARY OF SPINY EEL (MASTACEMBELUS ACULEATUS)%刺鳅X染色体DNA文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈戟; 赵刚; 臧亚婷; 余其兴; 刘江东

    2009-01-01

    The spiny eel (Mastacembelus aculeatus) is a species of the genus Mastacembelus (Osteichthyes, Perciformes), which mainly live in the fresh water of the south of China. The fish is particularly attractive for cytogeneti-cal study owing to possessing well differentiated X and Y sex chromosomes.In the present study, the X chromosomes of M. aculeatus were microdissected from the metaphases of chromosomes of the female. Then, the fragments of X chromosomes were put into a micro tube and amplified using Degenerated Oligonucleotide-Primed PCR (DOP-PCR). Thereafter, the product of PCR was connected to T vector and the plasmids were electric transformed into E. coli. As a result, the library of X chromosome of M. aculeatus was constructed. The sum of the lengths of the inserted fragments is some 1.08 × 108bp, with an average length of 500bp. It is believed that the library covered more than 98% sequences of the whole X chromosome theoretically.To check the credibility of the library, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied. The fragments of the library were labeled with biotin by PCR. Then the probes were hybridized to the chromosome metaphases of both sex of M. aculeatus in the absence or the presence of competitor DNA. Strong signals were detected on the entire sex chromosomes as well as signals dispersed on all autosomes with the condition of FISH in the absence of competitor DNA. Whereas competitor DNA was added, the signals disappeared except those showed on heteroehromatic regions of X and Y chromosomes. Hence, we assorted the repetitive sequences in the X chromosome of M. aculeatus into three types. It was interpreted that the signals of FISH in the presence of competitor DNA showed the distribution of type Ⅱ repetitive sequences on the sex chromosomes of M. aculeatus.%刺鳅(Mastacembelus aculeatus)是具有明显X和Y异形性染色体分化的淡水鱼.本实验室通过显微切割(Mi-crodissection)和兼并引物PCR(DOP-PCR)方法,从雌性刺

  17. Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, C J; McClendon, M T; Walling, J G; Timmerman-Vaughan, G M; Murray, S; Meksem, K; Lightfoot, D A; Shultz, J L; Keller, K E; Martin, R R; Inglis, D A; Rajesh, P N; McPhee, K E; Weeden, N F; Grusak, M A; Li, C-M; Storlie, E W

    2007-09-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model legumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries that would enable the isolation of genes involved in plant disease resistance or control of economically important traits. The BAC libraries encompassed about 3.2 haploid genome equivalents consisting of partially HindIII-digested DNA fragments with a mean size of 105 kb that were inserted in 1 of 2 vectors. The low-copy oriT-based T-DNA vector (pCLD04541) library contained 55 680 clones. The single-copy oriS-based vector (pIndigoBAC-5) library contained 65 280 clones. Colony hybridization of a universal chloroplast probe indicated that about 1% of clones in the libraries were of chloroplast origin. The presence of about 0.1% empty vectors was inferred by white/blue colony plate counts. The usefulness of the libraries was tested by 2 replicated methods. First, high-density filters were probed with low copy number sequences. Second, BAC plate-pool DNA was used successfully to PCR amplify 7 of 9 published pea resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and several other low copy number pea sequences. Individual BAC clones encoding specific sequences were identified. Therefore, the HindIII BAC libraries of pea, based on germplasm accession PI 269818, will be useful for the isolation of genes underlying disease resistance and other economically important traits.

  18. Repetitive genome elements in a European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, bacterial artificial chromosome library were indicated by bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing and development of sequence tag site markers: implications for lepidopteran genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2009-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36 864 clones with an estimated average insert size of >or=120 kb and genome coverage of 8.8-fold. Screening OnB1 clones comprising approximately 2.76 genome equivalents determined the physical position of 24 sequence tag site markers, including markers linked to ecologically important and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance traits. OnB1 bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence reads (GenBank dbGSS accessions ET217010 to ET217273) showed homology to annotated genes or expressed sequence tags and identified repetitive genome elements, O. nubilalis miniature subterminal inverted repeat transposable elements (OnMITE01 and OnMITE02), and ezi-like long interspersed nuclear elements. Mobility of OnMITE01 was demonstrated by the presence or absence in O. nubilalis of introns at two different loci. A (GTCT)n tetranucleotide repeat at the 5' ends of OnMITE01 and OnMITE02 are evidence for transposon-mediated movement of lepidopteran microsatellite loci. The number of repetitive elements in lepidopteran genomes will affect genome assembly and marker development. Single-locus sequence tag site markers described here have downstream application for integration within linkage maps and comparative genomic studies.

  19. A five-fold pig bacterial artificial chromosome library:a resource for positional cloning and physical mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; LI Ning; ZHANG Ying; LIU Zhaoliang; GUO Li; WANG Xiaobo; FEI Jing; FENG Jidong; ZHAO Rui; HU Xiaoxiang

    2006-01-01

    A pig BAC library was constructed with genomic DNA from a male Erhualian pig. After partial digestion with Hind Ⅲ or BamH I the fragments obtained were cloned into the pBeloBAC11 vector. The library consists of 184320 clones which stored in 480pieces 384-well plates (20 plates per superpool). A two-step 4-dimension PCR screening system was established to screen the positive clones. An average insert size of 128 kb was estimated from 105 randomly isolated clones, which indicates that the library is more than five times of genomic coverage. For the demonstration of the probability to pick out any unique genes or DNA markers from the library, 10single-copy genes were screened out and the positive clones were yielded between 1 and 8 with an average of 3.6. Positive superpools were obtained for 32 microsatellite markers selected from different regions of pig genome. The number of positive superpools for each marker varies from 1 to 9 with an average of 4.78. This BAC library provides an additional resource for pig physical mapping and gene identification.

  20. Design and Assembly of DNA Sequence Libraries for Chromosomal Insertion in Bacteria Based on a Set of Modified MoClo Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Milbredt, Sarah; Sperlea, Theodor; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2016-12-16

    Efficient assembly of large DNA constructs is a key technology in synthetic biology. One of the most popular assembly systems is the MoClo standard in which restriction and ligation of multiple fragments occurs in a one-pot reaction. The system is based on a smart vector design and type IIs restriction enzymes, which cut outside their recognition site. While the initial MoClo vectors had been developed for the assembly of multiple transcription units of plants, some derivatives of the vectors have been developed over the last years. Here we present a new set of MoClo vectors for the assembly of fragment libraries and insertion of constructs into bacterial chromosomes. The vectors are accompanied by a computer program that generates a degenerate synthetic DNA sequence that excludes "forbidden" DNA motifs. We demonstrate the usability of the new approach by construction of a stable fluorescence repressor operator system (FROS).

  1. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  2. A high-throughput strategy for screening of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries and anchoring of clones on a genetic map constructed with single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deal Karin R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current techniques of screening bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries for molecular markers during the construction of physical maps are slow, laborious and often assign multiple BAC contigs to a single locus on a genetic map. These limitations are the principal impediment in the construction of physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes. It is hypothesized that this impediment can be overcome by screening multidimensional pools of BAC clones using the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate™ assay. Results To test the efficacy of the Golden Gate assay in BAC library screening, multidimensional pools involving 302976 Aegilops tauschii BAC clones were genotyped for the presence/absence of specific gene sequences with multiplexed Illumina GoldenGate oligonucleotide assays previously used to place single nucleotide polymorphisms on an Ae. tauschii genetic map. Of 1384 allele-informative oligonucleotide assays, 87.6% successfully clustered BAC pools into those positive for a BAC clone harboring a specific gene locus and those negative for it. The location of the positive BAC clones within contigs assembled from 199190 fingerprinted Ae. tauschii BAC clones was used to evaluate the precision of anchoring of BAC clones and contigs on the Ae. tauschii genetic map. For 41 (95% assays, positive BAC clones were neighbors in single contigs. Those contigs could be unequivocally assigned to loci on the genetic map. For two (5% assays, positive clones were in two different contigs and the relationships of these contigs to loci on the Ae. tauschii genetic map were equivocal. Screening of BAC libraries with a simple five-dimensional BAC pooling strategy was evaluated and shown to allow direct detection of positive BAC clones without the need for manual deconvolution of BAC clone pools. Conclusion The highly parallel Illumina oligonucleotide assay is shown here to be an efficient tool for screening BAC libraries and a strategy for high

  3. 白眉长臂猿基因组BAC文库的构建%Construction of Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of Hylobates Hoolock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王起明; 孙烨超; 厉申捷; 叶建平

    2015-01-01

    High quality genomic DNA of Hylobates hoolock was obtained by gentle physical homogenization. The DNA was partially digested with EcoRⅠand EcoRⅠmethylase, and cloned to pCC1BAC vector. The positive clones were stored in 384-well plates. The constructed BAC library consists of 85800 clones. DNA from randomly selected 250 BAC clones was restricted with Not I restriction enzyme and fragments were separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The result shows that the average insert size is estimated as approximately 110 kb, and the ratio of non-recombinant clones is 10. 0%. If the genome size of Hylobates hoolock is 3 ×106 kilo-base, the library could cover 3 times the number of genome.%通过温和的物理方法获得白眉长臂猿高质量的基因组DNA,EcoRⅠ和EcoRⅠ甲基化酶部分酶切后经回收、连接、转化、阳性克隆的保存,构建了含有85800个克隆的全基因组BAC( Bacterial artificial chromosome)文库.随机选取250个BAC克隆进行Not I酶切及脉冲场电泳分析,结果表明该文库的平均插入片段大小为110 kb,非重组克隆(无插入片段)的比率为10.0%.假定白眉长臂猿的基因组大小为3×106 kb,根据文库的平均插入片段大小,则该文库具有3倍的基因组覆盖率.

  4. Genome-Based Identification of Chromosomal Regions Specific for Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen-Wester, Imke; Hensel, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of genomic elements by horizontal gene transfer represents an important mechanism in the evolution of bacterial species. Pathogenicity islands are a subset of horizontally acquired elements present in various pathogens. These elements are frequently located adjacent to tRNA genes. We performed a comparative genome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium and Escherichia coli and scanned tRNA loci for the presence of species-specific, horizontally acquired gen...

  5. Mapping and ordered cloning of the human X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, C.T.; Nelson, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Progress is reported on gathering X chromosome specific libraries and integrating those with the library produced in this project. Further studies on understanding Fragile X Syndrome and other hereditary diseases related to the X chromosome are described. (DT)

  6. Construction of Genomic Fosmid Library of Brassicajuncea and Screening of Cytological Markers for B-genome Chromosomes%芥菜Fosmid文库构建及B基因组细胞学标记的筛选利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭元凤; 孟德璇; 黄玉碧; 王桂香

    2012-01-01

    构建了由60000个克隆组成的芥菜无偏倚Fosmid文库,该文库外源片段插入率为100%,外源DNA平均插入长度为32kb,文库覆盖率约为芥菜基因组的1.8倍。利用不同来源的分子标记筛选文库,得到的阳性单克隆经荧光原位杂交(FISH)鉴定后,获得两类B基因组细胞学标记,一类在所有染色体上都有信号,另一类仅在一对染色体上有信号。%In this study, an unbiased Fosmid library of Brassica juncea was established, which consisted of 60 000 clones with 100% inserting frequency. In the constructed library, the size of average inserts was approximately 32 kb, corresponding to 1.8 genome equivalents. Subsequently, two types of B-genome cytological markers were identified by means of library screening and chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) . One type was that the signal located on all chromosomes, and the other one was that the signal was detected only on one pair of chromosomes.

  7. Isolation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences from an Alu polymerase chain reaction library to define the breakpoint in a patient with a constitutional translocation t(1;13) (q22;q12) and ganglioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, A J; Cotter, F E; Cowell, J K

    1992-08-01

    We describe the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a t(1;13)(q22;q12) constitutional rearrangement occurring in a patient with a relatively benign form of neuroblastoma, called ganglioneuroblastoma. Somatic cell hybrids were generated between mouse 3T3 cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line from this patient, D.G. One isolated subclone, DGF27C11, contained the derivative chromosome, 1pter-q22::13q12-qter, but no other material from either chromosome 1 or 13. Using available DNA probes the 13 breakpoint was assigned proximal to all reported markers. In order to generate flanking markers to define this translocation further, an Alu polymerase chain reaction library was constructed from a somatic cell hybrid containing only the proximal, 13pter-13q14, region of chromosome 13. Seven unique sequences have been isolated from the library, three of which lie below and four of which lie above the 13q12 breakpoint. More precise mapping of the distal markers was achieved using a panel of somatic cell hybrids with overlapping deletions of chromosome 13. The paucity of probes in the 1q22 region has made a precise assignment of this breakpoint difficult, however it has been shown to lie distal to c-SKI and proximal to APOA2. This refined characterization of the breakpoint is a prerequisite for its cloning, which may yield genes important in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroblastoma.

  8. The Regional Specifications of Story Telling of Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مشتاق مهر مشتاق مهر

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regionalism in the contemporary Iranian story telling begins seriously in the 1930s and reaches its peak in the 1940s or 1950s. The regional stories reflect mostly the common specifications and elements, such as cultures, beliefs, rules and ceremonies in the geographical area. In the contemporary Iranian story telling, with respect to the geographical origins of writers and regional specifications reflected in their worksfive realms of regional story telling in the north, south, east (Khorasan, west (Kermanshah, and Adharbayejan are reflected After presenting the definition of regional story, This article critically counts and introduces regional stories of Khorasan and their specifications.. Key words: region, story, the manner of regional writing, Khorasan.

  9. Brain noise is task dependent and region specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Bratislav; Mills, Travis; Taylor, Margot J; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2010-11-01

    The emerging organization of anatomical and functional connections during human brain development is thought to facilitate global integration of information. Recent empirical and computational studies have shown that this enhanced capacity for information processing enables a diversified dynamic repertoire that manifests in neural activity as irregularity and noise. However, transient functional networks unfold over multiple time, scales and the embedding of a particular region depends not only on development, but also on the manner in which sensory and cognitive systems are engaged. Here we show that noise is a facet of neural activity that is also sensitive to the task context and is highly region specific. Children (6-16 yr) and adults (20-41 yr) performed a one-back face recognition task with inverted and upright faces. Neuromagnetic activity was estimated at several hundred sources in the brain by applying a beamforming technique to the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). During development, neural activity became more variable across the whole brain, with most robust increases in medial parietal regions, such as the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. For young children and adults, activity evoked by upright faces was more variable and noisy compared with inverted faces, and this effect was reliable only in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that upright faces engender a variety of integrative neural computations, such as the relations among facial features and their holistic constitution. This study shows that transient changes in functional integration modulated by task demand are evident in the variability of regional neural activity.

  10. Genomic libraries: I. Construction and screening of fosmid genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Mike A; Matthews, Lucy; Sims, Sarah; Lloyd, Christine; Beasley, Helen; Baxter, Simon W

    2011-01-01

    Large insert genome libraries have been a core resource required to sequence genomes, analyze haplotypes, and aid gene discovery. While next generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing the field of genomics, traditional genome libraries will still be required for accurate genome assembly. Their utility is also being extended to functional studies for understanding DNA regulatory elements. Here, we present a detailed method for constructing genomic fosmid libraries, testing for common contaminants, gridding the library to nylon membranes, then hybridizing the library membranes with a radiolabeled probe to identify corresponding genomic clones. While this chapter focuses on fosmid libraries, many of these steps can also be applied to bacterial artificial chromosome libraries.

  11. The origin of human chromosome 2 analyzed by comparative chromosome mapping with a DNA microlibrary

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Johannes; Jauch, Anna; Lüdecke, H J; Senger, G.; Horsthemke, B; Claussen, U.; Cremer, Thomas; Arnold, N; Lengauer, Christoph

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescencein situ hybridization (FISH) of microlibraries established from distinct chromosome subregions can test the evolutionary conservation of chromosome bands as well as chromosomal rearrangements that occurred during primate evolution and will help to clarify phylogenetic relationships. We used a DNA library established by microdissection and microcloning from the entire long arm of human chromosome 2 for fluorescencein situ hybridization and comparative mapping of the chromosomes of ...

  12. Mapping and ordered cloning of the human X chromosome. Progress report, September 1991--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, C.T.; Nelson, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Progress is reported on gathering X chromosome specific libraries and integrating those with the library produced in this project. Further studies on understanding Fragile X Syndrome and other hereditary diseases related to the X chromosome are described. (DT)

  13. Flow karyotyping and sorting of human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Peters, D.; Pinkel, D.; Trask, B.; van den Engh, G.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1986-07-16

    Flow cytometry and sorting are becoming increasingly useful as tools for chromosome classfication and for the detection of numerical and structural chromosome aberrations. Chromosomes of a single type can be purified with these tools to facilitate gene mapping or production of chromosome specific recombinant DNA libraries. For analysis of chromosomes with flow cytometry, the chromosomes are extracted from mitotic cells, stained with one or more fluorescent dyes and classified one-by-one according to their dye content(s). Thus, the flow approach is fundamentally different than conventional karyotyping where chromosomes are classified within the context of a metaphase spread. Flow sorting allows purification of chromosomes that can be distinguished flow cytometrically. The authors describe the basic principles of flow cytometric chromosome classification i.e. flow karyotyping, and chromosome sorting and describe several applications. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  15. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  16. Combination of Multiple Spectral Libraries Improves the Current Search Methods Used to Identify Missing Proteins in the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Yoo, Jong Shin; Omenn, Gilbert S; Baker, Mark S; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 2.9 billion long base-pair human reference genome sequences are known to encode some 20 000 representative proteins. However, 3000 proteins, that is, ~15% of all proteins, have no or very weak proteomic evidence and are still missing. Missing proteins may be present in rare samples in very low abundance or be only temporarily expressed, causing problems in their detection and protein profiling. In particular, some technical limitations cause missing proteins to remain unassigned. For example, current mass spectrometry techniques have high limits and error rates for the detection of complex biological samples. An insufficient proteome coverage in a reference sequence database and spectral library also raises major issues. Thus, the development of a better strategy that results in greater sensitivity and accuracy in the search for missing proteins is necessary. To this end, we used a new strategy, which combines a reference spectral library search and a simulated spectral library search, to identify missing proteins. We built the human iRefSPL, which contains the original human reference spectral library and additional peptide sequence-spectrum match entries from other species. We also constructed the human simSPL, which contains the simulated spectra of 173 907 human tryptic peptides determined by MassAnalyzer (version 2.3.1). To prove the enhanced analytical performance of the combination of the human iRefSPL and simSPL methods for the identification of missing proteins, we attempted to reanalyze the placental tissue data set (PXD000754). The data from each experiment were analyzed using PeptideProphet, and the results were combined using iProphet. For the quality control, we applied the class-specific false-discovery rate filtering method. All of the results were filtered at a false-discovery rate of libraries, iRefSPL and simSPL, were designed to ensure no overlap of the proteome coverage. They were shown to be complementary to spectral library

  17. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  18. Preparation of PAC libraries. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieter J. de Jong

    1997-12-31

    The goals of this project were to create P1 Artificial Chromosome (PAC) cloning vectors and use these vectors to generate, characterize, and distribute both human and mouse genomic PAC libraries to the scientific community.

  19. Development of regional specificity of spinal and medullary dorsal horn neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Feng Xie; Xing-Hong Jiang; Barry J Sessle; Xian-Min Yu

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies have focused on the development and regionalization of neurons in the central nervous system(CNS). Many genes, which play crucial roles in the development of CNS neurons, have been identified. By using the technique "direct reprogramming", neurons can be produced from multiple cell sources such as fibroblasts. However, understanding the region-specific regulation of neurons in the CNS is still one of the biggest challenges in the research field of neuroscience. Neurons located in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis(Vc) and in the spinal dorsal horn(SDH) play crucial roles in pain and sensorimotor functions in the orofacial and other somatic body regions, respectively. Anatomically, Vc represents the most caudal component of the trigeminal system, and is contiguous with SDH. This review is focused on recent data dealing with the regional specificity involved in the development of neurons in Vc and SDH.

  20. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melrose Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astroglia from two different rat brain regions, cortex (region affected in AD and cerebellum (unaffected region, were treated with 0.2 mM of palmitic acid. The conditioned media were then transferred to the cortical neurons to study the possible effects on the two main, AD-associated protein abnormalities, viz. BACE1 upregulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The conditioned media from palmitic-acid treated cortical astroglia, but not the cerebellar astroglia, significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated tau and BACE1 in cortical neurons as compared to controls (47 ± 7% and 45 ± 4%, respectively. Conclusion The present data provide an experimental explanation for the region-specific damage observed in AD brain; higher fatty acid-metabolizing capacity of cortical astroglia as compared to cerebellar astroglia, may play a causal role in increasing vulnerability of cortex in AD, while sparing cerebellum.

  1. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  2. Selection and fine mapping of chromosome-specific cDNAs: application to human chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, M; Sala, C; Rivella, S; Toniolo, D

    1996-12-01

    We have developed a methodology for identification and fine mapping of chromosome-specific transcripts. Combining digestion of DNA with different restriction enzymes, ligation to "bubble" linkers, and PCR amplification from Alu and "bubble" primers, we have synthesized human chromosome 1-specific sequences from DNA of a somatic cell hybrid, A9Neol. After hybridization to human fetal brain cDNA, we could efficiently capture chromosome 1-specific cDNAs. The cDNAs were sequenced and used as probes in hybridizations to high-density filters containing the arrayed CEPH Mega-YAC library and to the arrayed cDNA library from infant brain made by B. Soares, which has been extensively sequenced. By this approach we have been able to select chromosome 1-specific cDNAs, to map them to chromosome 1 YAC contigs, and to identify and map corresponding longer cDNAs and ESTs.

  3. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  4. Reconstruction of genomic rearrangements in great apes and gibbons by chromosome painting

    OpenAIRE

    Jauch, Anna; Wienberg, Johannes; Stanyon, Roscoe; Arnold, N; S. Tofanelli; ISHIDA, T.; Cremer, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The homology between hylobatid chromosomes and other primates has long remained elusive. We used chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of all human chromosome-specific DNA libraries to "paint" the chromosomes of primates and establish homologies between the human, great ape (chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan), and gibbon karyotypes (Hylobates lar species group, 2n = 44). The hybridization patterns unequivocally demonstrate the high degree of chromosomal homology and synteny of great ...

  5. Chromosome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  6. Region-specific changes of cerebral white matter during normal aging: a diffusion-tensor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Shon, Young-Min; Yang, Dong-Won

    2008-01-01

    With aging, the human brain tissue undergoes degeneration and a decline in cognitive function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive method for detecting microstructural changes of the brain white matter (WM). We examined the age-dependent, region-specific, changing patterns in microstructures of the brain. This was preformed by DTI analysis of 58 healthy volunteers from Korea. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured for each region of interest (ROI) in 22 areas. The FA and ADC values of all 22 ROIs were, respectively, compared among the age groups, by linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. With aging, the ADC values tended to increase and the FA values tended to decrease. Patterns of regional changes of the FA were divided into three subgroups. The cingulum was affected earliest with aging and the age-related WM changes show an anterior to posterior gradient acceleration throughout the decades tested. This study suggests that DTI is sensitive enough a diagnostic tool to detect subtle microstructural changes. These results show that the WM has a region-specific vulnerability to the aging process.

  7. Characters of DNA Constitution in the Rye B Chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Long; Zhong-Xia Qi; Xiao-Ming Sun; Cheng-Bin Chen; Xiu-Lan Li; Wen-Qin Song; Rui-Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    We have used chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct a DNA library of the entire B chromosome (B) of rye. New rye B-specific sequences have been screened from this pool, blasted with other sequences and analyzed to elucidate the characters of DNA constitution and the possible pathway of the origin of the rye B chromosome. We report the discovery of a new sequence that is specific to the rye B centromere.

  8. Invasive candidiasis in non neutropenic critically ill - need for region-specific management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, A K; Marak, Rungmei S K; Gurjar, Mohan

    2015-06-01

    Use of antifungal agents has increased over past few decades. A number of risk factors such as immunosuppression, broad spectrum antibiotics, dialysis, pancreatitis, surgery, etc., have been linked with the increased risk of invasive candidiasis. Though there are various guidelines available for the use of antifungal therapy, local/regional epidemiology plays an important role in determining the appropriate choice of agent in situations where the offending organism is not known (i.e. empirical, prophylactic or preemptive therapy). Developing countries like India need to generate their own epidemiological data to facilitate appropriate use of antifungal therapy. In this article, the authors have highlighted the need for region-specific policies/guidelines for treatment of invasive candidiasis. Currently available Indian literature on candidemia epidemiology has also been summarized here.

  9. Invasive candidiasis in non neutropenic critically ill - need for region-specific management guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of antifungal agents has increased over past few decades. A number of risk factors such as immunosuppression, broad spectrum antibiotics, dialysis, pancreatitis, surgery, etc., have been linked with the increased risk of invasive candidiasis. Though there are various guidelines available for the use of antifungal therapy, local/regional epidemiology plays an important role in determining the appropriate choice of agent in situations where the offending organism is not known (i.e. empirical, prophylactic or preemptive therapy. Developing countries like India need to generate their own epidemiological data to facilitate appropriate use of antifungal therapy. In this article, the authors have highlighted the need for region-specific policies/guidelines for treatment of invasive candidiasis. Currently available Indian literature on candidemia epidemiology has also been summarized here.

  10. Biomedical Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1978-01-01

    Biomedical libraries are discussed as a distinct and specialized group of special libraries and their unique services and user interactions are described. The move toward professional standards, as evidenced by the Medical Library Association's new certification program, and the current state of development for a new section of IFLA established…

  11. Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Papy, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Of vital interest to all librarians and information specialists, this book presents all aspects of the effects of digitization of today's and tomorrow's libraries. From social to technical issues, Digital Libraries includes chapters on the growth of the role of librarian, the reader experience, cataloging, search engines, OPAC, law, ergonomic studies, and the future of libraries.

  12. Region-Specific Expression of Immunoregulatory Proteins on Microglia in the Healthy CNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDER H. DE HAAS; HENDRIKUS W. G. M. BODDEKE; KNUT BIBER

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with a high degree of spatial organization in the central nervous system (CNS),most CNS diseases display a regional distribution. Although microglia have been established as key players in va-rious CNS diseases, it is not yet clear whether microglia display region-specific properties. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the existence of distinct microglia phenotypes in various regions of the healthy, adult mouse CNS. Using ex vivo flow cytometric analysis surface expression of CD1 lb, CD40, CD45, CD80, CD86, F4/ 0,TREM-2b, MHCII, CXCR3, CCR9, and CCR7 were analyzed. Most of these immunoregulatory markers were found on microglia and showed significant region-specific differences in expression levels. These findings considerably corroborate the existence of immunological diversity among microglia in the healthy, unchallenged CNS of adult mice.%与中枢神经系统的空间结构高度一致,大部分的中枢神经系统疾病表现为区域性分布.虽然小胶质细胞已被公认在各种中枢神经系统疾病中发挥重要的作用.但是小胶质细胞是否表现为区域特异性目前还不清楚.因此,本研究目的是评估在健康成年小鼠的中枢神经系统的不同区域中小胶质细胞的不同表型.运用体外流式细胞仪分析CD11b,CD40,CD4 5,CD80,CD86,F4180,TREM-2b,MHCII,CXCR3,CCR9以及CCR7的表面表达.这些免疫调节标记物大部分均存在于小胶质细胞上并且在表达水平上有明显的区域特异性差异.这些发现在很大程度上证实了在健康成年小鼠中枢神经系统的小胶质细胞中存在着免疫多样性.

  13. Chromosome Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-06-01

    Chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) is a high-throughput method for detecting ligation products of interest in a chromosome conformation capture (3C) library. 5C uses ligation-mediated amplification (LMA) to generate carbon copies of 3C ligation product junctions using single-stranded oligonucleotide probes. This procedure produces a 5C library of short DNA molecules which represent the interactions between the corresponding restriction fragments. The 5C library can be amplified using universal primers containing the Illumina paired-end adaptor sequences for subsequent high-throughput sequencing.

  14. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1991-01-15

    Progress toward the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X has been made by isolating and characterizing a relatively large set of polymorphic probes for each chromosome and using these probes to construct genetic maps. We have mapped the same polymorphic probes against a series of chromosome breakpoints on X and 17. The probes could be assigned to over 30 physical intervals on the X chromosome and 7 intervals on 17. In many cases, this process resulted in improved characterization of the relative locations of the breakpoints with respect to each other and the definition of new physical intervals. The strategy for isolation of the polymorphic clones utilized chromosome specific libraries of 1--15 kb segments from each of the two chromosomes. From these libraries, clones were screened for those detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The markers were further characterized, the chromosomal assignments confirmed and in most cases segments of the original probes were subcloned into plasmids to produce probes with improved signal to noise ratios for use in the genetic marker studies. The linkage studies utilize the CEPH reference families and other well-characterized families in our collection which have been used for genetic disease linkage work. Preliminary maps and maps of portions of specific regions of 17 and X are provided. We have nearly completed a map of the 1 megabase Mycoplasma arthritidis genome by applying these techniques to a lambda phage library of its genome. We have found bit mapping to be an efficient means to organize a contiguous set of overlapping clones from a larger genome.

  15. Construction of the Primary Physical Map of Rice Chromosome 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A primary physical map of rice chromosome 12 was constructed using marker-based chromosome landing and chromosome walking. A BAC library from IR64 was screened using 84 RFLP markers, 4 STS markers and 6 microsatellite markers on chromosome 12 by colony hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. A total of 59 contigs consisting of 419 BAC clones including 5 single-clones were physically aligned on rice chromosome 12 with the largest BAC contig covering 855 kb. The whole physical map had a size of ~16 Mb and covered about 52% of rice chromosome 12. This physical map will be certainly helpful for map-based gene cloning of agronomically and biological important genes and understanding the genome structure of the chromosome.

  16. Region-Specific Genetic Alterations in the Aging Hippocampus: Implications for Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna eBurger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline in both humans and animals and of all brain regions, the hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to senescence. Age-related spatial learning deficits result from alterations in hippocampal connectivity and plasticity. These changes are differentially expressed in each of the hippocampal fields known as cornu ammonis 1 (CA1, cornu ammonis 3 (CA3, and the dentate gyrus. Each sub-region displays varying degrees of susceptibility to aging. For example, the CA1 region is particularly susceptible in Alzheimer’s disease while the CA3 region shows vulnerability to stress and glucocorticoids. Further, in animals, aging is the main factor associated with the decline in adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This review discusses the relationship between region-specific hippocampal connectivity, morphology, and gene expression alterations and the cognitive deficits associated with senescence. In particular, data are reviewed that illustrate how the molecular changes observed in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions are associated with age-related learning deficits. This topic is of importance because increased understanding of how gene expression patterns reflect individual differences in cognitive performance is critical to the process of identifying new and clinically-useful biomarkers for cognitive aging.

  17. Cholinergic excitation in mouse primary vs. associative cortex: region-specific magnitude and receptor balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Michael K; Bailey, Craig D C; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2014-08-01

    Cholinergic stimulation of the cerebral cortex is essential for tasks requiring attention; however, there is still some debate over which cortical regions are required for such tasks. There is extensive cholinergic innervation of both primary and associative cortices, and transient release of acetylcholine (ACh) is detected in deep layers of the relevant primary and/or associative cortex, depending on the nature of the attention task. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological effects of ACh in layer VI, the deepest layer, of the primary somatosensory cortex, the primary motor cortex, and the associative medial prefrontal cortex. Layer VI pyramidal neurons are a major source of top-down modulation of attention, and we found that the strength and homogeneity of their direct cholinergic excitation was region-specific. On average, neurons in the primary cortical regions showed weaker responses to ACh, mediated by a balance of contributions from both nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors. Conversely, neurons in the associative medial prefrontal cortex showed significantly stronger excitation by ACh, mediated predominantly by nicotinic receptors. The greatest diversity of responses to ACh was found in the primary somatosensory cortex, with only a subset of neurons showing nicotinic excitation. In a mouse model with attention deficits only under demanding conditions, cholinergic excitation was preserved in primary cortical regions but not in the associative medial prefrontal cortex. These findings demonstrate that the effect of ACh is not uniform throughout the cortex, and suggest that its ability to enhance attention performance may involve different cellular mechanisms across cortical regions.

  18. Region-specific deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Kanpur city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anbazhagan P; Ketan Bajaj; Nairwita Dutta; Sayed S R Moustafa; Nassir S N Al-Arifi

    2017-02-01

    A seismic hazard map of Kanpur city has been developed considering the region-specific seismotectonic parameters within a 500-km radius by deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The maximum probable earthquake magnitude \\textit(Mmax) for each seismic source has been estimated by considering the regional rupture characteristics method and has been compared with the maximum magnitude observed \\textit(Mobsmax), \\textit(Mobsmax) + 0.5 and Kijko method. The best suitable ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) were selected from 27 applicable GMPEs based on the ‘efficacy test’. Furthermore, different weight factors were assigned to different Mmax values and the selected GMPE to calculate the final hazard value. Peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1 s were estimated and mapped for worstcase scenario and 2 and 10% probability of exceedance for 50 years. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) showed a variation from 0.04 to 0.36 g for DSHA, from 0.02 to 0.32 g and 0.092 to 0.1525 g for 2 and 10% probability in 50 years, respectively. A normalised site-specific design spectrum has been developed considering three vulnerable sources based on deaggregation at the city center and the results are compared with the recent 2011 Sikkim and 2015 Nepal earthquakes, and the Indian seismic code IS 1893.

  19. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  20. Specification of Region-Specific Neurons Including Forebrain Glutamatergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Zheng; Park, Jung Woo; Zhan, Shuning; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Lichtler, Alexander; Liu, Hui-Xia; Chen, Fang-Ping; Yue, Lixia; Li, Xue-Jun; Xu, Ren-He

    2010-01-01

    Background Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE) cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders. PMID:20686615

  1. Specification of region-specific neurons including forebrain glutamatergic neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders.

  2. Development and Application of a Transformation-competent Artificial chromosome (TAC) Genomic DNA Library in Allotetrapolid Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. )%陆地棉TAC基因组DNA文库的构建及利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-e LIANG; Jin-feng SUO; Yong-biao XUE

    2002-01-01

    @@ The technology of cloning and transferring of large DNA fragments in plants is important for high-efficient identification of new genes and study of gene functions. Tranformationcompetent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector system has been shown to be very useful for efficient gene isolation in Arobidopsis thaliana.

  3. Gender- and region-specific alterations in bone metabolism in Scarb1-null female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Corine; Martin-Falstrault, Louise; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-08-01

    A positive correlation between plasma levels of HDL and bone mass has been reported by epidemiological studies. As scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), the gene product of Scarb1, is known to regulate HDL metabolism, we recently characterized bone metabolism in Scarb1-null mice. These mice display high femoral bone mass associated with enhanced bone formation. As gender differences have been reported in HDL metabolism and SR-BI function, we investigated gender-specific bone alterations in Scarb1-null mice by microtomography and histology. We found 16% greater relative bone volume and 39% higher bone formation rate in the vertebrae from 2-month-old Scarb1-null females. No such alteration was seen in males, indicating gender- and region-specific differences in skeletal phenotype. Total and HDL-associated cholesterol levels, as well as ACTH plasma levels, were increased in both Scarb1-null genders, the latter being concurrent to impaired corticosterone response to fasting. Plasma levels of estradiol did not differ between null and WT females, suggesting that the estrogen metabolism alteration is not relevant to the higher vertebral bone mass in female Scarb1-null mice. Constitutively, high plasma levels of leptin along with 2.5-fold increase in its expression in white adipose tissue were measured in female Scarb1-null mice only. In vitro exposure of bone marrow stromal cells to ACTH and leptin promoted osteoblast differentiation as evidenced by increased gene expression of osterix and collagen type I alpha. Our results suggest that hyperleptinemia may account for the gender-specific high bone mass seen in the vertebrae of female Scarb1-null mice.

  4. CT-measured regional specific volume change reflects regional ventilation in supine sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuld, Matthew K; Easley, R Blaine; Saba, Osama I; Chon, Deokiee; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric A; Simon, Brett A

    2008-04-01

    Computer tomography (CT) imaging techniques permit the noninvasive measurement of regional lung function. Regional specific volume change (sVol), determined from the change in lung density over a tidal breath, should correlate with regional ventilation and regional lung expansion measured with other techniques. sVol was validated against xenon (Xe)-CT-specific ventilation (sV) in four anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated sheep. Xe-CT used expiratory gated axial scanning during the washin and washout of 55% Xe. sVol was measured from the tidal changes in tissue density (H, houndsfield units) of lung regions using the relationship sVol = [1,000(Hi - He)]/[He(1,000 + Hi)], where He and Hi are expiratory and inspiratory regional density. Distinct anatomical markings were used to define corresponding lung regions of interest between inspiratory, expiratory, and Xe-CT images, with an average region of interest size of 1.6 +/- 0.7 ml. In addition, sVol was compared with regional volume changes measured directly from the positions of implanted metal markers in an additional animal. A linear relationship between sVol and sV was demonstrated over a wide range of regional sV found in the normal supine lung, with an overall correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.66. There was a tight correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between marker-measured volume changes and sVol. Regional sVol, which involves significantly reduced exposure to radiation and Xe gas compared with the Xe-CT method, represents a safe and efficient surrogate for measuring regional ventilation in experimental studies and patients.

  5. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  6. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  7. Cross-species bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library screening via overgo-based hybridization and BAC-contig mapping of a yield enhancement quantitative trait locus (QTL) yld1.1 in the Malaysian wild rice Oryza rufipogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beng-Kah; Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Romanov, Michael N; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2005-01-01

    The construction of BAC-contig physical maps is an important step towards a partial or ultimate genome sequence analysis. Here, we describe our initial efforts to apply an overgo approach to screen a BAC library of the Malaysian wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. Overgo design is based on repetitive element masking and sequence uniqueness, and uses short probes (approximately 40 bp), making this method highly efficient and specific. Pairs of 24-bp oligos that contain an 8-bp overlap were developed from the publicly available genomic sequences of the cultivated rice, O. sativa, to generate 20 overgo probes for a 1-Mb region that encompasses a yield enhancement QTL yld1.1 in O. rufipogon. The advantages of a high similarity in melting temperature, hybridization kinetics and specific activities of overgos further enabled a pooling strategy for library screening by filter hybridization. Two pools of ten overgos each were hybridized to high-density filters representing the O. rufipogon genomic BAC library. These screening tests succeeded in providing 69 PCR-verified positive hits from a total of 23,040 BAC clones of the entire O. rufipogon library. A minimal tilling path of clones was generated to contribute to a fully covered BAC-contig map of the targeted 1-Mb region. The developed protocol for overgo design based on O. sativa sequences as a comparative genomic framework, and the pooled overgo hybridization screening technique are suitable means for high-resolution physical mapping and the identification of BAC candidates for sequencing.

  8. Cysteamine-induced reduction in gastrointestinal somatostatin: evidence for a region-specific loss in immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, C H; Bakich, V; Bokenfohr, K; DiScala-Guenot, D; Kwok, Y N; Brown, J C

    1988-06-01

    Administration of cysteamine (beta-mercaptoethylamine; 2-aminoethanethiol) to rats has been shown to decrease the levels of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas but its mode of action is unclear. In the current study the effect of cysteamine on gastrointestinal and pancreatic SLI has been studied using two antisera with different regional specificities. In addition, the in vitro effect of cysteamine on SS-14 and SS-28 has been studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Characterization of the two antisera (AS 26.3.2 and AS 1001) with a range of analogs of SS-14 revealed that both were directed against the midportion of the molecule but that AS 1001 was also sensitive to changes at the N- and C-termini. Tissue extracts from cysteamine-treated rats measured with AS 26.3.2 showed no significant change for the stomach, jejunum or pancreas but duodenal levels were reduced. With AS 1001 SLI levels were reduced in all tissues. Gel permeation chromatography of stomach extracts measured with AS 1001 showed a reduction in both SS-14 and SS-28. With AS 26.3.2 an increase in SLI eluting prior to the SS-14 peak occurred explaining why no significant reduction in total SLI was detected. With duodenal extracts the elution profiles with AS 1001 reflected the large reduction in total SLI whereas with AS 26.3.2 a smaller reduction occurred. Both SS-14 and SS-28 were reduced. HPLC analysis of SS-14 and SS-28 following incubation with cysteamine in vitro showed a time-dependent decrease in both somatostatin species with absorbance at 280 nm was measured. New peptide peaks which developed were not all detectable by radioimmunoassay with either antibody. The results suggest that cysteamine causes a change in the structure of somatostatin which probably first involves a reduction of the disulphide bridge and then the N- and C-terminal regions of the molecule thus making it unmeasurable by antisera sensitive to changes in these

  9. Privatizing Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  10. Library Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model.......A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model....

  11. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting.

  12. Cross-species bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library screening via overgo-based hybridization and BAC-contig mapping of a yield enhancement quantitative trait locus (QTL) yld1.1 in the Malaysian wild rice Oryza rufipogon

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Beng-Kah; Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Romanov, Michael N.; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2005-01-01

    The construction of BAC-contig physical maps is an important step towards a partial or ultimate genome sequence analysis. Here, we describe our initial efforts to apply an overgo approach to screen a BAC library of the Malaysian wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. Overgo design is based on repetitive element masking and sequence uniqueness, and uses short probes (approximately 40 bp), making this method highly efficient and specific. Pairs of 24-bp oligos that contain an 8-bp overlap were dev...

  13. Region-Specific Involvement of Actin Rearrangement-Related Synaptic Structure Alterations in Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Li, Bo-Qin; Wang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Ling; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Actin rearrangement plays an essential role in learning and memory; however, the spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in different phases of associative memory has not been fully understood. Here, using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we investigated the region-specific involvement of actin rearrangement-related…

  14. Functional assessment of region-specific neglect: are there differential behavioural consequences of peripersonal versus extrapersonal neglect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Ten Brink, A.F.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal) have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-

  15. Targeted sequencing of the human X chromosome exome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Kajari; Shetty, Amol Carl; Patel, Viren; Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E

    2011-10-01

    We used a RainDance Technologies (RDT) expanded content library to enrich the human X chromosome exome (2.5 Mb) from 26 male samples followed by Illumina sequencing. Our multiplex primer library covered 98.05% of the human X chromosome exome in a single tube with 11,845 different PCR amplicons. Illumina sequencing of 24 male samples showed coverage for 97% of the targeted sequences. Sequence from 2 HapMap samples confirmed missing data rates of 2-3% at sites successfully typed by the HapMap project, with an accuracy of at least ~99.5% as compared to reported HapMap genotypes. Our demonstration that a RDT expanded content library can efficiently enrich and enable the routine sequencing of the human X chromosome exome suggests a wide variety of potential research and clinical applications for this platform.

  16. Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  17. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  18. Large-scale cloning of human chromosome 2-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) using an interspersed repetitive sequences (IRS)-PCR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Stanton, V P; Fujiwara, T M; Wang, J X; Rezonzew, R; Crumley, M J; Morgan, K; Gros, P; Housman, D; Schurr, E

    1995-03-20

    We report here an efficient approach to the establishment of extended YAC contigs on human chromosome 2 by using an interspersed repetitive sequences (IRS)-PCR-based screening strategy for YAC DNA pools. Genomic DNA was extracted from 1152 YAC pools comprised of 55,296 YACs mostly derived from the CEPH Mark I library. Alu-element-mediated PCR was performed for each pool, and amplification products were spotted on hybridization membranes (IRS filters). IRS probes for the screening of the IRS filters were obtained by Alu-element-mediated PCR. Of 708 distinct probes obtained from chromosome 2-specific somatic cell hybrids, 85% were successfully used for library screening. Similarly, 80% of 80 YAC walking probes were successfully used for library screening. Each probe detected an average of 6.6 YACs, which is in good agreement with the 7- to 7.5-fold genome coverage provided by the library. In a preliminary analysis, we have identified 188 YAC groups that are the basis for building contigs for chromosome 2. The coverage of the telomeric half of chromosome 2q was considered to be good since 31 of 34 microsatellites and 22 of 23 expressed sequence tags that were chosen from chromosome region 2q13-q37 were contained in a chromosome 2 YAC sublibrary generated by our experiments. We have identified a minimum of 1610 distinct chromosome 2-specific YACs, which will be a valuable asset for the physical mapping of the second largest human chromosome.

  19. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  20. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  1. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) spanning the synovial sarcoma-specific t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, B; Berger, W; Sinke, R J; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Gilgenkrantz, S; Geraghty, M T; Valle, D; Monaco, A P; Lehrach, H; Ropers, H H

    1993-01-01

    A somatic cell hybrid containing the synovial sarcoma-associated t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) derivative (der(X)) chromosome was used to characterize the translocation breakpoint region on the X chromosome. By using Southern hybridization of DNA from this der(X) hybrid in conjunction with Xp-region specific

  2. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  3. Functional Assessment of Region-Specific Neglect: Are There Differential Behavioural Consequences of Peripersonal versus Extrapersonal Neglect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. W. Nijboer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Region-specific types of neglect (peripersonal and extrapersonal have been dissociated, yet, differential behavioural consequences are unknown. Objective. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioural consequences at the level of basic activities of daily living of region-specific neglect, using the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS. Methods. 118 stroke patients were screened within the first two weeks after admission to the rehabilitation center for inpatient rehabilitation. Results. Patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions had significantly higher total score on the CBS compared to nonneglect patients. Total scores for patients with extrapersonal neglect were comparable to non-neglect patients. ADL impairments were found across activities (e.g., looking towards one side, forgetting body parts, colliding for both patients with peripersonal neglect and patients with neglect for both regions. Patients with extrapersonal neglect were only impaired on the item on way finding. Conclusions. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, where needed, to adjust the rehabilitation program accordingly. As the CBS is not developed to typically measure ADL in extrapersonal neglect, it would be of importance to add other (instrumental activities that heavily rely on processing information in farther space.

  4. Chromosomal instability in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Angela A G; Al Allak, Bushra; Velthuizen, Sandra C J M; de Vries, Annie; Kros, Johan M; Avezaat, Cees J J; de Klein, Annelies; Beverloo, H Berna; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 60% of sporadic meningiomas are caused by inactivation of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 22. No causative gene is known for the remaining 40%. Cytogenetic analysis shows that meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene can be divided into tumors that show monosomy 22 as the sole abnormality and tumors with a more complex karyotype. Meningiomas not caused by the NF2 gene usually have a diploid karyotype. Here we report that, besides the clonal chromosomal aberrations, the chromosome numbers in many meningiomas varied from one metaphase spread to the other, a feature that is indicative of chromosomal instability. Unexpectedly and regardless of genotype, a subgroup of tumors was observed with an average number of 44.9 chromosomes and little variation in the number of chromosomes per metaphase spread. In addition, a second subgroup was recognized with a hyperdiploid number of chromosomes (average 48.5) and considerable variation in numbers per metaphase. However, this numerical instability resulted in a clonal karyotype with chromosomal gains and losses in addition to loss of chromosome 22 only in meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene. In cultured cells of all tumor groups, bi- and multinucleated cells were seen, as well as anaphase bridges, residual chromatid strings, multiple spindle poles, and unseparated chromatids, suggesting defects in the mitotic apparatus or kinetochore. Thus, we conclude that even a benign and slow-growing tumor like a meningioma displays chromosomal instability.

  5. Progress towards construction of a total restriction fragment map of a human chromosome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vissing; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E. Solomon; G. Moore; N. Lench; N. Shennan; R. Williamson

    1987-01-01

    textabstractWe present an approach to the construction of an overlapping restriction fragment map of a single human chromosome. A genomic cosmid library genome was constructed from a mouse-human hybrid cell line containing chromosome 17 as its only human genetic component. Cosmids containing human i

  6. Incidental prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies: health, behavior, and fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, J.J.; Kooper, A.J.A.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Smits, A.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic relevance of incidental prenatal findings of sex chromosome aneuploidies. Methods. We searched with medical subject headings (MeSHs) and keywords in Medline and the Cochrane Library and systematically screened publications on postnatally diagnosed sex chromosomal

  7. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  8. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the t...

  9. Mechanisms for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Jean-Yves; Stouf, Mathieu; Lebailly, Elise; Cornet, François

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria face the problem of segregating their gigantic chromosomes without a segregation period restricted in time and space, as Eukaryotes do. Segregation thus involves multiple activities, general or specific of a chromosome region and differentially controlled. Recent advances show that these various mechanisms conform to a “pair and release” rule, which appears as a general rule in DNA segregation. We describe the latest advances in segregation of bacterial chromosomes with emphasis on the different pair and release mechanisms.

  10. The National Laboratory Gene Library Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaven, L.L.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The two National Laboratories at Livermore and Los Alamos have played a prominent role in the development and application of flow cytometry and sorting to chromosome classification and purification. Both laboratories began to receive numerous requests for specific human chromosomal types purified by flow sorting for gene library construction, but these requests were difficult to satisfy due to time and personnel constraints. The Department of Energy, through its Office of Health and Environmental Research, has a long-standing interest in the human genome in general and in the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of energy-related environmental pollutants in particular. Hence, it was decided in 1983 to use the flow construct chromosome-specific gene libraries to be made available to the genetic research community. The National Laboratory Gene Library Project was envisioned as a practical way to deal with requests for sorted chromosomes, and also as a way to promote increased understanding of the human genome and the effects of mutagens and carcinogens on it. The strategy for the project was developed with the help of an advisory committee as well as suggestions and advice from many other geneticists. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoz, Christophe; Junier, Ivan; Espeli, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made.

  12. Chromosome oscillations in mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campas, Otger

    2008-03-01

    Successful cell division necessitates a tight regulation of chromosome movement via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the motion have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. In animal cells, chromosomes periodically switch between phases of movement towards and away from the pole. This characteristic oscillatory behaviour cannot be explained by the current models of chromosome positioning and congression. We perform a self-contained theoretical analysis in which the motion of mono-oriented chromosomes results from the competition between the activity of the kinetochore and chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms. Our analysis, consistent with the available experimental data, proposes that the interplay between the aster-like morphology of the spindle and the collective kinetics of molecular motors is at the origin of chromosome oscillations, positioning and congression. It provides a natural explanation for the so-called chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes sense their position in space. In addition, we estimate the in vivo velocity of chromokinesins at vanishing load and propose new experiments to assess the mechanism at the origin of chromosome movement in cell division.

  13. Library news

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has been providing electronic access to the "Techniques de l'Ingénieur" database for the past 8 months. As a reminder, this is a multidisciplinary database of over 4000 technical and scientific articles in French, covering a broad range of topics such as mechanical engineering, safety, electronics and the environment. In a few simple steps, you can create your own account, select the types of documents you are interested in and configure your settings so as to receive alerts when articles in your field of activity are published. You can now access this resource from outside CERN using the "remote access to electronic resources" service. Further information is available here. Direct access to the database. Remote access to electronic resources. If you have any questions or comments, don't hesitate to contact us at: library.desk@cern.ch.

  14. Improving cluster-based methods for investigating potential for insect pest species establishment: region-specific risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Watts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing cluster-based methods for investigating insect species assemblages or profiles of a region to indicate the risk of new insect pest invasion have a major limitation in that they assign the same species risk factors to each region in a cluster. Clearly regions assigned to the same cluster have different degrees of similarity with respect to their species profile or assemblage. This study addresses this concern by applying weighting factors to the cluster elements used to calculate regional risk factors, thereby producing region-specific risk factors. Using a database of the global distribution of crop insect pest species, we found that we were able to produce highly differentiated region-specific risk factors for insect pests. We did this by weighting cluster elements by their Euclidean distance from the target region. Using this approach meant that risk weightings were derived that were more realistic, as they were specific to the pest profile or species assemblage of each region. This weighting method provides an improved tool for estimating the potential invasion risk posed by exotic species given that they have an opportunity to establish in a target region.

  15. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...... with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications...

  16. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  18. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  19. Libraries for users services in academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Alvite, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews the quality and evolution of academic library services. It revises service trends offered by academic libraries and the challenge of enhancing traditional ones such as: catalogues, repositories and digital collections, learning resources centres, virtual reference services, information literacy and 2.0 tools.studies the role of the university library in the new educational environment of higher educationrethinks libraries in academic contextredefines roles for academic libraries

  20. Dormitory libraries: libraries in dormitories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavletič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dormitory libries are not justly treated in Slovenia. They have a double purpose: to develop student literacy, especially reading, critical and creative competence and, moreover, to provide students with opportunities for learning and active spending of free-time. This is made possible by means of a good collection of expertly arranged library material, which is regulary updated and presented to its users, both students and tutors alike. A questionnaire has helped us to find out that libraries in secondary school dormitories carry out their work rather successfully, especially from the viewpoint of poor facilities. The major problems are, nevertheless, the appropriate qualifications of those who fill the posts of librarian and low financial resources. Therefore, such activities should be thoroughly analysed and reconsidered in terms of possible effective solutions, if we want to at least maintain them, let alone develop them.

  1. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1991-01-15

    Progress toward the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X has been made by isolating and characterizing a relatively large set of polymorphic probes for each chromosome and using these probes to construct genetic maps. We have mapped the same polymorphic probes against a series of chromosome breakpoints on X and 17. The probes could be assigned to over 30 physical intervals on the X chromosome and 7 intervals on 17. In many cases, this process resulted in improved characterization of the relative locations of the breakpoints with respect to each other and the definition of new physical intervals. The strategy for isolation of the polymorphic clones utilized chromosome specific libraries of 1--15 kb segments from each of the two chromosomes. From these libraries, clones were screened for those detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The markers were further characterized, the chromosomal assignments confirmed and in most cases segments of the original probes were subcloned into plasmids to produce probes with improved signal to noise ratios for use in the genetic marker studies. The linkage studies utilize the CEPH reference families and other well-characterized families in our collection which have been used for genetic disease linkage work. Preliminary maps and maps of portions of specific regions of 17 and X are provided. We have nearly completed a map of the 1 megabase Mycoplasma arthritidis genome by applying these techniques to a lambda phage library of its genome. We have found bit mapping to be an efficient means to organize a contiguous set of overlapping@ clones from a larger genome.

  2. Morphallactic regeneration as revealed by region-specific gene expression in the digestive tract of Enchytraeus japonensis (Oligochaeta, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Makoto; Yoshida-Noro, Chikako; Tochinai, Shin

    2008-05-01

    Enchytraeus japonensis is a small oligochaete, which primarily reproduces asexually by fragmentation and regeneration. For precise analysis of the pattern formation during regeneration, we isolated three region-specific genes (EjTuba, mino, and horu) expressed in the digestive tract. In growing worms, the expression of EjTuba in the head and mino in the trunk region just posterior to the head were observed in defined body segments, while the expression areas of EjTuba in the trunk and horu were proportional to the total number of body segments. In the regeneration process, expression of these genes disappeared once and recovered to their original pattern by day 7. In abnormal regeneration such as a bipolar head, mino was still expressed in the region next to both the normal and the ectopic heads. These results suggest that there is morphallactic as well as epimorphic or inductive regulation of the body patterning during regeneration of E. japonensis.

  3. Influence of Punica granatum L. on region specific responses in rat brain during Alloxan-Induced diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushil Kumar Middha; Talambedu Usha; Tekupalli RaviKiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel methanolic extract (PGPE) on cerebral cortex (CC) and Hippocampus (HC) brain antioxidant defense system and markers of lipid and protein oxidation in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:Oral administration of PGPE (75 and 150 mg of kg body weight) for 45 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Results: Supplementation of diabetic rats with PGPE showed increased activities of SOD and GPx with concomitant decrease in MDA and PC content. Region-specific changes were more evident in the HC when compared to CC. Conclusions: The present study indicated that PGPE can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats by up regulating antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating lipid and protein oxidation. PGPE thus may be used as a potential therapeutic agent in preventing diabetic complications in the brain.

  4. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  5. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy. It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

  6. Marketing the Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  7. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  8. [Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-12-31

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  9. (Developing a physical map of human chromosome 22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed bacterial F-factor based systems for cloning large fragments of human DNA in E. coli. In addition to large size, these systems are capable of maintaining human DNA with a high degree of stability. The cosmid size clones are called Fosmids and the clones containing larger inserts (100--200 kb) are called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The ultimate test of the effectiveness of cloning and mapping technology is the degree to which it can be efficiently applied to solve complex mapping problems. We, therefore, plan to use the large fragment cloning procedure as well as a variety of other approaches to generate a complete map of overlapping clones corresponding to human chromosome 22. We have thus far prepared two human chromosome 22 specific Fosmid libraries and we are in the process of constructing a chromosome 22 specific BAC library composed of fragments larger than 100 kb. We will further optimize the technology so that libraries of fragments larger than 200 kb can be readily prepared.

  10. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  11. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  13. [Sex chromosomes and meiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichaoua, M-R; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Tassistro, V; Ghalamoun-Slaimi, R; Perrin, J; Metzler-Guillemain, C

    2009-01-01

    Sex chromosome behaviour fundamentally differs between male and female meiosis. In oocyte, X chromosomes synapse giving a XX bivalent which is not recognizable in their morphology and behaviour from autosomal bivalents. In human male, X and Y chromosomes differ from one another in their morphology and their genetic content, leading to a limited pairing and preventing genetic recombination, excepted in homologous region PAR1. During pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase, X and Y chromosomes undergo a progressive condensation and form a transcriptionally silenced peripheral XY body. The condensation of the XY bivalent during pachytene stage led us to describe four pachytene substages and to localize the pachytene checkpoint between substages 2 and 3. We also defined the pachytene index (PI=P1+P2/P1+P2+P3+P4) which is always less than 0.50 in normal meiosis. XY body undergoes decondensation at diplotene stage, but transcriptional inactivation of the two sex chromosomes or Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI) persists through to the end of spermatogenesis. Sex chromosome inactivation involves several proteins, some of them were now identified. Two isoforms of the HP1 protein, HP1beta and HP1gamma, are involved in the facultative heterochromatinization of the XY body, but the initiation of this process involves the phosphorylation of the protein H2AX by the kinase ATR whose recruitment depends on BRCA1. Extensive researches on the inactivation of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis will allow to a better understanding of some male infertilities.

  14. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  15. Activation of X Chromosome Inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Maduro (Cheryl)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn mammals, males are the heterogametic sex having an X chromosome and a Y chromosome whereas females have two X chromosomes. Despite originating from an ancient homologous autosomal pair, the X and Y chromosome now differ greatly in size and gene content after ~180 MY of evolution.

  16. Region-specific induction of deltaFosB by repeated administration of typical versus atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J B; Chlan-Fourney, J; Nye, H E; Hiroi, N; Carlezon, W A; Nestler, E J

    1999-08-01

    Whereas acute administration of many types of stimuli induces c-Fos and related proteins in brain, recent work has shown that chronic perturbations cause the region-specific accumulation of novel Fos-like proteins of 35-37 kD. These proteins, termed chronic FRAs (Fos-related antigens), have recently been shown to be isoforms of DeltaFosB, which accumulate in brain due to their enhanced stability. In the present study, we sought to extend earlier findings that documented the effects of acute administration of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) on induction of Fos-like proteins by investigating the ability of typical and aytpical APDs, after chronic administration, to induce these DeltaFosB isoforms in several brain regions implicated in the clinical actions of these agents. By Western blotting we found that chronic administration of the typical APD, haloperidol, dramatically induces DeltaFosB in caudate-putamen (CP), a brain region associated with the extrapyramidal side effects of this drug. A smaller induction was seen in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), brain regions associated with the antipsychotic effects of the drug. In contrast, chronic administration of the prototype atypical APD clozapine failed to significantly increase levels of DeltaFosB in any of the three brain regions, and even tended to reduce DeltaFosB levels in the NAc. Two putative atypical APDs, risperidone and olanzapine, produced small but still significant increases in the levels of DeltaFosB in CP, but not NAc or PFC. Studies with selective receptor antagonists suggested that induction of DeltaFosB in CP and NAc is most dependent on antagonism of D2-D3 dopamine receptors, with antagonism of D1-like receptors most involved in the PFC. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the greater induction of DeltaFosB in CP by typical versus atypical APDs, with no significant induction seen in PFC with either class of APD. Together, these findings demonstrate that repeated administration

  17. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  18. The mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenaventura, J.M. [Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The principle goal of our laboratory is the discovery of new genes on human chromosome 19. One of the strategies to achieve this goal is through the use of cDNA clones known as {open_quotes}expressed sequence tags{close_quotes} (ESTs). ESTs, short segments of sequence from a cDNA clone that correspond to the mRNA, occur as unique regions in the genome and, therefore, can be used as markers for specific positions. In collaboration with researchers from Genethon in France, fifteen cDNA clones from a normalized human infant brain cDNA library were tested and determined to map to chromosome 19. A verification procedure is then followed to confirm assignment to chromosome 19. First, primers for each cDNA clone are developed and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA. Next, a {sup 32}P-radiolabeled probe is made by polymerase chain reaction for each clone and then hybridized against filters containing an LLNL chromosome 19-specific cosmid library to find putative locations on the chromosome. The location is then verified by running a polymerase chain reactions from the positive cosmids. With the Browser database at LLNL, additional information about the positive cosmids can be found. Through use of the BLAST database at the National Library of Medicine, homologous sequences to the clones can be found. Among the fifteen cDNA clones received from Genethon, all have been amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Three have turned out as repetitive elements in the genome. Ten have been mapped to specific locations on chromosome 19. Putative locations have been found for the remaining two clones and thus verification testing will proceed.

  19. Region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations associated with visual-perceptual abilities in children born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam McLeod Doesburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks GA without major intellectual or neurological impairments often express selective deficits in visual-perceptual abilities. The alterations in neurophysiological development underlying these problems, however, remain poorly understood. Recent research has indicated that spontaneous alpha oscillations are slowed in children born very preterm, and that atypical alpha-mediated functional network connectivity may underlie selective developmental difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in this group. The present study provides the first source-resolved analysis of slowing of spontaneous alpha oscillations in very preterm children, indicating alterations in a distributed set of brain regions concentrated in areas of posterior parietal and inferior temporal regions associated with visual-perception, as well as prefrontal cortical regions and thalamus. We also uniquely demonstrate that slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with selective difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in very preterm children. These results indicate that region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations contribute to selective developmental difficulties prevalent in this population.

  20. The differential DRP1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial dynamics in the regional specific astroglial death induced by status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Reum eKo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The response and susceptibility to astroglial degenerations are relevant to the distinctive properties of astrocytes in a hemodynamic-independent manner following status epilepticus (SE.Since impaired mitochondrial fission plays an important role in mitosis, apoptosis and programmed necrosis, we investigated whether the unique pattern of mitochondrial dynamics is involved in the characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE. In the present study, SE induced astroglial apoptosis in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial length. In contrast, clasmatodendritic (autophagic astrocytes in the CA1 region showed mitochondrial elongation induced by SE. Mdivi-1 (an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission effectively attenuated astroglial apoptosis, but WY14643 (an enhancer of mitochondrial fissionaggravated it. In addition, Mdivi-1accelerated clasmatodendritic changes in astrocytes. These regional specific mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytes were closely correlated with dynamin-related protein (DRP1, a mitochondrial fission protein phosphorylation, not optic atrophy 1 (a mitochondrial fusion protein expression. To the best of our knowledge, the present data demonstrate for the first time the novel role of DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission in astroglial loss. Thus, the present findings suggest that the differential astroglial mitochondrial dynamics may participate in the distinct characteristics of astroglial death induced by SE.

  1. Brain region specific pre-synaptic and post-synaptic degeneration are early components of neuropathology in prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Šišková

    Full Text Available Synaptic abnormalities, one of the key features of prion disease pathogenesis, gives rise to functional deficits and contributes to the devastating clinical outcome. The synaptic compartment is the first to succumb in several neurodegenerative diseases linked with protein misfolding but the mechanisms underpinning this are poorly defined. In our current study we document that a focal intrahippocampal injection of the mouse-adapted 22L scrapie strain produces a complex, region-specific pathology in the brain. Our findings reveal that early synaptic changes in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus, identical to those observed with the ME7 strain, occur when 22L strain is introduced into the hippocampus. The pathology was defined by degenerating Type I pre-synaptic elements progressively enveloped by the post-synaptic density of the dendritic spine. In contrast, the pathology in the cerebellum suggested that dendritic disintegration rather than pre-synaptic abnormalities dominate the early degenerative changes associated with the Purkinje cells. Indeed, both of the major synaptic inputs into the cerebellum, which arise from the parallel and climbing fibers, remained intact even at late stage disease. Immunolabeling with pathway selective antibodies reinforced these findings. These observations demonstrate that neuronal vulnerability to pathological protein misfolding is strongly dependent on the structure and function of the target neurons.

  2. The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Akhter, Samiha; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Alam, Tanzir; Nageeb Hasan, S M; Saifullah, A R M; Shohel, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed to investigate the age-dependent and region-specific antioxidant effects of astaxanthin in mice brain. Animals were divided into 4 groups; treatment young (3 months, n = 6) (AY), treatment old (16 months, n = 6) (AO), placebo young (3 months, n = 6) (PY) and placebo old (16 months, n = 6) (PO) groups. Treatment group was given astaxanthin (2 mg/kg/day, body weight), and placebo group was given 100 μl of 0.9% normal saline orally to the healthy Swiss albino mice for 4 weeks. The level of non-enzymatic oxidative markers namely malondialdehyde (MDA); nitric oxide (NO); advanced protein oxidation product (APOP); glutathione (GSH) and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants i.e.; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined from the isolated brain regions. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (p Astaxanthin markedly (p astaxanthin is age-dependent, higher in young in compared to the aged brain.

  3. Region-specific associations between sex, social status, and oxytocin receptor density in the brains of eusocial rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, S J; Coen, C W; Holmes, M M; Beery, A K

    2015-09-10

    Naturally occurring variations in neuropeptide receptor distributions in the brain contribute to numerous mammalian social behaviors. In naked mole-rats, which live in large social groups and exhibit remarkable reproductive skew, colony-related social behaviors vary with reproductive status. Here we examined whether variation in social status is associated with variations in the location and/or density of oxytocin binding in this species. Autoradiography was performed to assess forebrain oxytocin receptor (OTR) densities in breeding and non-breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. Overall, males exhibited higher OTR binding in the medial amygdala in comparison to females. While there were no main effects of reproductive status in any region, a sex difference in OTR binding in the nucleus accumbens was mediated by status. Specifically, breeding males tended to have more OTR binding than breeding females in the nucleus accumbens, while no sex difference was observed in subordinates. These effects suggest that oxytocin may act in a sex- and region-specific way that corresponds to reproductive status and associated social behaviors.

  4. Chick homeobox gene cDlx expression demarcates the forebrain anlage, indicating the onset of forebrain regional specification at gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghjid, S; Siddiqui, M A

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a chick homeobox-containing gene, cDlx, which shows greater than 85% homology to the homeodomain of other vertebrate Distal-less genes. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization studies reveal that cDlx expression is developmentally regulated and is tissue specific. In particular, the developmental expression pattern is characterized by an early appearance of cDlx transcript in the prospective forebrain region of gastrulating embryos. During neurulation, cDlx is consistently expressed in a spatially restricted domain in the presumptive ventral forebrain region of the neural plate that will give rise to the hypothalamus and the adenohypophysis. Our data support the notion that members of the Dlx gene family are part of a homeobox gene code in forebrain pattern formation and suggest that regional specification of the forebrain occurs at much earlier stages than previously thought. The homeobox gene cDlx may thus play a role in defining forebrain regional identity as early as gastrulation.

  5. Region-specific regulation of voltage-gated intrinsic currents in the developing optic tectum of the Xenopus tadpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamodi, Ali S; Pratt, Kara G

    2014-10-01

    Across the rostrocaudal (RC) axis of the Xenopus tadpole optic tectum exists a developmental gradient. This gradient has served as a useful model to study many aspects of synapse and dendrite maturation. To compliment these studies, we characterized how the intrinsic excitability, the ease in which a neuron can fire action potentials, might also be changing across the same axis. Whole-cell recordings from tectal neurons at different points along the RC axis revealed a graded increase in intrinsic excitability: compared with neurons at the caudal end of the tectum, neurons at the rostral end fired more action potentials in response to current injection and expressed greater peak Na⁺ and K⁺ currents, the major intrinsic currents in these neurons that underlie the action potential. We also observed, along the same axis and in the same direction, a previously described increase in the amount of synaptic drive received by individual neurons (Wu GY, Malinow R, Cline HT. Science 274: 972-976, 1996). Thus as synaptic activity ramps up across the RC axis, so does intrinsic excitability. The reduction of overall circuit activity induced a compensatory scaling up of peak Na⁺ and K⁺ currents only in the caudal portion of the tectum, suggesting a region-specific, compensatory form of plasticity.

  6. Large-scale cloning of human chromosome 2-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) using an interspersed repetitive sequences (IRS)-PCR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Rezonzew, R. [McGill Centre for the Study of Host Resistance, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]|[McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanton, V.P. Jr. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-20

    We report here an efficient approach to the establishment of extended YAC contigs on human chromosome 2 by using an interspersed repetitive sequences (IRS)-PCR-based screening strategy for YAC DNA pools. Genomic DNA was extracted from 1152 YAC pools comprised of 55,296 YACs mostly derived from the CEPH Mark I library. Alu-element-mediated PCR was performed for each pool, and amplification products were spotted on hybridization membranes (IRS filters). IRS probes for the screening of the IRS filters were obtained by Alu-element-mediated PCR. Of 708 distinct probes obtained from chromosome 2-specific somatic cell hybrids, 85% were successfully used for library screening. Similarly, 80% of 80 YAC walking probes were successfully used for library screening. Each probe detected an average of 6.6 YACs, which is in good agreement with the 7- to 7.5-fold genome coverage provided by the library. In a preliminary analysis, we have identified 188 YAC groups that are the basis for building contigs for chromosome 2. The coverage of the telomeric half of chromosome 2q was considered to be good since 31 of 34 microsatellites and 22 of 23 expressed sequence tags that were chosen from chromosome region 2q13-q37 were contained in a chromosome 2 YAC sublibrary generated by our experiments. We have identified a minimum of 1610 distinct chromosome 2-specific YACs, which will be a valuable asset for the physical mapping of the second largest human chromosome. 81 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. "Chromosome": a knowledge-based system for the chromosome classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, G; Bernadet, M

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome, a knowledge-based analysis system has been designed for the classification of human chromosomes. Its aim is to perform an optimal classification by driving a tool box containing the procedures of image processing, pattern recognition and classification. This paper presents the general architecture of Chromosome, based on a multiagent system generator. The image processing tool box is described from the met aphasic enhancement to the fine classification. Emphasis is then put on the knowledge base intended for the chromosome recognition. The global classification process is also presented, showing how Chromosome proceeds to classify a given chromosome. Finally, we discuss further extensions of the system for the karyotype building.

  8. Special Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensley, Robert F., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The September 1975 issue of Illinois Libraries focuses on the needs of the developmentally disabled, physically handicapped, and emotionally disturbed. Articles on library services to the blind and physically handicapped cover standards, services of local public libraries, Library of Congress programs, braille books and sound recordings,…

  9. Libraries and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Americans think local libraries serve the educational needs of their communities and families pretty well and library users often outpace others in learning activities. But many do not know about key education services libraries provide. This report provides statistics on library usage and presents key education services provided…

  10. The "Integrated Library System."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews internal and external dimensions of library environment that must be taken into account by library managers when choosing an integrated library system. The selection, acquisition, and implementation stages of Maggie III--a computerized library system sensitive to the internal and external organizational environment--are described. (MBR)

  11. The library marketing toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    A guide that offers coverage of various elements of library marketing and branding for different sectors including archives and academic, public and special libraries. It is suitable for those who are involved in promoting their library or information service, whether at an academic, public or special library or in archives or records management.

  12. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  13. Role of serotonin transporter inhibition in the regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase in brainstem raphe nuclei: time course and regional specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, L; Lagrou, L M; Reynolds, K B; Rosebush, P I; Mazurek, M F

    2010-12-01

    Drugs that selectively inhibit the serotonin transporter (SERT) are widely prescribed for treatment of depression and a range of anxiety disorders. We studied the time course of changes in tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in four raphe nuclei after initiation of two different SERT inhibitors, citalopram and fluoxetine. In the first experiment, groups of Sprague-Dawley rats received daily meals of rice pudding either alone (n=9) or mixed with citalopram 5 mg/kg/day (n=27). Rats were sacrificed after 24 h, 7 days or 28 days of treatment. Sections of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN), raphe magnus nucleus (RMN) and caudal linear nucleus (CLN) were processed for TPH immunohistochemistry. Citalopram induced a significant reduction in DRN TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h (41%), 7 days (38%) and 28 days (52%). Similar reductions in TPH-positive cell counts were also observed at each timepoint in the MRN and in the RMN. In the MRN, citalopram resulted in significant reductions at 24 h (26%), 7 days (16%) and 28 days (23%). In the RMN, citalopram induced significant reductions of TPH-positive cell counts at 24 h (45%), 7 days (34%) and 28 days (43%). By contrast, no significant differences between control and treatment groups were observed in the CLN at any of the time points that we studied. To investigate whether these changes would occur with other SERT inhibitors, we conducted a second experiment, this time with a 28-day course of fluoxetine. As was observed with citalopram, fluoxetine induced significant reductions of TPH cell counts in the DRN (39%), MRN (38%) and RMN (41%), with no significant differences in the CLN. These results indicate that SERT inhibition can alter the regulation of TPH, the rate limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis. This persistent and regionally specific downregulation of serotonin biosynthesis may account for some of the clinical withdrawal symptoms associated with drugs that inhibit SERT.

  14. Using the longest significance run to estimate region-specific p-values in genetic association mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association testing is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes underlying complex diseases. Technological advances have yielded a dramatic increase in the density of available genetic markers, necessitating an increase in the number of association tests required for the analysis of disease susceptibility genes. As such, multiple-tests corrections have become a critical issue. However the conventional statistical corrections on locus-specific multiple tests usually result in lower power as the number of markers increases. Alternatively, we propose here the application of the longest significant run (LSR method to estimate a region-specific p-value to provide an index for the most likely candidate region. Results An advantage of the LSR method relative to procedures based on genotypic data is that only p-value data are needed and hence can be applied extensively to different study designs. In this study the proposed LSR method was compared with commonly used methods such as Bonferroni's method and FDR controlling method. We found that while all methods provide good control over false positive rate, LSR has much better power and false discovery rate. In the authentic analysis on psoriasis and asthma disease data, the LSR method successfully identified important candidate regions and replicated the results of previous association studies. Conclusion The proposed LSR method provides an efficient exploratory tool for the analysis of sequences of dense genetic markers. Our results show that the LSR method has better power and lower false discovery rate comparing with the locus-specific multiple tests.

  15. Susceptibility To High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Is Associated With A More Uniform Distribution Of Regional Specific Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Michael D; Sá, Rui Carlos; Darquenne, Chantal; Elliott, Ann R; Assadi, Amran K; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Dubowitz, David J; Swenson, Erik Richard; Prisk, Gordon Kim; Hopkins, Susan Roberta

    2017-01-05

    High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition affecting high altitude sojourners. The biggest predictor of HAPE development is a history of prior HAPE. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows HAPE-susceptible, with a history of HAPE, but not HAPE-resistant (a history of repeated ascents without illness) individuals develop greater heterogeneity of regional pulmonary perfusion breathing hypoxic gas (O2=12.5%), consistent with uneven hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Why HPV is uneven in HAPE-susceptibles is unknown, but may arise from regionally heterogeneous ventilation resulting in an uneven stimulus to HPV. We tested the hypothesis that ventilation is more heterogeneous in HAPE-susceptible subjects (n=6) compared to HAPE-resistant controls (n=7). MRI Specific Ventilation Imaging (SVI), was used to measure regional specific ventilation and the relative dispersion (SD/mean) of SVI used to quantify baseline heterogeneity. Ventilation heterogeneity from conductive and respiratory airways was measured in normoxia and hypoxia (O2=12.5%) using multiple breath washout and heterogeneity quantified from the indices Scond and Sacin, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, HAPE-susceptibles had significantly lower relative dispersion of specific ventilation than the HAPE-resistant controls (Susceptible=1.33±0.67, Resistant=2.36±0.98, p=0.05) and Sacin tended to be more uniform (Susceptible=0.085±0.009, Resistant=0.113±0.030, p=0.07). Scond was not significantly different between groups (Susceptible=0.019±0.007, Resistant=0.020±0.004, p=0.67). Sacin and Scond did not change significantly in hypoxia (p=0.56, 0.19, respectively). In conclusion, ventilation heterogeneity does not change with short-term hypoxia irrespective of HAPE susceptibility and lesser rather than greater ventilation heterogeneity is observed in HAPE-susceptible subjects. This suggests the basis for uneven HPV in HAPE involves vascular phenomena.

  16. Exposure to ethanol during neurodevelopment modifies crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities in a region-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolakis, Vasileios; Liapi, Charis; Zarros, Apostolos; Kalopita, Konstantina; Memtsas, Vassilios; Botis, John; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Kimpizi, Despoina; Varatsos, Alexios; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2015-12-01

    The experimental simulation of conditions falling within "the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder" (FASD) requires the maternal exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during crucial neurodevelopmental periods; EtOH has been linked to a number of neurotoxic effects on the fetus, which are dependent upon the extent and the magnitude of the maternal exposure to EtOH and for which very little is known with regard to the exact mechanism(s) involved. The current study has examined the effects of moderate maternal exposure to EtOH (10 % v/v in the drinking water) throughout gestation, or gestation and lactation, on crucial 21-day-old offspring Wistar rat brain parameters, such as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two adenosine triphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase), in major offspring CNS regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and pons). The implemented experimental setting has provided a comparative view of the neurotoxic effects of maternal exposure to EtOH between gestation alone and a wider exposure timeframe that better covers the human third trimester-matching CNS neurodevelopment period (gestation and lactation), and has revealed a CNS region-specific susceptibility of the examined crucial neurochemical parameters to the EtOH exposure schemes attempted. Amongst these parameters, of particular importance is the recorded extensive stimulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the frontal cortex of the EtOH-exposed offspring that seems to be a result of the deleterious effect of EtOH during gestation. Although this stimulation could be inversely related to the observed inhibition of AChE in the same CNS region, its dependency upon the EtOH-induced modulation of other systems of neurotransmission cannot be excluded and must be further clarified in future experimental attempts aiming to simulate and to shed more light on the milder forms of the FASD-related pathophysiology.

  17. Intra-Amniotic LPS Induced Region-Specific Changes in Presynaptic Bouton Densities in the Ovine Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Chorioamnionitis has been associated with increased risk for fetal brain damage. Although, it is now accepted that synaptic dysfunction might be responsible for functional deficits, synaptic densities/numbers after a fetal inflammatory challenge have not been studied in different regions yet. Therefore, we tested in this study the hypothesis that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused profound changes in synaptic densities in different regions of the fetal sheep brain. Material and Methods. Chorioamnionitis was induced by a 10 mg intra-amniotic LPS injection at two different exposure intervals. The fetal brain was studied at 125 days of gestation (term = 150 days either 2 (LPS2D group or 14 days (LPS14D group after LPS or saline injection (control group. Synaptophysin immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the presynaptic density in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, entorhinal cortex, and piriforme cortex, in the nucleus caudatus and putamen and in CA1/2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results. There was a significant reduction in presynaptic bouton densities in layers 2-3 and 5-6 of the motor cortex and in layers 2-3 of the entorhinal and the somatosensory cortex, in the nucleus caudate and putamen and the CA1/2 and CA3 of the hippocampus in the LPS2D compared to control animals. Only in the motor cortex and putamen, the presynaptic density was significantly decreased in the LPS14 D compared to the control group. No changes were found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the piriforme cortex. Conclusion. We demonstrated that LPS-induced chorioamnionitis caused a decreased density in presynaptic boutons in different areas in the fetal brain. These synaptic changes seemed to be region-specific, with some regions being more affected than others, and seemed to be transient in some regions.

  18. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  19. Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER J RIZZO

    2003-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a very large and diverse group of eukaryotic algae that play a major role in aquatic food webs of both fresh water and marine habitats. Moreover, the toxic members of this group pose a health threat in the form of red tides. Finally, dinoflagellates are of great evolutionary importance,because of their taxonomic position, and their unusual chromosome structure and composition. While the cytoplasm of dinoflagellates is typically eukaryotic, the nucleus is unique when compared to the nucleus of other eukaryotes. More specifically, while the chromosomes of all other eukaryotes contain histones,dinoflagellate chromosomes lack histones completely. There are no known exceptions to this observation: all dinoflagellates lack histones, and all other eukaryotes contain histones. Nevertheless, dinoflagellates remain a relatively unstudied group of eukaryotes.

  20. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  1. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerle Martine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+ translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5 were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2 from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases.

  2. The gene for human glutaredoxin (GLRX) is localized to human chromosome 5q14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, C.A.; Holmgren, A. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Bajalica, S.; Lagercrantz, J. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-03-05

    Glutaredoxin is a small protein (12 kDa) catalyzing glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreduction reactions in a coupled system with NADPH, GSH, and glutathione reductase. A cDNA encoding the human glutaredoxin gene (HGMW-approved symbol GLRX) has recently been isolated and cloned from a human fetal spleen cDNA library. The screening of a human fetal spleen cDNA library. The screening of a human genomic library in Charon 4A led to the identification of three genomic clones. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes with one genomic clone as a probe, the human glutaredoxin gene was localized to chromosomal region 5q14. This localization at chromosome 5 was in agreement with the somatic cell hybrid analysis, using DNA from a human-hamster and a human-mouse hybrid panel and using a human glutaredoxin cDNA as a probe. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X–autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencin...

  4. Molecular cloning and chromosome assignment of murine N-ras.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, J.; Hart, C P; Ruddle, F H

    1984-01-01

    The murine N-ras gene was cloned by screening an EMBL-3 recombinant phage library with a human N-ras specific probe. Hybridization of two separate unique sequence N-ras probes, isolated from the 5' and 3' flanking sequences of the murine gene, to a mouse-Chinese hamster hybrid mapping panel assigns the N-ras locus to mouse chromosome three.

  5. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1 normal intracranial volume; 2 reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3 preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4 reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5 increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes

  6. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Weitz, Karl K; Petritis, Brianne O; Monroe, Matthew E; Camp, David G; Wood, Stephen A; Melega, William P; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Desmond J; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in each analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall picture of

  7. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  8. Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, D.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

  9. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B;

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  10. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-08-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

  11. The Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  12. Why Chromosome Palindromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Betrán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1 genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2 under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes.

  13. Toy Library and International Toy Library Association

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Işık

    2013-01-01

    Toy libraries are resource centers that provides assistance to young children and theirfamilies, gives consultancy service and information about plays, offers play materials andeducational activities and supplies appropriate materials and toys for child development aswell as contributing the development of children. Toy libraries are in commission all over theworld since 1935. The first toy library is opened in America, then in Sweden, England,Canada and Australia respectively. Today, there a...

  14. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  15. [Dicentric Y chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, N Bouayed; Amouri, A

    2005-01-01

    Dicentric Y chromosomes are the most common Y structural abnormalities and their influence on gonadal and somatic development is extremely variable. Here, we report the third comprehensive review of the literature concerning dicentric Y chromosomes reported since 1994. We find 78 new cases for which molecular studies (PCR or FISH) have been widely applied to investigate SRY (68% of cases), GBY, ZFY, RFS4Y, GCY and different genes at AZF region. For dic(Yq), all cases (n = 20) were mosaic for 45,X and 4 of them were also mosaic for a 46,XY cell line. When breakpoints were available (15/20 cases), they were in Yp11. 50% of cases were phenotypic female and 20% phenotypic male while 20% of cases were reported with gonadal dysgenesis. Gonadal histology was defined in 8 cases but only in one case, gonadal tissu was genetically investigated because of gonadoblastoma. For dic(Yp) (n = 55), mosaicism concerned only 45,X cell line and was found in 50 cases while the remainder five cases were homogeneous. When breakpoints were available, it was at Yq11 in 50 cases and at Yq12 in two cases. 54% of cases were phenotypic female, 26% were phenotypic male and 18% were associated with genitalia ambiguous. SRY was analyzed in 33 cases, sequenced in 9 cases and was muted in only one case. Gonads were histologically explored in 34 cases and genetically investigated in 8 cases. Gonadoblastoma was found in only two cases. Through this review, it seems that phenotype-genotype correlations are still not possible and that homogeneous studies of dic(Y) in more patients using molecular tools for structural characterization of the rearranged Y chromosome and assessment of mosaicism in many organs are necessary to clarify the basis of the phenotypic heterogeneity of dicentric Y chromosomes and then to help phenotypic prediction of such chromosome rearrangement.

  16. Dynamics of X Chromosome Inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Loos (Friedemann)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dosage compensation evolved to account for the difference in expression of sex chromosome-linked genes. In mammals dosage compensation is achieved by inactivation of one X chromosome during early female embryogenesis in a process called X chromosome inactivation (XCI).

  17. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Familial complex chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a recombinant chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Sue Ann; Bodamer, Olaf A F; Shapira, Stuart K; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bacino, Carlos A

    2002-05-15

    Familial complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare and tend to involve fewer breakpoints and fewer chromosomes than CCRs that are de novo in origin. We report on a CCR identified in a child with congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Initially, the child's karyotype was thought to involve a straightforward three-way translocation between chromosomes 3, 8, and 16. However, after analyzing the mother's chromosomes, the mother was found to have a more complex rearrangement that resulted in a recombinant chromosome in the child. The mother's karyotype included an inverted chromosome 2 and multiple translocations involving chromosomes 3, 5, 8, and 16. No evidence of deletion or duplication that could account for the clinical findings in the child was identified.

  19. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th.intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th.intermedium in common wheat-Th.intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization.Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes.This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line,but also a replacing line.The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed.A special probe of Th.intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library.The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data.This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance,adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  20. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th. intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田靫; 卢一凡; 邓继先; 李滨; 张学勇; 刘广田

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th, intermedium in common wheat-Th. intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization. Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes. This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line, but also a replacing line. The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed. A special probe of Th. intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library. The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data. This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance, adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  1. A brain region-specific predictive gene map for autism derived by profiling a reference gene set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    Full Text Available Molecular underpinnings of complex psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unresolved. Increasingly, structural variations in discrete chromosomal loci are implicated in ASD, expanding the search space for its disease etiology. We exploited the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD to derive a predictive map of candidate genes by an integrated bioinformatics approach. Using a reference set of 84 Rare and Syndromic candidate ASD genes (AutRef84, we built a composite reference profile based on both functional and expression analyses. First, we created a functional profile of AutRef84 by performing Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis which encompassed three main areas: 1 neurogenesis/projection, 2 cell adhesion, and 3 ion channel activity. Second, we constructed an expression profile of AutRef84 by conducting DAVID analysis which found enrichment in brain regions critical for sensory information processing (olfactory bulb, occipital lobe, executive function (prefrontal cortex, and hormone secretion (pituitary. Disease specificity of this dual AutRef84 profile was demonstrated by comparative analysis with control, diabetes, and non-specific gene sets. We then screened the human genome with the dual AutRef84 profile to derive a set of 460 potential ASD candidate genes. Importantly, the power of our predictive gene map was demonstrated by capturing 18 existing ASD-associated genes which were not part of the AutRef84 input dataset. The remaining 442 genes are entirely novel putative ASD risk genes. Together, we used a composite ASD reference profile to generate a predictive map of novel ASD candidate genes which should be prioritized for future research.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 15 abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region by traditional and molecular cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Magenis, R.E.; Leff, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-13

    With improvements in culturing and banding techniques, amniotic fluid studies now achieve a level of resolution at which the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) region may be questioned. Chromosome 15 heteromorphisms, detected with Q- and R-banding and used in conjunction with PWS/AS region-specific probes, can confirm a chromosome deletion and establish origin to predict the clinical outcome. We report four de novo cases of an abnormal-appearing chromosome 15 in amniotic fluid samples referred for advanced maternal age or a history of a previous chromosomally abnormal child. The chromosomes were characterized using G-, Q-, and R-banding, as well as isotopic and fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes specific for the proximal chromosome 15 long arm. In two cases, one chromosome 15 homolog showed a consistent deletion of the ONCOR PWS/AS region A and B. In the other two cases, one of which involved an inversion with one breakpoint in the PWS/AS region, all of the proximal chromosome 15 long arm DNA probes used in the in situ hybridization were present on both homologs. Clinical follow-up was not available on these samples, as in all cases the parents chose to terminate the pregnancies. These cases demonstrate the ability to prenatally diagnose chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with PWS/AS. In addition, they highlight the need for a better understanding of this region for accurate prenatal diagnosis. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Library Advocacy Now! Library Advocate's Handbook. [Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    Libraries are one of the world's greatest assets. Changes in the political, social, and economic climate in the U.S. mean that people cannot take public access to information for granted. Intense competition for public, private, and institutional dollars makes it more crucial than ever that policymakers understand that libraries--public, school,…

  4. Microbial Community Development in a Dynamic Gut Model Is Reproducible, Colon Region Specific, and Selective for Bacteroidetes and Clostridium Cluster IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Grootaert, Charlotte; Marzorati, Massimo; Possemiers, Sam; Verstraete, Willy; Gerard, Philippe; Rabot, Sylvie; Bruneau, Aurelia; El Aidy, Sahar; Derrien, Muriel; Zoetendal, Erwin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smidt, Hauke; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic, multicompartment in vitro gastrointestinal simulators are often used to monitor gut microbial dynamics and activity. These reactors need to harbor a microbial community that is stable upon inoculation, colon region specific, and relevant to in vivo conditions. Together with the reproducibil

  5. Microbial community development in a dynamic gut model is reproducible, colon region specific, and selective for Bacteroidetes and Clostridium cluster IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbeele, van den P.; Grootaert, C.; Marzorati, M.; Possemiers, S.; Verstraete, W.; Gérard, P.; Rabot, S.; Bruneau, A.; Aidy, El S.F.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.; Smidt, H.; Wiele, van der T.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic, multicompartment in vitro gastrointestinal simulators are often used to monitor gut microbial dynamics and activity. These reactors need to harbor a microbial community that is stable upon inoculation, colon region specific, and relevant to in vivo conditions. Together with the reproducibil

  6. Libraries - LIBRARIES_ISL_IN: Libraries in Indiana (Indiana State Library, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LIBRARIES_ISL_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 528 libraries included in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that are downloadable from the Web page named...

  7. Reutilizing Existing Library Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marlys Cresap

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the reutilization of existing library space reviews the decision process and considerations for implementation. Two case studies of small public libraries which reassigned space to better use are provided, including floor plans. (1 reference) (MES)

  8. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  9. Integrated library systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-07-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

  10. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  11. Library planning in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Geisselmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The position and the efficiency of German libraries are rather ambivalent. On the one hand the infrastructure is quite well developed: 2000 public library systems with full time personnel, 275 million books issued, 75 million Euro for acquisitions; 280 scientific general libraries, 60 million books issued, 1300 million Euro for acquisitions. Nevertheless there are a lot of problems, which arise from the administrative structure and the political position of libraries.

  12. FY 2008 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2008 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  13. Library Skills Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    This self-paced library skills workbook provides incoming students with an introduction to the physical arrangement and use of the university libraries. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the catalogs, classification system, and various library resources. The second consists of practical exercises keyed to the…

  14. Biology Library Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  15. Public Library Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This study reviews trends in public library finance; examines recent political, economic, and technological changes; and assesses the impact of these changes on public library services. A history of the public library in America is presented, as well as an analysis of the principles of economics and public finance which reveals that current…

  16. The Electronic, Eclectic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of telecommunications and computer technology to increase access to information is identified as a primary goal for public libraries. To further service in the future, libraries should consider database services, online access to library resources, online community conferencing, community databases, network resource sharing,…

  17. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  18. Learning Boost C++ libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    If you are a C++ programmer who has never used Boost libraries before, this book will get you up-to-speed with using them. Whether you are developing new C++ software or maintaining existing code written using Boost libraries, this hands-on introduction will help you decide on the right library and techniques to solve your practical programming problems.

  19. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  20. Technostress and Library Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  1. A Truly Bookless Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolowich, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The difference between the University of Texas at San Antonio's Applied Engineering and Technology Library and other science-focused libraries is not that its on-site collection is also available electronically. It is that its on-site collection is only available electronically. The idea of libraries with no bound books has been a recurring theme…

  2. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  3. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  4. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  5. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  6. Teleporting the library?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, six Danish public libraries established a virtual library, Info Island DK, in Second Life. This article discusses the library project in terms of design. The design processes include the planning and implementation of the virtual library structure and its equipment, as well...... as the organizing and carrying out of activities in the virtual setting. It will be argued that, to a large extent, conventions have determined design and use of the virtual library, and also that design has had an impact on the attitudes and understanding of the participants....

  7. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  8. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome-specific EST sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuan-Liang Deng; Wei-Li Zhang; Ying Cao; Shao-Jing Wang; Shu-Fen Li; Wu-Jun Gao; Long-Dou Lu

    2015-12-01

    The genome of spinach single chromosome complement is about 1000 Mbp, which is the model material to study the molecular mechanisms of plant sex differentiation. The cytological study showed that the biggest spinach chromosome (chromosome 1) was taken as spinach sex chromosome. It had three alleles of sex-related , m and . Many researchers have been trying to clone the sex-determining genes and investigated the molecular mechanism of spinach sex differentiation. However, there are no successful cloned reports about these genes. A new technology combining chromosome microdissection with hybridization-specific amplification (HSA) was adopted. The spinach Y chromosome degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female spinach genome was taken as blocker and cDNA library specifically expressed in Y chromosome was constructed. Moreover, expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences in cDNA library were cloned, sequenced and bioinformatics was analysed. There were 63 valid EST sequences obtained in this study. The fragment size was between 53 and 486 bp. BLASTn homologous alignment indicated that 12 EST sequences had homologous sequences of nucleic acids, the rest were new sequences. BLASTx homologous alignment indicated that 16 EST sequences had homologous protein-encoding nucleic acid sequence. The spinach Y chromosome-specific EST sequences laid the foundation for cloning the functional genes, specifically expressed in spinach Y chromosome. Meanwhile, the establishment of the technology system in the research provided a reference for rapid cloning of other biological sex chromosome-specific EST sequences.

  9. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  10. International workshop on chromosome 3. Final report, April 15, 1991--April 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, R.M.

    1992-07-01

    The Second Workshop on Human Chromosome 3 was held on April 4--5, 1991 at Denver, Colorado. There were 43 participants representing 8 nations. The workshop participants reviewed the current state of the chromosome 3 map, both physical and genetic, and prepared lists of markers and cell lines to be made commonly available. These markers and cell lines should be incorporated into the mapping efforts of diverse groups to permit the integration of data and development of consensus maps at future workshops. Region specific efforts were described for sections of the chromosome harboring genes thought to be involved in certain diseases including Von Hippel-Lindau disease, 3p-syndrome, lung cancer and renal cancer. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    For millennia the famous library in Hellenistic Alexandria has been praised as an epicenter of enlightenment and wisdom. And yet, a question still seems unanswered: how was its literature classified and retrieved? It is a subject that has been given surprisingly little attention by Library......- and Information Science – indeed, by scholarship in general. Furthermore, a certain way of thinking has influenced the few answers that have so far been attempted. It is as if the scholars of our era have tried to identify the modern, physical library in the Hellenistic library in Alexandria. But such an approach...... is biased in a basic way: It simply does not consider the impact of the cultural and intellectual context of the library. This article differs fundamentally, and rejects that the library was like modern ones. Accordingly, an entirely new way of understanding how the library actually worked, in terms...

  12. The participatory public library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...... of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies...

  13. The participatory public library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    2016-01-01

    of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies......Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...

  14. Assessing Library Automation and Virtual Library Development in Four Academic Libraries in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the level of library automation and virtual library development in four academic libraries. A validated questionnaire was used to capture the responses from academic librarians of the libraries under study. The paper discovers that none of the four academic libraries is fully automated. The libraries make use of librarians with…

  15. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  16. Mining non-model genomic libraries for microsatellites: BAC versus EST libraries and the generation of allelic richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Kerry L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are tandemly repeated sequence motifs common in genomic nucleotide sequence that often harbor significant variation in repeat number. Frequently used as molecular markers, SSRs are increasingly identified via in silico approaches. Two common classes of genomic resources that can be mined are bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries and expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. Results 288 SSR loci were screened in the rapidly radiating Hawaiian swordtail cricket genus Laupala. SSRs were more densely distributed and contained longer repeat structures in BAC library-derived sequence than in EST library-derived sequence, although neither repeat density nor length was exceptionally elevated despite the relatively large genome size of Laupala. A non-random distribution favoring AT-rich SSRs was observed. Allelic diversity of SSRs was positively correlated with repeat length and was generally higher in AT-rich repeat motifs. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of Orthopteran SSR allelic diversity is presented. Selection contributes more strongly to the size and density distributions of SSR loci derived from EST library sequence than from BAC library sequence, although all SSRs likely are subject to similar physical and structural constraints, such as slippage of DNA replication machinery, that may generate increased allelic diversity in AT-rich sequence motifs. Although in silico approaches work well for SSR locus identification in both EST and BAC libraries, BAC library sequence and AT-rich repeat motifs are generally superior SSR development resources for most applications.

  17. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  18. Chromosome assortment in Saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, S M; Honeycutt, R J; Sobral, B W

    1994-12-01

    Recent work has revealed random chromosome pairing and assortment in Saccharum spontaneum L., the most widely distributed, and morphologically and cytologically variable of the species of Saccharum. This conclusion was based on the analysis of a segregating population from across between S. spontaneum 'SES 208' and a spontaneously-doubled haploid of itself, derived from anther culture. To determine whether polysomic inheritance is common in Saccharum and whether it is observed in a typical biparental cross, we studied chromosome pairing and assortment in 44 progeny of a cross between euploid, meiotically regular, 2n=80 forms of Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum ' Mol 5829'. Papuan 2n=80 forms of S. robustum have been suggested as the immediate progenitor species for cultivated sugarcane (S. officinarum). A total of 738 loci in LA Purple and 720 loci in Mol 5829 were amplified and typed in the progeny by arbitrarily primed PCR using 45 primers. Fifty and 33 single-dose polymorphisms were identified in the S. officinarum and S. robustum genomes, respectively (χ 2 at 98%). Linkage analysis of single-dose polymorphisms in both genomes revealed linkages in repulsion and coupling phases. In the S. officinarum genome, a map hypothesis gave 7 linkage groups with 17 linked and 33 unlinked markers. Four of 13 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase and 9 were in coupling phase. In the S. robustum genome, a map hypothesis gave 5 linkage groups, defined by 12 markers, with 21 markers unlinked, and 2 of 9 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase. Therefore, complete polysomic inheritance was not observed in either species, suggesting that chromosomal behavior is different from that observed by linkage analysis of over 500 markers in the S. spontaneum map. Implications of this finding for evolution and breeding are discussed.

  19. Integration of Library Services in the System of Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdushnyj, A. N.; Kalenov, N. E.; Kouriv, P. M.; Serebryakov, V. A.

    The article is devoted to the functional extension of the Integrated System of Information Resources of RAS (ISIR RAS - RFBR 99-07-90139 project). This extension (Library Subsystem) provides integration of library services in ISIR RAS electronic libraries system. Library Subsystem implements standard library services such as information about free and ordered copies of editions, creation of the library orders for edition etc. The Library Subsystem is an integrated solution; it's based on ISIR data model and technologies.

  20. Interaction between libraries and library users on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, DYT; Maxwell, W.; Li, WZS; Tang, LLC; Chu, SKW

    2011-01-01

    This study adopts the mixed method research design to investigate the interaction between libraries and library users on Facebook. The research objectives are: (1) To find out the performance of Facebook as a tool for interaction between libraries and library users; (2) To find out the differences in using Facebook to interact with library users between libraries in two regions: English-speaking countries and Greater China; (3) To find out the differences between academic and public libraries...

  1. Chromosomal mapping of specific DNA gains and losses in solid tumors using comparative genomic hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, E.; Manoir, S. du; Speicher, M. [National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new molecular cytogenetic technique that is based on two color FISH and quantitative digital imaging microscopy. CGH is used to comprehensively survey tumor genomes for copy number changes and to determine the map position of amplification sites on normal reference chromosomes. CGH was used to analyze 107 different solid tumors, including 16 low grade astrocytomas, 15 recurrent astrocytic tumors, 13 high grade astrocytomas, 13 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), 14 breast cancer samples (7 diploid and 7 aneupoid tumors), 18 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and 5 seminomas. Tumor DNA was extracted from frozen tissue, autopic material and formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Our results revealed tumor specific gains and losses of certain chromosomes or chromosomal subregions (e.g., chromosomes 7 and 10 in glioblastomas, chromosomes 3 and 5 in SCLC). Numerous DNA-amplifications were mapped on reference metaphase and prometaphase chromosomes. The frequent amplification of the EGFR gene (malignant gliomas), protooncogenes of the myc family (SCLC) and of c-myc, int-2 and c-erbB2 (breast cancer) was confirmed. Many additional amplification sites, however, were mapped that were not described before. The results of CGH analysis were independently confirmed by means of cytogenetic banding analysis, interphase cytogenetics with region specific DNA-clones, Southern-Blot analysis, DNA-cytometry and studies of loss of heterozygosity.

  2. LIBRARY SURVEY 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The primary role of the library is to make sure that you can do YOUR work in the most efficient way possible. To ensure that we continue to match our services to your information needs, the library regularly gathers the views and opinions of its readers in a variety of ways, [link for e-version: http://library/library_general/statistics/library_statistics_ surveys.html], including user surveys. The last survey was carried out in 1996. One of the most visible results of that survey was the extension of the library desk service until seven o'clock in the evening, to meet the demand for greater access to library materials. Now the 'electronic library' is becoming more important than the physical one, we feel it is once again time to ensure that we are providing the services and information you need, in the most effective way possible. We also want to make sure you are aware of the full range of services that the library provides. Please spare just a few minutes to fill out our survey at http://library.cern.ch/su...

  3. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Library to be merged with the Central Library. Not everyone knows that CERN Scientific Information Service currently counts three physical libraries on site. The Central Library is located in Building 52 and there are two satellite libraries located respectively in building 30 (the LHC Library) and in building 864 on Prévessin site (the SPS Library). Moreover, the Legal Service Library is located in Building 60. In the past, there have been at CERN up to 6 satellite libraries; they were essential at a time when information was only in paper form and having multiple copies of documents located in several places at CERN was useful to facilitate scientific research. Today, this need is less critical as most of our resources are online. That is why, following a SIPB (Scientific Information Policy Board) decision, the collections of the LHC Library will be merged this summer with the Central collection. This reorganization and centralization of resources will improve loan services. The SP...

  4. Screening of YAC clones and building a map of the chromosome 13 region often deleted during chronic B-cell lymphocytic leucosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodyanskii, VM; Sulimova, GE; Udina, IG; Aitova, SS; Shaikhaev, GO; Sharikova, OA; Zakharev, VM; Fedorova, LI; Zelenin, AV; Eikhorn, S; Baush, C; Laland, M; Ross, M; Yankovskii, NK

    1995-01-01

    Pools of YAC clones from the ICRF library were analyzed by PCR using PBKpt, MGG15, and D13S25 markers that flank the chromosome 13 region often deleted during chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ten clones were found and described. Nine mega-YAC clones from the CEPH library flanking the region of interest

  5. The Library International Partnerweek 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presentation at the Library International Partnerweek, held at Copenhagen Technical Library at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering. Participant: Ms. Carmen Priesto Estravid from Madrid Technical University, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Library. Spain Ms.Tuulikki Hattunen from TUAS Library....... Finland Ms. Anitta Ôrm from Kemi-Tornio UAS Library. Finland Mr. Manfred Walter from HTW-Berlin. Germany Mr. Peter Hald from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark Mr. Ole Micahelsen from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark...

  6. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  7. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2007-10-01

    Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X-autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Here, we report on the transcriptional down-regulation of genes within the unsynapsed region of the rearranged mouse chromosome 17, and on the subsequent disturbance of X chromosome inactivation. The partial transcriptional suppression of genes in the unsynapsed chromatin was most prominent prior to the mid-pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes. Later, during the mid-late pachytene, the rearranged autosomes colocalized with the XY body, and the X chromosome failed to undergo proper transcriptional silencing. Our findings provide direct evidence on the MSUC acting at the mRNA level, and implicate that autosomal asynapsis in meiosis may cause male sterility by interfering with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

  8. Academic Libraries, 2000. E.D. Tabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nancy; Justh, Natalie M.; Williams, Jeffrey W.

    This report discusses the state of academic libraries in 2000. It defines "academic library" as well as discusses library services, library collections, library staff, library expenditures, and electronic services. (Author/AMT)

  9. Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Suppression of Repetitive Sequences in Whole Chromosome Painting Probes for FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, L C; Pattee, M; Williams, J; Eklund, M; Bedford, J S; Christian, A T

    2004-04-21

    We have developed a method to suppress the PCR amplification of repetitive sequences in whole chromosome painting probes by adding Cot-1 DNA to the amplification mixture. The repetitive sequences in the Cot-1 DNA bind to their homologous sequences in the probe library, prevent the binding of primers, and interfere with extension of the probe sequences, greatly decreasing PCR efficiency selectively across these blocked regions. A second labeling reaction is then done and this product is resuspended in FISH hybridization mixture without further addition of blocking DNA. The hybridization produces little if any non-specific binding on any other chromosomes. We have been able to successfully use this procedure with both human and rat chromosome probes. This technique should be applicable in producing probes for CGH, M-FISH and SKY, as well as reducing the presence of repetitive DNA in genomic libraries.

  10. libdrdc: software standards library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Peng, Tie

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the libdrdc software standards library including internal nomenclature, definitions, units of measure, coordinate reference frames, and representations for use in autonomous systems research. This library is a configurable, portable C-function wrapped C++ / Object Oriented C library developed to be independent of software middleware, system architecture, processor, or operating system. It is designed to use the automatically-tuned linear algebra suite (ATLAS) and Basic Linear Algebra Suite (BLAS) and port to firmware and software. The library goal is to unify data collection and representation for various microcontrollers and Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores and to provide a common Application Binary Interface (ABI) for research projects at all scales. The library supports multi-platform development and currently works on Windows, Unix, GNU/Linux, and Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS). This library is made available under LGPL version 2.1 license.

  11. An anchored framework BAC map of mouse chromosome 11 assembled using multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W W; Reneker, J; Chow, C W; Vaishnav, M; Bradley, A

    1998-12-15

    Despite abundant library resources for many organisms, physical mapping of these organisms has been seriously limited due to lack of efficient library screening techniques. We have developed a highly efficient strategy for large-scale screening of genomic libraries based on multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization on high-density genomic filters. We have applied this strategy to generate a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) anchored map of mouse chromosome 11. Using the MIT mouse SSLP data, 320 pairs of oligonucleotide probes were designed with an "overgo" computer program that selects new primer sequences that avoid the microsatellite repeat. BACs identified by these probes are automatically anchored to the chromosome. Ninety-two percent of the probes identified positive clones from a 5.9-fold coverage mouse BAC library with an average of 7 positive clones per marker. An average of 4.2 clones was confirmed for 204 markers by PCR. Our data show that a large number of clones can be efficiently isolated from a large genomic library using this strategy with minimal effort. This strategy will have wide application for large-scale mapping and sequencing of human and other large genomes.

  12. The CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Hester, Alec G

    1968-01-01

    Any advanced research centre needs a good Library. It can be regarded as a piece of equipment as vital as any machine. At the present time, the CERN Library is undergoing a number of modifications to adjust it to the changing scale of CERN's activities and to the ever increasing flood of information. This article, by A.G. Hester, former Editor of CERN COURIER who now works in the Scientific Information Service, describes the purposes, methods and future of the CERN Library.

  13. Open Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Digital Libraries (DLs) are software systems specifically designed to assist users in information seeking activities. Stemming from the intersection of library sciences and computer networking, traditional DL systems impose library philosophies of structure and management on the sprawling collections of data that are made possible through the Internet. DLs evolve to keep pace with innovation on the Internet so there is little standardization in the architecture of such systems. However, ...

  14. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.;

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background......, to minimize the contribution of unpredicted recessive genetic factors present in the individual library strains. We utilize a set of strains where each contains a conditional centromere construct on one of the 16 yeast chromosomes that allows the destabilization and selectable loss of that chromosome. After...... mating a library gene deletion haploid to such a conditional centromere strain, which corresponds to the chromosome carrying the gene deletion, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the gene deletion locus can be generated in these otherwise hybrid diploids. The use of hybrid diploid strains permits...

  15. Construction of a BAC library from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and identification of linkage group specific clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guan; Qi Chen; Junsong Pan; Zheng Li; Huanle He; Aizhong Wu; Rentao Song; Run Cai

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 19,200 clones with an average insert size of 105 kb has been constructed from a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) inbred line S94, derived from a cultivar in North China. The entire library was equivalent to approximately 5 haploid cucumber genomes. To facilitate chromosome engineering and anchor the cucumber genetic linkage map to its chromosomes, 15 sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers from each link-age group of cucumber were used to screen an ordered array of pooled BAC DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifteen mark-ers gave at least two positive clones. As a result, 22 BAC clones representing 7 linkage groups of cucumber were identified, which further validated the genome coverage and utility of the library. This BAC library and linkage group specific clones provide essential resources for future research of the cucumber genome.

  16. NEIC Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC) Environmental Forensic Library partners with NEIC's forensic scientists to retrieve, validate and deliver information to develop methods, defensible regulations, and environmental measurements.

  17. The Personal Virtual Library

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Looking for "library" in the usual search engines of the World Wide Web gives: "Infoseek found 3,593,126 pages containing the word library" and it nicely proposes: "Search only within these 3,59 3,126 pages ?" "Yahoo! Found 1299 categories and 8669 sites for library" "LycOs: 1-10 von 512354 relevanten Ergebnissen" "AltaVista: About 14830527 documents match your query" and at the botto m: "Word count: library: 15466897" ! Excite: Top 10 matches and it does not say how many can be browsed... "Library" on the World Wide Web is really popular. At least fiveteen million pages ar e supposed to contain this word. Half of them may have disappeared by now but one more hit will be added once the search robots will have indexed this document ! The notion of Personal Library i s a modest attempt, in a small environment like a library, to give poor users lost in cyber-libraries the opportunity to keep their own private little shelves - virtually. In this paper, we will l ook at the usual functionalities of library systems...

  18. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  19. Future-Proof Your Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt of Library Journal's (LJ's) Movers & Shakers ideas on how to ensure a vital library for the future. Several identify a disconnect between what librarians and libraries do and what users think they do. Mending this gap, they say, would transform library recruitment and library support. While specific insights on…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Y chromosome infertility Y chromosome infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Y chromosome infertility is a condition that affects the production of ...

  1. Higher order structure of chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, T A; Comings, D E

    1979-04-01

    Isolated Chinese hamster metaphase chromosomes were resuspended in 4 M ammonium acetate and spread on a surface of distilled water or 0.15 to 0.5 M ammonium acetate. The DNA was released in the form of a regular series of rosettes connected by interrossette DNA. The mean length of the rosette DNA was 14 micron, similar to the mean length of 10 micron for chromomere DNA of Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The mean interrosette DNA was 4.2 micron. SDS gel electrophoresis of the chromosomal nonhistone proteins showed them to be very similar to nuclear nonhistone proteins except for the presence of more actin and tubulin. Nuclear matrix proteins were present in the chromosomes and may play a role in forming the rosettes. Evidence that the rosette pattern is artifactual versus the possibility that it represents a real organizational substructure of the chromosomes is reviewed.

  2. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly 1 mm long, approximately 1,000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and the impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation.

  3. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Scott L; Hawley, R Scott

    2003-08-08

    The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

  4. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-12-31

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  5. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  6. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  7. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  8. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  9. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  10. New Library Buildings and Library Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Bille Larsen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Visits to libraries have always been an important part of the LIBER Architecture Group Seminars, as they add practice, concrete examples of success and mistakes to the theory of the seminar presentations. The programme of the Leipzig seminar thus offered quite a few library visits: Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, Thüringer Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, Jena, Universitäts- und Forschungsbibliothek Erfurt, Herzogin-Anna-Amalia-Bibliothek, Weimar, Universitätsbibliothek der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Deutsche Bücherei, Leipzig and Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staatsund Universitätsbibliothek, Dresden. The following is a short report about the libraries visited during the week. The reports are combined with quotations from the libraries’ presentation of their building projects and in some cases also with facts and figures.

  11. Nucleolar organization, ribosomal DNA array stability, and acrocentric chromosome integrity are linked to telomere function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M Stimpson

    Full Text Available The short arms of the ten acrocentric human chromosomes share several repetitive DNAs, including ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA. The rDNA arrays correspond to nucleolar organizing regions that coalesce each cell cycle to form the nucleolus. Telomere disruption by expressing a mutant version of telomere binding protein TRF2 (dnTRF2 causes non-random acrocentric fusions, as well as large-scale nucleolar defects. The mechanisms responsible for acrocentric chromosome sensitivity to dysfunctional telomeres are unclear. In this study, we show that TRF2 normally associates with the nucleolus and rDNA. However, when telomeres are crippled by dnTRF2 or RNAi knockdown of TRF2, gross nucleolar and chromosomal changes occur. We used the controllable dnTRF2 system to precisely dissect the timing and progression of nucleolar and chromosomal instability induced by telomere dysfunction, demonstrating that nucleolar changes precede the DNA damage and morphological changes that occur at acrocentric short arms. The rDNA repeat arrays on the short arms decondense, and are coated by RNA polymerase I transcription binding factor UBF, physically linking acrocentrics to one another as they become fusogenic. These results highlight the importance of telomere function in nucleolar stability and structural integrity of acrocentric chromosomes, particularly the rDNA arrays. Telomeric stress is widely accepted to cause DNA damage at chromosome ends, but our findings suggest that it also disrupts chromosome structure beyond the telomere region, specifically within the rDNA arrays located on acrocentric chromosomes. These results have relevance for Robertsonian translocation formation in humans and mechanisms by which acrocentric-acrocentric fusions are promoted by DNA damage and repair.

  12. Construction of BIBAC and BAC libraries from a variety of organisms for advanced genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Scheuring, Chantel F; Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Cang; Dong, Jennifer J; Li, Yaning

    2012-02-16

    Large-insert BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) and BIBAC (binary BAC) libraries are essential for modern genomics research for all organisms. We helped pioneer the BAC and BIBAC technologies, and by using them we have constructed hundreds of BAC and BIBAC libraries for different species of plants, animals, marine animals, insects, algae and microbes. These libraries have been used globally for different aspects of genomics research. Here we describe the procedure with the latest improvements that we have made and used for construction of BIBAC libraries. The procedure includes the preparation of BIBAC vectors, the preparation of clonable fragments of the desired size from the source DNA, the construction and transformation of BIBACs and, finally, the characterization and assembly of BIBAC libraries. We also specify the modifications necessary for construction of BAC libraries using the protocol. The entire protocol takes ∼7 d.

  13. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  14. CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING IN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , CHROMOSOMES), (*CHROMOSOMES, MAPPING), NITROSO COMPOUNDS, GUANIDINES, GENETICS, MUTATIONS, DRUGS, TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), TEST METHODS, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, INHIBITION, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY).

  15. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  16. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  17. Human BAC library: construction and rapid screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, S; Abe, I; Kudoh, Y; Kishi, N; Wang, Y; Kubota, R; Kudoh, J; Kawasaki, K; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N

    1997-05-20

    We have constructed a human genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using high molecular weight DNA from a pre-pro-B cell line, FLEB14-14, with a normal male diploid karyotype. This BAC library consists of 96,000 clones with an average DNA insert size of 110 kb, covering the human genome approximately 3 times. The library can be screened by three different methods. (1) Probe hybridization to 31 high-density replica (HDR) filters: each filter contains 3072 BAC clones which were gridded in a 6 x 6 pattern. (2) Probe hybridization to two Southern blot filters to which 31 HindIII digests of the pooled 3072 BAC clones were loaded. This identifies a particular HDR filter for which further probe hybridization is performed to identify a particular clone(s). (3) Two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). First, PCR is applied to DNA samples prepared from ten superpools of 9600 BAC clones each to identify a particular superpool and the second PCR is applied to 40 unique DNA samples prepared from the four-dimensionally assigned BAC clones of the particular superpool. We present typical examples of the library screening using these three methods. The two-step PCR screening is particularly powerful since it allows us to isolate a desired BAC clone(s) within a day or so. The theoretical consideration of the advantage of this method is presented. Furthermore, we have adapted Vectorette method to our BAC library for the isolation of terminal sequences of the BAC DNA insert to facilitate contig formation by BAC walking.

  18. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  19. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  20. Brighton's Toy Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Duncan

    1978-01-01

    Describes a successful toy library in a public library in terms of staffing and patrons, toy selection, toy breakage problem, and sources of toys. In addition to children, users include an adult literacy group, a school for the mentally handicapped, the local social services department, and home for the elderly. (JAB)

  1. Basic Library List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, William L., Jr.

    Reported is an initial attempt to define a minimal college mathematics library. Included is a list of some 300 books, from which approximately 170 are to be chosen to form a basic library in undergraduate mathematics. The areas provided for in this list include Algebra, Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Geometry, Topology, Logic, Foundations and Set…

  2. The academic library network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wojciechowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of libraries, academic libraries in particular, necessitates organizational changes facilitating or even imposing co-operation. Any structure of any university has to have an integrated network of libraries, with an appropriate division of work, and one that is consolidated as much as it is possible into medium-size or large libraries. Within thus created network, a chance arises to centralize the main library processes based on appropriate procedures in the main library, highly specialized, more effective and therefore cheaper in operation, including a co-ordination of all more important endeavours and tasks. Hierarchically subordinated libraries can be thus more focused on performing their routine service, more and more frequently providing for the whole of the university, and being able to adjust to changeable requirements and demands of patrons and of new tasks resulting from the new model of the university operation. Another necessary change seems to be a universal implementation of an ov rall programme framework that would include all services in the university’s library networks.

  3. Online Library Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of access services is letting patrons know what one has to offer at his or her library, and then communicating how they may avail themselves of those services. Increasingly, libraries are doing this through more than the traditional handouts and newsletters, but also through blogs, Facebook pages, podcasts, and videos. This…

  4. Libraries at the Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Donna C.; Neuman, Susan B.

    2016-01-01

    Because English language learners enter kindergarten at a distinct disadvantage, Celano and Neuman examine the role public libraries can play in rallying around these young children to better prepare them for school. The authors document a new program called Every Child Ready to Read, which recently launched in 4,000 public libraries across the…

  5. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  6. Running the Library Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Jesonis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article draws a parallel between fatigued runners and overworked librarians, proposing that libraries need to pace work more effectively to avoid burnout. Through an exploration of cognitive science, organizational psychology, and practical examples, guest author Erica Jesonis offers considerations for improving productivity and reducing stress within our fast-paced library culture. I recently [...

  7. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  8. Library Consortia in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csajbok, Edit; Szluka, Peter; Vasas, Livia

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades many Hungarian libraries have developed considerably, beyond what was considered possible prior to 1989 and the beginning of events signaling the end of Communism in the country. Some of the modernization of library services has been realized through participation in cooperative agreements. Many smaller and larger…

  9. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  10. Dumping the "Library."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an alternative to abandoning the word "library" for "information" in graduate education. Recommends patient, consistent effort by library- and information-science educators to convince academic librarians that if they accept the standards of the teaching/research faculty, including the need to earn a Ph.D., it will raise the prestige of…

  11. Libraries on the Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An NGO campaigns to help rural students find the joy of reading Tan Li joined the Gan Quan Library,a Trural library in Chengde,north China’s Hebei Province,after graduating from the Shanxi University of Finance and Economics in July.

  12. Library Media Services Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnipeg School Div. Number 1, Manitoba (Canada).

    This 1991 edition of the handbook for Winnipeg School Division Number 1 school library media programs presents detailed program guidelines, objectives, philosophies, and goals in five major sections: (1) Library Policy and Practices (statement of the division's educational philosophy and goals, philosophy and goals of the division's library…

  13. Weeding Library Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Stanley J.

    This work, based on two recent research projects in the weeding of library collections and the identification of core collections, provides a comprehensive summary of the literature and research on these topics. It also presents practical guidance in weeding for the professional librarian or for the library school student. The book is divided into…

  14. Trotsky's Vision of Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William; Hurych, Jitka

    1991-01-01

    Discusses Leon Trotsky's views on libraries, librarians, and librarianship in Soviet society in the 1920s as expressed in a speech, "Leninism and Library Work." Topics discussed include role of librarian in promoting literacy, including the use of maps and reference books to explain newspaper stories; the selection of books; and fighting…

  15. Brain region-specific alterations in the gene expression of cytokines, immune cell markers and cholinergic system components during peripheral endotoxin-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Harold A; Dancho, Meghan; Regnier-Golanov, Angelique; Nasim, Mansoor; Ochani, Mahendar; Olofsson, Peder S; Ahmed, Mohamed; Miller, Edmund J; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Golanov, Eugene; Metz, Christine N; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2015-03-11

    Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune-brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region-specific cytokine responses, and brain cholinergic signaling (which plays a role in controlling peripheral cytokine levels), remain unclear. To provide insight, we studied gene expression of cytokines, immune cell markers and brain cholinergic system components in the cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and thalamus in mice after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection. Endotoxemia was accompanied by elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and other cytokines and brain region-specific increases in Il1b (the highest increase, relative to basal level, was in cortex; the lowest increase was in cerebellum) and Il6 (highest increase in cerebellum; lowest increase in striatum) mRNA expression. Gene expression of brain Gfap (astrocyte marker) was also differentially increased. However, Iba1 (microglia marker) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions in parallel with morphological changes, indicating microglia activation. Brain choline acetyltransferase (Chat ) mRNA expression was decreased in the striatum, acetylcholinesterase (Ache) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and increased in the hippocampus, and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrm1) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and the brainstem. These results reveal a previously unrecognized regional specificity in brain immunoregulatory and cholinergic system gene expression in the context of peripheral inflammation and are of interest for designing future antiinflammatory approaches.

  16. Library Legislation: Some General Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenson, Alex

    1970-01-01

    Library service has become a concern of government at all levels with each having its specific role to play. This introductory statement to this issue of Library Trends" indicates the major substantive areas of library legislation. (Author/NH)

  17. EPA Library Network Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish Agency-wide procedures for the EPA National Library Network libraries to communicate, using a range of established mechanisms, with other EPA libraries, EPA staff, organizations and the public.

  18. Free Library Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Bérard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As library materials are catalogued by public organisations and librarians are active promoters of the principles of open access, one would expect library data to be freely available to all. Yet this is not the case. Why then do so few libraries make their data available free of charge? This article reviews the diverging, often restrictive policies and the interests (commercial and strategic at stake. It presents a panorama of the current situation, the actors and interests involved. It addresses the legal aspects and the obstacles and it shows how data produced by libraries can be made freely available to other knowledge organisations while retaining and developing the collective organisations and services built by library networks over the years. The aim of the ‘free the data movement’ is to share and reuse bibliographic data in a new ecosystem where all the actors are involved, both users and providers, not just librarians.

  19. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  20. Sequence and chromosomal localization of the mouse brevican gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, U; Meyer, H; Brakebusch, C

    1997-01-01

    Brevican is a brain-specific proteoglycan belonging to the aggrecan family. Phage clones containing the complete mouse brevican open reading frame of 2649 bp and the complete 3'-untranslated region of 341 bp were isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library, and cosmid clones containing the mouse bre...... to an alternative brevican cDNA, coding for a GPI-linked isoform. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis mapped the brevican gene (Bcan) to chromosome 3 between the microsatellite markers D3Mit22 and D3Mit11....

  1. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  2. Chromosome segregation in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Jha, Jyoti; Chattoraj, Dhruba K

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation.

  3. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  4. Libraries Today, Libraries Tomorrow: Contemporary Library Practices and the Role of Library Space in the L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vogrinčič Čepič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The article uses sociological concepts in order to rethink the changes in library practices. Contemporary trends are discussed with regard to the changing nature of working habits, referring mostly to the new technology, and the (emergence of the third space phenomenon. The author does not regard libraries only as concrete public service institutions, but rather as complex cultural forms, taking in consideration wider social context with a stress on users’ practices in relation to space.Methodology/approach: The article is based on the (self- observation of the public library use, and on the (discourse analysis of internal library documents (i.e. annual reports and plans and secondary sociological literature. As such, the cultural form approach represents a classic method of sociology of culture.Results: The study of relevant material in combination with direct personal experiences reveals socio-structural causes for the change of users’ needs and habits, and points at the difficulty of spatial redefinition of libraries as well as at the power of the discourse.Research limitations: The article is limited to an observation of users’ practices in some of the public libraries in Ljubljana and examines only a small number of annual reports – the discoveries are then further debated from the sociological perspective.Originality/practical implications: The article offers sociological insight in the current issues of the library science and tries to suggest a wider explanation that could answer some of the challenges of the contemporary librarianship.

  5. Identification of Bacillus anthracis specific chromosomal sequences by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkar Rajendra

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus are closely related members of the B. cereus-group of bacilli. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH was used to identify specific chromosomal sequences unique to B. anthracis. Results Two SSH libraries were generated. Genomic DNA from plasmid-cured B. anthracis was used as the tester DNA in both libraries, while genomic DNA from either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis served as the driver DNA. Progressive screening of the libraries by colony filter and Southern blot analyses identified 29 different clones that were specific for the B. anthracis chromosome relative not only to the respective driver DNAs, but also to seven other different strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis included in the process. The nucleotide sequences of the clones were compared with those found in genomic databases, revealing that over half of the clones were located into 2 regions on the B. anthracis chromosome. Conclusions Genes encoding potential cell wall synthesis proteins dominated one region, while bacteriophage-related sequences dominated the other region. The latter supports the hypothesis that acquisition of these bacteriophage sequences occurred during or after speciation of B. anthracis relative to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This study provides insight into the chromosomal differences between B. anthracis and its closest phylogenetic relatives.

  6. Chromosomal assignment of canine THADA gene to CFA 10q25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolf Gaudenz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal translocations affecting the chromosome 2p21 cluster in a 450 kb breakpoint region are frequently observed in human benign thyroid adenomas. THADA (thyroid adenoma associated was identified as the affected gene within this breakpoint region. In contrast to man tumours of the thyroid gland of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris constitute mainly as follicular cell carcinomas, with malignant thyroid tumours being more frequent than benign thyroid adenomas. In order to elucidate if the THADA gene is also a target of chromosomal rearrangements in thyroid adenomas of the dog we have physically mapped the canine THADA gene to canine chromosome 10. A PCR was established to screen a canine genome library for a BAC clone containing the gene sequence of canine THADA. Further PCR reactions were done using the identified BAC clone as a template in order to verify the corresponding PCR product by sequencing. Canine whole blood was incubated with colcemid in order to arrest the cultured cells in metaphases. The verified BAC DNA was digoxigenin labeled and used as a probe in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Ten well spread metaphases were examined indicating a signal on canine chromosome 10 on both chromatids. A detailed fine mapping was performed indicating the canine THADA gene locus on the q-arm of chromosome 10. Results The canine THADA gene locus was mapped on chromosome 10q25. Our mapping results obtained in this study following the previously described nomenclature for the canine karyotype. Conclusion We analysed whether the THADA gene locus is a hotspot of canine chromosomal rearrangements in canine neoplastic lesions of the thyroid and in addition might play a role as a candidate gene for a possible malignant transformation of canine thyroid adenomas. Although the available cytogenetic data of canine thyroid adenomas are still insufficient the chromosomal region to which the canine THADA has been mapped seems to be no

  7. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  8. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-11-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  10. Marketing the hospital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations.

  11. Integrated Library Information Systems in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshon, Arnold

    Based on an October 1982 survey of 31 selected members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), this report presents library planning documents, general system descriptions and reviews, and examples of library specifications--all dealing with integrated library information systems (ILIS). An ILIS is defined as a fully interactive integrated…

  12. Library Automation Software Packages used in Academic Libraries of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma (Baral), Sabitri

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative assessment of the library automation software packages used in Nepalese academic libraries. It focuses on the evaluation of software on the basis of certain important checkpoints. It also highlights the importance of library automation, library activities and services.

  13. Croatian library leaders’ views on (their library quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Petr Balog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and describe the library culture in Croatian public libraries. Semi-structured interviews with 14 library directors (ten public and four academic were conducted. The tentative discussion topics were: definition of quality, responsibility for quality, satisfaction with library services, familiarization with user perspective of library and librarians, monitoring of user expectations and opinions. These interviews incorporate some of the findings of the project Evaluation of library and information services: public and academic libraries. The project investigates library culture in Croatian public and academic libraries and their preparedness for activities of performance measurement. The interviews reveal that library culture has changed positively in the past few years and that library leaders have positive attitude towards quality and evaluation activities. Library culture in Croatian libraries is a relatively new concept and as such was not actively developed and/or created. This article looks into the library culture of Croatian libraries, but at the same time investigates whether there is any trace of culture of assessment in them. Also, this article brings the latest update on views, opinions and atmosphere in Croatian public and academic libraries.

  14. 2010 Library of the Year: Columbus Metropolitan Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article features Columbus Metropolitan Library (CML), winner of the Gale/"Library Journal" Library of the Year Award 2010. CML, comprised of an operations center and 21 branches, serves the 847,376 people who inhabit a large portion of Franklin County in central Ohio. It is an independent library with its own taxing district. CML…

  15. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J.; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae com...

  16. Two-dimensional screening of the Wageningen chicken BAC library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooijmans, R P; Vrebalov, J; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; Groenen, M A

    2000-05-01

    We have constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library that provides 5.5-fold redundant coverage of the chicken genome. The library was made by cloning partial HindIII-digested high-molecular-weight (HMW) DNA of a female White Leghorn chicken into the HindIII site of the vector pECBAC1. Several modifications of standard protocols were necessary to clone efficiently large partial HindIII DNA fragments. The library consists of 49,920 clones arranged in 130 384-well plates. An average insert size of 134 kb was estimated from the analysis of 152 randomly selected BAC clones. The average number of NotI restriction sites per clone was 0.77. After individual growth, DNA was isolated of the pooled clones of each 384-well plate, and subsequently DNA of each plate was isolated from the individual row and column pools. Screening of the Wageningen chicken BAC library was performed by two-dimensional PCR with 125 microsatellite markers. For 124 markers at least one BAC clone was obtained. FISH experiments of 108 BAC clones revealed chimerism in less than 1%. The number of different BAC clones per marker present in the BAC library was examined for 35 markers which resulted in a total of 167 different BAC clones. Per marker the number of BAC clones varied from 1 to 11, with an average of 4.77. The chicken BAC library constitutes an invaluable tool for positional cloning and for comparative mapping studies.

  17. B chromosomes and sex in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, J P M; Schmid, M; Cabrero, J

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes are dispensable elements found in many eukaryote genomes in addition to standard (A) chromosomes. In many respects, B chromosomes resemble sex chromosomes, so that a common ancestry for them has frequently been suggested. For instance, B chromosomes in grasshoppers, and other insects, show a pycnotic cycle of condensation-decondensation during meiosis remarkably similar to that of the X chromosome. In some cases, B chromosome size is even very similar to that of the X chromosome. These resemblances have led to suggest the X as the B ancestor in many cases. In addition, sex chromosome origin from B chromosomes has also been suggested. In this article, we review the existing evidence for both evolutionary pathways, as well as sex differences for B frequency at adult and embryo progeny levels, B chromosome effects or B chromosome transmission. In addition, we review cases found in the literature showing sex-ratio distortion associated with B chromosome presence, the most extreme case being the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosomes in some Hymenoptera. We finally analyse the possibility of B chromosome regularisation within the host genome and, as a consequence of it, whether B chromosomes can become regular members of the host genome.

  18. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  19. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in Colorado URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/colorado.html Libraries in Colorado ... Room 2106C Aurora, CO 80045 303-724-2111 http://hslibrary.ucdenver.edu/ Denver National Jewish Health Library ...

  20. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Library Architecture: Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Fabian

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of libraries (among them many university and research libraries which do not provide adequate work-places. Chairs may have been selected for their stylish look rather than for their physical comfort. Desk lamps may have been deemed unnecessary (they might have distorted the overall impression which the reading room was expected to make And so on. I keep wondering how many librarians have spent some time in their libraries as readers, and have assessed their reading rooms from the user’s point of view. Have they been in a cubicle? Or have they read a book under glaring neon lights? Do they know how well their air-conditioning works? I know a library in which the only window that can be opened is in the librarian’s office.

  2. Archives Library Information Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — ALIC is an online library catalog of books, periodicals, and other materials contained in Archives I and II and book collections located in other facilities.

  3. The Gosford Toy Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Heather

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of a toy library in Gosford (Australia). Discusses community support, state and local funding and expenditures, planning loan procedures, the catalog, presentation and storage, classification, the official opening, and staff support and community reaction. (AEF)

  4. Controlling hospital library theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Theresa M; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-04-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal.

  5. Web design for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Rubenstein, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Having a clear, attractive, and easy-to-navigate website that allows users to quickly find what they want is essential for any organization-including a library. This workbook makes website creation easy-no HTML required.

  6. USGS Photographic Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Denver Library maintains a collection of over 400,000 photographs taken during geologic studies of the United States and its territories...

  7. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  8. Iowa DNR - NRGIS Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Natural Resources Geographic Information System (NRGIS) Library is a Geographic Information System (GIS) repository developed and maintained by the GIS Section...

  9. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  10. Working in the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Head Librarian Jens Vigen seeking information on the first discussions concerning the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the LEP Tunnel (1984), here assisted by two of the library apprentices, Barbara Veyre and Dina-Elisabeth Bimbu (seated).

  11. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  12. LIBRARY MANAGEMNT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Tilca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of any educational institution is the content and services of the university library. The mission of the library is to obtain, organize, preserve and update the information with the greatest possible accuracy, minimum effort and time. This requires automation of the library’s operations. This paper presents a software application for managing the activity of the territorial "Vasile Goldiş" West University library. The application is developed using Visual Basic for Application programming language and using the database management system Microsoft Access 2010. The goal of this application is to optimize the inner workings of local library and to meet the requests of the institution and of the readers.

  13. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  14. Hispanic College Students Library Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…

  15. Trends in State Library Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Dorothy A.

    This nine page pamphlet describes the development of such federal library legislation as the Library Services Act (1956), the Library Services and Construction Act (1964), the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the Higher Education Act, and the Medical Library Assistance Act (1964). The effect of this legislation on new forms of intertype…

  16. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  17. Sports Education Library Information Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓峰

    2014-01-01

    Library website, is the first window for readers to understand library information services. Sports Education academy library fully take advantage of homepage, combine open access resource searched with the library collections, after targeted collection, selection, sorting, processing, clustering or reorganization, establish a navigation system of open access resource of physical Sports Education.

  18. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  19. The Economics of Library Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.; Olsen, Harold A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a review of the economic literature dealing with innovation in academic libraries, and of the economic environment and structure of libraries and their relationship to innovation. Also discussed are sources of capital for libraries, the economic character of innovation, and innovation in libraries. (Author/MBR)

  20. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  1. Digital library usability studies

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2005-01-01

    Each summer, circulation staff in my library inventories a section of the stacks andbrings collection issues to the attention of appropriate bibliographers. Since I amresponsible for the economics collection, I see an array of government documents thathave managed to elude the cataloging process. Many of these titles are decades old,having squatted in the library undisturbed and uncirculated since our online catalogwas implemented in 1990.

  2. At the Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任孝伟

    2000-01-01

    Jim wants to borrow a book from a new library(图书馆).He comes to the library with Jack.They can't see any assistants(图书管理员)there,but only some robots(机器人)standing there.Then Jim says to the robot,""Hey,give me the book."" But the robot doesn't work.

  3. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  4. Large Spectral Library Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  5. Circular chromosomal DNA in the sulfur-dependent archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagishi, A; Oshima, T

    1990-01-01

    The shape of the chromosomal DNA of the sulfur-dependent archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was analyzed by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE). S.acidocaldarius DNA digested with Notl showed two DNA bands at around 1.0 Mbp and 2.1 Mbp. Notl-linking clones were isolated from the library of S.acidocaldarius chromosomal DNA. It contained two Notl sites. Both 1.0 and 2.1 Mbp DNA band separated by PFGE were hybridized with the two independent Notl-linking fragment. Each right and le...

  6. Localization of relaxin receptors in arteries and veins, and region-specific increases in compliance and bradykinin-mediated relaxation after in vivo serelaxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinic, Maria; Leo, Chen-Huei; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Sandow, Shaun L; Gooi, Jonathan H; Wlodek, Mary E; Conrad, Kirk P; Parkington, Helena; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    Relaxin is a potent vasodilator of small resistance arteries and modifies arterial compliance in some systemic vascular beds, yet receptors for relaxin, such as RXFP1, have only been localized to vascular smooth muscle. This study first aimed to localize RXFP1 in rat arteries and veins from different organ beds and determine whether receptors are present in endothelial cells. We then tested the hypothesis that region-specific vascular effects of relaxin may be influenced by the cellular localization of RXFP1 within different blood vessels. The aorta, vena cava, mesenteric artery, and vein had significantly higher (Pdifferential distribution of RXFP1 on endothelial and smooth muscle across the vasculature. In rats, mesenteric arteries exhibit the greatest functional response to chronic serelaxin treatment.

  7. Chromosome therapy. Correction of large chromosomal aberrations by inducing ring chromosomes in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Bershteyn, Marina; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of these large-scale aberrations affecting multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have so far been proposed. Our recent study (Bershteyn et al.) using patient-derived fibroblast lines containing ring chromosomes, found that cellular reprogramming of these fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resulted in the cell-autonomous correction of the ring chromosomal aberration via compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD). These observations have important implications for studying the mechanism of chromosomal number control and may lead to the development of effective therapies for other, more common, chromosomal aberrations.

  8. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data.

  9. Inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities at prenatal chromosome analysis are rarely ascertained through recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M. T. M.; Korevaar, J. C.; Tjoa, W. M.; Leschot, N. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Knegt, A. C.; Suykerbuyk, R. F.; Hochstenbach, R.; van der Veen, F.; Goddijn, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the mode of ascertainment of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal chromosome analysis. Methods From the databases of three centres for clinical genetics in the Netherlands, all cases of inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnorma

  10. Library 3.0 intelligent libraries and apomediation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwanya, Tom; Underwood, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emerging generation of research and academic library users expect the delivery of user-centered information services. 'Apomediation' refers to the supporting role librarians can give users by stepping in when users need help. Library 3.0 explores the ongoing debates on the "point oh” phenomenon and its impact on service delivery in libraries. This title analyses Library 3.0 and its potential in creating intelligent libraries capable of meeting contemporary needs, and the growing role of librarians as apomediators. Library 3.0 is divided into four chapters. The first chapter introduces and places the topic in context. The second chapter considers "point oh” libraries. The third chapter covers library 3.0 librarianship, while the final chapter explores ways libraries can move towards '3.0'.

  11. Dean flow fractionation of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockin, Matt; Sant, Himanshu J.; Capecchi, Mario; Gale, Bruce K.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to transfer intact mammalian chromosomes between cells have been attempted for more than 50 years with the consistent result being transfer of sub unit length pieces regardless of method. Inertial microfluidics is a new field that has shown much promise in addressing the fractionation of particles in the 2-20 μm size range (with unknown limits) and separations are based upon particles being carried by curving confined flows (within a spiral shaped, often rectangular flow chamber) and migrating to stable "equilibrium" positions of varying distance from a chamber wall depending on the balance of dean and lift forces. We fabricated spiral channels for inertial microfluidic separations using a standard soft lithography process. The concentration of chromosomes, small contaminant DNA and large cell debris in each outlets were evaluated using microscope (60X) and a flow cytometer. Using Dean Flow Fractionation, we were able to focus 4.5 times more chromosomes in outlet 2 compared to outlet 4 where most of the large debris is found. We recover 16% of the chromosomes in outlet #1- 50% in 2, 23% in 3 and 11% in 4. It should be noted that these estimates of recovery do not capture one piece of information- it actually may be that the chromosomes at each outlet are physically different and work needs to be done to verify this potential.

  12. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  13. The Reduction of Chromosome Number in Meiosis Is Determined by Properties Built into the Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Paliulis, Leocadia V.; Nicklas, R. Bruce

    2000-01-01

    In meiosis I, two chromatids move to each spindle pole. Then, in meiosis II, the two are distributed, one to each future gamete. This requires that meiosis I chromosomes attach to the spindle differently than meiosis II chromosomes and that they regulate chromosome cohesion differently. We investigated whether the information that dictates the division type of the chromosome comes from the whole cell, the spindle, or the chromosome itself. Also, we determined when chromosomes can switch from ...

  14. Diagnosis of a constitutional five-chromosome rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsien, F.; Shapira, E. [Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Carvalho, T. [Hospital Sarah Kubitschek, Brasilia (Brazil)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes and three or more chromosome breakpoints. Such karyotypes are often acquired during cancer multi-step development and in chromosome instability syndromes. However, extremely rare constitutional forms have been reported, most of which are incompatible with life. We present a 2-year-old female with de novo complex rearrangement consisting of five chromosomes and nine breakpoints. Clinical evaluation at two years of age revealed a weight of 5 kg, length of 66 cm, and had circumference of 38 cm, all below the 5th percentile, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, epicanthal folds, inguinal hernia, left clubfoot, hypertonicity, and developmental delay. The neurological examination revealed chorea-acanthocytosis and psychomotor delay. Cultured lymphocytes and fibroblasts revealed a karyotype consisting of five derivative chromosomes. The metaphases were further analyzed by FISH using chromosome-specific libraries and telomeric probes in order to delineate the composition of the rearranged chromosomes; FISH results demonstrated a karyotype of: 46,XX,1pter{r_arrow}1q25::1q42.1{r_arrow}1qter, 2pter{r_arrow}q32.3::1q32.3{r_arrow}2q41::2q37.3{r_arrow}2qter, 7qter{r_arrow}7q21.2::6q22.3{r_arrow}6qter::1q31{r_arrow}1q32.3::6p23{r_arrow}6q22.3, 7pter{r_arrow}7q21.1::6p23{r_arrow}6pter, 2q33{r_arrow}2q37, 1::9p21{r_arrow}9qter. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of FISH in characterizing complex chromosome rearrangements otherwise difficult to correctly interpret using classical cytogenetics alone.

  15. Increased Diversity of Libraries from Libraries: Chemoinformatic Analysis of Bis-Diazacyclic Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    López-Vallejo, Fabian; Nefzi, Adel; Bender, Andreas; Owen, John R.; Nabney, Ian T.; Houghten, Richard A.; Medina-Franco, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial libraries continue to play a key role in drug discovery. To increase structural diversity, several experimental methods have been developed. However, limited efforts have been performed so far to quantify the diversity of the broadly used diversity-oriented synthetic (DOS) libraries. Herein we report a comprehensive characterization of 15 bis-diazacyclic combinatorial libraries obtained through libraries from libraries, which is a DOS approach. Using MACCS keys, radial and diffe...

  16. Korean BAC library construction and characterization of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Hye-Ja; Bok, Jeong; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Park, Chan; Kimm, KuChan; Oh, Bermseok; Lee, Jong-Young

    2006-07-31

    A human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed with high molecular weight DNA extracted from the blood of a male Korean. This Korean BAC library contains 100,224 clones of insert size ranging from 70 to 150 kb, with an average size of 86 kb, corresponding to a 2.9-fold redundancy of the genome. The average insert size was determined from 288 randomly selected BAC clones that were well distributed among all the chromosomes. We developed a pooling system and three-step PCR screen for the Korean BAC library to isolate desired BAC clones, and we confirmed its utility using primer pairs designed for one of the clones. The Korean BAC library and screening pools will allow PCR-based screening of the Korean genome for any gene of interest. We also determined the allele types of HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB3 of clone KB55453, located in the HLA class II region on chromosome 6p21.3. The HLA-DRA and DRB3 genes in this clone were identified as the DRA*010202 and DRB3*01010201 types, respectively. The haplotype found in this library will provide useful information in future human disease studies.

  17. Increased diversity of libraries from libraries: chemoinformatic analysis of bis-diazacyclic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vallejo, Fabian; Nefzi, Adel; Bender, Andreas; Owen, John R; Nabney, Ian T; Houghten, Richard A; Medina-Franco, José L

    2011-05-01

    Combinatorial libraries continue to play a key role in drug discovery. To increase structural diversity, several experimental methods have been developed. However, limited efforts have been performed so far to quantify the diversity of the broadly used diversity-oriented synthetic libraries. Herein, we report a comprehensive characterization of 15 bis-diazacyclic combinatorial libraries obtained through libraries from libraries, which is a diversity-oriented synthetic approach. Using MACCS keys, radial and different pharmacophoric fingerprints as well as six molecular properties, it was demonstrated the increased structural and property diversity of the libraries from libraries over the individual libraries. Comparison of the libraries to existing drugs, NCI diversity, and the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository revealed the structural uniqueness of the combinatorial libraries (mean similarity <0.5 for any fingerprint representation). In particular, bis-cyclic thiourea libraries were the most structurally dissimilar to drugs retaining drug-like character in property space. This study represents the first comprehensive quantification of the diversity of libraries from libraries providing a solid quantitative approach to compare and contrast the diversity of diversity-oriented synthetic libraries with existing drugs or any other compound collection.

  18. A borderless Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has a large collection of documents in online or printed format in all disciplines needed by physicists, engineers and technicians. However,  users sometimes need to read documents not available at CERN. But don’t worry! Thanks to its Interlibrary loan and document delivery service, the CERN Library can still help you. Just fill in the online form or email us. We will then locate the document in other institutions and order it for you free of charge. The CERN Library cooperates with the largest libraries in Europe, such as ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich, TIB (Technische Informationsbibliothek) in Hanover and the British Library in London. Thanks to our network and our expertise in document search, most requests are satisfied in record time: articles are usually served in .pdf version a few hours after the order, and books or other printed materials are delivered within a few days. It is possible to ask for all types of documents suc...

  19. Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Sunish K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA generated 11,014,359 bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626 bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19 kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4% was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4 kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39 kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from

  20. Screening of genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Valdenice M; Cristofani-Yaly, Mariângela; Bastianel, Marinês; Palmieri, Dario A; Machado, Marcos A

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), have proven to be an important molecular marker in plant genetics and breeding research. The main strategies to obtain these markers can be through genomic DNA and from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from mRNA/cDNA libraries. Genetic studies using microsatellite markers have increased rapidly because they can be highly polymorphic, codominant markers and they show heterozygous conserved sequences. Here, we describe a methodology to obtain microsatellite using the enrichment library of DNA genomic sequences. This method is highly efficient to development microsatellite markers especially in plants that do not have available ESTs or genome databases. This methodology has been used to enrich SSR marker libraries in Citrus spp., an important tool to genotype germplasm, to select zygotic hybrids, and to saturate genetic maps in breeding programs.

  1. Polyelemental nanoparticle libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Xiaolong; Hedrick, James L.; Xie, Zhuang; Wang, Shunzhi; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Hersam, Mark C.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2016-06-01

    Multimetallic nanoparticles are useful in many fields, yet there are no effective strategies for synthesizing libraries of such structures, in which architectures can be explored in a systematic and site-specific manner. The absence of these capabilities precludes the possibility of comprehensively exploring such systems. We present systematic studies of individual polyelemental particle systems, in which composition and size can be independently controlled and structure formation (alloy versus phase-separated state) can be understood. We made libraries consisting of every combination of five metallic elements (Au, Ag, Co, Cu, and Ni) through polymer nanoreactor-mediated synthesis. Important insight into the factors that lead to alloy formation and phase segregation at the nanoscale were obtained, and routes to libraries of nanostructures that cannot be made by conventional methods were developed.

  2. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  3. Secure medical digital libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, I; Chrissikopoulos, V; Polemi, D

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a secure medical digital library is presented. It is based on the CORBA specifications for distributed systems. The described approach relies on a three-tier architecture. Interaction between the medical digital library and its users is achieved through a Web server. The choice of employing Web technology for the dissemination of medical data has many advantages compared to older approaches, but also poses extra requirements that need to be fulfilled. Thus, special attention is paid to the distinguished nature of such medical data, whose integrity and confidentiality should be preserved at all costs. This is achieved through the employment of Trusted Third Parties (TTP) technology for the support of the required security services. Additionally, the proposed digital library employs smartcards for the management of the various security tokens that are used from the above services.

  4. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  5. Chromosome-specific families in Vibrio genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana eLukjancenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown. Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different `Molecular Function` GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many 'housekeeping systems' encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising.

  6. The Library Publishing Coalition: organizing libraries to enhance scholarly publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kalikman Lippincott

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Library-based publishing efforts are gaining traction in academic and research libraries across the world, primarily in response to perceived gaps in the scholarly publishing system. Though publishing is a new area of work for libraries, it is often a natural outgrowth of their existing infrastructure and skill sets, leveraging the institutional repository as publishing platform and repositioning librarians’ skills as information managers. For decades, these initiatives were primarily ad hoc and local, limiting the potential for library publishing to effect significant change. In 2013, over 60 academic and research libraries collectively founded the Library Publishing Coalition (LPC, a professional association expressly charged with facilitating knowledge sharing, collaboration and advocacy for this growing field. This article offers an overview of library publishing activity, primarily in the US, followed by an account of the creation and mission of the LPC, the first professional association dedicated wholly to the support of library publishers.

  7. More library mashups exploring new ways to deliver library data

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Nicole Engard follows up her ground-breaking 2009 book Library Mashups with a fresh collection of mashup projects that virtually any library can emulate, customize, and build upon. In More Library Mashups, Engard and 24 creative library professionals describe how they are mashing up free and inexpensive digital tools and techniques to improve library services and meet everyday (and unexpected) challenges. Examples from libraries of all types are designed to help even non-programmers share and add value to digital content, update and enhance library websites and collections, mashup catalog data, connect to the library's automation system, and use emerging tools like Serendip-o-matic, Umlaut, and Libki to engage users, staff, and the community.

  8. future of research libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Naryandas, Narakesari; Kindström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research libraries have been an integral part of the scholarly communication system since that system emerged in its present form. They now face a period of unprecedentedly drastic and rapid change. This is caused, first and foremost, by the migration of much scholarly material to digital formats, raising the question of the future purpose of the 'library space'. Together with this come transfigurational changes to the communication change of recorded information, with the roles of authors , publishers, database producers and librarians and archivists all in a state of flux. Finally, new forms

  9. Knowledge management for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Forrestal, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Libraries are creating dynamic knowledge bases to capture both tacit and explicit knowledge and subject expertise for use within and beyond their organizations. In this book, readers will learn to move policies and procedures manuals online using a wiki, get the most out of Microsoft SharePoint with custom portals and Web Parts, and build an FAQ knowledge base from reference management applications such as LibAnswers. Knowledge Management for Libraries guides readers through the process of planning, developing, and launching th

  10. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  11. Controlling hospital library theft

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddy, Theresa M.; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other li...

  12. Wordpress for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Haefele, Chad

    2015-01-01

    WordPress is not only the most popular blogging software in the world, but it is also a powerful content management system that runs more than 23 percent of all websites. The current version alone has been downloaded almost 20 million times, and the WordPress community has built more than 38,000 plugins to extend and enhance the system. Libraries are using this technology to create community-oriented websites, blogs, subject guides, digital archives, and more. This hands-on, practical book walks readers through the entire process of setting up a WordPress website for their library,

  13. The library in 2000 : from the perspective of the library

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacci, Maria

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays, the enormous extension of geographic networks makes the vision of a global library - the set of all libraries linked in a network, to which the user can access from his office or home to search and receive the documents that interest him - increasingly feasible. However, this demand for a completely "electronic library" appears often to come from people who have little true awareness of the role of the library in knowledge transfer. At the moment, the preservation, transmission, and...

  14. Sex chromosome rearrangements in Polyphaga beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, A M; Dutrillaux, B

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a parachute sex chromosome bivalent (Xyp) at metaphase I of male meiosis is a well-known characteristic of Coleoptera, present in almost all families of this order and assumed to represent their ancestral sex chromosome formula. Sex chromosomes appear to be manifold more frequently involved in inter-chromosomal rearrangements than the average of the nine autosomal pairs usually forming their karyotype. This leads to various formulae such as neo-sex, multiple sex and perhaps unique sex chromosomes. These rearrangements alter the intimate association between sex chromosomes and nucleolar proteins, which are usual components of the Xyp. Different situations, selected in a series of 125 mitotic and meiotic cytogenetic studies of Polyphaga beetle species, are reported and discussed, with the aim to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms of sex chromosome rearrangements, the relationships with nucleoli and the consequences on dosage compensation and chromosome segregation.

  15. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  16. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Magdalena A; Chromiński, Kornel; Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi-a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license.

  17. CHROMOSOMAL MULTIPLICITY IN BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used CHEF gel electrophoresis to screen preparations of large DNA from different Burkholderia cepacia isolates for the presence of DNA species corresponding to the linearized forms of the three chromosomes of 3.4,2.5, and 0.9 Mb identified in B. cepacia strain 17616. DNA ...

  18. Chromosome synteny in cucumis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2x = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2x = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Two inter-fertile botanical varieties with 14 chromosomes, the cultivated C. sativus var. sativus L. and the wild C. sativus var. hardwick...

  19. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  20. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…

  1. Applying DEA Technique to Library Evaluation in Academic Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wonsik

    2003-01-01

    This study applied an analytical technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate the relative technical efficiency of 95 academic research libraries, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. DEA, with the proper model of library inputs and outputs, can reveal best practices in the peer groups, as well as the technical…

  2. Current Relevance of Zetetics to Library Research and Library Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marta A.; Davis, Harry O.

    1996-01-01

    Explains zetetics which involve theories of research and epistemology and discusses its relevance to library science. Topics include library literacy, and the use of an information matrix to help library patrons understand what information they have and what they need to find. (Author/LRW)

  3. Geography and Map Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on geography and map libraries and a paper on European access to biomedical databases, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "History and Current Status of the Globe Museum of the Austrian National Library" by Franz Wawrik (Austria); (2) "Earth…

  4. The National Library of Finland - strengthening the Finnish Library System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ekholm

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available On Thursday 29 June 2006, the President of the Republic approved the amendment of the Universities Act which changes the Finnish name of the Helsinki University Library, Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, to Kansalliskirjasto, the National Library of Finland. The Library will remain an independent institute within the University of Helsinki. The amended Universities Act enters into force on 1 August 2006.

  5. Public Libraries: On the Skids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    It does not appear that there will be significant improvements in library funding for the foreseeable future. Public libraries will have to adjust their services and programs to the reality imposed by fiscal constraints. (10 references) (Author)

  6. A Fresh Look at Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesko-Pytel, Diana

    1979-01-01

    Describes the activities of the Connecticut Governer's Conference as participants prepare for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services. Explains many of the current services being offered through public and school libraries in Connecticut. (LRA)

  7. Sexism in the Library Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Ella Gaines

    1979-01-01

    Explores the extent of sexism among top library administrators. Career prejudice against women in libraries is revealed in terms of money, position, female and male stereotypes, influence of the women's movement, and the special problems of Black women. (SW)

  8. Libraries Must Change To Survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, John

    2003-01-01

    Institutional, environmental, personal, and social barriers to public library use can be tackled with a community needs approach. Library programs focused on information and knowledge, empowerment, and capacity building can promote social change. (SK)

  9. In the CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    1963-01-01

    Seen in this picture is Noria Christophoridou, librarian of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, who has been sent by her government to CERN for a year to widen her experience of library and documentation services. In the photograph she is providing information to Kurt Gottfried, a CERN visiting scientist from Harvard University, who is spending a year with CERN's Theory Division

  10. TQM for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rux, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the application of TQM (Total Quality Management) to libraries addresses planning based on customer needs and use of the scientific method to evaluate customer satisfaction. A TQM experiment at Marquette Middle School (Wisconsin) is examined, and ways that TQM was used to meet the needs of homeless students are described. (MES)

  11. Toy Library Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Colin

    1977-01-01

    The Survey Place Toy Library in Toronto, serves parents of handicapped children and their normal siblings by supplying toys and equipment; helping parents become more critical in choosing playthings; and providing a meeting place for people with similar problems. Its operations and goals are described. (Author/MBR)

  12. Library science talks

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Vigen, Jens; CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The new interface to the CERN library data base by Jean-Yves Le Meur / CERN-AS I will give a short (hands on) demonstration of the new interface to the whole library database. Emphasis will be given to the new feature allowing any user to build his personal virtual library. A user oriented interface to physics preprint servers by Carlos Loureno / CERN-PPE I will give a (hands-on) presentation of a first version of a tailor made WEB based interface to the preprints kept in the CERN or Los Alamos servers. This interface has already been successfully implemented for the field of high energy heavy ion physics, and can easily be expanded or adapted to other research fields of interest to the HEP community. For the already published papers, a direct link to the published e-journal version is provided (if available). Status of the digital library at CERN by Jens Vigen / CERN-AS I will review the present situation concerning the availability of the electronic versions of scientific publications at CERN and the el...

  13. Altmetric opportunities for Libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Just over five years ago the concept of altmetrics was minted. For libraries and librarians this has brought a new plethora of opportunities. In the first place there is the traditional extension role. Outreach opportunities on the subject of altmetrics are manyfold, and librarians could seize the o

  14. Revolution in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  15. Libraries in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura

    by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  16. The GF Mathematics Library

    CERN Document Server

    Saludes, Jordi; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.6

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to present the Mathematics Grammar Library, a system for multilingual mathematical text processing. We explain the context in which it originated, its current design and functionality and the current development goals. We also present two prototype services and comment on possible future applications in the area of artificial mathematics assistants.

  17. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  18. School Library Nostalgias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores nostalgia as both a limiting cultural force in the lives of school librarians and a practice that can be used to more accurately portray library work. The stereotype of the shushing, lone school librarian, based on restorative nostalgia, is related to a nostalgic oversimplification of the school librarian's historical role.…

  19. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  20. Montessori and School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the advantages of using automated media library systems and how to incorporate them in Montessori schools learning environment. Before even addressing the issue of Montessori philosophy and practice, Here, the author first address two principles: availability and accessibility. Availability is the first principle of a…

  1. Martha Rosler Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Guillot

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available « Martha Rosler Library »[cliquez ci-dessus]un projet initié par e-flux Institut national d'histoire de l'art, 15 novembre 2007- 20 janvier 2008Patrick Guillot (image et bande son

  2. Medicine's Library Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Jean; Homan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how librarians in the new role of "informationist" can help doctors and researches of medical information. Describes existing models of the informationist; potential benefits of working across professional boundaries outside the library; professional requirements; and unresolved issues for the new role, including potential licensing…

  3. Library Laws of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Richard E., Comp.

    Compiled to provide a central reference point for all legislative information pertaining to libraries in the State of Texas, this publication includes all pertinent legislation as amended through the 71st Legislature, 1989, Regular Session. This update of the 1980 edition has been expanded to include statutes pertaining to the school and academic…

  4. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  5. Computerizing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeanie; Whelan, Errol

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of a computerized high school library which uses CD-ROM optical storage systems. Describes hardware and software, setting up the system, preparing the online catalog, teaching information retrieval skills, and project evaluation. Notes prices of CD-ROM disks and equipment purchased. 4 references. (SV)

  6. Work Environment in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashour Mohamed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no more influence of rich libraries and its nature services, on the attractive operation of its users and spending enough time in. But it becomes related to a series of elements which together affect the working atmosphere inside libraries.If the reading practice and concentrating , provide a group of necessary elements and controlling it, so perfect librarians work needs as well providing the appropriate work conditions considering that they spend much more time inside the institution and that what is needed to offer the suitable condition for this type of people. This for on side, from the other side.The containers of library with its different shapes and colors which represent the documentary institution investment, by preparing the appropriate environment to keep it and present it in perfect way to users.From this sight, the study tries to define the condition that must be offered. Having in mind that the operation get complex more and more taking in consideration the balance between a lot of element: quality of light and its strength, ventilation, the degrees of silence and controlling the noise, and all this depends on the architect and the Head of the library skills and intelligent, they must cooperate to successes in testing and using the most suitable to the users, employers and groups all together

  7. Remodeling the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Cohen, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    Presents guidelines for improving the appeal and effectiveness of library space, including consideration of color, lighting, traffic patterns, noise problems, planning, and costs. Since librarians have to work through school administrators, it is important for them to be precise about what they want and how much it will cost. (JPF)

  8. Survivor: The Library Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzon, Susan Carol

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago, the author shared some strategies on managing a cutback ("Budget Shortfalls," "Library Journal" 5/15/03, p. 34-35). Now, people are in an even more severe economic downturn. In this article, the author offers some additional tips on how to cope with more budget shortfalls during this recession.

  9. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    Even more books available electronically!   For several years now, the Library has been offering a large collection of electronic books in a wide range of disciplines. The books can be accessed by all CERN users with a Nice account and, like printed books, can be borrowed for a given period. In a few clicks of the mouse, you can leaf through and read books and even print parts of them from your computer. The Library catalogue now comprises a total of more than 10,000 different e-books. The long-awaited electronic versions of O'Reilly book titles are now available: 70 titles have recently been added to the Library's collection and many others will follow in the coming weeks. This collection of books, mainly on IT subjects, is widely used in the development field. Their availability on line is thus a clear bonus. But there's no need for fans of paper versions to worry: the Library will continue to expand its collection of printed books. The two collections exist side by side and even complement ea...

  10. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    A third of the world’s current literature in electrical engineering is available on your CERN desktop Looking for a technical standard on software reviews and audits? Is it referred to as "IEEE color books"? Want to download and read NOW the latest version of IEEE 802? Whenever a need for a technical standard or specification arises in your activity, the Library is here to serve you. For IEEE standards it is particularly easy; the whole collection is available for immediate download. Indeed, since 2007, the CERN Library offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET journals and proceedings, starting from the first issue. But not everyone knows that this resource gives also access to all current IEEE standards as well as a selection of archival ones. The Library is now working on the integration of a selection of these standards in our onlin...

  11. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  12. The Bionic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the information crisis focuses on possible new forms of library collections. Topics discussed include the rising quantity and costs of publications; improvements in access through new technologies; vendors' plans using electronic text; information flow; economics factors, including user fees; and the role of the commercial sector.…

  13. A Plain English Map of the Human Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Presents a chromosome map for 19 known chromosomes in human genetics. Describes the characteristics attributed to the genetic codes for each of the chromosomes and discusses the teaching applications of the chromosome map. (MDH)

  14. Mobile technologies for every library

    CERN Document Server

    Gleason, Ann Whitney

    2015-01-01

    If you are wondering what mobile technology adoption means for your library or how to get started, Mobile Technologies for Every Library will answer your questions! This book will detail the opportunities and pitfalls in using mobile technology in libraries. It will also address platforms, options, security, and best practices for starting new mobile services programs or improving existing services. Gleason previews many useful apps for libraries. Web links and resources are also included.

  15. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  16. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries: From Libraries to Social Semantic Digital Libraries (SSDL), Over Semantic Digital Libraries (SDL)

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Digital libraries have been an important source of information throughout the history of mankind. It has been present in our societies in different forms. Notably, traditional libraries have found their on the desktops of internet users. They have taken the shape of semantic digital libraries, which are accessible at any time, and accordingly provide a more meaningful search. This paper further discusses social semantic digital libraries that also incorporate the social and collaborative aspect.

  17. Familial transmission of a ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael

    1987-01-01

    A ring chromosome 21 was found in a phenotypically normal mother and her son. The clinical findings in the son were bilateral retention of the testes and a slightly delayed puberty onset. Consequences of a ring formation of a chromosome 21 in phenotypically normal patients are presented...... and discussed, and the previously reported cases of familially transmitted G-group ring chromosomes are reviewed....

  18. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Schoenmakers (Sam); E. Wassenaar (Evelyne); J.W. Hoogerbrugge (Jos); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); W.M. Baarends (Willy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDuring meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (Z

  19. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  20. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  1. Libraries in Saskatchewan: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/saskatchewan.html Libraries in Saskatchewan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prince Albert PAPHR Library Library, Victoria Hospital 1200 - 24th Street West Prince ...

  2. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  3. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  4. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  5. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  6. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  7. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  8. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  9. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  10. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  11. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  12. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  13. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  14. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  15. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  16. Libraries in Georgia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in Georgia URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/georgia.html Libraries in Georgia ... PRINCE AVENUE ATHENS, GA 30606 706-475-3416 http://www.armc.org/mdx.shtml Atlanta Atlanta Medical ...

  17. Libraries in Connecticut: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in Connecticut URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/connecticut.html Libraries in Connecticut ... 977 Bristol, CT 06011-0977 860-585-3239 http://www.bristolhospital.org Derby Griffin Hospital Community Health ...

  18. Libraries in Arizona: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in Arizona URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/arizona.html Libraries in Arizona ... Candy Lane Cottonwood, AZ 86326 928-639-6444 http://nahealth.com Flagstaff Flagstaff Medical Center John B. ...

  19. Libraries in Illinois: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in Illinois URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/illinois.html Libraries in Illinois ... ARLINGTON HEIGHTS, IL 60005-2392 847-618-5180 http://www.nch.org Chicago ALZHEIMER'S ASSOCIATION GREEN-FIELD ...

  20. Libraries in California: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in California URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/california.html Libraries in California ... Alameda, CA 94501 510-522-3700 ext. 3331 http://www.alamedahospital.org Anaheim Anaheim Regional Medical Center ...

  1. Libraries in Florida: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LibraryLibraries in Florida URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/florida.html Libraries in Florida ... Pancake Atlantis, FL 33462-1197 561-548-3480 http://opac.libraryworld.com/cgi-bin/opac.pl?command= ...

  2. An Anthropologist in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Nancy Fried Foster was an anthropologist hired by University of Rochester's library to study its undergraduates, to help shed light on how they do their research and write papers, and how they spend their days. The results of the study helped guide a library renovation, influenced a Web-site redesign, led to changes in the way the library markets…

  3. Dynamic Digital Libraries for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theng, Yin Leng; Mohd-Nasir, Norliza; Buchanan, George; Fields, Bob; Thimbleby, Harold; Cassidy, Noel

    The design of systems, including digital libraries, is often inspired by what technology makes possible. In user-centered design, design emphasizes users, their tasks and needs. The majority of current digital libraries are not designed for children. For digital libraries to be popular with children, they need to be fun and easy-to-use. This paper…

  4. Chat Widgets for Science Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, John J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes chat widgets, chunks of code that can be embedded on a web site to appear as an instant messaging system, and how they can be used on a science library web site to better serve library users. Interviews were conducted concerning experiences at science and humanities libraries and more similarities than differences were…

  5. Library Management Tips that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There's no shortage of library management books out there--but how many of them actually tackle the little details of day-to-day management, the hard-to-categorize things that slip through the cracks of a larger handbook? "Library Management Tips that Work" does exactly that, addressing dozens of such issues facing library managers, including: (1)…

  6. Depository Libraries and Public Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ridley

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Wright State University (Ohio) Library policy directive on customer service, and suggests this document as a model to follow in setting up service standards or guidelines for depository-library services. Draft-depository library public-service guidelines for government information in electronic format are appended. (JAK)

  7. The Florida Library History Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  8. Customer Satisfaction with Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, George; Rodger, Eleanor Jo

    1996-01-01

    Surveys conducted in 142 urban public libraries examined customer satisfaction, comparisons with other libraries, and factors affecting satisfaction. Overall, customers were satisfied with their libraries but experienced different levels of satisfaction based on convenience, availability of materials and information, and services facilitating…

  9. Managing Quality: TQM in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of total quality management (TQM) principles in libraries. Topics addressed include commitment from the library director; strategic planning; training needs for library staff; the identification and selection of targeted areas that would benefit from TQM; quality improvement teams; analysis; proposed solutions; and evaluation…

  10. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  11. Mobile library services best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Harmon, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Library Services provides 11 proven ways to reach out to mobile users and increase your library's relevance to their day-to-day lives. Librarians detail how they created mobile apps to how they went mobile on a shoestring budget. Written by public, academic, and special librarians, these 11 best practices offer models for libraries of every type and size.

  12. Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Masayuki

    The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

  13. Hybrid library that satisfies the needs of all the citizens! ; Improving the library service through cooperation of higher-education institution libraries and public libraries ; Enthusiasm of Mr. Yasuhiro Nagata, chief librarian of Fukui prefectural library and the staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Utako

    Hybrid library that satisfies the needs of all the citizens! ; Improving the library service through cooperation of higher-education institution libraries and public libraries ; Enthusiasm of Mr. Yasuhiro Nagata, chief librarian of Fukui prefectural library and the staff

  14. Welcome to the National Wetlands Research Center Library: Not Just Another Library-A Special Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Libraries are grouped into four major types: public, school, academic, and special. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) library is classified as a special library because it is sponsored by the Federal government, and the collections focus on a specific subject. The NWRC library is the only USGS library dedicated to wetland science. Library personnel offer expert research services to meet the informational needs of NWRC scientists, managers, and support personnel. The NWRC library participates in international cataloging and resource sharing, which allows libraries from throughout the world to borrow from its collections. This sharing facilitates the research of other governmental agencies, universities, and those interested in the study of wetlands.

  15. Chromosomal instability in Streptomyces avermitilis: major deletion in the central region and stable circularized chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ying

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome of Streptomyces has been shown to be unstable, frequently undergoing gross chromosomal rearrangements. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, with previous studies focused on two chromosomal ends as targets for rearrangements. Here we investigated chromosomal instability of Streptomyces avermitilis, an important producer of avermectins, and characterized four gross chromosomal rearrangement events, including a major deletion in the central region. The present findings provide a valuable contribution to the mechanistic study of genetic instability in Streptomyces. Results Thirty randomly-selected "bald" mutants derived from the wild-type strain all contained gross chromosomal rearrangements of various types. One of the bald mutants, SA1-8, had the same linear chromosomal structure as the high avermectin-producing mutant 76-9. Chromosomes of both strains displayed at least three independent chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement to form new 88-kb terminal inverted repeats (TIRs, and two major deletions. One of the deletions eliminated the 36-kb central region of the chromosome, but surprisingly did not affect viability of the cells. The other deletion (74-kb was internal to the right chromosomal arm. The chromosome of another bald mutant, SA1-6, was circularized with deletions at both ends. No obvious homology was found in all fusion sequences. Generational stability analysis showed that the chromosomal structure of SA1-8 and SA1-6 was stable. Conclusions Various chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement, interstitial deletions and chromosomal circularization, occurred in S. avermitilis by non-homologous recombination. The finding of an inner deletion involving in the central region of S. avermitilis chromosome suggests that the entire Streptomyces chromosome may be the target for rearrangements, which are not limited, as previously

  16. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L. [Kuwait Medical Genetics Centre, Sulaibikat (Kuwait)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq region or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.

  17. Directory of Library and Related Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Lists networks, consortia, and other cooperative library organizations; national library and information-industry associations in the U.S. and Canada; state, provincial, and regional library associations and agencies; state school library media associations; international library associations; and foreign library associations. (LRW)

  18. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  20. Chromosome congression explained by nanoscale electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, L John; Shain, Daniel H

    2014-02-24

    Nanoscale electrostatic microtubule disassembly forces between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charges on plus ends of microtubules have been implicated in poleward chromosome motions and may also contribute to antipoleward chromosome movements. We propose that chromosome congression can be understood in terms of antipoleward nanoscale electrostatic microtubule assembly forces between negatively charged microtubule plus ends and like-charged chromosome arms, acting in conjunction with poleward microtubule disassembly forces. Several other aspects of post-attachment prometaphase chromosome motions, as well as metaphase oscillations, are consistently explained within this framework.

  1. The Chromosomes of Birds during Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, María I

    2016-01-01

    The cytological analysis of meiotic chromosomes is an exceptional tool to approach complex processes such as synapsis and recombination during the division. Chromosome studies of meiosis have been especially valuable in birds, where naturally occurring mutants or experimental knock-out animals are not available to fully investigate the basic mechanisms of major meiotic events. This review highlights the main contributions of synaptonemal complex and lampbrush chromosome research to the current knowledge of avian meiosis, with special emphasis on the organization of chromosomes during prophase I, the impact of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis, and distinctive features of the ZW pair.

  2. Polymer models of chromosome (re)organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirny, Leonid

    Chromosome Conformation Capture technique (Hi-C) provides comprehensive information about frequencies of spatial interactions between genomic loci. Inferring 3D organization of chromosomes from these data is a challenging biophysical problem. We develop a top-down approach to biophysical modeling of chromosomes. Starting with a minimal set of biologically motivated interactions we build ensembles of polymer conformations that can reproduce major features observed in Hi-C experiments. I will present our work on modeling organization of human metaphase and interphase chromosomes. Our works suggests that active processes of loop extrusion can be a universal mechanism responsible for formation of domains in interphase and chromosome compaction in metaphase.

  3. Confocal Microscopy and Image Analysis Indicates a Region-Specific Relation between Active Caspases and Cytoplasm in Ejaculated and Epididymal Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vazquez, Susana; Aragón Martínez, Andrés; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Previously, it was suggested a relation between the presence of apoptosis markers with cytoplasm in mammalian sperm. In this work, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to analyze the relationship between active caspase-3 and -7 and intracellular esterases expression in ejaculated or epididymal ram sperm. Sperm obtained from ejaculates from the caput, corpus, or cauda of the epididymis were treated with an inhibitor of active caspase-3 and -7 and a marker of cytoplasmic esterases. Additionally, ejaculated sperm were incubated for one, two, or three hours before evaluation for active caspases. Sperm subpopulations positive for active caspases and/or intracellular esterases were detected by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy; however, image analysis of confocal images showed that the correlation between active caspases and cytoplasmic esterases in sperm is region-specific. Lower values of Spearman correlation coefficients were found when whole sperm or head sperm was analyzed; however, a high correlation was observed for midpiece sperm. Incubation of sperm for two or three hours promoted the autoactivation of caspases. It has been suggested that the presence of apoptotic markers in sperm are related with a process of abortive apoptosis and with errors during spermiogenesis. Our results permit us suggest that the origin of the relationship between active caspases and cytoplasmic esterases is due to differentiation errors occurring during spermiogenesis because the percentages of sperm with active caspases are not different in the caput, corpus, or cauda of the epididymis. In this study we demonstrate that existing sperm subpopulations can express active caspases and intracellular esterases and that the correlation between these molecules is high in midpiece sperm. PMID:22530029

  4. Rapid generation of sub-type, region-specific neurons and neural networks from human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Aynun N; Guoynes, Caleigh; Cho, Jane; Hao, Jijun; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Hong, Yiling

    2015-11-01

    Stem cell-based neuronal differentiation has provided a unique opportunity for disease modeling and regenerative medicine. Neurospheres are the most commonly used neuroprogenitors for neuronal differentiation, but they often clump in culture, which has always represented a challenge for neurodifferentiation. In this study, we report a novel method and defined culture conditions for generating sub-type or region-specific neurons from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells derived neurosphere without any genetic manipulation. Round and bright-edged neurospheres were generated in a supplemented knockout serum replacement medium (SKSRM) with 10% CO2, which doubled the expression of the NESTIN, PAX6 and FOXG1 genes compared with those cultured with 5% CO2. Furthermore, an additional step (AdSTEP) was introduced to fragment the neurospheres and facilitate the formation of a neuroepithelial-type monolayer that we termed the "neurosphederm". The large neural tube-type rosette (NTTR) structure formed from the neurosphederm, and the NTTR expressed higher levels of the PAX6, SOX2 and NESTIN genes compared with the neuroectoderm-derived neuroprogenitors. Different layers of cortical, pyramidal, GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic neurons appeared within 27 days using the neurosphederm, which is a shorter period than in traditional neurodifferentiation-protocols (42-60 days). With additional supplements and timeline dopaminergic and Purkinje neurons were also generated in culture too. Furthermore, our in vivo results indicated that the fragmented neurospheres facilitated significantly better neurogenesis in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse brains compared with the non-fragmented neurospheres. Therefore, this neurosphere-based neurodifferentiation protocol is a valuable tool for studies of neurodifferentiation, neuronal transplantation and high throughput screening assays.

  5. Acute exercise increases brain region-specific expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Masaki; Hamada, Taku

    2014-05-01

    The brain is capable of oxidizing lactate and ketone bodies through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We examined the protein expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and cytochrome-c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) in the rat brain within 24 h after a single exercise session. Brain samples were obtained from sedentary controls and treadmill-exercised rats (20 m/min, 8% grade). Acute exercise resulted in an increase in lactate in the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, but not the brainstem, and an increase in β-hydroxybutyrate in the cortex alone. After a 2-h exercise session MCT1 increased in the cortex and hippocampus 5 h postexercise, and the effect lasted in the cortex for 24 h postexercise. MCT2 increased in the cortex and hypothalamus 5-24 h postexercise, whereas MCT2 increased in the hippocampus immediately after exercise, and remained elevated for 10 h postexercise. Regional upregulation of MCT2 after exercise was associated with increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine-related kinase B proteins, but not insulin-like growth factor 1. MCT4 increased 5-10 h postexercise only in the hypothalamus, and was associated with increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. However, none of the MCT isoforms in the brainstem was affected by exercise. Whereas GLUT 1 in the cortex increased only at 18 h postexercise, COX IV in the hippocampus increased 10 h after exercise and remained elevated for 24 h postexercise. These results suggest that acute prolonged exercise induces the brain region-specific upregulation of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins.

  6. Wfs1-deficient animals have brain-region-specific changes of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and mRNA expression of α1 and β1 subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütt, S; Altpere, A; Reimets, R; Visnapuu, T; Loomets, M; Raud, S; Salum, T; Mahlapuu, R; Kairane, C; Zilmer, M; Vasar, E

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycoprotein, cause Wolfram syndrome, a disease characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and different psychiatric abnormalities. Loss of neuronal cells and pancreatic β-cells in Wolfram syndrome patients is probably related to the dysfunction of ER stress regulation, which leads to cell apoptosis. The present study shows that Wfs1-deficient mice have brain-region-specific changes in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and in the expression of the α1 and β1 subunits. We found a significant (1.6-fold) increase of Na-pump activity and β1 subunit mRNA expression in mice lacking the Wfs1 gene in the temporal lobe compared with their wild-type littermates. By contrast, exposure of mice to the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety decreased Na-pump activity 1.3-fold in the midbrain and dorsal striatum and 2.0-fold in the ventral striatum of homozygous animals compared with the nonexposed group. Na-pump α1 -subunit mRNA was significantly decreased in the dorsal striatum and midbrain of Wfs1-deficient homozygous animals compared with wild-type littermates. In the temporal lobe, an increase in the activity of the Na-pump is probably related to increased anxiety established in Wfs1-deficient mice, whereas the blunted dopamine function in the forebrain of Wfs1-deficient mice may be associated with a decrease of Na-pump activity in the dorsal and ventral striatum and in the midbrain after exposure to the EPM.

  7. Rapid generation of sub-type, region-specific neurons and neural networks from human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynun N. Begum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based neuronal differentiation has provided a unique opportunity for disease modeling and regenerative medicine. Neurospheres are the most commonly used neuroprogenitors for neuronal differentiation, but they often clump in culture, which has always represented a challenge for neurodifferentiation. In this study, we report a novel method and defined culture conditions for generating sub-type or region-specific neurons from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells derived neurosphere without any genetic manipulation. Round and bright-edged neurospheres were generated in a supplemented knockout serum replacement medium (SKSRM with 10% CO2, which doubled the expression of the NESTIN, PAX6 and FOXG1 genes compared with those cultured with 5% CO2. Furthermore, an additional step (AdSTEP was introduced to fragment the neurospheres and facilitate the formation of a neuroepithelial-type monolayer that we termed the “neurosphederm”. The large neural tube-type rosette (NTTR structure formed from the neurosphederm, and the NTTR expressed higher levels of the PAX6, SOX2 and NESTIN genes compared with the neuroectoderm-derived neuroprogenitors. Different layers of cortical, pyramidal, GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic neurons appeared within 27 days using the neurosphederm, which is a shorter period than in traditional neurodifferentiation-protocols (42–60 days. With additional supplements and timeline dopaminergic and Purkinje neurons were also generated in culture too. Furthermore, our in vivo results indicated that the fragmented neurospheres facilitated significantly better neurogenesis in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse brains compared with the non-fragmented neurospheres. Therefore, this neurosphere-based neurodifferentiation protocol is a valuable tool for studies of neurodifferentiation, neuronal transplantation and high throughput screening assays.

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2 is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18-C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18-C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys.

  9. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18–C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18–C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys. PMID:27010944

  10. Region-specific increases in FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the rat brain in response to chronic sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shannon; Deurveilher, Samüel; Ko, Kristin Robin; Burns, Joan; Semba, Kazue

    2017-03-30

    Using a rat model of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) featuring periodic sleep deprivation with slowly rotating wheels (3h on/1h off), we previously observed that 99h of this protocol induced both homeostatic and allostatic (adaptive) changes in physiological and behavioural measures. Notably, the initial changes in sleep intensity and attention performance gradually adapted during CSR despite accumulating sleep loss. To identify brain regions involved in these responses, we used FosB/ΔFosB immunohistochemistry as a marker of chronic neuronal activation. Adult male rats were housed in motorized activity wheels and underwent the 3/1 CSR protocol for 99h, or 99h followed by 6 or 12days of recovery. Control rats were housed in home cages, locked activity wheels, or unlocked activity wheels that the animals could turn freely. Immunohistochemistry was conducted using an antibody that recognized both FosB and ΔFosB, and 24 brain regions involved in sleep/wake, autonomic, and limbic functions were examined. The number of darkly-stained FosB/ΔFosB-immunoreactive cells was increased immediately following 99h of CSR in 8/24 brain regions, including the medial preoptic and perifornical lateral hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, and paraventricular thalamic nucleus. FosB/ΔFosB labeling was at control levels in all 8 brain areas following 6 or 12 recovery days, suggesting that most of the immunoreactivity immediately after CSR reflected FosB, the more transient marker of chronic neuronal activation. This region-specific induction of FosB/ΔFosB following CSR may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the allostatic changes in behavioural and physiological responses to CSR.

  11. Confocal microscopy and image analysis indicates a region-specific relation between active caspases and cytoplasm in ejaculated and epididymal sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana García Vazquez

    Full Text Available Previously, it was suggested a relation between the presence of apoptosis markers with cytoplasm in mammalian sperm. In this work, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to analyze the relationship between active caspase-3 and -7 and intracellular esterases expression in ejaculated or epididymal ram sperm. Sperm obtained from ejaculates from the caput, corpus, or cauda of the epididymis were treated with an inhibitor of active caspase-3 and -7 and a marker of cytoplasmic esterases. Additionally, ejaculated sperm were incubated for one, two, or three hours before evaluation for active caspases. Sperm subpopulations positive for active caspases and/or intracellular esterases were detected by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy; however, image analysis of confocal images showed that the correlation between active caspases and cytoplasmic esterases in sperm is region-specific. Lower values of Spearman correlation coefficients were found when whole sperm or head sperm was analyzed; however, a high correlation was observed for midpiece sperm. Incubation of sperm for two or three hours promoted the autoactivation of caspases. It has been suggested that the presence of apoptotic markers in sperm are related with a process of abortive apoptosis and with errors during spermiogenesis. Our results permit us suggest that the origin of the relationship between active caspases and cytoplasmic esterases is due to differentiation errors occurring during spermiogenesis because the percentages of sperm with active caspases are not different in the caput, corpus, or cauda of the epididymis. In this study we demonstrate that existing sperm subpopulations can express active caspases and intracellular esterases and that the correlation between these molecules is high in midpiece sperm.

  12. Sex- and brain region-specific acceleration of β-amyloidogenesis following behavioral stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Latha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that complex interactions between multiple environmental factors and genetic factors are implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Importantly, recent evidence reveals that expression and activity levels of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, which initiates amyloid-β (Aβ production, are elevated in AD brains. In this study, we investigated a molecular mechanism by which sex and stress interactions may accelerate β-amyloidogenesis and contribute to sporadic AD. Results We applied 5-day restraint stress (6 h/day to the male and female 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD at the pre-pathological stage of disease, which showed little amyloid deposition under non-stressed control conditions. Exposure to the relatively brief behavioral stress increased levels of neurotoxic Aβ42 peptides, the β-secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99 and plaque burden in the hippocampus of female 5XFAD mice but not in that of male 5XFAD mice. In contrast, significant changes in the parameters of β-amyloidosis were not observed in the cerebral cortex of stressed male or female 5XFAD mice. We found that this sex- and brain region-specific acceleration of β-amyloidosis was accounted for by elevations in BACE1 and APP levels in response to adverse stress. Furthermore, not only BACE1 mRNA but also phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (a proposed mediator of the post-transcriptional upregulation of BACE1 was elevated in the hippocampus of stressed female 5XFAD mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that the higher prevalence of sporadic AD in women may be attributable to the vulnerability of female brains (especially, the hippocampus to stressful events, which alter APP processing to favor the β-amyloidogenesis through the transcriptional and translational upregulation of BACE1 combined with elevations in its substrate APP.

  13. Chromosome painting of Z and W sex chromosomes in Characidium (Characiformes, Crenuchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazian, Marlon F; Shimabukuro-Dias, Cristiane Kioko; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2013-03-01

    Some species of the genus Characidium have heteromorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a totally heterochromatic W chromosome. Methods for chromosome microdissection associated with chromosome painting have become important tools for cytogenetic studies in Neotropical fish. In Characidium cf. fasciatum, the Z chromosome contains a pericentromeric heterochromatin block, whereas the W chromosome is completely heterochromatic. Therefore, a probe was produced from the W chromosome through microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction amplification. FISH was performed using the W probe on the chromosomes of specimens of this species. This revealed expressive marks in the pericentromeric region of the Z chromosome as well as a completely painted W chromosome. When applying the same probe on chromosome preparations of C. cf. gomesi and Characidium sp., a pattern similar to C. cf. fasciatum was found, while C. cf. zebra, C. cf. lagosantense and Crenuchus spilurus species showed no hybridization signals. Structural changes in the chromosomes of an ancestral sexual system in the group that includes the species C. cf. gomesi, C. cf. fasciatum and Characidium sp., could have contributed to the process of speciation and could represent a causal mechanism of chromosomal diversification in this group. The heterochromatinization process possibly began in homomorphic and homologous chromosomes of an ancestral form, and this process could have given rise to the current patterns found in the species with sex chromosome heteromorphism.

  14. Library of the Year 2008: Laramie County Library System, Wyoming--The Impact Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    This article features Laramie County Library System (LCLS) of Cheyenne, Wyoming, which is named as Gale/"Library Journal" 2008 Library of the Year. It is not just strong, effective publicity or the fine new building or even a staff built around its ability to connect with the people, although all of those things add to the impact of…

  15. Library user metaphors and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    How do library professionals talk about and refer to library users, and how is this significant? In recent decades, the library profession has conceived of users in at least five different ways, viewing them alternatively as citizens, clients, customers, guests, or partners. This book argues...... that these user metaphors crucially inform librarians' interactions with the public, and, by extension, determine the quality and content of the services received. The ultimate aim of the book is to provide library professionals with insights and tools for avoiding common pitfalls associated with false...... or professionally inadequate conceptions of library users....

  16. Learning Commons in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa González Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all human creations, institutions transform and evolve over time. Libraries also have changed to respond the needs of its users. Academic libraries physical spaces are one of the turned aspects, an example are the Learning Commons (spaces for collaborative work in academic libraries. The main purpose of this paper is to expose the characteristics of the Learning Commons model with a brief account of the history of planning and construction of academic libraries. This paper also aims to present the manner in which a Learning Commons has been implemented at the library of Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM, Campus Monterrey in Mexico.

  17. Chromosomal patterns in human malignant astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J A; Bello, M J; de Campos, J M; Kusak, M E; Ramos, C; Benitez, J

    1987-12-01

    Cytogenetic analysis by direct and/or in vitro preparations was performed on 34 malignant astrocytomas. Thirty tumors showed near-diploid chromosome numbers, whereas, tritetraploid chromosome complements were present in four tumors. The most frequent chromosomal changes implied numerical deviations by a gain of chromosomes #7, #19, and #20, and by losses of #10, #22, and Y. Structural rearrangements were present in stem- or side lines of 24 tumors. Although no common chromosomal rearrangement seems to exist among those tumors, chromosomes #1, #6, #7, and #9 were predominantly involved. Polysomy and structural rearrangements of chromosome #7 could be related to the overexpression of epidermal growth factor gene, previously observed in some malignant gliomas.

  18. Entropy as the driver of chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Suckjoon; Wright, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    We present a new physical biology approach to understanding the relationship between the organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. We posit that replicated Escherichia coli daughter strands will spontaneously demix as a result of entropic forces, despite their strong confinement within the cell; in other words, we propose that entropy can act as a primordial physical force which drives chromosome segregation under the right physical conditions. Furthermore, proteins implicated in the regulation of chromosome structure and segregation may in fact function primarily in supporting such an entropy-driven segregation mechanism by regulating the physical state of chromosomes. We conclude that bacterial chromosome segregation is best understood in terms of spontaneous demixing of daughter strands. Our concept may also have important implications for chromosome segregation in eukaryotes, in which spindle-dependent chromosome movement follows an extended period of sister chromatid demixing and compaction.

  19. Flow cytometric detection of aberrant chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Yu, L.C.; Langlois, R.

    1983-05-11

    This report describes the quantification of chromosomal aberrations by flow cytometry. Both homogeneously and heterogeneously occurring chromosome aberrations were studied. Homogeneously occurring aberrations were noted in chromosomes isolated from human colon carcinoma (LoVo) cells, stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin A3 and analyzed using dual beam flow cytometry. The resulting bivariate flow karyotype showed a homogeneously occurring marker chromosome of intermediate size. Heterogeneously occurring aberrations were quantified by slit-scan flow cytometry in chromosomes isolated from control and irradiated Chinese hamster cells and stained with propidium iodide. Heterogeneously occurring dicentric chromosomes were detected by their shapes (two centrometers). The frequencies of such chromosomes estimated by slit-scan flow cytometry correlated well with the frequencies determined by visual microscopy.

  20. Chromosome X aneuploidy in Brazilian schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Leopoldo Silva; Khayat, André Salim; de Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima; Lima, Eleonidas Moura; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients may provide clues to the genes involved in this disease. For this reason, a chromosomal analysis of samples from 62 schizophrenics and 70 controls was performed with trypsin-Giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the X chromosome. A clonal pericentric inversion on chromosome 9 was detected in one male patient, and we also discovered mosaicism associated with X chromosome aneuploidy in female patients, primarily detected in schizophrenic and normal female controls over 40 years old. When compared with age-matched female controls, the frequency of X chromosome loss was not significantly different between schizophrenics and controls, except for the 40- to 49-year-old age group. Our findings suggest that the X chromosome loss seen in schizophrenic patients is inherent to the normal cellular aging process. However, our data also suggest that X chromosome gain may be correlated with schizophrenia in this Brazilian population.

  1. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanton, C.; Nicke, B.; Schuett, M.;

    2009-01-01

    -positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane...... chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival'' genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor...... resistance but carboplatin sensitivity, indicating that CIN may determine MTS response in vivo. Thus, pretherapeutic assessment of CIN may optimize treatment stratification and clinical trial design using these agents....

  2. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  3. Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Esteban; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are generally ∼1000 times longer than the cells in which they reside, and concurrent replication, segregation, and transcription/translation of this crowded mass of DNA poses a challenging organizational problem. Recent advances in cell-imaging technology with subdiffraction resolution have revealed that the bacterial nucleoid is reliably oriented and highly organized within the cell. Such organization is transmitted from one generation to the next by progressive segrega...

  4. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  5. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and chicken (Gallus gallus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delany Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and

  6. GSK-3 inhibitors induce chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Oliver D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanisms operate during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, during tumour evolution these mechanisms go awry resulting in chromosome instability. While several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC may promote chromosome instability, at least in colon cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we turn our attention to GSK-3 – a protein kinase, which in concert with APC, targets β-catenin for proteolysis – and ask whether GSK-3 is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Results To probe the role of GSK-3 in mitosis, we inhibited GSK-3 kinase activity in cells using a panel of small molecule inhibitors, including SB-415286, AR-A014418, 1-Azakenpaullone and CHIR99021. Analysis of synchronised HeLa cells shows that GSK-3 inhibitors do not prevent G1/S progression or cell division. They do, however, significantly delay mitotic exit, largely because inhibitor-treated cells have difficulty aligning all their chromosomes. Although bipolar spindles form and the majority of chromosomes biorient, one or more chromosomes often remain mono-oriented near the spindle poles. Despite a prolonged mitotic delay, anaphase frequently initiates without the last chromosome aligning, resulting in chromosome non-disjunction. To rule out the possibility of "off-target" effects, we also used RNA interference to selectively repress GSK-3β. Cells deficient for GSK-3β exhibit a similar chromosome alignment defect, with chromosomes clustered near the spindle poles. GSK-3β repression also results in cells accumulating micronuclei, a hallmark of chromosome missegregation. Conclusion Thus, not only do our observations indicate a role for GSK-3 in accurate chromosome segregation, but they also raise the possibility that, if used as therapeutic agents, GSK-3 inhibitors may induce unwanted side effects by inducing chromosome instability.

  7. Mechanisms of Chromosome Congression during Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiato, Helder; Gomes, Ana Margarida; Sousa, Filipe; Barisic, Marin

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression. Thus, chromosome congression and maintenance of alignment are determined by different principles. Moreover, it is now clear that not all chromosomes use the same mechanism for congressing to the spindle equator. Those chromosomes that are favorably positioned between both poles when the nuclear envelope breaks down use the so-called “direct congression” pathway in which chromosomes align after bi-orientation and the establishment of end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This favors the balanced action of kinetochore pulling forces and polar ejection forces along chromosome arms that drive chromosome oscillatory movements during and after congression. The other pathway, which we call “peripheral congression”, is independent of end-on kinetochore microtubule-attachments and relies on the dominant and coordinated action of the kinetochore motors Dynein and Centromere Protein E (CENP-E) that mediate the lateral transport of peripheral chromosomes along microtubules, first towards the poles and subsequently towards the equator. How the opposite polarities of kinetochore motors are regulated in space and time to drive congression of peripheral chromosomes only now starts to be understood. This appears to be regulated by position-dependent phosphorylation of both Dynein and CENP-E and by spindle microtubule

  8. Mechanisms of Chromosome Congression during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Maiato

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression. Thus, chromosome congression and maintenance of alignment are determined by different principles. Moreover, it is now clear that not all chromosomes use the same mechanism for congressing to the spindle equator. Those chromosomes that are favorably positioned between both poles when the nuclear envelope breaks down use the so-called “direct congression” pathway in which chromosomes align after bi-orientation and the establishment of end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. This favors the balanced action of kinetochore pulling forces and polar ejection forces along chromosome arms that drive chromosome oscillatory movements during and after congression. The other pathway, which we call “peripheral congression”, is independent of end-on kinetochore microtubule-attachments and relies on the dominant and coordinated action of the kinetochore motors Dynein and Centromere Protein E (CENP-E that mediate the lateral transport of peripheral chromosomes along microtubules, first towards the poles and subsequently towards the equator. How the opposite polarities of kinetochore motors are regulated in space and time to drive congression of peripheral chromosomes only now starts to be understood. This appears to be regulated by position-dependent phosphorylation of both Dynein and CENP-E and by spindle

  9. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    Discover more literature and be aware of the most popular articles! For years particle physicists have  enjoyed monitoring the most cited articles thanks to the Spires system. This is obviously an important feature that is also carried forward by Inspire, a system currently available in its beta version. For colleagues based at CERN working in closely related disciplines or in technological areas, no system has been available to monitor the most cited articles within the various specific topics. As a result of the rapid changes in the information landscape, the Library is currently streamlining the set of databases CERN subscribes to. In this context the Library is now making  different services available for site-wide evaluation. Thomson Web of Knowledge is a platform that integrates over 100 years of scientific literature and citations, covering more than 256 disciplines. This tool offers various interesting features, including the citation report, which can be a good sourc...

  10. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Berriman, Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J; Mink, Jessica; Teuben, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  11. Borders in Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Toshmakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are fundamental institutions for the life under socialism in Bulgaria (1944-1989. They provide studies and readings for big part of society. This is time when television was very rare in Bulgarian homes and the newspapers were totally controlled by Communist party. This way a library served as the main source of information. Seemingly ordinary cultural centers, they become a powerful tool in the hands of the communist state. They are the ones who are actively worked to impose new socialist thinking trough setting limits on access to readers and therefore control the flow of information. The aim of this article is to trace the influence of restricted by communist censorship institution Glavlit literature. Or to put it another way – what was the role of censorship in the process of establishment of borders created by prohibited access to scientific information.

  12. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  13. Library & Information Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gaasbeck, Kalvin

    2013-01-01

    A brief introduction to the quarterly periodical, Library & Information Science Research (LISR) providing an overview of the scope of the publication. The current paper details the types of articles published in the journal and gives a general overview of the review process for articles published in the journal, concluding with a brief statement of the value of the publication to the LIS field for students.

  14. What are Libraries For?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh McGuire

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes guest author Hugh McGuire, the founder of LibriVox.org, the world’s most prolific publisher of audiobooks (all read by volunteers; Iambik Audio, a commercial audiobook publisher built on a model similar to LibriVox; and PressBooks, a simple digital book-production tool. Hugh served on the Board (2002-2010 of the [...

  15. LibrarySTORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breüner, Niels; Bech, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Når flere uddannelser samles i en nybygning til Campus C på Ceres grunden i Aarhus, skal der også indrettes et fælles bibliotek. Når der samtidig er midler til at arbejde med brugerdreven innovation, lå det lige for at inddrage de studerende og få deres visioner for fremtidens bibliotek. Der blev...... arrangeret en udviklingsdag, hvor der skulle brainstormes – og projektet blev kaldt LibrarySTORM....

  16. Construction and characterization of a bovine BAC library with four genome-equivalent coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilertsen Ken

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bovine artificial chromosome (BAC library of 105 984 clones has been constructed in the vector pBeloBAC11 and organized in 3-dimension pools and high density membranes for screening by PCR and hybridization. The average insert size, determined after analysis of 388 clones, was estimated at 120 kb corresponding to a four genome coverage. Given the fact that a male was used to construct the library, the probability of finding any given autosomal and X or Y locus is respectively 0.98 and 0.86. The library was screened for 164 microsatellite markers and an average of 3.9 superpools was positive for each PCR system. None of the 50 or so BAC clones analysed by FISH was chimeric. This BAC library increases the international genome coverage for cattle to around 28 genome equivalents and extends the coverage of the ruminant genomes available at the Inra resource center to 15 genome equivalents.

  17. Googlizing a Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody DeRidder

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how we dramatically increased access to our content through the use of sitemap files and sets of browsable links. Digital libraries, when characterized by search and retrieval capabilities, are normally part of the Deep Web, inaccessible to general web crawlers and hence to generalized search engines such as Google. Yet the primary goals of digital libraries include enhancing accessibility, expanding one's audience to the general public, and promoting the library. Leveraging the capabilities of popular search engines is a potentially powerful and low-cost method of meeting these goals. An overview is provided of the problem, the solutions being developed, as well as an exploration of the current methods of remediation and their applicability to two other search engines, Yahoo! and Ask. A selection of methods is implemented for a dynamically-delivered database of 1081 finding aids (in the form of Encoded Archival Description. Access statistics (ruling out crawlers already indicate a remarkable increase in user and hit counts as a result.

  18. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  19. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  20. The chromosomal arrangement of six soybean leghemoglobin genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Kirsten; Abildsten, Dorte; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1983-01-01

    Clones containing six leghemoglobin (Lb) genes have been isolated from two genomic libraries of soybean. They encompass two independent DNA regions: a 40-kb region containing four genes in the order 5' Lba-Lbc(1)-[unk]Lb-Lbc(3) 3' with the same transcriptional polarity, and another 40-kb region...... containing two genes in the order 5' Lbc(4)-Lbc(2) 3' with the same polarity. The order in which the Lb genes are arranged in the soybean genome imply that they are activated in the opposite order to which they are arranged on the chromosome. There is a close similarity between corresponding DNA regions...... differs from that of the Lb genes. The existence of two very similar Lb gene clusters in soybean suggest that soybean may have evolved from an ancestral form by genome duplication. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...