WorldWideScience

Sample records for chromosome passenger complex

  1. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  2. Survivin mediates targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex to the centromere and midbody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vader, G; Kauw, JJW; Medema, RH; Lens, SMA

    2006-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) coordinates chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. The enzymatic core of this complex (Aurora-B) is guided through the mitotic cell by its companion chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin and Borealin/Dasra-B, ther

  3. The chromosomal passenger complex activates Polo kinase at centromeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Carmena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated activities at centromeres of two key cell cycle kinases, Polo and Aurora B, are critical for ensuring that the two sister kinetochores of each chromosome are attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles prior to chromosome segregation at anaphase. Initial attachments of chromosomes to the spindle involve random interactions between kinetochores and dynamic microtubules, and errors occur frequently during early stages of the process. The balance between microtubule binding and error correction (e.g., release of bound microtubules requires the activities of Polo and Aurora B kinases, with Polo promoting stable attachments and Aurora B promoting detachment. Our study concerns the coordination of the activities of these two kinases in vivo. We show that INCENP, a key scaffolding subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC, which consists of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin/Dasra B, also interacts with Polo kinase in Drosophila cells. It was known that Aurora A/Bora activates Polo at centrosomes during late G2. However, the kinase that activates Polo on chromosomes for its critical functions at kinetochores was not known. We show here that Aurora B kinase phosphorylates Polo on its activation loop at the centromere in early mitosis. This phosphorylation requires both INCENP and Aurora B activity (but not Aurora A activity and is critical for Polo function at kinetochores. Our results demonstrate clearly that Polo kinase is regulated differently at centrosomes and centromeres and suggest that INCENP acts as a platform for kinase crosstalk at the centromere. This crosstalk may enable Polo and Aurora B to achieve a balance wherein microtubule mis-attachments are corrected, but proper attachments are stabilized allowing proper chromosome segregation.

  4. The chromosomal passenger complex activates Polo kinase at centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmena, Mar; Pinson, Xavier; Platani, Melpi; Salloum, Zeina; Xu, Zhenjie; Clark, Anthony; Macisaac, Fiona; Ogawa, Hiromi; Eggert, Ulrike; Glover, David M; Archambault, Vincent; Earnshaw, William C

    2012-01-01

    The coordinated activities at centromeres of two key cell cycle kinases, Polo and Aurora B, are critical for ensuring that the two sister kinetochores of each chromosome are attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles prior to chromosome segregation at anaphase. Initial attachments of chromosomes to the spindle involve random interactions between kinetochores and dynamic microtubules, and errors occur frequently during early stages of the process. The balance between microtubule binding and error correction (e.g., release of bound microtubules) requires the activities of Polo and Aurora B kinases, with Polo promoting stable attachments and Aurora B promoting detachment. Our study concerns the coordination of the activities of these two kinases in vivo. We show that INCENP, a key scaffolding subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which consists of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin/Dasra B, also interacts with Polo kinase in Drosophila cells. It was known that Aurora A/Bora activates Polo at centrosomes during late G2. However, the kinase that activates Polo on chromosomes for its critical functions at kinetochores was not known. We show here that Aurora B kinase phosphorylates Polo on its activation loop at the centromere in early mitosis. This phosphorylation requires both INCENP and Aurora B activity (but not Aurora A activity) and is critical for Polo function at kinetochores. Our results demonstrate clearly that Polo kinase is regulated differently at centrosomes and centromeres and suggest that INCENP acts as a platform for kinase crosstalk at the centromere. This crosstalk may enable Polo and Aurora B to achieve a balance wherein microtubule mis-attachments are corrected, but proper attachments are stabilized allowing proper chromosome segregation.

  5. The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Maia André F; Vader Gerben; Lens Susanne MA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract During mitosis, correct bipolar chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for the equal segregation of chromosomes. The spindle assembly checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation as long as not all chromosome pairs have obtained bipolar attachment to the spindle. The chromosomal passenger complex plays a crucial role during chromosome alignment by correcting faulty chromosome-spindle interactions (e.g. attachments that do not generate tension). In ...

  6. The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia André F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During mitosis, correct bipolar chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for the equal segregation of chromosomes. The spindle assembly checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation as long as not all chromosome pairs have obtained bipolar attachment to the spindle. The chromosomal passenger complex plays a crucial role during chromosome alignment by correcting faulty chromosome-spindle interactions (e.g. attachments that do not generate tension. In the process of doing so, the chromosomal passenger complex generates unattached chromosomes, a specific situation that is known to promote checkpoint activity. However, several studies have implicated an additional, more direct role for the chromosomal passenger complex in enforcing the mitotic arrest imposed by the spindle assembly checkpoint. In this review, we discuss the different roles played by the chromosomal passenger complex in ensuring proper mitotic checkpoint function. Additionally, we discuss the possibility that besides monitoring the presence of unattached kinetochores, the spindle assembly checkpoint may also be capable of responding to chromosome-microtubule interactions that do not generate tension and we propose experimental set-ups to study this.

  7. The chromosomal passenger complex and the spindle assembly checkpoint: kinetochore-microtubule error correction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Gerben; Maia, André F; Lens, Susanne Ma

    2008-05-28

    During mitosis, correct bipolar chromosome attachment to the mitotic spindle is an essential prerequisite for the equal segregation of chromosomes. The spindle assembly checkpoint can prevent chromosome segregation as long as not all chromosome pairs have obtained bipolar attachment to the spindle. The chromosomal passenger complex plays a crucial role during chromosome alignment by correcting faulty chromosome-spindle interactions (e.g. attachments that do not generate tension). In the process of doing so, the chromosomal passenger complex generates unattached chromosomes, a specific situation that is known to promote checkpoint activity. However, several studies have implicated an additional, more direct role for the chromosomal passenger complex in enforcing the mitotic arrest imposed by the spindle assembly checkpoint. In this review, we discuss the different roles played by the chromosomal passenger complex in ensuring proper mitotic checkpoint function. Additionally, we discuss the possibility that besides monitoring the presence of unattached kinetochores, the spindle assembly checkpoint may also be capable of responding to chromosome-microtubule interactions that do not generate tension and we propose experimental set-ups to study this.

  8. Chromosome segregation regulation in human zygotes : Altered mitotic histone phosphorylation dynamics underlying centromeric targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Werken, C.; Avo Santos, M.; Laven, J. S E; Eleveld, C.; Fauser, B. C J M; Lens, S. M A; Baart, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are the kinase feedback loops that regulate activation and centromeric targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), functional during mitosis in human embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER Investigation of the regulatory kinase pathways involved in centromeric CPC targeting revealed normal

  9. A role for Aurora C in the chromosomal passenger complex during human preimplantation embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Margarida Avo; van de Werken, Christine; de Vries, Marieke; Jahr, Holger; Vromans, Martijn J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Fauser, Bart C.; Kops, Geert J.; Lens, Susanne M.; Baart, Esther B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human embryos generated by IVF demonstrate a high incidence of chromosomal segregation errors during the cleavage divisions. To analyse underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the behaviour of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) in human oocytes and embryos. This important m

  10. New auroras on the roles of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex in cytokinesis: implications for cancer therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo eD'Avino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC, composed of a kinase component, Aurora B, the scaffolding subunit Inner Centromeric Protein (INCENP, Borealin, and Survivin, is a key regulator of cell division. It controls multiple events, from chromosome condensation in prophase to the final separation or abscission of the two daughter cells. The essential functions of the CPC during metaphase, however, have always hindered an accurate study of its role during cytokinesis. The recent development of small molecule inhibitors against Aurora B and the use of elegant technologies such as chemical genetics have offered new approaches to study the functions of the CPC at the end of cell division. Here we review the recent findings about the roles of the CPC in controlling the assembly of the cleavage furrow, central spindle and midbody. We will also discuss the crucial function of this complex in controlling abscission timing in order to prevent abscission when lagging chromatin is present at the cleavage site, thereby avoiding the formation of genetically abnormal daughter cells. Finally, we offer our perspective on how to exploit the potential therapeutic applications of inhibiting CPC activity during cytokinesis in cancer cells.

  11. Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kabisch (Maria); J.L. Bermejo (Justo Lorenzo); T. Dun̈nebier (Thomas); S. Ying (Shibo); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); M. Shah (Mitul); B. Perkins (Barbara); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); D. Lambrechts (Diether); P. Neven (Patrick); S.T.H. Peeters (Stephanie); C. Weltens (Caroline); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); X. Wang (Xianshu); K. Purrington (Kristen); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); N. Johnson (Nichola); O. Fletcher (Olivia); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); S. Cornelissen (Sten); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); J. Li (Jingmei); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Sanchez (Marie); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Bugert (Peter); A. González-Neira (Anna); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); B.E. Henderson (Brian); L. Le Marchand (Loic); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); M. Kriege (Mieke); L.B. Koppert (Linetta); J. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); S. Slettedahl (Seth); A.E. Toland (Amanda); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); G.G. Giles (Graham); R.L. Milne (Roger); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M. Ruebner (Matthias); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); S. Fortuzzi (S.); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.M. Tollenaar (Robert A.M.); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); W. Zheng (Wei); M. Shrubsole (Martha); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); D. Torres (Diana); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); V. Kristensen (Vessela); F. Bacot (Francois); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); J. Simard (Jacques); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); P. Hall (Per); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); D.F. Easton (Douglas); U. Hamann (Ute)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gen

  12. Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabisch, Maria; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Dünnebier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encodi...

  13. Polo kinase regulates the localization and activity of the chromosomal passenger complex in meiosis and mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmena, Mar; Lombardia, Miguel Ortiz; Ogawa, Hiromi; Earnshaw, William C

    2014-11-01

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), Polo and Aurora families of protein kinases. The levels of expression and localization of the key regulatory kinases are themselves subject to very tight control. There is increasing evidence that crosstalk between the mitotic kinases provides for an additional level of regulation. We have previously shown that Aurora B activates Polo kinase at the centromere in mitosis, and that the interaction between Polo and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) component INCENP is essential in this activation. In this report, we show that Polo kinase is required for the correct localization and activity of the CPC in meiosis and mitosis. Study of the phenotype of different polo allele combinations compared to the effect of chemical inhibition revealed significant differences in the localization and activity of the CPC in diploid tissues. Our results shed new light on the mechanisms that control the activity of Aurora B in meiosis and mitosis.

  14. Coordinated regulation of the ESCRT-III component CHMP4C by the chromosomal passenger complex and centralspindlin during cytokinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Luisa; Mela, Ioanna; Abad, Maria Alba; Jeyaprakash, A. Arockia; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC)—composed of Aurora B kinase, Borealin, Survivin and INCENP—surveys the fidelity of genome segregation throughout cell division. The CPC has been proposed to prevent polyploidy by controlling the final separation (known as abscission) of the two daughter cells via regulation of the ESCRT-III CHMP4C component. The molecular details are, however, still unclear. Using atomic force microscopy, we show that CHMP4C binds to and remodels membranes in vitro. Borealin prevents the association of CHMP4C with membranes, whereas Aurora B interferes with CHMP4C's membrane remodelling activity. Moreover, we show that CHMP4C phosphorylation is not required for its assembly into spiral filaments at the abscission site and that two distinctly localized pools of phosphorylated CHMP4C exist during cytokinesis. We also characterized the CHMP4C interactome in telophase cells and show that the centralspindlin complex associates preferentially with unphosphorylated CHMP4C in cytokinesis. Our findings indicate that gradual dephosphorylation of CHMP4C triggers a ‘relay’ mechanism between the CPC and centralspindlin that regulates the timely distribution and activation of CHMP4C for the execution of abscission. PMID:27784789

  15. Inherited variants in the inner centromere protein (INCENP) gene of the chromosomal passenger complex contribute to the susceptibility of ER-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Maria; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ying, Shibo; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Peeters, Stephanie; Weltens, Caroline; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Li, Jingmei; Brand, Judith S.; Humphreys, Keith; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Bugert, Peter; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Pilar Zamora, M.; Arias Perez, Jose I.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Kriege, Mieke; Koppert, Linetta B.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Slettedahl, Seth; Toland, Amanda E.; Vachon, Celine; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Fasching, Peter A.; Ruebner, Matthias; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Scuvera, Giulietta; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Zheng, Wei; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Cai, Qiuyin; Torres, Diana; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Kristensen, Vessela; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Simard, Jacques; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key CPC components and breast cancer risk. Fifteen SNPs in four CPC genes (INCENP, AURKB, BIRC5 and CDCA8) were genotyped in 88 911 European women from 39 case-control studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Possible associations were investigated in fixed-effects meta-analyses. The synonymous SNP rs1675126 in exon 7 of INCENP was associated with overall breast cancer risk [per A allele odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92–0.98, P = 0.007] and particularly with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors (per A allele OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.95, P = 0.0005). SNPs not directly genotyped were imputed based on 1000 Genomes. The SNPs rs1047739 in the 3ʹ untranslated region and rs144045115 downstream of INCENP showed the strongest association signals for overall (per T allele OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.06, P = 0.0009) and ER-negative breast cancer risk (per A allele OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.10, P = 0.0002). Two genotyped SNPs in BIRC5 were associated with familial breast cancer risk (top SNP rs2071214: per G allele OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.21, P = 0.002). The data suggest that INCENP in the CPC pathway contributes to ER-negative breast cancer susceptibility in the European population. In spite of a modest contribution of CPC-inherited variants to the total burden of sporadic and familial breast cancer, their potential as novel targets for breast cancer treatment should be further investigated. PMID:25586992

  16. The Inner Centromere Protein (INCENP) Coil Is a Single α-Helix (SAH) Domain That Binds Directly to Microtubules and Is Important for Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC) Localization and Function in Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Kumiko; Platani, Melpomeni; Wolny, Marcin; Ogawa, Hiromi; Vargiu, Giulia; Knight, Peter J; Peckham, Michelle; Earnshaw, William C

    2015-08-28

    The chromosome passenger complex (CPC) is a master regulator of mitosis. Inner centromere protein (INCENP) acts as a scaffold regulating CPC localization and activity. During early mitosis, the N-terminal region of INCENP forms a three-helix bundle with Survivin and Borealin, directing the CPC to the inner centromere where it plays essential roles in chromosome alignment and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The C-terminal IN box region of INCENP is responsible for binding and activating Aurora B kinase. The central region of INCENP has been proposed to comprise a coiled coil domain acting as a spacer between the N- and C-terminal domains that is involved in microtubule binding and regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Here we show that the central region (213 residues) of chicken INCENP is not a coiled coil but a ∼ 32-nm-long single α-helix (SAH) domain. The N-terminal half of this domain directly binds to microtubules in vitro. By analogy with previous studies of myosin 10, our data suggest that the INCENP SAH might stretch up to ∼ 80 nm under physiological forces. Thus, the INCENP SAH could act as a flexible "dog leash," allowing Aurora B to phosphorylate dynamic substrates localized in the outer kinetochore while at the same time being stably anchored to the heterochromatin of the inner centromere. Furthermore, by achieving this flexibility via an SAH domain, the CPC avoids a need for dimerization (required for coiled coil formation), which would greatly complicate regulation of the proximity-induced trans-phosphorylation that is critical for Aurora B activation.

  17. Chromosome folding: driver or passenger of epigenetic state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Tom; Yaffe, Eitan

    2015-02-02

    Despite a growing understanding of how epigenetic marks such as histone modifications locally modify the activity of the chromatin with which they are associated, we know little about how marked regions on different parts of the genome are able to intercommunicate to effect regulation of gene expression programs. Recent advances in methods that systematically map pairwise chromatin interactions have uncovered important principles of chromosome folding, which are tightly linked to the epigenetic mark profiles and, hence, functional state of the underlying chromatin fiber.

  18. Familial complex chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a recombinant chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Sue Ann; Bodamer, Olaf A F; Shapira, Stuart K; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bacino, Carlos A

    2002-05-15

    Familial complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare and tend to involve fewer breakpoints and fewer chromosomes than CCRs that are de novo in origin. We report on a CCR identified in a child with congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Initially, the child's karyotype was thought to involve a straightforward three-way translocation between chromosomes 3, 8, and 16. However, after analyzing the mother's chromosomes, the mother was found to have a more complex rearrangement that resulted in a recombinant chromosome in the child. The mother's karyotype included an inverted chromosome 2 and multiple translocations involving chromosomes 3, 5, 8, and 16. No evidence of deletion or duplication that could account for the clinical findings in the child was identified.

  19. The Chromosomal Passenger Protein Birc5b Organizes Microfilaments and Germ Plasm in the Zebrafish Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreelaja; Marlow, Florence; Abrams, Elliott; Kapp, Lee; Mullins, Mary C.; Pelegri, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Microtubule-microfilament interactions are important for cytokinesis and subcellular localization of proteins and mRNAs. In the early zebrafish embryo, astral microtubule-microfilament interactions also facilitate a stereotypic segregation pattern of germ plasm ribonucleoparticles (GP RNPs), which is critical for their eventual selective inheritance by germ cells. The precise mechanisms and molecular mediators for both cytoskeletal interactions and GP RNPs segregation are the focus of intense research. Here, we report the molecular identification of a zebrafish maternal-effect mutation motley as Birc5b, a homolog of the mammalian Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) component Survivin. The meiosis and mitosis defects in motley/birc5b mutant embryos are consistent with failed CPC function, and additional defects in astral microtubule remodeling contribute to failures in the initiation of cytokinesis furrow ingression. Unexpectedly, the motley/birc5b mutation also disrupts cortical microfilaments and GP RNP aggregation during early cell divisions. Birc5b localizes to the tips of astral microtubules along with polymerizing cortical F-actin and the GP RNPs. Mutant Birc5b co-localizes with cortical F-actin and GP RNPs, but fails to associate with astral microtubule tips, leading to disorganized microfilaments and GP RNP aggregation defects. Thus, maternal Birc5b localizes to astral microtubule tips and associates with cortical F-actin and GP RNPs, potentially linking the two cytoskeletons to mediate microtubule-microfilament reorganization and GP RNP aggregation during early embryonic cell cycles in zebrafish. In addition to the known mitotic function of CPC components, our analyses reveal a non-canonical role for an evolutionarily conserved CPC protein in microfilament reorganization and germ plasm aggregation. PMID:23637620

  20. The chromosomal passenger protein birc5b organizes microfilaments and germ plasm in the zebrafish embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelaja Nair

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microtubule-microfilament interactions are important for cytokinesis and subcellular localization of proteins and mRNAs. In the early zebrafish embryo, astral microtubule-microfilament interactions also facilitate a stereotypic segregation pattern of germ plasm ribonucleoparticles (GP RNPs, which is critical for their eventual selective inheritance by germ cells. The precise mechanisms and molecular mediators for both cytoskeletal interactions and GP RNPs segregation are the focus of intense research. Here, we report the molecular identification of a zebrafish maternal-effect mutation motley as Birc5b, a homolog of the mammalian Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC component Survivin. The meiosis and mitosis defects in motley/birc5b mutant embryos are consistent with failed CPC function, and additional defects in astral microtubule remodeling contribute to failures in the initiation of cytokinesis furrow ingression. Unexpectedly, the motley/birc5b mutation also disrupts cortical microfilaments and GP RNP aggregation during early cell divisions. Birc5b localizes to the tips of astral microtubules along with polymerizing cortical F-actin and the GP RNPs. Mutant Birc5b co-localizes with cortical F-actin and GP RNPs, but fails to associate with astral microtubule tips, leading to disorganized microfilaments and GP RNP aggregation defects. Thus, maternal Birc5b localizes to astral microtubule tips and associates with cortical F-actin and GP RNPs, potentially linking the two cytoskeletons to mediate microtubule-microfilament reorganization and GP RNP aggregation during early embryonic cell cycles in zebrafish. In addition to the known mitotic function of CPC components, our analyses reveal a non-canonical role for an evolutionarily conserved CPC protein in microfilament reorganization and germ plasm aggregation.

  1. Control of nuclear division by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Most cells within an organism function while they are in a non-dividing state. Cells enter the division cycle to initiate tissue growth or to repair damaged tissue. In the last phase of this cycle, M-phase, cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis) is accomplished after, in case of dividing human cells, 23

  2. Chromosomal polymorphism in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Alexandre A; Fernandes, Geisa F; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Lima, Fábio M; Marini, Marjorie M; Dos S Feitosa, Luciano; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; da Silveira, José Franco; de Camargo, Zoilo P

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease caused by a complex of thermodimorphic fungi including S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii sensu stricto (s. str.), S. globosa and S. luriei. Humans and animals can acquire the disease through traumatic inoculation of propagules into the subcutaneous tissue. Despite the importance of sporotrichosis as a disease that can take epidemic proportions there are just a few studies dealing with genetic polymorphisms and genomic architecture of these pathogens. The main objective of this study was to investigate chromosomal polymorphisms and genomic organization among different isolates in the S. schenckii complex. We used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to separate chromosomal fragments of isolated DNA, followed by probe hybridization. Nine loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, catalase, chitin synthase 1, Internal Transcribed Spacer, Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase, protein kinase C Ss-2, G protein α subunit and topoisomerase II) were mapped onto chromosomal bands of Brazilian isolates of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis. Our results revealed the presence of intra and interspecies polymorphisms in chromosome number and size. The gene hybridization analysis showed that closely related species in phylogenetic analysis had similar genetic organizations, mostly due to identification of synteny groups in chromosomal bands of similar sizes. Our results bring new insights into the genetic diversity and genome organization among pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

  3. SMC complexes in bacterial chromosome condensation and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunnikov, Alexander V

    2006-03-01

    Bacterial chromosomes segregate via a partition apparatus that employs a score of specialized proteins. The SMC complexes play a crucial role in the chromosome partitioning process by organizing bacterial chromosomes through their ATP-dependent chromatin-compacting activity. Recent progress in the composition of these complexes and elucidation of their structural and enzymatic properties has advanced our comprehension of chromosome condensation and segregation mechanics in bacteria.

  4. SMC complexes in bacterial chromosome condensation and segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Strunnikov, Alexander V.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes segregate via a partition apparatus that employs a score of specialized proteins. The SMC complexes play a crucial role in the chromosome partitioning process by organizing bacterial chromosomes through their ATP-dependent chromatin-compacting activity. Recent progress in the composition of these complexes and elucidation of their structural and enzymatic properties has advanced our comprehension of chromosome condensation and segregation mechanics in bacteria.

  5. Systematic analysis of human protein complexes identifies chromosome segregation proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, James R A; Toyoda, Yusuke; Hegemann, Björn; Poser, Ina; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Sykora, Martina M; Augsburg, Martina; Hudecz, Otto; Buschhorn, Bettina A; Bulkescher, Jutta; Conrad, Christian; Comartin, David; Schleiffer, Alexander; Sarov, Mihail; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Slabicki, Mikolaj Michal; Schloissnig, Siegfried; Steinmacher, Ines; Leuschner, Marit; Ssykor, Andrea; Lawo, Steffen; Pelletier, Laurence; Stark, Holger; Nasmyth, Kim; Ellenberg, Jan; Durbin, Richard; Buchholz, Frank; Mechtler, Karl; Hyman, Anthony A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2010-04-30

    Chromosome segregation and cell division are essential, highly ordered processes that depend on numerous protein complexes. Results from recent RNA interference screens indicate that the identity and composition of these protein complexes is incompletely understood. Using gene tagging on bacterial artificial chromosomes, protein localization, and tandem-affinity purification-mass spectrometry, the MitoCheck consortium has analyzed about 100 human protein complexes, many of which had not or had only incompletely been characterized. This work has led to the discovery of previously unknown, evolutionarily conserved subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex and the gamma-tubulin ring complex--large complexes that are essential for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. The approaches we describe here are generally applicable to high-throughput follow-up analyses of phenotypic screens in mammalian cells.

  6. Complex evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes across bird taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Jilin; Bachtrog, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific chromosomes, like the W of most female birds and the Y of male mammals, usually have lost most genes owing to a lack of recombination.We analyze newly available genomes of 17 bird species representing the avian phylogenetic range, and find that more than half of them do not have...... strata. Overall, we unveil a complex history of avian sex chromosome evolution....

  7. Formation of complex and unstable chromosomal translocations in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Genome instability, associated with chromosome breakage syndromes and most human cancers, is still poorly understood. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, numerous genes with roles in the preservation of genome integrity have been identified. DNA-damage-checkpoint-deficient yeast cells that lack Sgs1, a RecQ-like DNA helicase related to the human Bloom's-syndrome-associated helicase BLM, show an increased rate of genome instability, and we have previously shown that they accumulate recurring chromosomal translocations between three similar genes, CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1. Here, the chromosomal location, copy number and sequence similarity of the translocation targets ALP1 and LYP1 were altered to gain insight into the formation of complex translocations. Among 844 clones with chromosomal rearrangements, 93 with various types of simple and complex translocations involving CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1 were identified. Breakpoint sequencing and mapping showed that the formation of complex translocation types is strictly dependent on the location of the initiating DNA break and revealed that complex translocations arise via a combination of interchromosomal translocation and template-switching, as well as from unstable dicentric intermediates. Template-switching occurred between sequences on the same chromosome, but was inhibited if the genes were transferred to different chromosomes. Unstable dicentric translocations continuously gave rise to clones with multiple translocations in various combinations, reminiscent of intratumor heterogeneity in human cancers. Base substitutions and evidence of DNA slippage near rearrangement breakpoints revealed that translocation formation can be accompanied by point mutations, and their presence in different translocation types within the same clone provides evidence that some of the different translocation types are derived from each other rather than being formed de novo. These findings provide insight into eukaryotic

  8. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  9. Chromosome catastrophes involve replication mechanisms generating complex genomic rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Erez, Ayelet; Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Dhar, Shweta U; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Cooper, M Lance; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Zhang, Feng; Withers, Marjorie A; Bacino, Carlos A; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Delgado, Mauricio R; Freedenberg, Debra; Garnica, Adolfo; Grebe, Theresa A; Hernández-Almaguer, Dolores; Immken, LaDonna; Lalani, Seema R; McLean, Scott D; Northrup, Hope; Scaglia, Fernando; Strathearn, Lane; Trapane, Pamela; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Hastings, P J; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Lupski, James R; Bi, Weimin

    2011-09-16

    Complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) consisting of two or more breakpoint junctions have been observed in genomic disorders. Recently, a chromosome catastrophe phenomenon termed chromothripsis, in which numerous genomic rearrangements are apparently acquired in one single catastrophic event, was described in multiple cancers. Here, we show that constitutionally acquired CGRs share similarities with cancer chromothripsis. In the 17 CGR cases investigated, we observed localization and multiple copy number changes including deletions, duplications, and/or triplications, as well as extensive translocations and inversions. Genomic rearrangements involved varied in size and complexities; in one case, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed 18 copy number changes. Breakpoint sequencing identified characteristic features, including small templated insertions at breakpoints and microhomology at breakpoint junctions, which have been attributed to replicative processes. The resemblance between CGR and chromothripsis suggests similar mechanistic underpinnings. Such chromosome catastrophic events appear to reflect basic DNA metabolism operative throughout an organism's life cycle.

  10. Silica nanoparticles induce multinucleation through activation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and downregulation of chromosomal passenger proteins in L-02 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weijia; Li, Yang; Yu, Yongbo; Yu, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Jiang, Lizhen; Li, Qiuling; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are applicable in various fields due to their unique physicochemical characteristics. However, concerns over their potential adverse effects have been raised. In our previous studies, we reported that SNPs could induce abnormal high incidence of multinucleation. The aim of this study is to further investigate the mechanisms of multinucleation induced by SNPs (68 nm) in human normal liver L-02 cells (L-02 cells). In order to determine the cytotoxicity of SNPs, MTT assay was performed, and the cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected by flow cytometry and multinucleation observed by Giemsa stain showed that ROS generation and rate of multinucleated cells increased after SNPs exposure. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor against SNP-induced toxicity, was used as a ROS inhibitor to elucidate the relationship between ROS and multinucleation. The presence of NAC resulted in inhibition of both ROS generation and rate of multinucleation. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of Cdc20, Aurora B, and Survivin were down-regulated, and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway was activated by SNPs. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggested that multinucleation induced by SNPs was related to PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signal pathway activation and downregulation of G2/M phase-related protein and chromosomal passenger proteins.

  11. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  12. [Dynamics of chromosome number evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex (Insecta: Lepidoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinina, A O; Lukhtanov, V A

    2013-01-01

    We employed phylogenetic comparative method to study karyotype evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex in which haploid chromosome numbers vary greatly ranging from 10 to 134. We have found that different phylogenetic lineages of the group have different rates of chromosome number changes. Chromosome numbers in the complex posses phylogenetic signal, and their evolutionary transformation is difficult to explain in terms of punctual and gradual evolution.

  13. The Smc5-Smc6 complex is required to remove chromosome junctions in meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Farmer

    Full Text Available Meiosis, a specialized cell division with a single cycle of DNA replication round and two consecutive rounds of nuclear segregation, allows for the exchange of genetic material between parental chromosomes and the formation of haploid gametes. The structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC proteins aid manipulation of chromosome structures inside cells. Eukaryotic SMC complexes include cohesin, condensin and the Smc5-Smc6 complex. Meiotic roles have been discovered for cohesin and condensin. However, although Smc5-Smc6 is known to be required for successful meiotic divisions, the meiotic functions of the complex are not well understood. Here we show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex localizes to specific chromosome regions during meiotic prophase I. We report that meiotic cells lacking Smc5-Smc6 undergo catastrophic meiotic divisions as a consequence of unresolved linkages between chromosomes. Surprisingly, meiotic segregation defects are not rescued by abrogation of Spo11-induced meiotic recombination, indicating that at least some chromosome linkages in smc5-smc6 mutants originate from other cellular processes. These results demonstrate that, as in mitosis, Smc5-Smc6 is required to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis by preventing aberrant recombination intermediates between homologous chromosomes.

  14. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colovati Mileny ES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1, mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement.

  15. Complex chromosome 17p rearrangements associated with low-copy repeats in two patients with congenital anomalies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Stankiewicz, P.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Crawford, E.; Creswick, H.; Proud, V.K.; Vries, B. de; Pfundt, R.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Zackowski, J.; Bi, W.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Lupski, J.R.; Veltman, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent molecular cytogenetic data have shown that the constitution of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) may be more complicated than previously thought. The complicated nature of these rearrangements challenges the accurate delineation of the chromosomal breakpoints and mechanisms involved. H

  16. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestiti, F.; Agrati, C.; Chinetti, S.; Di Meco, A.; Cirrincione, S.; Oggionni, M.; Grimi, B.; Maggi, F.; Simoni, G.; Grati, F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9) may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement. PMID:25045550

  17. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Malvestiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9 may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement.

  18. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Choi, Youngsok; Erdin, Serpil Uckac; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Kloc, Malgorzata; Yang, Fang; Wang, P Jeremy; Meistrich, Marvin L; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2010-11-04

    Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/) (-)) testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/) (-) testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/) (-) ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/) (-) oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  19. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Shin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/ (- testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/ (- testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/ (- ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/ (- oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  20. The bacterial chromosome: architecture and action of bacterial SMC and SMC-like complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolivos, Sophie; Sherratt, David

    2014-05-01

    Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes are found in all three domains of life. They are characterized by a distinctive and conserved architecture in which a globular ATPase 'head' domain is formed by the N- and C-terminal regions of the SMC protein coming together, with a c. 50-nm-long antiparallel coiled-coil separating the head from a dimerization 'hinge'. Dimerization gives both V- and O-shaped SMC dimers. The distinctive architecture points to a conserved biochemical mechanism of action. However, the details of this mechanism are incomplete, and the precise ways in which this mechanism leads to the biological functions of these complexes in chromosome organization and processing remain unclear. In this review, we introduce the properties of bacterial SMC complexes, compare them with eukaryotic complexes and discuss how their likely biochemical action relates to their roles in chromosome organization and segregation.

  1. Unexpected structural complexity of supernumerary marker chromosomes characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Anne V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs are structurally abnormal extra chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding techniques. In the past, SMCs have been characterized using a variety of different molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although these techniques can sometimes identify the chromosome of origin of SMCs, they are cumbersome to perform and are not available in many clinical cytogenetic laboratories. Furthermore, they cannot precisely determine the region or breakpoints of the chromosome(s involved. In this study, we describe four patients who possess one or more SMCs (a total of eight SMCs in all four patients that were characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Results In at least one SMC from all four patients, array CGH uncovered unexpected complexity, in the form of complex rearrangements, that could have gone undetected using other molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although array CGH accurately defined the chromosome content of all but two minute SMCs, fluorescence in situ hybridization was necessary to determine the structure of the markers. Conclusion The increasing use of array CGH in clinical cytogenetic laboratories will provide an efficient method for more comprehensive characterization of SMCs. Improved SMC characterization, facilitated by array CGH, will allow for more accurate SMC/phenotype correlation.

  2. Cbx2 stably associates with mitotic chromosomes via a PRC2- or PRC1-independent mechanism and is needed for recruiting PRC1 complex to mitotic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chao Yu; Duc, Huy Nguyen; Kokotovic, Marko; Phiel, Christopher J; Ren, Xiaojun

    2014-11-15

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic transcriptional factors that repress key developmental regulators and maintain cellular identity through mitosis via a poorly understood mechanism. Using quantitative live-cell imaging in mouse ES cells and tumor cells, we demonstrate that, although Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 proteins (Cbx-family proteins, Ring1b, Mel18, and Phc1) exhibit variable capacities of association with mitotic chromosomes, Cbx2 overwhelmingly binds to mitotic chromosomes. The recruitment of Cbx2 to mitotic chromosomes is independent of PRC1 or PRC2, and Cbx2 is needed to recruit PRC1 complex to mitotic chromosomes. Quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis indicates that PRC1 proteins rapidly exchange at interphasic chromatin. On entry into mitosis, Cbx2, Ring1b, Mel18, and Phc1 proteins become immobilized at mitotic chromosomes, whereas other Cbx-family proteins dynamically bind to mitotic chromosomes. Depletion of PRC1 or PRC2 protein has no effect on the immobilization of Cbx2 on mitotic chromosomes. We find that the N-terminus of Cbx2 is needed for its recruitment to mitotic chromosomes, whereas the C-terminus is required for its immobilization. Thus these results provide fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance.

  3. Frequencies of complex chromosome exchange aberrations induced by 238Pu alpha-particles and detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using single chromosome-specific probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C S; Marsden, S J; Stevens, D L; Simpson, P; Savage, J R

    1995-04-01

    We undertook an analysis of chromosome-type exchange aberrations induced by alpha-particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome-specific probes for human chromosomes 1 or 4, together with a pan-centromeric probe. Contact-inhibited primary human fibroblasts (in G1) were irradiated with 0.41-1.00 Gy 238Pu alpha-particles and aberrations were analysed at the next mitosis following a single chromosome paint. Exchange and aberration painting patterns were classified according to Savage and Simpson (1994a). Of exchange aberrations, 38-47% were found to be complex derived, i.e. resulting from three or more breaks in two or more chromosomes, and the variation with dose was minimal. The class of complex aberrations most frequently observed were insertions, derived from a minimum of three breaks in two chromosomes. There was also an elevated frequency of rings. The high level of complex aberrations observed after alpha-particle irradiation indicates that, when chromosome domains are traversed by high linear energy transfer alpha-particle tracks, there is an enhanced probability of production of multiple localized double-strand breaks leading to more complicated interactions.

  4. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A RECURRING COMPLEX CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION IN 2 HUMAN EXTRAGONADAL GERM-CELL TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SINKE, RJ; WEGHUIS, DO; SUIJKERBUIJK, RF; TANIGAMI, A; NAKAMURA, Y; LARSSON, C; WEBER, G; DEJONG, B; OOSTERHUIS, JW; MOLENAAR, WM; VANKESSEL, AG

    1994-01-01

    The molecular characterization of a recurring complex chromosomal translocation involving 6p21, 6p22, 6p23, and 11q13 in two independent bur similar extragonadal human germ cell rumors was initiated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques

  5. Molecular characterization of a recurring complex chromosomal translocation in two human extragonadal germ cell tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, R J; Weghuis, D O; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Tanigami, A; Nakamura, Y; Larsson, C; Weber, G; Jong, B de; Oosterhuis, J W; Molenaar, W M

    1994-01-01

    The molecular characterization of a recurring complex chromosomal translocation involving 6p21, 6p22, 6q23, and 11q13 in two independent but similar extragonadal human germ cell tumors was initiated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques

  6. Biogeographic distribution of polyploidy and B chromosomes in the apomictic Boechera holboellii complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharbel, T.F.; Mitchell-Olds, T.; Dobes, C.; Kantama, L.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Boechera holboellii complex comprises B. holboellii and B. drummondii, both of which can reproduce through sex or apomixis. Sexuality is associated with diploid individuals, whereas apomictic individuals are diploid or triploid and may additionally have B chromosomes. Using flow cytometry and ka

  7. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL BANERJEE; BASHISTH N. SINGH

    2017-03-01

    Making interspecific hybridizations, where possible remains an unparalleled option for studying the intricacies of speciation. In the Drosophila bipectinata species complex comprising of four species, namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae, interspecific hybrids can be obtained in the laboratory, thus bequeathing an ideal opportunity for studying speciation and phylogeny. With the view of investigating the degree of divergence between each species pair, we planned to study the polytene chromosomes of the F1 hybrids, as it would mirror the level of compatibility between the genomes of the parental species. Two sets of crosses were made, one involving homozygous strains of all four species from India and the other including homozygous strains from different places across the globe. Polytene chromosomes of F1 larvae from both sets of crosses had similar configurations. In F1 larvae from crosses involving D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana, complex configurations (depicting overlapping inversions) could be detected in different arms. However, they were fairly synapsed, indicating that the differences are only at the level of gene arrangements. The polytene chromosomes of larvae obtained by crossing D. pseudoananassae with the other three species were very thin with gross asynapsis in all the arms, demonstrating that the genome of D. pseudoananassae is widely diverged from rest of the species. The overlapping inversions (reflected in complex configuration), are inferred in the light of earlier chromosomal studies performed in this complex.

  8. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qi; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial doma...

  9. The Ndc80 complex uses a tripartite attachment point to couple microtubule depolymerization to chromosome movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, John G; Miller, Stephanie A; Stukenberg, P Todd

    2011-04-15

    In kinetochores, the Ndc80 complex couples the energy in a depolymerizing microtubule to perform the work of moving chromosomes. The complex directly binds microtubules using an unstructured, positively charged N-terminal tail located on Hec1/Ndc80. Hec1/Ndc80 also contains a calponin homology domain (CHD) that increases its affinity for microtubules in vitro, yet whether it is required in cells and how the tail and CHD work together are critical unanswered questions. Human kinetochores containing Hec1/Ndc80 with point mutations in the CHD fail to align chromosomes or form productive microtubule attachments. Kinetochore architecture and spindle checkpoint protein recruitment are unaffected in these mutants, and the loss of CHD function cannot be rescued by removing Aurora B sites from the tail. The interaction between the Hec1/Ndc80 CHD and a microtubule is facilitated by positively charged amino acids on two separate regions of the CHD, and both are required for kinetochores to make stable attachments to microtubules. Chromosome congression in cells also requires positive charge on the Hec1 tail to facilitate microtubule contact. In vitro binding data suggest that charge on the tail regulates attachment by directly increasing microtubule affinity as well as driving cooperative binding of the CHD. These data argue that in vertebrates there is a tripartite attachment point facilitating the interaction between Hec1/Ndc80 and microtubules. We discuss how such a complex microtubule-binding interface may facilitate the coupling of depolymerization to chromosome movement.

  10. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  11. Abnormal meiotic recombination with complex chromosomal rearrangement in an azoospermic man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu; Iqbal, Furhan; Li, Guangyuan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Jiang, Hanwei; Yang, Qingling; Zhong, Liangwen; Zhang, Yuanwei; Hua, Juan; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Spermatocyte spreading and immunostaining were applied to detect meiotic prophase I progression, homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination in an azoospermic reciprocal translocation 46, XY, t(5;7;9;13)(5q11;7p11;7p15;9q12;13p12) carrier. Histological examination of the haematoxylin and eosin stained testicular sections revealed reduced germ cells with no spermatids or sperm in the patient. TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling assay showed apoptotic cells in testicular sections of translocation carrier. Immnunofluorescence analysis indicated the presence of an octavalent in all the pachytene spermatocytes analysed in the patient. Meiotic progression was disturbed, as an increase in zygotene (P recombination frequency was observed on 5p, 5q, 7q, 9p and 13q in the translocation carrier compared with the reported controls. A significant reduction in XY recombination frequency was also found in the participants. Our results indicated that complex chromosomal rearrangements can impair synaptic integrity of translocated chromosomes, which may reduce chromosomal recombination on translocated as well as non-translocated chromosomes, a phenomenon commonly known as interchromosomal effect.

  12. Nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr) associates with dynein complex, preventing chromosome lagging formation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hashizume, Chieko; Wong, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Gain or loss of whole chromosomes is often observed in cancer cells and is thought to be due to aberrant chromosome segregation during mitosis. Proper chromosome segregation depends on a faithful interaction between spindle microtubules and kinetochores. Several components of the nuclear pore complex/nucleoporins play critical roles in orchestrating the rapid remodeling events that occur during mitosis. Our recent studies revealed that the nucleoporin, Rae1, plays critical roles in maintaining spindle bipolarity. Here, we show association of another nucleoporin, termed Tpr (translocated promoter region), with the molecular motors dynein and dynactin, which both orchestrate with the spindle checkpoints Mad1 and Mad2 during cell division. Overexpression of Tpr enhanced multinucleated cell formation. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Tpr caused a severe lagging chromosome phenotype and disrupted spindle checkpoint proteins expression and localization. Next, we performed a series of rescue and dominant negative experiments to confirm that Tpr orchestrates proper chromosome segregation through interaction with dynein light chain. Our data indicate that Tpr functions as a spatial and temporal regulator of spindle checkpoints, ensuring the efficient recruitment of checkpoint proteins to the molecular motor dynein to promote proper anaphase formation.

  13. 基于复杂列车服务网络的客流分配方法研究%Research on Passenger Flow Assignment Method Based on Complex Train Service Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟璐; 聂磊; 付慧伶

    2012-01-01

    The attritutes and constructing method of the complex train service network (CTSN) formed on the basis of passenger train plans were studied. By analyzing multi-level passengers' choice behavior, the arc resistance of CTSN was determined. The passenger flow assignment model of CTSN reflecting diversified passengers' travel demand was estabished. The model was made to take the maximized passenger travel utility as the objective. The multi-constraint conditions of passenger travel routes were set by respectively restricting the number of transfer times and the transfer time of passengers with different travel distances and different levels of travel demand. The hybrid algorithm consisting of the improved ant colony and Frank-Wolfe algorithms was designed to solve the model. In order to match the choice of rail passenger behavior,strengthening of passenger flow was assigned by rules of OD traffic, trip distance and priority. Finally,case study on passenger train plans of part of the network centered by the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway was made to accomplish passenger traffic assignments and the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm was proved.%研究旅客列车开行方案形成的复杂列车服务网络属性及其构造方法,在分析多层次客流选择行为基础上,确定列车服务网络弧段阻抗.建立体现差异性服务水平需求的复杂列车服务网络客流分配模型,该模型以旅客出行效益最大化为目标,通过分别限制不同出行距离、不同层次旅客的换乘次数及换乘时间,设置旅客出行径路的多约束条件.设计改进的蚁群算法和Frank-Wolfe算法构成的混合算法进行求解,为更加符合旅客的选择行为,按OD客流量、出行距离、优先级等规则进行流量加载.以京沪高速铁路旅客列车开行方案为例进行客流分配,验证模型和算法的有效性.

  14. De novo complex intra chromosomal rearrangement after ICSI: characterisation by BACs micro array-CGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasakyan, Serdar; Lohmann, Laurence; Aboura, Azeddine; Quimsiyeh, Mazin; Menezo, Yves; Tachdjian, Gerard; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    Background In routine Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia should be informed about the risk of de novo congenital or chromosomal abnormalities in ICSI program. Also the benefits of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis practice need to be explained to the couple. Methods From a routine ICSI attempt, using ejaculated sperm from male with severe oligozoospermia and having normal karyotype, a 30 years old pregnant woman was referred to prenatal diagnosis in the 17th week for bichorionic biamniotic twin gestation. Amniocentesis was performed because of the detection of an increased foetal nuchal translucency for one of the fetus by the sonographic examination during the 12th week of gestation (WG). Chromosome and DNA studies of the fetus were realized on cultured amniocytes Results Conventional, molecular cytogenetic and microarray CGH experiments allowed us to conclude that the fetus had a de novo pericentromeric inversion associated with a duplication of the 9p22.1-p24 chromosomal region, 46,XY,invdup(9)(p22.1p24) [arrCGH 9p22.1p24 (RP11-130C19 → RP11-87O1)x3]. As containing the critical 9p22 region, our case is in coincidence with the general phenotype features of the partial trisomy 9p syndrome with major growth retardation, microcephaly and microretrognathia. Conclusion This de novo complex chromosome rearrangement illustrates the possible risk of chromosome or gene defects in ICSI program and the contribution of array-CGH for mapping rapidly de novo chromosomal imbalance. PMID:19105807

  15. De novo complex intra chromosomal rearrangement after ICSI: characterisation by BACs micro array-CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quimsiyeh Mazin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In routine Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART men with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia should be informed about the risk of de novo congenital or chromosomal abnormalities in ICSI program. Also the benefits of preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis practice need to be explained to the couple. Methods From a routine ICSI attempt, using ejaculated sperm from male with severe oligozoospermia and having normal karyotype, a 30 years old pregnant woman was referred to prenatal diagnosis in the 17th week for bichorionic biamniotic twin gestation. Amniocentesis was performed because of the detection of an increased foetal nuchal translucency for one of the fetus by the sonographic examination during the 12th week of gestation (WG. Chromosome and DNA studies of the fetus were realized on cultured amniocytes Results Conventional, molecular cytogenetic and microarray CGH experiments allowed us to conclude that the fetus had a de novo pericentromeric inversion associated with a duplication of the 9p22.1-p24 chromosomal region, 46,XY,invdup(9(p22.1p24 [arrCGH 9p22.1p24 (RP11-130C19 → RP11-87O1x3]. As containing the critical 9p22 region, our case is in coincidence with the general phenotype features of the partial trisomy 9p syndrome with major growth retardation, microcephaly and microretrognathia. Conclusion This de novo complex chromosome rearrangement illustrates the possible risk of chromosome or gene defects in ICSI program and the contribution of array-CGH for mapping rapidly de novo chromosomal imbalance.

  16. Resolving complex chromosome structures during meiosis: versatile deployment of Smc5/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Dideke E; Hwang, Grace H; Jordan, Philip W; Hamer, Geert

    2016-03-01

    The Smc5/6 complex, along with cohesin and condensin, is a member of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family, large ring-like protein complexes that are essential for chromatin structure and function. Thanks to numerous studies of the mitotic cell cycle, Smc5/6 has been implicated to have roles in homologous recombination, restart of stalled replication forks, maintenance of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and heterochromatin, telomerase-independent telomere elongation, and regulation of chromosome topology. The nature of these functions implies that the Smc5/6 complex also contributes to the profound chromatin changes, including meiotic recombination, that characterize meiosis. Only recently, studies in diverse model organisms have focused on the potential meiotic roles of the Smc5/6 complex. Indeed, Smc5/6 appears to be essential for meiotic recombination. However, due to both the complexity of the process of meiosis and the versatility of the Smc5/6 complex, many additional meiotic functions have been described. In this review, we provide a clear overview of the multiple functions found so far for the Smc5/6 complex in meiosis. Additionally, we compare these meiotic functions with the known mitotic functions in an attempt to find a common denominator and thereby create clarity in the field of Smc5/6 research.

  17. Recruiting a microtubule-binding complex to DNA directs chromosome segregation in budding yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Andrew W.; Lacefield, Soni; Lau, Tsz Cham Derek

    2009-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation depends on the kinetochore, the complex of proteins that link microtubules to centromeric DNA1. The budding yeast kinetochore consists of more than 80 proteins assembled on a 125bp region of DNA1. We studied the assembly and function of kinetochore components by fusing individual kinetochore proteins to the lactose repressor (LacI) and testing their ability to improve the segregation of a plasmid carrying tandem repeats of the lactose operator (LacO). Targeting...

  18. Whole exome sequencing in a patient with uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 and a complex phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H; Shen, Y; Nguyen, T T; Hirschhorn, J N; Dauber, A

    2013-09-01

    Whole exome sequencing and chromosomal microarrays are two powerful technologies that have transformed the ability of researchers to search for potentially causal variants in human disease. This study combines these tools to search for causal variants in a patient found to have maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 2. This subject has a complex phenotype including skeletal and renal dysplasia, immune deficiencies, growth failure, retinal degeneration and ovarian insufficiency. Eighteen non-synonymous, rare homozygous variants were identified on chromosome 2. Additionally, five genes with compound heterozygous mutations were detected on other chromosomes that could lead to a disease phenotype independent of the uniparental disomy found in this case. Several candidate genes with potential connection to the phenotype are described but none are definitively proven to be causal. This study highlights the potential for detection of a large number of candidate genes using whole exome sequencing complicating interpretation in both the research and clinical settings. Forums must be created for publication and sharing of detailed phenotypic and genotypic reports to facilitate further biological discoveries and clinical counseling.

  19. Chromosome-biased binding and gene regulation by the Caenorhabditis elegans DRM complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko M Tabuchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available DRM is a conserved transcription factor complex that includes E2F/DP and pRB family proteins and plays important roles in development and cancer. Here we describe new aspects of DRM binding and function revealed through genome-wide analyses of the Caenorhabditis elegans DRM subunit LIN-54. We show that LIN-54 DNA-binding activity recruits DRM to promoters enriched for adjacent putative E2F/DP and LIN-54 binding sites, suggesting that these two DNA-binding moieties together direct DRM to its target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression profiling reveals conserved roles for DRM in regulating genes involved in cell division, development, and reproduction. We find that LIN-54 promotes expression of reproduction genes in the germline, but prevents ectopic activation of germline-specific genes in embryonic soma. Strikingly, C. elegans DRM does not act uniformly throughout the genome: the DRM recruitment motif, DRM binding, and DRM-regulated embryonic genes are all under-represented on the X chromosome. However, germline genes down-regulated in lin-54 mutants are over-represented on the X chromosome. We discuss models for how loss of autosome-bound DRM may enhance germline X chromosome silencing. We propose that autosome-enriched binding of DRM arose in C. elegans as a consequence of germline X chromosome silencing and the evolutionary redistribution of germline-expressed and essential target genes to autosomes. Sex chromosome gene regulation may thus have profound evolutionary effects on genome organization and transcriptional regulatory networks.

  20. Truly incomplete and complex exchanges in prematurely condensed chromosomes of human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to energetic heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Durante, Marco; Furusawa, Yoshiya; George, Kerry; Kawata, Tetsuya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cells (AG1522) were irradiated with gamma rays, 490 MeV/nucleon silicon ions, or iron ions at either 200 or 500 MeV/nucleon. The cells were allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h after exposure, and a chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to condense chromosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Incomplete and complex exchanges were analyzed in the irradiated samples. To verify that chromosomal breaks were truly unrejoined, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using a combination of whole-chromosome specific probes and probes specific for the telomere region of the chromosome. Results showed that the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks was higher after irradiation with the heavy ions of high LET, and consequently the ratio of incomplete to complete exchanges increased steadily with LET up to 440 keV/microm, the highest LET included in the present study. For samples exposed to 200 MeV/nucleon iron ions, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using the multicolor FISH (mFISH) technique, which allows identification of both complex and truly incomplete exchanges. Results of the mFISH study showed that 0.7 and 3 Gy iron ions produced similar ratios of complex to simple exchanges and incomplete to complete exchanges; these ratios were higher than those obtained after exposure to 6 Gy gamma rays. After 0.7 Gy of iron ions, most complex aberrations were found to involve three or four chromosomes, which is a likely indication of the maximum number of chromosome domains traversed by a single iron-ion track.

  1. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public transport

  2. Complex patterns of chromosome 11 aberrations in myeloid malignancies target CBL, MLL, DDB1 and LMO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Klampfl

    Full Text Available Exome sequencing of primary tumors identifies complex somatic mutation patterns. Assignment of relevance of individual somatic mutations is difficult and poses the next challenge for interpretation of next generation sequencing data. Here we present an approach how exome sequencing in combination with SNP microarray data may identify targets of chromosomal aberrations in myeloid malignancies. The rationale of this approach is that hotspots of chromosomal aberrations might also harbor point mutations in the target genes of deletions, gains or uniparental disomies (UPDs. Chromosome 11 is a frequent target of lesions in myeloid malignancies. Therefore, we studied chromosome 11 in a total of 813 samples from 773 individual patients with different myeloid malignancies by SNP microarrays and complemented the data with exome sequencing in selected cases exhibiting chromosome 11 defects. We found gains, losses and UPDs of chromosome 11 in 52 of the 813 samples (6.4%. Chromosome 11q UPDs frequently associated with mutations of CBL. In one patient the 11qUPD amplified somatic mutations in both CBL and the DNA repair gene DDB1. A duplication within MLL exon 3 was detected in another patient with 11qUPD. We identified several common deleted regions (CDR on chromosome 11. One of the CDRs associated with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.013. One patient with a deletion at the LMO2 locus harbored an additional point mutation on the other allele indicating that LMO2 might be a tumor suppressor frequently targeted by 11p deletions. Our chromosome-centered analysis indicates that chromosome 11 contains a number of tumor suppressor genes and that the role of this chromosome in myeloid malignancies is more complex than previously recognized.

  3. ATR-16 due to a de novo complex rearrangement of chromosome 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Marta S; Zelaya, Gabriela; Feliu, Aurora S; Rossetti, Liliana; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bailey, Kristen A; Bacino, Carlos A; Barreiro, Cristina Z

    2005-01-01

    We describe a child with ATR-16 [alpha-thalassemia (thal)/mental retardation], who was referred for genetic evaluation because of minor anomalies and developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a de novo complex rearrangement of chromosome 16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using chromosome 16 subtelomeric probes, showed that this patient had a deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 16 that contains the alpha-globin genes and a duplication of 16q. Analysis of the alpha-globin locus by Southern blot showed a half normal dose of the alpha-globin gene. Microsatellite marker studies revealed that the duplicated 16q region was maternal in origin. Hematological studies revealed anemia, hypochromia and occasional cells with Hb H inclusion bodies. A hematological screening for alpha-thal should be considered in patients with mild developmental delay and a suggestive phenotype of ATR-16 with microcytic hypochromic anemia and normal iron status. The stellate pattern of the iris, a new finding in our patient, may contribute to a better clinical delineation of both syndromes, ATR-16 and/or duplication of 16qter.

  4. The CENP-A NAC/CAD kinetochore complex controls chromosome congression and spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Sarah E; Borusu, Satyarebala; Amaro, Ana C; Winter, Jennifer R; Belwal, Mukta; McAinsh, Andrew D; Meraldi, Patrick

    2007-12-12

    Kinetochores are complex protein machines that link chromosomes to spindle microtubules and contain a structural core composed of two conserved protein-protein interaction networks: the well-characterized KMN (KNL1/MIND/NDC80) and the recently identified CENP-A NAC/CAD. Here we show that the CENP-A NAC/CAD subunits can be assigned to one of two different functional classes; depletion of Class I proteins (Mcm21R(CENP-O) and Fta1R(CENP-L)) causes a failure in bipolar spindle assembly. In contrast, depletion of Class II proteins (CENP-H, Chl4R(CENP-N), CENP-I and Sim4R(CENP-K)) prevents binding of Class I proteins and causes chromosome congression defects, but does not perturb spindle formation. Co-depletion of Class I and Class II proteins restores spindle bipolarity, suggesting that Class I proteins regulate or counteract the function of Class II proteins. We also demonstrate that CENP-A NAC/CAD and KMN regulate kinetochore-microtubule attachments independently, even though CENP-A NAC/CAD can modulate NDC80 levels at kinetochores. Based on our results, we propose that the cooperative action of CENP-A NAC/CAD subunits and the KMN network drives efficient chromosome segregation and bipolar spindle assembly during mitosis.

  5. Complex chromosomal rearrangements by single catastrophic pathogenesis in NUT midline carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-K.; Louzada, S.; An, Y.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S.; Youk, J.; Park, S.; Koo, S. H.; Keam, B.; Jeon, Y. K.; Ku, J.-L.; Yang, F.; Kim, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare aggressive malignancy often occurring in the tissues of midline anatomical structures. Except for the pathognomonic BRD3/4–NUT rearrangement, the comprehensive landscape of genomic alterations in NMCs has been unexplored. Patients and methods We investigated three NMC cases, including two newly diagnosed NMC patients in Seoul National University Hospital, and a previously reported cell line (Ty-82). Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing were carried out for these cases, and findings were validated by multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and using individual fluorescence probes. Results Here, we present the first integrative analysis of whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing and cytogenetic characterization of NUT midline carcinomas. By whole-genome sequencing, we identified a remarkably similar pattern of highly complex genomic rearrangements (previously denominated as chromoplexy) involving the BRD3/4–NUT oncogenic rearrangements in two newly diagnosed NMC cases. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that these complex rearrangements were transcribed as very simple BRD3/4–NUT fusion transcripts. In Ty-82 cells, we also identified a complex genomic rearrangement involving the BRD4–NUT rearrangement underlying the simple t(15;19) karyotype. Careful inspections of rearrangement breakpoints indicated that these rearrangements were likely attributable to single catastrophic events. Although the NMC genomes had >3000 somatic point mutations, canonical oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes were rarely affected, indicating that they were largely passenger events. Mutational signature analysis showed predominant molecular clock-like signatures in all three cases (accounting for 54%−75% of all base substitutions), suggesting that NMCs may arise from actively proliferating normal cells. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that a single catastrophic event in

  6. Methods of staining target chromosomal DNA employing high complexity nucleic acid probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Ol' li-Pekka; Kallioniemi, Anne; Sakamoto, Masaru

    2006-10-03

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  7. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the male-specific lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Philge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. Results We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Conclusions Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes.

  8. PRENATAL-DIAGNOSIS IN 2 CASES OF DE-NOVO COMPLEX BALANCED CHROMOSOMAL REARRANGEMENTS - 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP IN ONE CASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIKKEMARADDATZ, B; SIJMONS, RH; TANSINDHUNATA, MB; VANDERVEEN, AY; BRUNSTING, R; DEVRIES, B; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; BEKEDAM, DJ; VANAKEN, B; DEJONG, B

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of apparently balanced complex de novo chromosomal rearrangements (BCCR) detected prenatally at 17 weeks and 10 weeks of gestation, respectively. Chromosomes were studied using GTG-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In one case four chromosomes and in the other

  9. Hominoid chromosomal rearrangements on 17q map to complex regions of segmental duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Cardone, Maria Francesca; Jiang, Zhaoshi; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E.; Ventura, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations and inversions, are recurrent phenomena during evolution, and both of them are involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements and their part in karyotype evolution, we have investigated the history of human chromosome 17 by comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequence analysis. Results Human bacterial artificial chromosome/p1 artificial ...

  10. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  11. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  12. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  13. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Gu

    Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450 is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs, diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5(p13.3p15.33 spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5 (q23;p14.1p15.31,ins(21;5(q21;p13.3p14.1,ins(21;5(q21;p15.31p15.33,inv(7(p22q32dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5 identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5. Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  14. A complex chromosome rearrangement involving four chromosomes, nine breakpoints and a cryptic 0.6-Mb deletion in a boy with cerebellar hypoplasia and defects in skull ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, R S; Cernach, M C S P; Sfakianakis, T E; Takeno, S S; Nardozza, L M M; Rossi, C; Bhatt, S S; Liehr, T; Melaragno, M I

    2013-01-01

    Constitutional complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are considered rare cytogenetic events. Most apparently balanced CCRs are de novo and are usually found in patients with abnormal phenotypes. High-resolution techniques are unveiling genomic imbalances in a great percentage of these cases. In this paper, we report a patient with growth and developmental delay, dysmorphic features, nervous system anomalies (pachygyria, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellum), a marked reduction in the ossification of the cranial vault, skull base sclerosis, and cardiopathy who presents a CCR with 9 breakpoints involving 4 chromosomes (3, 6, 8 and 14) and a 0.6-Mb deletion in 14q24.1. Although the only genomic imbalance revealed by the array technique was a deletion, the clinical phenotype of the patient most likely cannot be attributed exclusively to haploinsufficiency. Other events must also be considered, including the disruption of critical genes and position effects. A combination of several different investigative approaches (G-banding, FISH with different probes and SNP array techniques) was required to describe this CCR in full, suggesting that CCRs may be more frequent than initially thought. Additionally, we propose that a chain chromosome breakage mechanism may have occurred as a single rearrangement event resulting in this CCR. This study demonstrates the importance of applying different cytogenetic and molecular techniques to detect subtle rearrangements and to delineate the rearrangements at a more accurate level, providing a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in CCR formation and a better correlation with phenotype.

  15. Chromosomal evidence for a putative cryptic species in the Gymnotus carapo species-complex (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Souza Augusto CP

    2008-11-01

    represent cryptic sympatric species in the G. carapo species complex. We speculate that the chromosomal speciation occurred recently, allowing insufficient time for the fixation of other differences following post-zygotic isolation.

  16. Comparative Chromosome Painting and NOR Distribution Suggest a Complex Hybrid Origin of Triploid Lepidodactylus lugubris (Gekkonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Trifonov

    Full Text Available Parthenogenesis, unisexuality and triploidy are interesting but poorly studied phenomena occurring in some reptile species. The mourning gecko (Lepidodactylus lugubris represents a complex of diploid and triploid parthenogenetic mostly all-female populations (males occur quite rarely widely distributed in coastal areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Here, we study karyotypes of a male and two female L. lugubris (LLU triploid individuals (3n = 66 using comparative painting with Gekko japonicus, Hemidactylus turcicus and H. platyurus chromosome specific probes to visualize the homologous regions and to reveal genus specific rearrangements. Also, we applied a 28S ribosomal DNA probe and Ag-staining to detect nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. Our results suggest that the karyotype of L. lugubris underwent a chromosome fission and a fusion after its divergence from a common ancestor of the Gekko-Hemidactylus group. The NORs were found to be located on one out of three homologs on each of LLU8, LLU15 and LLU18, thus further confirming a hybrid origin of triploid individuals. It seems that three different bisexual populations might have contributed to the origin of this triploid parthenogenetic population. We postulate that the heterozygosity in NOR localization is maintained in the triploid clone studied by the absence of recombination as described in whiptail lizards. The pattern of NOR localizations and homologous regions in males and females, as well as the absence of other detectable karyotypic differences, suggest that males arise spontaneously in all female populations and do not arise from independent hybridizations with different species.

  17. Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to study dynamics of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) complex in vivo

    CERN Document Server

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    The SMC complex, MukBEF, is important for chromosome organization and segregation in Escherichia coli. Fluorescently tagged MukBEF forms distinct spots (or 'foci') in the cell, where it is thought to carry out most of its chromosome associated activities. This chapter outlines the technique of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) as a method to study the properties of YFP-tagged MukB in fluorescent foci. This method can provide important insight into the dynamics of MukB on DNA and be used to study its biochemical properties in vivo.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cell generation from a man carrying a complex chromosomal rearrangement as a genetic model for infertility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouka, Aurélie; Izard, Vincent; Tachdjian, Gérard; Brisset, Sophie; Yates, Frank; Mayeur, Anne; Drévillon, Loïc; Jarray, Rafika; Leboulch, Philippe; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Tosca, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Despite progress in human reproductive biology, the cause of male infertility often remains unknown, due to the lack of appropriate and convenient in vitro models of meiosis. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the cells of infertile patients could provide a gold standard model for generating primordial germ cells and studying their development and the process of spermatogenesis. We report the characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) in an azoospermic patient, and the successful generation of specific-iPSCs from PBMC-derived erythroblasts. The CCR was characterized by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization and oligonucleotide-based array-comparative genomic hybridization. The CCR included five breakpoints and was caused by the inverted insertion of a chromosome 12 segment into the short arm of one chromosome 7 and a pericentric inversion of the structurally rearranged chromosome 12. Gene mapping of the breakpoints led to the identification of a candidate gene, SYCP3. Erythroblasts from the patient were reprogrammed with Sendai virus vectors to generate iPSCs. We assessed iPSC pluripotency by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and teratoma induction. The generation of specific-iPSCs from patients with a CCR provides a valuable in vitro genetic model for studying the mechanisms by which chromosomal abnormalities alter meiosis and germ cell development. PMID:28045072

  19. Non-SMC condensin I complex proteins control chromosome segregation and survival of proliferating cells in the zebrafish neural retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condensation of chromosomes and correct sister chromatid segregation during cell division is an essential feature of all proliferative cells. Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC and non-SMC proteins form the condensin I complex and regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. However, due to the lack of appropriate mutants, the function of the condensin I complex during vertebrate development has not been described. Results Here, we report the positional cloning and detailed characterization of retinal phenotypes of a zebrafish mutation at the cap-g locus. High resolution live imaging reveals that the progression of mitosis between prometa- to telophase is delayed and that sister chromatid segregation is impaired upon loss of CAP-G. CAP-G associates with chromosomes between prometa- and telophase of the cell cycle. Loss of the interaction partners CAP-H and CAP-D2 causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of CAP-G throughout mitosis. DNA content analysis reveals increased genomic imbalances upon loss of non-SMC condensin I subunits. Within the retina, loss of condensin I function causes increased rates of apoptosis among cells within the proliferative ciliary marginal zone (CMZ whereas postmitotic retinal cells are viable. Inhibition of p53-mediated apoptosis partially rescues cell numbers in cap-g mutant retinae and allows normal layering of retinal cell types without alleviating their aberrant nuclear sizes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the condensin I complex is particularly important within rapidly amplifying progenitor cell populations to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. In contrast, differentiation of postmitotic retinal cells is not impaired upon polyploidization.

  20. Proteomic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes reveals Topoisomerase II alpha as an Aurora B substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ciaran; Henzing, Alexander J; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    2002-01-01

    The essential Aurora B kinase is a chromosomal passenger protein that is required for mitotic chromosome alignment and segregation. Aurora B function is dependent on the chromosome passenger, INCENP. INCENP, in turn, requires sister chromatid cohesion for its appropriate behaviour. Relatively few...

  1. BAC-FISH assays delineate complex chromosomal rearrangements in a case of post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Weier, Jingly F.; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2009-03-09

    Structural chromosome aberrations are known hallmarks of many solid tumors. In the papillary form of thyroid cancer (PTC), for example, activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes, RET and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type I (NTRK1) by intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements has been suggested as a cause of the disease. However, many phenotypically similar tumors do not carry an activated RET or NTRK-1 gene or express abnormal ret or NTRK-1 transcripts. Thus, we hypothesize that other cellular RTK-type genes are aberrantly expressed in these tumors. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization-based methods, we are studying karyotype changes in a relatively rare subgroup of PTCs, i.e., tumors that arose in children following the 1986 nuclear accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine. Here, we report our technical developments and progress in deciphering complex chromosome aberrations in case S48TK, an aggressively growing PTC cell line, which shows an unusual high number of unbalanced translocations.

  2. BAC-FISH assays delineate complex chromosomal rearrangements in a case of post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst F Zitzelsberger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural chromosome aberrations are known hallmarks of many solid tumors. In the papillary form of thyroid cancer (PTC, for example, activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK genes, RET and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type I (NTRK1 by intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements has been suggested as a cause of the disease. However, many phenotypically similar tumors do not carry an activated RET or NTRK-1 gene or express abnormal ret or NTRK-1 transcripts. Thus, we hypothesize that other cellular RTK-type genes are aberrantly expressed in these tumors. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization-based methods, we are studying karyotype changes in a relatively rare subgroup of PTCs, i.e., tumors that arose in children following the 1986 nuclear accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine. Here, we report our technical developments and progress in deciphering complex chromosome aberrations in case S48TK, an aggressively growing PTC cell line, which shows an unusual high number of unbalanced translocations.

  3. Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, T.G.; Lenarcic, R.; Willis, C.R.; Roberts, D.M.; Hamoen, L.W.; Errington, J.; Wu, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation is an essential process of cell multiplication. In prokaryotes, segregation starts with the newly replicated sister origins of replication, oriCs, which move apart to defined positions in the cell. We have developed a genetic screen to identify mutants defective in placement o

  4. Evaluation of chromosome 5 aberrations in complex karyotypes of patients with myeloid disorders reveals their contribution to dicentric and tricentric chromosomes, resulting in the loss of critical 5q regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herry, Angèle; Douet-Guilbert, Nathalie; Morel, Frédéric; Le Bris, Marie-Josée; Morice, Patrick; Abgrall, Jean François; Berthou, Christian; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2007-06-01

    Dicentric chromosomes have often been observed in complex karyotypes in previously reported studies of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has now made the characterization of these rearrangements much easier. Dicentric and tricentric chromosomes were identified in 21 patients (9 MDS and 12 AML) among the 133 consecutive MDS/AML patients (17%) who had a structural or numerical aberration of chromosome 5 using conventional cytogenetic analysis. One third (7/21) of the patients had received alkylating drugs for a previously diagnosed cancer or chronic myeloproliferative disease. Loss of 5q material was identified in all 21 patients. One copy of the EGR1 (5q31) or the CSF1R (5q33 approximately q34) genes was lost in 20 of the 21 patients. Dicentric and tricentric chromosomes involving chromosome 5 are frequently observed in complex karyotypes among patients with de novo or therapy-related MDS/AML. They lead to deletions of various parts of the long arm of chromosome 5.

  5. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  6. Syndromal frontonasal dysostosis in a child with a complex translocation involving chromosomes 3, 7, and 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C A; Qumsiyeh, M B

    1995-02-13

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with typical frontonasal dysostosis and an apparently balanced de novo translocation involving chromosomes 3, 7, and 11, and four breakpoints. The karyotype was 46,XY,t(7;3)(3;11) (7pter-->7q21.3::3q27-->3qter;3pter-->3 q23::11q21-->11qter; 11pter-->11q21::3q23-->3q27::7q21.3-->7 qter). In situ hybridization with a chromosome 3 painting probe confirmed the interpretation from GTG banding. The child had a widow's peak, marked hypertelorism, absence of the nasal tip, and widely separated nares. He also had an atrial septal defect, micropenis, small testes, clubfeet, scoliosis, block C2-4, and structural brain abnormalities on MRI. In review we found two other cases of frontonasal dysostosis with chromosome abnormalities, neither of which was similar to our case. The presence of a de novo (apparently) balanced translocation in our patient may help to locate the gene(s) for frontonasal dysplasia and perhaps other midline craniofacial malformations.

  7. Comprehensive meiotic segregation analysis of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) complex chromosome rearrangement using single sperm array comparative genomic hybridization and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Miroslav; Vozdova, Miluse; Musilova, Petra; Prinosilova, Petra; Oracova, Eva; Linkova, Vlasta; Vesela, Katerina; Rubes, Jiri

    2014-10-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) represent rare structural chromosome abnormalities frequently associated with infertility. In this study, meiotic segregation in spermatozoa of an infertile normospermic carrier of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) CCR was analysed. A newly developed array comparative genomic hybridization protocol was used, and all chromosomes in 50 single sperm cells were simultaneously examined. Three-colour FISH was used to analyse chromosome segregation in 1557 other single sperm cells. It was also used to measure an interchromosomal effect; sperm chromatin structure assay was used to measure chromatin integrity. A high-frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa (84%) was observed, mostly arising from the 3:3 symmetrical segregation mode. Array comparative genomic hybridization was used to detect additional aneuploidies in two out of 50 spermatozoa (4%) in chromosomes not involved in the complex chromosome rearrangement. Significantly increased rates of diploidy and XY disomy were found in the CCR carrier compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Defective condensation of sperm chromatin was also found in 22.7% of spermatozoa by sperm chromatin structure assay. The results indicate that the infertility in the man with CCR and normal spermatozoa was caused by a production of chromosomally unbalanced, XY disomic and diploid spermatozoa and spermatozoa with defective chromatin condensation.

  8. Chromosome 8p23.1 deletions as a cause of complex congenital heart defects and diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Margaret J; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Holder, Ashley M; Breman, Amy M; Dagli, Aditi; Bacino, Carlos; Scaglia, Fernando; Zori, Roberto T; Cheung, Sau Wai; Scott, Daryl A; Kang, Sung-Hae Lee

    2009-08-01

    Recurrent interstitial deletion of a region of 8p23.1 flanked by the low copy repeats 8p-OR-REPD and 8p-OR-REPP is associated with a spectrum of anomalies that can include congenital heart malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Haploinsufficiency of GATA4 is thought to play a critical role in the development of these birth defects. We describe two individuals and a monozygotic twin pair discordant for anterior CDH all of whom have complex congenital heart defects caused by this recurrent interstitial deletion as demonstrated by array comparative genomic hybridization. To better define the genotype/phenotype relationships associated with alterations of genes on 8p23.1, we review the spectrum of congenital heart and diaphragmatic defects that have been reported in individuals with isolated GATA4 mutations and interstitial, terminal, and complex chromosomal rearrangements involving the 8p23.1 region. Our findings allow us to clearly define the CDH minimal deleted region on chromosome 8p23.1 and suggest that haploinsufficiency of other genes, in addition to GATA4, may play a role in the severe cardiac and diaphragmatic defects associated with 8p23.1 deletions. These findings also underscore the importance of conducting a careful cytogenetic/molecular analysis of the 8p23.1 region in all prenatal and postnatal cases involving congenital defects of the heart and/or diaphragm.

  9. Chromosome 8p23.1 Deletions as a Cause of Complex Congenital Heart Defects and Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Margaret J.; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.; Holder, Ashley M.; Breman, Amy M.; Dagli, Aditi; Bacino, Carlos; Scaglia, Fernando; Zori, Roberto T.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Scott, Daryl A.; Kang, Sung-Hae Lee

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent interstitial deletion of a region of 8p23.1 flanked by the low copy repeats 8p-OR-REPD and 8p-OR-REPP is associated with a spectrum of anomalies that can include congenital heart malformations and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Haploinsufficiency of GATA4 is thought to play a critical role in the development of these birth defects. We describe two individuals and a monozygotic twin pair discordant for anterior CDH all of whom have complex congenital heart defects caused by this recurrent interstitial deletion as demonstrated by array comparative genome hybridization. To better define the genotype/phenotype relationships associated with alterations of genes on 8p23.1, we review the spectrum of congenital heart and diaphragmatic defects that have been reported in individuals with isolated GATA4 mutations and interstitial, terminal, and complex chromosomal rearrangements involving the 8p23.1 region. Our findings allow us to clearly define the CDH minimal deleted region on chromosome 8p23.1 and suggest that haploinsufficiency of other genes, in addition to GATA4, may play a role in the severe cardiac and diaphragmatic defects associated with 8p23.1 deletions. These findings also underscore the importance of conducting a careful cytogenetic/molecular analysis of the 8p23.1 region in all prenatal and postnatal cases involving congenital defects of the heart and/or diaphragm. PMID:19606479

  10. Orc1 Binding to Mitotic Chromosomes Precedes Spatial Patterning during G1 Phase and Assembly of the Origin Recognition Complex in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nihan; Hossain, Manzar; Prasanth, Supriya G; Stillman, Bruce

    2015-05-08

    Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes occurs once every cell division cycle in normal cells and is a tightly controlled process that ensures complete genome duplication. The origin recognition complex (ORC) plays a key role during the initiation of DNA replication. In human cells, the level of Orc1, the largest subunit of ORC, is regulated during the cell division cycle, and thus ORC is a dynamic complex. Upon S phase entry, Orc1 is ubiquitinated and targeted for destruction, with subsequent dissociation of ORC from chromosomes. Time lapse and live cell images of human cells expressing fluorescently tagged Orc1 show that Orc1 re-localizes to condensing chromatin during early mitosis and then displays different nuclear localization patterns at different times during G1 phase, remaining associated with late replicating regions of the genome in late G1 phase. The initial binding of Orc1 to mitotic chromosomes requires C-terminal amino acid sequences that are similar to mitotic chromosome-binding sequences in the transcriptional pioneer protein FOXA1. Depletion of Orc1 causes concomitant loss of the mini-chromosome maintenance (Mcm2-7) helicase proteins on chromatin. The data suggest that Orc1 acts as a nucleating center for ORC assembly and then pre-replication complex assembly by binding to mitotic chromosomes, followed by gradual removal from chromatin during the G1 phase.

  11. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  12. Alu-mediated diverse and complex pathogenic copy-number variants within human chromosome 17 at p13.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shen; Yuan, Bo; Campbell, Ian M; Beck, Christine R; Carvalho, Claudia M B; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Patel, Ankita; Bacino, Carlos A; Shaw, Chad A; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Cheung, Sau Wai; Bi, Weimin; Lupski, James R

    2015-07-15

    Alu repetitive elements are known to be major contributors to genome instability by generating Alu-mediated copy-number variants (CNVs). Most of the reported Alu-mediated CNVs are simple deletions and duplications, and the mechanism underlying Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangement has been attributed to non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Chromosome 17 at the p13.3 genomic region lacks extensive low-copy repeat architecture; however, it is highly enriched for Alu repetitive elements, with a fraction of 30% of total sequence annotated in the human reference genome, compared with the 10% genome-wide and 18% on chromosome 17. We conducted mechanistic studies of the 17p13.3 CNVs by performing high-density oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, specifically interrogating the 17p13.3 region with ∼150 bp per probe density; CNV breakpoint junctions were mapped to nucleotide resolution by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Studied rearrangements include 5 interstitial deletions, 14 tandem duplications, 7 terminal deletions and 13 complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs). Within the 17p13.3 region, Alu-Alu-mediated rearrangements were identified in 80% of the interstitial deletions, 46% of the tandem duplications and 50% of the CGRs, indicating that this mechanism was a major contributor for formation of breakpoint junctions. Our studies suggest that Alu repetitive elements facilitate formation of non-recurrent CNVs, CGRs and other structural aberrations of chromosome 17 at p13.3. The common observation of Alu-mediated rearrangement in CGRs and breakpoint junction sequences analysis further demonstrates that this type of mechanism is unlikely attributed to NAHR, but rather may be due to a recombination-coupled DNA replicative repair process.

  13. Spp1, a member of the Set1 Complex, promotes meiotic DSB formation in promoters by tethering histone H3K4 methylation sites to chromosome axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommermeyer, Vérane; Béneut, Claire; Chaplais, Emmanuel; Serrentino, Maria Elisabetta; Borde, Valérie

    2013-01-10

    Meiotic chromosomes are organized into arrays of loops that are anchored to the chromosome axis structure. Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination, catalyzed by Spo11 and accessory DSB proteins, form in loop sequences in promoters, whereas the DSB proteins are located on chromosome axes. Mechanisms bridging these two chromosomal regions for DSB formation have remained elusive. Here we show that Spp1, a conserved member of the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex, is required for normal levels of DSB formation and is associated with chromosome axes during meiosis, where it physically interacts with the Mer2 DSB protein. The PHD finger module of Spp1, which reads H3K4 methylation close to promoters, promotes DSB formation by tethering these regions to chromosome axes and activating cleavage by the DSB proteins. This paper provides the molecular mechanism linking DSB sequences to chromosome axes and explains why H3K4 methylation is important for meiotic recombination.

  14. The Chriz–Z4 complex recruits JIL-1 to polytene chromosomes, a requirement for interband-specific phosphorylation of H3S10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miao Gan; Selina Moebus; Harald Eggert; Harald Saumweber

    2011-08-01

    The conserved band-interband pattern is thought to reflect the looped-domain organization of insect polytene chromosomes. Previously, we have shown that the chromodomain protein Chriz and the zinc-finger protein Z4 are essentially required for the maintenance of polytene chromosome structure. Here we show that both proteins form a complex that recruits the JIL-1 kinase to polytene chromosomes, enabling local H3S10 phosphorylation of interband nucleosomal histones. Interband targeting domains were identified at the N-terminal regions of Chriz and Z4, and our data suggest partial cooperation of the complex with the BEAF boundary element protein in polytene and diploid cells. Reducing the core component Chriz by RNAi results in destabilization of the complex and a strong reduction of interband-specific histone H3S10 phosphorylation.

  15. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs to generate crossovers (COs during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  16. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM) Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Sonneville, Remi; Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Wang, Bin; Blow, J Julian; Gartner, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) to generate crossovers (COs) during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  17. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM) Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Sonneville, Remi; Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Wang, Bin; Blow, J. Julian; Gartner, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) to generate crossovers (COs) during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis. PMID:27010650

  18. Characterization of a balanced complex chromosomal rearrangement carrier ascertained through a fetus with dup15q26.3 and del5p15.33: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledo, Belen; Ortiz, Jose Antonio; Morales, Ruth; Manchon, Irene; Galan, Francisco; Bernabeu, Andrea; Bernabeu, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are structural aberrations involving more than two chromosomes which rarely appear in individuals with normal phenotypes. These individuals report fertility problems, recurrent miscarriages, or congenital anomalies in newborn offspring as a consequence of either meiotic failure or imbalanced chromosome segregation. A CCR involving chromosomes 5, 15, and 18 was discovered in a phenotypically normal man through a fetus with congenital malformations and partial trisomy of chromosome 15 and monosomy of chromosome 5. Ultrasound examination at 20 weeks of gestation showed severe oligoamnios and hydrothorax. Prenatal cytogenetic analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a female fetus with dup15q26.3 and del5p15.33. We diagnosed the CCR using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (three-color FISH), and a balanced CCR using array-CGH and FISH was diagnosed in the paternal karyotype. The father is a carrier of a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(5;15;18)(p15.31;q26.3;p11.2). Due to the complexity of these rearrangements the diagnosis is difficult and the reproductive outcome uncertain. Reporting such rare cases is important to enable such information to be used for genetic counseling in similar situations and help estimate the risk of miscarriage or of newborns with congenital abnormalities.

  19. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  20. Structural comparison of chromosomal and exogenous dihydrofolate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with the potent inhibitor trimethoprim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaslet, Holly; Harris, Melissa; Fahnoe, Kelly; Sarver, Ronald; Putz, Henry; Chang, Jeanne; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; Barreiro, Gabriela; Miller, J. Richard; Pfizer

    2010-09-02

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the enzyme responsible for the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5,6-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, an essential cofactor in the synthesis of purines, thymidylate, methionine, and other key metabolites. Because of its importance in multiple cellular functions, DHFR has been the subject of much research targeting the enzyme with anticancer, antibacterial, and antimicrobial agents. Clinically used compounds targeting DHFR include methotrexate for the treatment of cancer and diaminopyrimidines (DAPs) such as trimethoprim (TMP) for the treatment of bacterial infections. DAP inhibitors of DHFR have been used clinically for >30 years and resistance to these agents has become widespread. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the causative agent of many serious nosocomial and community acquired infections, and other gram-positive organisms can show resistance to DAPs through mutation of the chromosomal gene or acquisition of an alternative DHFR termed 'S1 DHFR.' To develop new therapies for health threats such as MRSA, it is important to understand the molecular basis of DAP resistance. Here, we report the crystal structure of the wild-type chromosomal DHFR from S. aureus in complex with NADPH and TMP. We have also solved the structure of the exogenous, TMP resistant S1 DHFR, apo and in complex with TMP. The structural and thermodynamic data point to important molecular differences between the two enzymes that lead to dramatically reduced affinity of DAPs to S1 DHFR. These differences in enzyme binding affinity translate into reduced antibacterial activity against strains of S. aureus that express S1 DHFR.

  1. Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. van der Veken (Lars); M.M.J. Dieleman (Marianne); H. Douben (Hannie); J.C. van de Brug (Judith); R. van de Graaf (Raoul); A.J.M. Hoogeboom; P.J. Poddighe (Pino); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities mi

  2. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original (tr

  3. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  4. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  5. Analysis of complex-type chromosome exchanges in astronauts' lymphocytes after space flight as a biomarker of high-LET exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Willingham, Veronica; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    High-LET radiation is more efficient in producing complex-type chromosome exchanges than sparsely ionizing radiation, and this can potentially be used as a biomarker of radiation quality. To investigate if complex chromosome exchanges are induced by the high-LET component of space radiation exposure, damage was assessed in astronauts' blood lymphocytes before and after long duration missions of 3-4 months. The frequency of simple translocations increased significantly for most of the crewmembers studied. However, there were few complex exchanges detected and only one crewmember had a significant increase after flight. It has been suggested that the yield of complex chromosome damage could be underestimated when analyzing metaphase cells collected at one time point after irradiation, and analysis of chemically-induced PCC may be more accurate since problems with complicated cell-cycle delays are avoided. However, in this case the yields of chromosome damage were similar for metaphase and PCC analysis of astronauts' lymphocytes. It appears that the use of complex-type exchanges as biomarker of radiation quality in vivo after low-dose chronic exposure in mixed radiation fields is hampered by statistical uncertainties.

  6. 七例产前诊断的标记染色体及复杂染色体畸变的光谱核型分析%Spectral karyotyping of seven prenatally detected marker chromosomes and complex chromosome aberrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋花蕾; 陈宝江; 方群; 谢英俊; 林少宾; 吴坚柱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To perform spectral karyotyping (SKY),fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional karyotyping on prenatally detected marker chromosomes and complex chromosomal aberrations.Methods Five marker chromosomes and 2 complex chromosome aberrations diagnosed by G banding were collected.SKY was performed to verify the composition of marker chromosomes.FISH was used to confirm the diagnosis when necessary.In certain cases,C or N banding technique was employed to verify the composition of chromosomes.Results of ultrasonography and pregnancy outcome were reviewed.Results Among the 5 marker chromosomes,2 were large and 3 were medium in size,4 were de novo and one was inherited from the father.By SKY analysis,2 marker chromosomes have originated from non-acrocentric chromosomes (4 and 9),whilst the other two have originated from acrocentric chromosomes (21 and 22).The remainder was derived from X chromosome.The SKY results were confirmed by FISH in 3 cases.Four cases have chosen to terminate the pregnancy after genetic counseling.A fetus with inherited paternal marker chromosome was delivered at term,and showed normal development during the first year of life. As for the other 2 cases with complex chromosome aberrations, by SKY examination, one had duplication in chromosome 8 and the other had chromosome rearrangements derived from translocation between chromosomes 2 and 6.In the latter case the fetus was delivered at term but showed developmental retardation at 6 months. Conclusion SKY in combination with FISH can facilitate identification of the origins of marker chromosomes as well as complex chromosomal aberrations.With combined information from ultrasonography,SKY and FISH,effective counseling may be offered to the patients.%目的 探讨光谱核型分析( spectral karyotyping,SKY)结合荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)及传统核型分析技术在产前诊断标记染色体及复杂染色体畸变中的应用.方法

  7. The Oxytricha trifallax macronuclear genome: a complex eukaryotic genome with 16,000 tiny chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estienne C Swart

    Full Text Available The macronuclear genome of the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax displays an extreme and unique eukaryotic genome architecture with extensive genomic variation. During sexual genome development, the expressed, somatic macronuclear genome is whittled down to the genic portion of a small fraction (∼5% of its precursor "silent" germline micronuclear genome by a process of "unscrambling" and fragmentation. The tiny macronuclear "nanochromosomes" typically encode single, protein-coding genes (a small portion, 10%, encode 2-8 genes, have minimal noncoding regions, and are differentially amplified to an average of ∼2,000 copies. We report the high-quality genome assembly of ∼16,000 complete nanochromosomes (∼50 Mb haploid genome size that vary from 469 bp to 66 kb long (mean ∼3.2 kb and encode ∼18,500 genes. Alternative DNA fragmentation processes ∼10% of the nanochromosomes into multiple isoforms that usually encode complete genes. Nucleotide diversity in the macronucleus is very high (SNP heterozygosity is ∼4.0%, suggesting that Oxytricha trifallax may have one of the largest known effective population sizes of eukaryotes. Comparison to other ciliates with nonscrambled genomes and long macronuclear chromosomes (on the order of 100 kb suggests several candidate proteins that could be involved in genome rearrangement, including domesticated MULE and IS1595-like DDE transposases. The assembly of the highly fragmented Oxytricha macronuclear genome is the first completed genome with such an unusual architecture. This genome sequence provides tantalizing glimpses into novel molecular biology and evolution. For example, Oxytricha maintains tens of millions of telomeres per cell and has also evolved an intriguing expansion of telomere end-binding proteins. In conjunction with the micronuclear genome in progress, the O. trifallax macronuclear genome will provide an invaluable resource for investigating programmed genome rearrangements, complementing

  8. Clinical array-based karyotyping of breast cancer with equivocal HER2 status resolves gene copy number and reveals chromosome 17 complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Soheila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2 gene copy status, and concomitant administration of trastuzumab (Herceptin, remains one of the best examples of targeted cancer therapy based on understanding the genomic etiology of disease. However, newly diagnosed breast cancer cases with equivocal HER2 results present a challenge for the oncologist who must make treatment decisions despite the patient's unresolved HER2 status. In some cases both immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH are reported as equivocal, whereas in other cases IHC results and FISH are discordant for positive versus negative results. The recent validation of array-based, molecular karyotyping for clinical oncology testing provides an alternative method for determination of HER2 gene copy number status in cases remaining unresolved by traditional methods. Methods In the current study, DNA extracted from 20 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue samples from newly diagnosed cases of invasive ductal carcinoma referred to our laboratory with unresolved HER2 status, were analyzed using a clinically validated genomic array containing 127 probes covering the HER2 amplicon, the pericentromeric regions, and both chromosome 17 arms. Results Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH analysis of chromosome 17 resolved HER2 gene status in [20/20] (100% of cases and revealed additional chromosome 17 copy number changes in [18/20] (90% of cases. Array CGH analysis also revealed two false positives and one false negative by FISH due to "ratio skewing" caused by chromosomal gains and losses in the centromeric region. All cases with complex rearrangements of chromosome 17 showed genome-wide chromosomal instability. Conclusions These results illustrate the analytical power of array-based genomic analysis as a clinical laboratory technique for resolution of HER2 status in breast cancer cases with equivocal results. The frequency of complex chromosome 17

  9. The EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) System and Human Rights : Transferring Passenger Data or Passenger Freedom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission presented the ‘EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system’ in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger dat

  10. Dynamic spatial organization of multi-protein complexes controlling microbial polar organization, chromosome replication, and cytokinesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, Harley; Shapiro, Lucille; Horowitz, Mark; Andersen, Gary; Downing, Kenneth; Earnest, Thomas; Ellisman, Mark; Gitai, Zemer; Larabell, Carolyn; Viollier, Patrick

    2012-06-18

    This project was a program to develop high-throughput methods to identify and characterize spatially localized multiprotein complexes in bacterial cells. We applied a multidisciplinary systems engineering approach to the detailed characterization of localized multi-protein structures in vivo a problem that has previously been approached on a fragmented, piecemeal basis.

  11. Massively parallel sequencing reveals the complex structure of an irradiated human chromosome on a mouse background in the Tc1 model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Gribble

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21 and presents a complex phenotype that arises from abnormal dosage of genes on this chromosome. However, the individual dosage-sensitive genes underlying each phenotype remain largely unknown. To help dissect genotype--phenotype correlations in this complex syndrome, the first fully transchromosomic mouse model, the Tc1 mouse, which carries a copy of human chromosome 21 was produced in 2005. The Tc1 strain is trisomic for the majority of genes that cause phenotypes associated with DS, and this freely available mouse strain has become used widely to study DS, the effects of gene dosage abnormalities, and the effect on the basic biology of cells when a mouse carries a freely segregating human chromosome. Tc1 mice were created by a process that included irradiation microcell-mediated chromosome transfer of Hsa21 into recipient mouse embryonic stem cells. Here, the combination of next generation sequencing, array-CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization technologies has enabled us to identify unsuspected rearrangements of Hsa21 in this mouse model; revealing one deletion, six duplications and more than 25 de novo structural rearrangements. Our study is not only essential for informing functional studies of the Tc1 mouse but also (1 presents for the first time a detailed sequence analysis of the effects of gamma radiation on an entire human chromosome, which gives some mechanistic insight into the effects of radiation damage on DNA, and (2 overcomes specific technical difficulties of assaying a human chromosome on a mouse background where highly conserved sequences may confound the analysis. Sequence data generated in this study is deposited in the ENA database, Study Accession number: ERP000439.

  12. The Monopolin Complex Crosslinks Kinetochore Components to Regulate Chromosome-Microtubule Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, Kevin D.; Yip, Calvin K.; Ee, Ly-Sha; Walz, Thomas; Amon, Angelika; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (MIT)

    2010-09-27

    The monopolin complex regulates different types of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in fungi, ensuring sister chromatid co-orientation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis I and inhibiting merotelic attachment in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitosis. In addition, the monopolin complex maintains the integrity and silencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats in the nucleolus. We show here that the S. cerevisiae Csm1/Lrs4 monopolin subcomplex has a distinctive V-shaped structure, with two pairs of protein-protein interaction domains positioned {approx}10 nm apart. Csm1 presents a conserved hydrophobic surface patch that binds two kinetochore proteins: Dsn1, a subunit of the outer-kinetochore MIND/Mis12 complex, and Mif2/CENP-C. Csm1 point-mutations that disrupt kinetochore-subunit binding also disrupt sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I. We further show that the same Csm1 point-mutations affect rDNA silencing, probably by disrupting binding to the rDNA-associated protein Tof2. We propose that Csm1/Lrs4 functions as a molecular clamp, crosslinking kinetochore components to enforce sister chromatid co-orientation in S. cerevisiae meiosis I and to suppress merotelic attachment in S. pombe mitosis, and crosslinking rDNA repeats to aid rDNA silencing.

  13. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  14. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  15. Human-Chromatin-Related Protein Interactions Identify a Demethylase Complex Required for Chromosome Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Marcon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is driven by multicomponent protein complexes, which form functional modules. Deciphering the components of these modules and their interactions is central to understanding the molecular pathways these proteins are regulating, their functions, and their relation to both normal development and disease. We describe the use of affinity purifications of tagged human proteins coupled with mass spectrometry to generate a protein-protein interaction map encompassing known and predicted chromatin-related proteins. On the basis of 1,394 successful purifications of 293 proteins, we report a high-confidence (85% precision network involving 11,464 protein-protein interactions among 1,738 different human proteins, grouped into 164 often overlapping protein complexes with a particular focus on the family of JmjC-containing lysine demethylases, their partners, and their roles in chromatin remodeling. We show that RCCD1 is a partner of histone H3K36 demethylase KDM8 and demonstrate that both are important for cell-cycle-regulated transcriptional repression in centromeric regions and accurate mitotic division.

  16. Human-chromatin-related protein interactions identify a demethylase complex required for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Edyta; Ni, Zuyao; Pu, Shuye; Turinsky, Andrei L; Trimble, Sandra Smiley; Olsen, Jonathan B; Silverman-Gavrila, Rosalind; Silverman-Gavrila, Lorelei; Phanse, Sadhna; Guo, Hongbo; Zhong, Guoqing; Guo, Xinghua; Young, Peter; Bailey, Swneke; Roudeva, Denitza; Zhao, Dorothy; Hewel, Johannes; Li, Joyce; Gräslund, Susanne; Paduch, Marcin; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Lupien, Mathieu; Emili, Andrew; Wodak, Shoshana J; Greenblatt, Jack

    2014-07-10

    Chromatin regulation is driven by multicomponent protein complexes, which form functional modules. Deciphering the components of these modules and their interactions is central to understanding the molecular pathways these proteins are regulating, their functions, and their relation to both normal development and disease. We describe the use of affinity purifications of tagged human proteins coupled with mass spectrometry to generate a protein-protein interaction map encompassing known and predicted chromatin-related proteins. On the basis of 1,394 successful purifications of 293 proteins, we report a high-confidence (85% precision) network involving 11,464 protein-protein interactions among 1,738 different human proteins, grouped into 164 often overlapping protein complexes with a particular focus on the family of JmjC-containing lysine demethylases, their partners, and their roles in chromatin remodeling. We show that RCCD1 is a partner of histone H3K36 demethylase KDM8 and demonstrate that both are important for cell-cycle-regulated transcriptional repression in centromeric regions and accurate mitotic division.

  17. Heterochromatic threads connect oscillating chromosomes during prometaphase I in Drosophila oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie E Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila oocytes achiasmate homologs are faithfully segregated to opposite poles at meiosis I via a process referred to as achiasmate homologous segregation. We observed that achiasmate homologs display dynamic movements on the meiotic spindle during mid-prometaphase. An analysis of living prometaphase oocytes revealed both the rejoining of achiasmate X chromosomes initially located on opposite half-spindles and the separation toward opposite poles of two X chromosomes that were initially located on the same half spindle. When the two achiasmate X chromosomes were positioned on opposite halves of the spindle their kinetochores appeared to display proper co-orientation. However, when both Xs were located on the same half spindle their kinetochores appeared to be oriented in the same direction. Thus, the prometaphase movement of achiasmate chromosomes is a congression-like process in which the two homologs undergo both separation and rejoining events that result in the either loss or establishment of proper kinetochore co-orientation. During this period of dynamic chromosome movement, the achiasmate homologs were connected by heterochromatic threads that can span large distances relative to the length of the developing spindle. Additionally, the passenger complex proteins Incenp and Aurora B appeared to localize to these heterochromatic threads. We propose that these threads assist in the rejoining of homologs and the congression of the migrating achiasmate homologs back to the main chromosomal mass prior to metaphase arrest.

  18. Three-way complex variant translocation involving short arm chromosome (1;9;22)(p36;q34;q11) in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASIF, MUHAMMAD; HUSSAIN, ABRAR; MALIK, ARIF; RASOOL, MAHMOOD

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease of the clonal hematopoietic stem cells caused by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22. Overall, 90–95% of CML patients present with a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation and in addition, variant complex translocations, involving a third chromosome, are observed in 5–8% of CML patients. Cytogenic testing using bone marrow sample was performed and the FISH test was used for the detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene and complete blood analysis of CML patient was also performed. Results of hematological analysis showed the induced values of white blood cells (168,5000/mm3) and platelets (300,000/mm3) and FISH analysis test showed that 98% cells were positive for BCR/ABL gene translocation. The present study describes a three-way (1;9;22)(p36;q34;q11) Ph chromosome translocation in a 24-year-old female with CML. The patient, who was in the chronic phase of the disease, was treated with daily dose of 400 mg/dl with imatinib mesylateand was monitored constantly at various intervals over a 6-month period. Many studies reported that certain CML patents with variant translocation responded poorly to imatinib. In the current case report, the CML patient exhibited a suboptimal response to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis. PMID:26622740

  19. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    their emphasis on passengers to the consideration of transfer maintenance. Clearly, passengers’ travel behaviour is far more complex and multi-faceted and thus several other aspects should be considered, as becoming more and more evident from passenger surveys. The current literature review starts by looking...... at the parameters that railway optimisation/planning studies are focused on and the key performance indicators that impact railway planning. The attention then turns to the parameters influencing passengers’ perceptions and travel experiences. Finally, the review proposes guidelines on how to reduce the gap between...

  20. Chromosomal instability in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Angela A G; Al Allak, Bushra; Velthuizen, Sandra C J M; de Vries, Annie; Kros, Johan M; Avezaat, Cees J J; de Klein, Annelies; Beverloo, H Berna; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 60% of sporadic meningiomas are caused by inactivation of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 22. No causative gene is known for the remaining 40%. Cytogenetic analysis shows that meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene can be divided into tumors that show monosomy 22 as the sole abnormality and tumors with a more complex karyotype. Meningiomas not caused by the NF2 gene usually have a diploid karyotype. Here we report that, besides the clonal chromosomal aberrations, the chromosome numbers in many meningiomas varied from one metaphase spread to the other, a feature that is indicative of chromosomal instability. Unexpectedly and regardless of genotype, a subgroup of tumors was observed with an average number of 44.9 chromosomes and little variation in the number of chromosomes per metaphase spread. In addition, a second subgroup was recognized with a hyperdiploid number of chromosomes (average 48.5) and considerable variation in numbers per metaphase. However, this numerical instability resulted in a clonal karyotype with chromosomal gains and losses in addition to loss of chromosome 22 only in meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene. In cultured cells of all tumor groups, bi- and multinucleated cells were seen, as well as anaphase bridges, residual chromatid strings, multiple spindle poles, and unseparated chromatids, suggesting defects in the mitotic apparatus or kinetochore. Thus, we conclude that even a benign and slow-growing tumor like a meningioma displays chromosomal instability.

  1. Chromosomal characterization of the three subgenomes in the polyploids of Hordeum murinum L.: new insight into the evolution of this complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Cuadrado

    Full Text Available Hordeum murinum L. is a species complex composed of related taxa, including the subspecies glaucum, murinum and leporinum. However, the phylogenetic relationships between the different taxa and their cytotypes, and the origin of the polyploid forms, remain points of controversy. The present work reports a comparative karyotype analysis of seven accessions of the H. murinum complex representing all subspecies and cytotypes. The karyotypes were determined by examining the distribution of the repetitive Triticeae DNA sequences pTa71, pTa794, pSc119.2, pAs1 and pHch950, the simple sequence repeats (SSRs (AG10, (AAC5, (AAG5, (ACT5, (ATC5, and (CCCTAAA3 via in situ hybridization. The chromosomes of the three subgenomes involved in the polyploids were identified. All tetraploids of all subspecies shared the same two subgenomes (thus suggesting them to in fact belong to the same taxon, the result of hybridization between two diploid ancestors. One of the subgenomes present in all tetraploids of all subspecies was found to be very similar (though not identical to the chromosome complement of the diploid glaucum. The hexaploid form of leporinum came about through a cross between a tetraploid and a third diploid form. Exclusively bivalent associations among homologous chromosomes were observed when analyzing pollen mother cells of tetraploid taxa. In conclusion, the present results identify all the individual chromosomes within the H. murinum complex, reveal its genome structure and phylogeny, and explain the appearance of the different cytotypes. Three cryptic species are proposed according to ploidy level that may deserve full taxonomic recognition.

  2. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  3. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  4. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  5. Structural variations of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec Type IVa in Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 8 and unrelated lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit

    2011-01-01

    PCR mapping of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa and adjacent mobile elements in 94 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains identified two primary structures (A and B) that could be further classified into two (A1 and A2) and five (B1 to B5) variants, primarily...

  6. A new human natural killer leukemia cell line, IMC-1. A complex chromosomal rearrangement defined by spectral karyotyping: functional and cytogenetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ming; Whalen, Margaret; Bankhurst, Arthur; Sever, Cordelia E; Doshi, Rashmi; Hardekopf, David; Montgomery, Karen; Willman, Cheryl L

    2004-03-01

    A new human IL-2 dependent leukemic cell line with a natural killer (NK) cell phenotype, IMC-1, was established from an adult patient with aggressive NK cell leukemia. The IMC-1 cell line expresses the CD56, CD2, CD11a, CD38 and HLA-DR cell surface antigens, whereas the CD16 and CD8 antigens expressed on the primary leukemic blasts from which the cell line was derived were lost after 7 and 28 weeks of culture, respectively. The IMC-1 cell line displays functional NK cytotoxicity and lyses target cells in a non-MHC restricted, antibody-independent manner with equal or superior efficiency to freshly isolated NK cells. Cytogenetic analysis at presentation and after 55 weeks in culture revealed complex structural and numerical abnormalities, defined by classic G-banding and by spectral karyotyping (SKY). Three apparently intact copies of chromosome 8 occurred in the diagnostic bone marrow specimen; the cell line also contains three copies of chromosome 8 but each was structurally altered. The development and detailed characterization of this new NK leukemic cell line will facilitate biologic and functional studies of NK cells and chromosomal aberrations potentially important in leukemic transformation.

  7. Copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity at 17p and homozygous mutations of TP53 are associated with complex chromosomal aberrations in patients newly diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodova, Karla; Zemanova, Zuzana; Lhotska, Halka; Novakova, Milena; Podskalska, Lucie; Belickova, Monika; Brezinova, Jana; Sarova, Iveta; Izakova, Silvia; Lizcova, Libuse; Berkova, Adela; Siskova, Magda; Jonasova, Anna; Cermak, Jaroslav; Michalova, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    Complex karyotypes are seen in approximately 20% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and are associated with a high risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and poor outcomes in patients. Copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH, i.e., both copies of a chromosomal pair or their parts originate from one parent) might contribute to increased genomic instability in the bone-marrow cells of patients with MDS. The pathological potential of CN-LOH, which arises as a clonal aberration in a proportion of somatic cells, consists of tumor suppressor gene and oncogene homozygous mutations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of CN-LOH at 17p in bone-marrow cells of newly diagnosed MDS patients with complex chromosomal aberrations and to assess its correlation with mutations in the TP53 gene (17p13.1). CN-LOH was detected in 40 chromosomal regions in 21 (29%) of 72 patients analyzed. The changes in 27 of the 40 regions identified were sporadic. The most common finding was CN-LOH of the short arm of chromosome 17, which was detected in 13 (18%) of 72 patients. A mutational analysis confirmed the homozygous mutation of TP53 in all CN-LOH 17p patients, among which two frameshift mutations are not registered in the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 Database. CN-LOH 17p correlated with aggressive disease (median overall survival 4 months) and was strongly associated with a complex karyotype in the cohort studied, which might cause rapid disease progression in high-risk MDS. No other CN-LOH region previously recorded in MDS or AML patients (1p, 4q, 7q, 11q, 13q, 19q, 21q) was detected in our cohort of patients with complex karyotype examined at the diagnosis of MDS. The LOH region appeared to be balanced (i.e., with no DNA copy number change) when examined with conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods. Therefore, a microarray that detects single-nucleotide polymorphisms is an ideal method with which to identify and

  8. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  9. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2003-01-01

    for data, a literature review follows. Models applied for estimation of discrete choice models are described by properties and limitations, and relations between these are established. Model types are grouped into three classes, Hybrid choice models, Tree models and Latent class models. Relations between......This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...... model, data and estimation are described, with a focus of possibilities/limitations of different techniques. Two special issues of modelling are addressed in further detail, namely data segmentation and estimation of Mixed Logit models. Both issues are concerned with whether individuals can be assumed...

  10. A shared " passengers & goods " city logistics system

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Many strategic planning models have been developed to help decision making in city logistics. Such models do not take into account, or very few, the flow of passengers because the considered unit does not have the same nature (a person is active and a good is passive). However, it seems fundamental to gather the goods and the passengers in one model when their respective transports interact with each other. In this context, we suggest assessing a shared passengers & go...

  11. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  12. A Chromosome Segment Substitution Library of Weedy Rice for Genetic Dissection of Complex Agronomic and Domestication Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Subudhi

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are a powerful alternative for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL, analyzing gene interactions, and providing starting materials for map-based cloning projects. We report the development and characterization of a CSSL library of a U.S. weedy rice accession 'PSRR-1' with genome-wide coverage in an adapted rice cultivar 'Bengal' background. The majority of the CSSLs carried a single defined weedy rice segment with an average introgression segment of 2.8 % of the donor genome. QTL mapping results for several agronomic and domestication traits from the CSSL population were compared with those obtained from two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations involving the same weedy rice accession. There was congruence of major effect QTLs between both types of populations, but new and additional QTLs were detected in the CSSL population. Although, three major effect QTLs for plant height were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 8 in the CSSL population, the latter two escaped detection in both RIL populations. Since this was observed for many traits, epistasis may play a major role for the phenotypic variation observed in weedy rice. High levels of shattering and seed dormancy in weedy rice might result from an accumulation of many small effect QTLs. Several CSSLs with desirable agronomic traits (e.g. longer panicles, longer grains, and higher seed weight identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding. Since weedy rice is a reservoir of genes for many weedy and agronomic attributes, the CSSL library will serve as a valuable resource to discover latent genetic diversity for improving crop productivity and understanding the plant domestication process through cloning and characterization of the underlying genes.

  13. Train Timetable Evaluation from the Viewpoints of Passengers by Microsimulation of Train Operation and Passenger Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Hirai, Chikara; Tomii, Norio

    In order to evaluate train timetables from passengers' points of view, it is indispensable to estimate the disutilities of passengers. This can be done by estimating the movements of passengers and trains accurately. In particular, when there are many passengers, an interaction between the passengers and trains must be considered. To this end, we have developed a microsimulation system to simulate both train operation and passengers' train choice behavior. The system can simulate train choice behaviors of more than one million passengers as well as their positions in trains. It is possible to estimate the delays caused by congestion in trains as well. The system is based on models of different attitudes of the passengers with respect to the train choice behavior, with includes the choice of the earliest train, transfer avoidance, and congestion avoidance; a passengers' train choice behavior reflects his/her preferences. We applied this system to an actual railway line in a metropolitan area and evaluated two train schedules by calculating the generalized cost that reflects each passenger's disutility in his/her experience. Through the numerical experiments, we have confirmed that the proposed method is very useful for evaluating timetables from passengers' points of view.

  14. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  15. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be i

  16. Should Passengers Be Responsible For Drunk Drivers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In late September, China’s Ministry of Public Security expanded its nationwide campaign against drunk driving by releasing a document suggesting that passengers sharing a car with a drunk driver be punished together with the driver and that passengers who do not prevent drunk driving be fined.

  17. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  18. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance tr

  19. Simulating disturbances and modelling expected train passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...... to estimate the actual passenger delays. The combination of the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software is described, demonstrating the possibility of predicting future passenger delays. The described passenger regularity model is run daily to calculate the passenger delays...

  20. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  1. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  2. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  3. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  4. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  5. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2016-09-27

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  6. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  7. 荧光原位杂交技术在复杂染色体异常产前诊断中的应用%Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in prenatal diagnosis of complex chromosomal abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈艳艳; 李健; 孔辉; 吴慧南; 吴琼; 葛运生; 黄新力; 周裕林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in prenatal diagnosis of complex chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Eleven prenatal diagnosis cases (8 from amniocentesis and 3 from cord blood) with complex chromosomal abnormalities detected by routine G-banding, were further analyzed by FISH. Results The FISH technique confirmed the results of balanced chromosome rearrangements detected by G-banding, and clarified the structure of the derivative chromosomes in the 3 amniocentesis samples and the origin of the mark chromosomes in the 2 cord blood samples. Conclusion FISH can be used to diagnose the complex chromosomal abnormalities accurately in prenatal diagnosis, and can provide very useful genetic information for clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的 探讨荧光原位杂交技术(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)在复杂染色体异常产前诊断中的应用价值.方法 对8例羊水、3例脐血常规G显带具有复杂染色体异常的产前诊断孕妇,应用FISH技术确定其复杂染色体重排及标记染色体的组成.结果 FISH技术证实了G-显带平衡易位的结果,同时明确了3例羊水中衍生染色体的组成、2例脐血中标记染色体的来源.结论 FISH技术具很高的敏感性和特异性,是明确染色体异常重要的分子细胞遗传学工具,其在产前诊断中的应用,可为临床提供更准确全面的实验依据.

  8. 76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... in this pilot project to discover the best ways to use Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to... negative an impact on international passengers as they were already planning on spending a...

  9. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.7 Passenger briefings. (a)...

  10. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš Zdeněk; Jandová Monika

    2016-01-01

    Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market) and regulated competition (competition for the market). Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed an...

  11. The Chromosomes of Birds during Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, María I

    2016-01-01

    The cytological analysis of meiotic chromosomes is an exceptional tool to approach complex processes such as synapsis and recombination during the division. Chromosome studies of meiosis have been especially valuable in birds, where naturally occurring mutants or experimental knock-out animals are not available to fully investigate the basic mechanisms of major meiotic events. This review highlights the main contributions of synaptonemal complex and lampbrush chromosome research to the current knowledge of avian meiosis, with special emphasis on the organization of chromosomes during prophase I, the impact of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis, and distinctive features of the ZW pair.

  12. Discovering Family Groups in Passenger Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万怀宇; 王志伟; 林友芳; 贾旭光; 周元炜

    2015-01-01

    People usually travel together with others in groups for different purposes, such as family members for visiting relatives, colleagues for business, friends for sightseeing and so on. Especially, the family groups, as a kind of the most com-mon consumer units, have a considerable scale in the field of passenger transportation market. Accurately identifying family groups can help the carriers to provide passengers with personalized travel services and precise product recommendation. This paper studies the problem of finding family groups in the field of civil aviation and proposes a family group detection method based on passenger social networks. First of all, we construct passenger social networks based on their co-travel behaviors extracted from the historical travel records; secondly, we use a collective classification algorithm to classify the social relationships between passengers into family or non-family relationship groups; finally, we employ a weighted com-munity detection algorithm to find family groups, which takes the relationship classification results as the weights of edges. Experimental results on a real dataset of passenger travel records in the field of civil aviation demonstrate that our method can effectively find family groups from historical travel records.

  13. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  14. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex changes and multiple forms of chromosomal instability in colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaasenbeek, Michelle; Howarth, Kimberley; Rowan, Andrew J;

    2006-01-01

    infrequently showed gains/deletions or whole-chromosome LOH, but their near-diploid karyotypes concealed mitotic recombination frequencies similar to those of MSI- lines. We analyzed p53 and chromosome 18q (SMAD4) in detail, including mutation screening. Almost all MSI- lines showed LOH and/or deletion of p53...

  15. Complexities of X chromosome inactivation status in female human induced pluripotent stem cells-a brief review and scientific update for autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandulakis, Mary G; Meganathan, Kesavan; Kroll, Kristen L; Bonni, Azad; Constantino, John N

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allow researchers to make customized patient-derived cell lines by reprogramming noninvasively retrieved somatic cells. These cell lines have the potential to faithfully represent an individual's genetic background; therefore, in the absence of available human brain tissue from a living patient, these models have a significant advantage relative to other models of neurodevelopmental disease. When using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to model X-linked developmental disorders or inherited conditions that undergo sex-specific modulation of penetrance (e.g., autism spectrum disorders), there are significant complexities in the course and status of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) that are crucial to consider in establishing the validity of cellular models. There are major gaps and inconsistencies in the existing literature regarding XCI status during the derivation and maintenance of hiPSCs and their differentiation into neurons. Here, we briefly describe the importance of the problem, review the findings and inconsistencies of the existing literature, delineate options for specifying XCI status in clonal populations, and develop recommendations for future studies.

  16. FISH and array-CGH analysis of a complex chromosome 3 aberration suggests that loss of CNTN4 and CRBN contributes to mental retardation in 3pter deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Essen, Ton; van der Vlies, Pieter; Verheij, Joke B G M; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Veen, Anneke Y; Gerssen-Schoorl, Klasien B J; Buys, Charles H C M; Kok, Klaas

    2006-11-15

    Imbalances of 3p telomeric sequences cause 3p- and trisomy 3p syndrome, respectively, showing distinct, but also shared clinical features. No causative genes have been identified in trisomy 3p patients, but for the 3p- syndrome, there is growing evidence that monosomy for one or more of four genes at 3pter, CHL1, CNTN4, CRBN, and MEGAP/srGAP3, may play a causative role. We describe here an analysis of a complex chromosome 3p aberration in a severely mentally retarded patient that revealed two adjacent segments with different copy number gains and a distal deletion. The deletion in this patient included the loci for CHL1, CNTN4, and CRBN, and narrowed the critical segment associated with the 3p- syndrome to 1.5 Mb, including the loci for CNTN4 and CRBN. We speculate that the deletion contributes more to this patient's phenotype than the gains that were observed. We suggest that 3p- syndrome associated features are primarily caused by loss of CNTN4 and CRBN, with loss of CHL1 probably having an additional detrimental effect on the cognitive functioning of the present patient.

  17. The Double-Strand Break Landscape of Meiotic Chromosomes Is Shaped by the Paf1 Transcription Elongation Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Santosh K; Patel, Neem J; Colletti, Meaghan M; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Miki; Hochwagen, Andreas; Shinohara, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Histone modification is a critical determinant of the frequency and location of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs), and thus recombination. Set1-dependent histone H3K4 methylation and Dot1-dependent H3K79 methylation play important roles in this process in budding yeast. Given that the RNA polymerase II associated factor 1 complex, Paf1C, promotes both types of methylation, we addressed the role of the Paf1C component, Rtf1, in the regulation of meiotic DSB formation. Similar to a set1 mutation, disruption of RTF1 decreased the occurrence of DSBs in the genome. However, the rtf1 set1 double mutant exhibited a larger reduction in the levels of DSBs than either of the single mutants, indicating independent contributions of Rtf1 and Set1 to DSB formation. Importantly, the distribution of DSBs along chromosomes in the rtf1 mutant changed in a manner that was different from the distributions observed in both set1 and set1 dot1 mutants, including enhanced DSB formation at some DSB-cold regions that are occupied by nucleosomes in wild-type cells. These observations suggest that Rtf1, and by extension the Paf1C, modulate the genomic DSB landscape independently of H3K4 methylation.

  18. Integrated Rolling Stock Planning for Suburban Passenger Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    A central issue for operators of passenger trains is providing sufficient number of seats while minimising operating costs. This process must be conducted taking a large number of practical, railway oriented requirements into account. Because of this complexity, a stepwise solution was previously...... used, the result being the loss of optimality. The talk will present a new, integrated rolling stock planning model in which the many requirements are handled all at the same time. Preliminary results from DSB S-tog, the suburban train operator of the City of Copenhagen will also be presented....

  19. Double minute chromosomes in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia are associated with micronuclei, MYC or MLL amplification, and complex karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yang O; Tang, Guilin; Talwalkar, Sameer S; Khoury, Joseph D; Ohanian, Maro; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2016-01-01

    Double minute chromosomes (dmin) are small, paired chromatin bodies that lack a centromere and represent a form of extrachromosomal gene amplification. Dmin are rare in myeloid neoplasms and are generally associated with a poor prognosis. Most studies of dmin in myeloid neoplasms are case reports or small series. In the current study, we present the clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features of 22 patients with myeloid neoplasms harboring dmin. These neoplasms included acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 18), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 3), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) (n = 1). The AML cases consisted of AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (n = 13) and therapy-related AML (n = 5). Dmin were detected in initial pre-therapy samples in 14 patients with AML or CMML; they were acquired during the disease course in 8 patients who had AML or MDS. The presence of dmin was associated with micronuclei (18/18; 100%), complex karyotype (17/22; 77.3%), and amplification of MYC (12/16; 75%) or MLL (4/16; 25%). Immunohistochemical staining for MYC performed on bone marrow core biopsy or clot sections revealed increased MYC protein in all 19 cases tested. Except for one patient, most patients failed to respond to risk-adapted chemotherapies. At last follow up, all patients had died of disease after a median of 5 months following dmin detection. In conclusion, dmin in myeloid neoplasms commonly harbor MYC or MLL gene amplification and manifest as micronuclei within leukemic blasts. Dmin are often associated with myelodysplasia or therapy-related disease, and complex karyotypes.

  20. Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells Exposed Los Alamos High-Energy Secondary Neutrons: M-BAND Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Saganti, P. B.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy secondary neutrons, produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with the atmosphere, spacecraft structure and planetary surfaces, contribute a significant fraction to the dose equivalent radiation measurement in crew members and passengers of commercial aviation travel as well as astronauts in space missions. The Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) neutron facility's 30L beam line (4FP30L-A/ICE House) is known to generate neutrons that simulate the secondary neutron spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere at high altitude. The neutron spectrum is also similar to that measured onboard spacecrafts like the MIR and the International Space Station (ISS). To evaluate the biological damage, we exposed human epithelial cells in vitro to the LANSCE neutron beams with an entrance dose rate of 2.5 cGy/hr, and studied the induction of chromosome aberrations that were identified with multicolor-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique. With this technique, individually painted chromosomal bands on one chromosome allowed the identification of inter-chromosomal aberrations (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intra-chromosomal aberrations (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome). Compared to our previous results with gamma-rays and 600 MeV/nucleon Fe ions of high dose rate at NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory), the neutron data from the LANSCE experiments showed significantly higher frequency of chromosome aberrations. However, detailed analysis of the inversion type revealed that all of the three radiation types in the study induced a low incidence of simple inversions. Most of the inversions in gamma-ray irradiated samples were accompanied by other types of intrachromosomal aberrations but few inversions were accompanied by interchromosomal aberrations. In contrast, neutrons and Fe ions induced a significant fraction of inversions that involved complex rearrangements of both

  1. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  2. The inverse autotransporter intimin exports its passenger domain via a hairpin intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, Philipp; Leo, Jack C; Linke, Dirk; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Schütz, Monika S

    2015-01-16

    Autotransporter proteins comprise a large family of virulence factors that consist of a β-barrel translocation unit and an extracellular effector or passenger domain. The β-barrel anchors the protein to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and facilitates the transport of the passenger domain onto the cell surface. By inserting an epitope tag into the N terminus of the passenger domain of the inverse autotransporter intimin, we generated a mutant defective in autotransport. Using this stalled mutant, we could show that (i) at the time point of stalling, the β-barrel appears folded; (ii) the stalled autotransporter is associated with BamA and SurA; (iii) the stalled intimin is decorated with large amounts of SurA; (iv) the stalled autotransporter is not degraded by periplasmic proteases; and (v) inverse autotransporter passenger domains are translocated by a hairpin mechanism. Our results suggest a function for the BAM complex not only in insertion and folding of the β-barrel but also for passenger translocation.

  3. Chromosome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  4. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  5. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First...... the paper describes the passenger regularity model used to calculate passenger delays of the Copenhagen suburban rail network the previous day. Secondly, the paper describes how it is possible to estimate future passenger delays by combining the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software...... and compare future scenarios. In this way it is possible to estimate the network effects of the passengers and to identify critical stations or sections in the railway network for further investigation or optimization....

  6. Economic Impact of Cruise Ship Passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd; Lynch, Colleen; McConnon, James; Allen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report examines the economic impact of cruise ship passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine. In 2002, 64 cruise ships docked in Bar Harbor carrying about 120,000 passengers and crewmembers. The analysis presented in the report is based on 1,080 passenger surveys conducted between August and October of 2002. Economic impact figures are based on a total of 97,190 passengers, which is the capacity of the 64 cruise ships that were scheduled to visit Bar Harbor in 2002.

  7. A Novel Four-Way Complex Variant Translocation Involving Chromosome 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Abrar; Choudhry, Hani; Malik, Arif; Khan, Shahida Aziz; Mahmoud, Maged Mostafa; Ali, Ashraf; Iram, Saima; Kamran, Kashif; Iqbal, Asim; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome (9;22)(q34;q11) is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and the remaining 5–8% of CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth, or fifth chromosome other than 9;22. However, in very rare cases, the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we found a novel case of four-way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of the CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin, and platelets. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR–ABL fusion gene, and cytogenetic test for the confirmation of Ph (9;22)(q34;q11) and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with a dose of 400 mg/day imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). We observed a significant decrease in white blood cell count of 11.7 × 109/L after 48-month follow-up. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:27303656

  8. A Novel four-way complex variant translocation involving chromosome 46, XY, t(4;9; 19;22(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2 in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAsif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Philadelphia (Ph chromosome (9; 22(q34;q11 is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and the remaining 5-8% CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth or fifth chromosome other then 9;22. However, in very rare cases the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we find a novel case of four way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY, t(4;9;19;22(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2 with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin and platelets. Fluorescence In situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR-ABL fusion gene and cryptogenic test for the confirmation of Ph (9; 22(q34;q11 and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec with 400mg/day dose. We observed a significant decrease in WBC count after 48 months follow up 11.7 x109/L. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue and anxiety.

  9. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  10. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be transported by passenger-carrying aircraft or rail car may be transported on a motor vehicle... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... authorized by parts 170-189 of this subchapter to be transported on motor vehicles carrying passengers...

  11. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  12. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234, 244, 250, 253, 259, and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The... of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period...

  13. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234, 244, 250,253, 259, and 399 RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment,...

  14. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... scheduled and FRA will publish a supplemental notice in the Federal Register to inform interested parties...

  15. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, Jorge Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and the

  16. Complex high-resolution linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2.5 Mb of sequence on human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, M; Bustos, V I; Levy, M R; Smick, G A; Moreno, I; Bushard, J M; Almendras, A A; Sheppard, K; Zierten, D L; Aggarwal, A; Carlson, C S; Foster, B D; Vo, N; Kelly, L; Liu, X; Cox, D R

    2001-11-01

    One approach to identify potentially important segments of the human genome is to search for DNA regions with nonrandom patterns of human sequence variation. Previous studies have investigated these patterns primarily in and around candidate gene regions. Here, we determined patterns of DNA sequence variation in 2.5 Mb of finished sequence from five regions on human chromosome 21. By sequencing 13 individual chromosomes, we identified 1460 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obtained unambiguous haplotypes for all chromosomes. For all five chromosomal regions, we observed segments with high linkage disequilibrium (LD), extending from 1.7 to>81 kb (average 21.7 kb), disrupted by segments of similar or larger size with no significant LD between SNPs. At least 25% of the contig sequences consisted of segments with high LD between SNPs. Each of these segments was characterized by a restricted number of observed haplotypes,with the major haplotype found in over 60% of all chromosomes. In contrast, the interspersed segments with low LD showed significantly more haplotype patterns. The position and extent of the segments of high LD with restricted haplotype variability did not coincide with the location of coding sequences. Our results indicate that LD and haplotype patterns need to be investigated with closely spaced SNPs throughout the human genome, independent of the location of coding sequences, to reliably identify regions with significant LD useful for disease association studies.

  17. Chromosomal and cytoplasmic context determines predisposition to maternal age-related aneuploidy: brief overview and update on MCAK in mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Staubach, Nora; Trapphoff, Tom

    2010-12-01

    It has been known for more than half a century that the risk of conceiving a child with trisomy increases with advanced maternal age. However, the origin of the high susceptibility to nondisjunction of whole chromosomes and precocious separation of sister chromatids, leading to aneuploidy in aged oocytes and embryos derived from them, cannot be traced back to a single disturbance and mechanism. Instead, analysis of recombination patterns of meiotic chromosomes of spread oocytes from embryonal ovary, and of origins and exchange patterns of extra chromosomes in trisomies, as well as morphological and molecular studies of oocytes and somatic cells from young and aged females, show chromosome-specific risk patterns and cellular aberrations related to the chronological age of the female. In addition, analysis of the function of meiotic- and cell-cycle-regulating genes in oogenesis, and the study of the spindle and chromosomal status of maturing oocytes, suggest that several events contribute synergistically to errors in chromosome segregation in aged oocytes in a chromosome-specific fashion. For instance, loss of cohesion may differentially predispose chromosomes with distal or pericentromeric chiasmata to nondisjunction. Studies on expression in young and aged oocytes from human or model organisms, like the mouse, indicate that the presence and functionality/activity of gene products involved in cell-cycle regulation, spindle formation and organelle integrity may be altered in aged oocytes, thus contributing to a high risk of error in chromosome segregation in meiosis I and II. Genes that are often altered in aged mouse oocytes include MCAK (mitotic-centromere-associated protein), a microtubule depolymerase, and AURKB (Aurora kinase B), a protein of the chromosomal passenger complex that has many targets and can also phosphorylate and regulate MCAK localization and activity. Therefore we explored the role of MCAK in maturing mouse oocytes by immunofluorescence

  18. Conditional inactivation of the DNA damage response gene Hus1 in mouse testis reveals separable roles for components of the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex in meiotic chromosome maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Lyndaker

    Full Text Available The RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1 complex is a heterotrimeric PCNA-like clamp that responds to DNA damage in somatic cells by promoting DNA repair as well as ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling. In yeast, worms, and flies, the 9-1-1 complex is also required for meiotic checkpoint function and efficient completion of meiotic recombination; however, since Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 are essential genes in mammals, little is known about their functions in mammalian germ cells. In this study, we assessed the meiotic functions of 9-1-1 by analyzing mice with germ cell-specific deletion of Hus1 as well as by examining the localization of RAD9 and RAD1 on meiotic chromosomes during prophase I. Hus1 loss in testicular germ cells resulted in meiotic defects, germ cell depletion, and severely compromised fertility. Hus1-deficient primary spermatocytes exhibited persistent autosomal γH2AX and RAD51 staining indicative of unrepaired meiotic DSBs, synapsis defects, an extended XY body domain often encompassing partial or whole autosomes, and an increase in structural chromosome abnormalities such as end-to-end X chromosome-autosome fusions and ruptures in the synaptonemal complex. Most of these aberrations persisted in diplotene-stage spermatocytes. Consistent with a role for the 9-1-1 complex in meiotic DSB repair, RAD9 localized to punctate, RAD51-containing foci on meiotic chromosomes in a Hus1-dependent manner. Interestingly, RAD1 had a broader distribution that only partially overlapped with RAD9, and localization of both RAD1 and the ATR activator TOPBP1 to the XY body and to unsynapsed autosomes was intact in Hus1 conditional knockouts. We conclude that mammalian HUS1 acts as a component of the canonical 9-1-1 complex during meiotic prophase I to promote DSB repair and further propose that RAD1 and TOPBP1 respond to unsynapsed chromatin through an alternative mechanism that does not require RAD9 or HUS1.

  19. Conditional inactivation of the DNA damage response gene Hus1 in mouse testis reveals separable roles for components of the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex in meiotic chromosome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndaker, Amy M; Lim, Pei Xin; Mleczko, Joanna M; Diggins, Catherine E; Holloway, J Kim; Holmes, Rebecca J; Kan, Rui; Schlafer, Donald H; Freire, Raimundo; Cohen, Paula E; Weiss, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    The RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric PCNA-like clamp that responds to DNA damage in somatic cells by promoting DNA repair as well as ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling. In yeast, worms, and flies, the 9-1-1 complex is also required for meiotic checkpoint function and efficient completion of meiotic recombination; however, since Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 are essential genes in mammals, little is known about their functions in mammalian germ cells. In this study, we assessed the meiotic functions of 9-1-1 by analyzing mice with germ cell-specific deletion of Hus1 as well as by examining the localization of RAD9 and RAD1 on meiotic chromosomes during prophase I. Hus1 loss in testicular germ cells resulted in meiotic defects, germ cell depletion, and severely compromised fertility. Hus1-deficient primary spermatocytes exhibited persistent autosomal γH2AX and RAD51 staining indicative of unrepaired meiotic DSBs, synapsis defects, an extended XY body domain often encompassing partial or whole autosomes, and an increase in structural chromosome abnormalities such as end-to-end X chromosome-autosome fusions and ruptures in the synaptonemal complex. Most of these aberrations persisted in diplotene-stage spermatocytes. Consistent with a role for the 9-1-1 complex in meiotic DSB repair, RAD9 localized to punctate, RAD51-containing foci on meiotic chromosomes in a Hus1-dependent manner. Interestingly, RAD1 had a broader distribution that only partially overlapped with RAD9, and localization of both RAD1 and the ATR activator TOPBP1 to the XY body and to unsynapsed autosomes was intact in Hus1 conditional knockouts. We conclude that mammalian HUS1 acts as a component of the canonical 9-1-1 complex during meiotic prophase I to promote DSB repair and further propose that RAD1 and TOPBP1 respond to unsynapsed chromatin through an alternative mechanism that does not require RAD9 or HUS1.

  20. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... Metro became operational in autumn 2002. We observed that forecasts from the demand sub-models agree well with the data from the 2000 national travel survey, with the mode choice forecasts in particular being a good match with the observed modal split. The results of the 2000 car assignment model...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  1. Chromosome condensation: weaving an untangled web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Rahul; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-08-03

    The compaction of diffuse interphase chromatin into stable mitotic chromosomes enables the segregation of replicated DNA to daughter cells. Two new studies characterise, both in vivo and in vitro, the essential contribution of the vertebrate condensin complex to chromosome organisation.

  2. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10\\/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10\\/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon.

  3. Chromosomes with a life of their own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R N; González-Sánchez, M; González-García, M; Vega, J M; Puertas, M J

    2008-01-01

    B chromosomes (Bs) can be described as 'passengers in the genome', a term that has been used for the repetitive DNA which comprises the bulk of the genome in large genome species, except that Bs have a life of their own as independent chromosomes. As with retrotransposons they can accumulate in number, but in this case by various processes of mitotic or meiotic drive, based on their own autonomous ways of using spindles, especially in the gametophyte phase of the life cycle of flowering plants. This selfish property of drive ensures their survival and spread in natural populations, even against a gradient of harmful effects on the host plant phenotype. Bs are inhabitants of the nucleus and they are subject to control by 'genes' in the A chromosome (As) complement. This interaction with the As, together with the balance between drive and harmful effects makes a dynamic system in the life of a B chromosome, notwithstanding the fact that we are only now beginning to unravel the story in a few favoured species. In this review we concentrate mainly on recent developments in the Bs of rye and maize, two of the species currently receiving most attention. We focus on their population dynamics and on the molecular basis of their structural organisation and mechanisms of drive, as well as on their mode of origin and potential applications in plant biotechnology.

  4. Investigation of longitudinal aerodynamic parameters identification method for fly-by-wire passenger airliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhao; Wang Lixin; Xu Zijian; Tan Xiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    The flight control system of a fly-by-wire (FBW) passenger airliner with a complex frame-work and high feedback gain augmentation would change the original characteristic of a loaded sig-nal and suppress the excitation of an airplane’s pertinent motion modes. Taking a research example of an FBW passenger airliner model with longitudinal relaxed-static-stability, a new method of signal type selection and signal parameter design is proposed, through analysis of signal energy distribution and plane body’s frequency response. According to CCAR60--the Appraisal and Use Regulation of Flight Simulator Device, the simulation validation of the FBW passenger airliner’s longitudinal aerodynamic parameters identification is put forward. The validation result indicates that the designed signal could excite the longitudinal motion mode of the FBW passenger airliner adequately and the multiparameter comparison in simulation meets the objective test request of CCAR60. Meanwhile, the relative errors of aerodynamic parameters are less than 10%.

  5. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation.

  6. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  7. August Passenger and Cargo Numbers Set New Highs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Passenger and cargo numbers set new highs in August, the second consecutive month that both areas of operation at Dragonair posted record figures. The airline flew 444,498 passengers in August to record its third consecutive monthly record. The number was 7.7%higher than in July, with travel in both months driven by holiday traffic. August 15 saw a new daily mark set, with 17,220passengers carried on the day.

  8. Shaping mitotic chromosomes: From classical concepts to molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kschonsak, Marc; Haering, Christian H

    2015-07-01

    How eukaryotic genomes are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell divisions has remained one of the major unsolved questions of cell biology. Novel approaches to study the topology of DNA helices inside the nuclei of intact cells, paired with computational modeling and precise biomechanical measurements of isolated chromosomes, have advanced our understanding of mitotic chromosome architecture. In this Review Essay, we discuss - in light of these recent insights - the role of chromatin architecture and the functions and possible mechanisms of SMC protein complexes and other molecular machines in the formation of mitotic chromosomes. Based on the information available, we propose a stepwise model of mitotic chromosome condensation that envisions the sequential generation of intra-chromosomal linkages by condensin complexes in the context of cohesin-mediated inter-chromosomal linkages, assisted by topoisomerase II. The described scenario results in rod-shaped metaphase chromosomes ready for their segregation to the cell poles.

  9. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  10. Condensin-Based Chromosome Organization from Bacteria to Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tatsuya

    2016-02-25

    Condensins are large protein complexes that play a central role in chromosome organization and segregation in the three domains of life. They display highly characteristic, rod-shaped structures with SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) ATPases as their core subunits and organize large-scale chromosome structure through active mechanisms. Most eukaryotic species have two distinct condensin complexes whose balanced usage is adapted flexibly to different organisms and cell types. Studies of bacterial condensins provide deep insights into the fundamental mechanisms of chromosome segregation. This Review surveys both conserved features and rich variations of condensin-based chromosome organization and discusses their evolutionary implications.

  11. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    with morphine. The NSAID drugs were supplied from the other passengers. Among the patients with visceral pain 1 was treated with NSAID and 22 with opioids. Of the 23 patients treated with opioids, 19 had sublingual Buprenorphine, 3 morphine injections and 1 used his personal codeine tablets. No problems were...... reported from resorption of the Buprenorphine resoriblets, which therefore seemed to work well. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusions: The paramedical assistance and the medicine chest content were considered insufficient in The paramedical...

  12. Implementing Composite Superstructures in Large Passenger Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher;

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the structural response of the part of the superstructure of a RoPax ferry that has been redesigned using composite materials. The composite superstructure is presented and subsequently compared to the existing steel design considering different loading conditions by the use...... of FE modelling.Results indicate that it is not the structural response of the superstructure that inhibits the implementation of composites in the superstructures of large passenger ships but the complicated design procedure and the acceptance of such solutions by the regulatory bodies....

  13. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting.

  14. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  15. Video surveillance of passengers with mug shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Kai; Lee, Ting N.; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    The authority officer relies on facial mug-shots to spot suspects among crowds. Passing through a check point, the facial displays and printouts operate in low resolution fixed poses. Thus, a databases-cuing video is recommended for real-time surveillance with Aided-Target Recognition (AiTR) prompting the inspector taking a closer second look at a specific passenger. Taking advantage of commercial available Face Detection System on Chips (SOC) at 0.04sec, we develop a fast and smart algorithm to sort facial poses among passengers. We can increase the overlapping POFs (pixels on faces) in matching mug shots at arbitrary poses with sorted facial poses. Lemma: We define the long exposure as time average of facial poses and the short exposure as single facial pose in a frame of video in 30 Hz. The fiduciary triangle is defined among two eyes and nose-top. Theorem Self-Reference Matched Filtering (Szu et al. Opt Comm. 1980; JOSA, 1982) to Facial-Pose: If we replace the desirable output of Weiner filter as the long exposure, then the filter can select a short exposure as the normal view. Corollary: Given a short exposure as normal view, the fiduciary triangle can decide all poses from left-to-right and top-to-down.

  16. Cardiovascular emergencies in cruise ship passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaro, Gian M; Bush, Howard S; Fromkin, Kenneth R; Shen, Michael Y; Helguera, Marcelo; Pinski, Sergio L; Asher, Craig R

    2010-01-15

    More than 10 million people, many elderly and likely to harbor cardiovascular (CV) disease, embark on cruise ship travel worldwide every year. The clinical presentation and outcome of CV emergencies presenting during cruise ship travel remain largely unknown. Our department provides contracted cardiology consultations to several large cruise lines. We prospectively maintained a registry of all such consultations during a 2-year period. One hundred consecutive patients were identified (age 66 +/- 14 years, range 18 to 90, 76% men). The most common symptom was chest pain (50%). The most common diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome (58%; ST elevation in 21% and non-ST elevation in 37%). On-board mortality was 3%. Overall, 73% of patients required hospital triage. Of the 25 patients triaged to our institution, 17 underwent a revascularization procedure. One patient died. Ten percent of patients had cardiac symptoms in the days or weeks before boarding; all required hospital triage. Access to a baseline electrocardiogram would have been clinically useful in 23% of cases. In conclusion, CV emergencies, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, are not uncommon on cruise ships. They are often serious, requiring hospital triage and coronary revascularization. A pretravel medical evaluation is recommended for passengers with a cardiac history or a high-risk profile. Passengers should be encouraged to bring a copy of their electrocardiogram on board if abnormal. Cruise lines should establish mechanisms for prompt consultation and triage.

  17. The thematic structure of passenger comfort experience and its relationship to the context features in the aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Lindgaard, Gitte; Robert, Jean-Marc; Pownall, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes passenger comfort as an experience generated by the cabin interior features. The findings of previous studies are affirmed regarding a set of 22 context features. Passengers experience a certain level of comfort when these features impact their body and elicit subjective perceptions. New findings characterise these perceptions in the form of eight themes and outline their particular eliciting features. Comfort is depicted as a complex construct derived by passengers' perceptions beyond the psychological (i.e. peace of mind) and physical (i.e. physical well-being) aspects, and includes perceptual (e.g. proxemics) and semantic (e.g. association) aspects. The seat was shown to have a focal role in eliciting seven of those themes and impacting comfort through its diverse characteristics. In a subsequent study, a group of aircraft cabin interior designers highlighted the possibility of employing the eight themes and their eliciting features as a framework for design and evaluation of new aircraft interiors.

  18. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  19. Flexible connections in PESP models for cyclic passenger railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); L.W.P. Peeters (Leon); J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe how rolling stock and passenger connections in a cyclic railway timetable can be modeled in a flexible way within the model for the Periodic Event-Scheduling Problem (PESP). Usually, PESP models assume that the constraints for rolling stock or passenger connecti

  20. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    Major airports have an average throughput of more than 100,000 passengers per day, some of which will need special assistance. The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. A significant number of people and busses are assigned to provide ...

  1. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  2. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for Westy-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a base-line case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario we sketch how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various exist

  3. Multiobjective Gate Assignment Based on Passenger Walking Distance and Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger walking distance is an important index of the airport service quality. How to shorten the walking distance and balance the airlines' service quality is the focus of much research on airport gate assignment problems. According to the problems of airport passenger service quality, an optimization gate assignment model is established. The gate assignment model is based on minimizing the total walking distance of all passengers and balancing the average walking distance of passengers among different airlines. Lingo is used in the simulation of a large airport gate assignment. Test results show that the optimization model can reduce the average walking distance of passenger effectively, improve the number of flights assigned to gate, balance airline service quality, and enhance the overall service level of airports and airlines. The model provides reference for the airport gate preassignment.

  4. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  5. The WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex transiently associates with the human inactive X chromosome during late S-phase prior to BRCA1 and γ-H2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley E Culver-Cochran

    Full Text Available Replicating the genome prior to each somatic cell division not only requires precise duplication of the genetic information, but also accurately reestablishing the epigenetic signatures that instruct how the genetic material is to be interpreted in the daughter cells. The mammalian inactive X chromosome (Xi, which is faithfully inherited in a silent state in each daughter cell, provides an excellent model of epigenetic regulation. While much is known about the early stages of X chromosome inactivation, much less is understood with regards to retaining the Xi chromatin through somatic cell division. Here we report that the WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex (WICH associates with the Xi during late S-phase as the Xi DNA is replicated. Elevated levels of WICH at the Xi is restricted to late S-phase and appears before BRCA1 and γ-H2A.X. The sequential appearance of WICH and BRCA1/γ-H2A.X implicate each as performing important but distinct roles in the maturation and maintenance of heterochromatin at the Xi.

  6. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  7. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  8. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... changes with that of introns, between chrZ and autosomes or regions with increasing ages of becoming Z-linked, therefore codon usage bias in birds is probably driven by the mutational bias. On the other hand, Z chromosomes also evolve significantly faster at nonsynonymous sites relative to autosomes...

  9. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  10. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  11. Inferring Passenger Type from Commuter Eigentravel Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Legara, Erika Fille

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient knowledge of the demographics of a commuting public is essential in formulating and implementing more targeted transportation policies, as commuters exhibit different ways of traveling. With the advent of the Automated Fare Collection system (AFC), probing the travel patterns of commuters has become less invasive and more accessible. Consequently, numerous transport studies related to human mobility have shown that these observed patterns allow one to pair individuals with locations and/or activities at certain times of the day. However, classifying commuters using their travel signatures is yet to be thoroughly examined. Here, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating a procedure to characterize passenger types (Adult, Child/Student, and Senior Citizen) based on their three-month travel patterns taken from a smart fare card system. We first establish a method to construct distinct commuter matrices, which we refer to as eigentravel matrices, that capture the characteristic travel routines...

  12. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  13. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  14. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  15. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  16. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  17. Passenger Flow Forecast Algorithm for Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao Wei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To exactly forecast the urban rail transit passenger flow, a multi-level model combining neural network and Kalman filter was proposed. Firstly, ELAN neural network model was introduced to implement a preliminary forecast of the passenger flow. Then the Kalman filter was used to correct the preliminary forecast results, so as to further improve the accuracy. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the passenger flow in Shanghai subway transport hub was observed and simulated. Experimental results showed that the proposed multi-level model reduced error by about 0.8% and had better actual effect compared with any single algorithm.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of craniosynostosis (compound Saethre-Chotzen syndrome phenotype) caused by a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (1; 4; 7) with a microdeletion of 7p21.3-7p15.3, including TWIST1 gene--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalska, Diana; Bijok, Julia; Kucińska-Chahwan, Anna; Jamsheer, Aleksander; Bogdanowicz, Joanna; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Roszkowski, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    Craniosynostosis (a premature fusion of the cranial sutures) occurs with a frequency of 1 in 2100-2500 births and in over 40% cases is caused by known genetic factors--either single gene mutations or chromosomal rearrangements. Cases caused by complex chromosomal abnormalities are uncommon and likely associated with compound phenotype. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) [#101400] is caused by TWIST1 gene haploinsufficiency. Its phenotype includes uni- or bicoronal synostosis, short stature, facial dysmorphism and variable anomalies of the hands and feet. Due to its poor sonographic manifestation a prenatal diagnosis of SCS is challenging. We report a case of a prenatally detected craniosynostosis (compound Saethre-Chotzen syndrome phenotype) caused by a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (1; 4; 7) with a microdeletion of 7p21.3-7p15.3, including TWIST1 gene.

  19. Chromosomal rearrangements in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Debes, Nanette Mol; Hjermind, Lena E

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset complex neurobiological disorder characterized by a combination of persistent motor and vocal tics and frequent presence of other neuropsychiatric comorbidities. TS shares the fate of other complex disorders, where the genetic etiology is largely unknown......, and identification of susceptibility genes through linkage and association studies has been complicated due to inherent difficulties such as no clear mode of inheritance, genetic heterogeneity, and apparently incomplete penetrance. Positional cloning through mapping of disease-related chromosome rearrangements has...

  20. Condensin-mediated chromosome organization and gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Christine Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many organisms sexual fate is determined by a chromosome-based method which entails a difference in sex chromosome-linked gene dosage. Consequently, a gene regulatory mechanism called dosage compensation equalizes X-linked gene expression between the sexes. Dosage compensation initiates as cells transition from pluripotency to differentiation. In C. elegans, dosage compensation is achieved by the dosage compensation complex (DCC binding to both X chromosomes in hermaphrodites to downregulate gene expression by two fold. The DCC contains a subcomplex (condensin IDC similar to the evolutionarily conserved condensin complexes which play a fundamental role in chromosome dynamics during mitosis. Therefore, mechanisms related to mitotic chromosome condensation are hypothesized to mediate dosage compensation. Consistent with this hypothesis, monomethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20 is increased, whereas acetylation of histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16 is decreased, both on mitotic chromosomes and on interphase dosage compensated X chromosomes in worms. These observations suggest that interphase dosage compensated X chromosomes maintain some characteristics associated with condensed mitotic chromosome. This chromosome state is stably propagated from one cell generation to the next. In this review we will speculate on how the biochemical activities of condensin can achieve both mitotic chromosome compaction and gene repression.

  1. Chromosomes in the flow to simplify genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Safář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Simková, Hana

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear genomes of human, animals, and plants are organized into subunits called chromosomes. When isolated into aqueous suspension, mitotic chromosomes can be classified using flow cytometry according to light scatter and fluorescence parameters. Chromosomes of interest can be purified by flow sorting if they can be resolved from other chromosomes in a karyotype. The analysis and sorting are carried out at rates of 10(2)-10(4) chromosomes per second, and for complex genomes such as wheat the flow sorting technology has been ground-breaking in reducing genome complexity for genome sequencing. The high sample rate provides an attractive approach for karyotype analysis (flow karyotyping) and the purification of chromosomes in large numbers. In characterizing the chromosome complement of an organism, the high number that can be studied using flow cytometry allows for a statistically accurate analysis. Chromosome sorting plays a particularly important role in the analysis of nuclear genome structure and the analysis of particular and aberrant chromosomes. Other attractive but not well-explored features include the analysis of chromosomal proteins, chromosome ultrastructure, and high-resolution mapping using FISH. Recent results demonstrate that chromosome flow sorting can be coupled seamlessly with DNA array and next-generation sequencing technologies for high-throughput analyses. The main advantages are targeting the analysis to a genome region of interest and a significant reduction in sample complexity. As flow sorters can also sort single copies of chromosomes, shotgun sequencing DNA amplified from them enables the production of haplotype-resolved genome sequences. This review explains the principles of flow cytometric chromosome analysis and sorting (flow cytogenetics), discusses the major uses of this technology in genome analysis, and outlines future directions.

  2. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, C I; Abril, V V; Duarte, J M B

    2013-09-13

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter- and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a multiple sex chromosome system (XY₁Y₂). The synaptonemal complex in spermatocytes showed normal chromosome pairings for all chromosomes, including the autosomal and sex trivalents. The electromicrographs showed homology among B chromosomes since they formed bivalents, but they also appeared as univalents, indicating their anomalous behavior and non-Mendelian segregation. Thus, synaptonemal complex analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the role of B chromosomes and rearrangements during meiosis on the intraspecific chromosomal variation that is observed in the majority of Mazama species.

  3. Visualization of chromosomes in the binucleate intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai E; Cao, Lei; Li, Ji; Tian, Xi Feng; Yang, Zhi Hong; Wang, Yue; Tian, Yu Na; Lu, Si Qi

    2011-11-01

    Mitosis of Giardia lamblia is a complex and rapid event that is poorly understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine (1) whether the two nuclei have similar or different chromosomes, (2) the number of chromosomes of G. lamblia, and (3) the morphology and karyotype of the chromosomes. Trophozoites of the C2 and WB strains of G. lamblia were grown in modified TYI-S-33 medium at 37°C. The trophozoites were collected, and sample slides were prepared for conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed five pairs of chromosomes. The chromosomes were approximately 0.64-0.94 μm long with a short rod-like shape and were usually arranged in pairs. Scanning electron microscopy yielded similar findings, and 10 chromosomes could be seen in each nucleus. Thus, the chromosome number of G. lamblia is 2n = 10. Chromosomes in pair 1 are submetacentric chromosomes, while pairs 2-5 are telocentric chromosomes. The present study shows that G. lamblia trophozoites have typical condensed chromosomes during mitosis and contains five pairs of chromosomes. The karyogram shows good fit to the formula 2n = 10 = 2sm + 8t revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Equilibrium analysis of mixed passengers in urban railway network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 吴建军; 孙会君

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to describe the passengers’ route choice behaviors in urban railway traffic with stochastic link capacity degradation by considering two types of demand, sensitive and insensitive passenger. The insensitive passengers choose their route without paying much attention to congestion. To the contrary, sensitive passengers who consider route congestion choose travel route based on generalized cost. An equilibrium state is given by variational inequalities in terms of travel generalized cost, which is represented by the combinations of mean and variance of total travel time. The diagonalization algorithm is given to solve this programming. Results show that insensitive passengers have large effects on the path choice than sensitive ones, especially for the larger demand.

  5. Some issues of passenger choice of suburban transport mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the passenger choice of transport mode for moving to suburban is discussed. The analysis of methods of Transport Management in suburban transportation showed that they did not fully take into account the effect of the transport process parameters on the passenger choice of transport mode for travel. The aim of research is to determine the value of the factors that influence passenger choice of suburban transport. The study was conducted on the basis of passenger survey on the factors affecting the choice of transport mode, and the importance of these factors. Kendall's coefficient of concordance its statistical significance were used to evaluate the consistency of expert opinion. The main factors for choosing the mode of suburban transport are identified. The identified factors can then be used in determining selection patterns of suburban transport mode.

  6. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the environmental performance of different transport modes (for example trucks, trains, ships and aircraft) it is of utmost importance that the different transport modes are compared on an equal basis so that the environmental impact, defined as energy demand and....../or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...... transport units. In this paper a method for determination of a common transport unit for Ro-Ro passenger ships will be described....

  7. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...... by the express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen Area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger waiting times in the network of 10-20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining largely unaffected.......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...

  8. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  9. Systematic yeast synthetic lethal and synthetic dosage lethal screens identify genes required for chromosome segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Measday, Vivien; Baetz, Kristin; Guzzo, Julie; Yuen, Karen; Kwok, Teresa; Sheikh, Bilal; Ding, Huiming; Ueta, Ryo; Hoac, Trinh; Cheng, Benjamin; Pot, Isabelle; Tong, Amy; Yamaguchi-Iwai, Yuko; Boone, Charles; Hieter, Phil

    2005-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires the execution and coordination of many processes during mitosis, including DNA replication, sister chromatid cohesion, and attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules via the kinetochore complex. Additional pathways are likely involved because faithful chromosome segregation also requires proteins that are not physically associated with the chromosome. Using kinetochore mutants as a starting point, we have identified genes with roles in chromosom...

  10. A rare case of a three way complex variant positive Philadelphia translocation involving chromosome (9;11;22)(q34;p15;q11) in chronic myeloid leukemia: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Hussain, Abrar; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation is present in 90–95% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Variant complex translocations have been observed in 5–8% of CML patients, in which a third chromosome other than (9;22) is involved. Imatinib mesylate is the first line breakpoint cluster region-Abelson gene (BCR/ABL)-targeted oral therapy for CML, and may produce a complete response in 70–80% of CML patients in the chronic phase. In the present study, a bone marrow sample was used for conventional cytogenetic analysis, and the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test was used for BCR/ABL gene detection. A hematological analysis was also performed to determine the white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, packed and mean cell volumes, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and platelet values of the patient. The hematological analysis of the patient indicated the increased WBC of 186.5×103 cells/µl, and decreased hemoglobin levels of 11.1 g/dl. The FISH test revealed that 67% cells demonstrated BCR/ABL gene translocation. The patient was treated with 400 mg imatinib mesylate daily, and was monitored at various intervals over a 6-month period. The present study reports the rare case of a patient that demonstrates a three-way Philadelphia chromosome-positive translocation involving 46XY,t(9;11;22)(q34;p15;q11)[10], alongside CML in the chronic phase. The translocation was analyzed using cytogenetic and FISH tests. PMID:27602125

  11. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  12. Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal.

  13. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the t...

  14. Mechanisms for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Jean-Yves; Stouf, Mathieu; Lebailly, Elise; Cornet, François

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria face the problem of segregating their gigantic chromosomes without a segregation period restricted in time and space, as Eukaryotes do. Segregation thus involves multiple activities, general or specific of a chromosome region and differentially controlled. Recent advances show that these various mechanisms conform to a “pair and release” rule, which appears as a general rule in DNA segregation. We describe the latest advances in segregation of bacterial chromosomes with emphasis on the different pair and release mechanisms.

  15. Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ling

    2008-01-01

    SNX22 abolished a microRNA target site. Finally, expression analyses revealed complex patterns of expression divergence between neo-Y and neo-X alleles. CONCLUSION: The nascent neo-sex chromosome system of black muntjacs is a valuable model in which to study the evolution of sex chromosomes in mammals......BACKGROUND: The regular mammalian X and Y chromosomes diverged from each other at least 166 to 148 million years ago, leaving few traces of their early evolution, including degeneration of the Y chromosome and evolution of dosage compensation. RESULTS: We studied the intriguing case of black...... muntjac, in which a recent X-autosome fusion and a subsequent large autosomal inversion within just the past 0.5 million years have led to inheritance patterns identical to the traditional X-Y (neo-sex chromosomes). We compared patterns of genome evolution in 35-kilobase noncoding regions and 23 gene...

  16. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  17. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoz, Christophe; Junier, Ivan; Espeli, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made.

  19. Chromosome oscillations in mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campas, Otger

    2008-03-01

    Successful cell division necessitates a tight regulation of chromosome movement via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the motion have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. In animal cells, chromosomes periodically switch between phases of movement towards and away from the pole. This characteristic oscillatory behaviour cannot be explained by the current models of chromosome positioning and congression. We perform a self-contained theoretical analysis in which the motion of mono-oriented chromosomes results from the competition between the activity of the kinetochore and chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms. Our analysis, consistent with the available experimental data, proposes that the interplay between the aster-like morphology of the spindle and the collective kinetics of molecular motors is at the origin of chromosome oscillations, positioning and congression. It provides a natural explanation for the so-called chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes sense their position in space. In addition, we estimate the in vivo velocity of chromokinesins at vanishing load and propose new experiments to assess the mechanism at the origin of chromosome movement in cell division.

  20. Cytogenetic Testing and Genetic Counseling for Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements%染色体复杂重排的细胞遗传学检测及遗传咨询

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙辉; 谭跃球

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the testing methods and genetic counseling issues based on 4 cases of new kayoytpes of complex chromosomal rearrangements(CCRs).Methods 4 patients with CCRs were analyzed by ordinary G banding,among them 2 patients were mental retardation,and another two had spontaneous abortion.FISH and comparative genomic hybridization(CGH) were further used to study the two patients with mental retardation.The testing methods and genetic counseling issues were reviewed by literatures.Results The karyotypes of the 4 patients were 46,XYqh+,t(1;12;2;10)(q25;q11;p14;p11),inv(1)(p22q25),46,XY,t(7;21;8)(p13;q22;p21),46,XX,t(3;7;10)(q28;p15;q22) and 46,XY,t(2;16;5)(q33;p12;q33),respectively.The abnormal karyotypes of the two mental retardation patients were de novo,and no minute translocation and other structural rearrangement were found by multicolor FISH and CGH.The four karyotypes Were not reported by any international journal.Conclusion Traditional karyotyping analysis is the base for testing complex chromosomal rearrangements.The genetic effects of complex chromosomal rearrangements are involved in fertility difficulties and mental retardation,and are also related with the rearrangement types.%目的 以4例染色体复杂重排新核型的确诊为例,探讨这类染色体异常的检测方法及遗传咨询.方法 应用常规G显带技术分析4例复杂易位患者的染色体核型,其中2例为智力低下患者,另2例来自有自然流产史的夫妇.2例智力低下患者应用FISH和CGH技术进一步分析并检测其父母核型.查询相关数据库检索4例核型的发生率.结果 4例患者的核型分别为46,XYqh+,t(1;12;2;10)(q25;q11;p14;p11),inv(1)(p22q25),46,XY,t(7;21;8)(p13;q22;p21),46,XX,t(3;7;10)(q28;p15;q22)和46,XY,t(2;16;5)(q33;p12;q33).2例智力低下患者经FISH和CGH检测未发现其他染色体的异常,未见染色体微小重复或缺失.4例核型均为国内外文献未曾报道的新核型.结论 染色体复杂重排

  1. Chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Lamothe, Rodrigo; Nicolas, Emilien; Sherratt, David J

    2012-01-01

    In dividing cells, chromosome duplication once per generation must be coordinated with faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes and with cell growth and division. Many of the mechanistic details of bacterial replication elongation are well established. However, an understanding of the complexities of how replication initiation is controlled and coordinated with other cellular processes is emerging only slowly. In contrast to eukaryotes, in which replication and segregation are separate in time, the segregation of most newly replicated bacterial genetic loci occurs sequentially soon after replication. We compare the strategies used by chromosomes and plasmids to ensure their accurate duplication and segregation and discuss how these processes are coordinated spatially and temporally with growth and cell division. We also describe what is known about the three conserved families of ATP-binding proteins that contribute to chromosome segregation and discuss their inter-relationships in a range of disparate bacteria.

  2. Genomic regulatory landscapes and chromosomal rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Elisabete L Engenheiro

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes...... the complex spatio-temporal expression of the associated trans-dev gene. Rare chromosomal breakpoints that disrupt the integrity of these regulatory landscapes may be used as a tool, not only to make genotype-phenotype associations, but also to link the associated phenotype with the position and tissue...... specificity of the individual CNEs. In this PhD study I have studied several chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of trans-dev genes. This included chromosomal rearrangements compatible with known phenotype-genotype associations (Rieger syndrome-PITX2, Mowat-Wilson syndrome-ZEB2...

  3. Phosphorylation of Sli15 by Ipl1 is important for proper CPC localization and chromosome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasso Makrantoni

    Full Text Available The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC is a key regulator of eukaryotic cell division, consisting of the protein kinase Aurora B/Ipl1 in association with its activator (INCENP/Sli15 and two additional proteins (Survivin/Bir1 and Borealin/Nbl1. Here we have identified multiple sites of CPC autophosphorylation on yeast Sli15 that are located within its central microtubule-binding domain and examined the functional significance of their phosphorylation by Ipl1 through mutation of these sites, either to non-phosphorylatable alanine (sli15-20A or to acidic residues to mimic constitutive phosphorylation (sli15-20D. Both mutant sli15 alleles confer chromosome instability, but this is mediated neither by changes in the capacity of Sli15 to activate Ipl1 kinase nor by decreased efficiency of chromosome biorientation, a key process in cell division that requires CPC function. Instead, we find that mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of Sli15 on the Ipl1 phosphorylation sites causes delocalization of the CPC in metaphase, whereas blocking phosphorylation of Sli15 on the Ipl1 sites drives excessive localization of Sli15 to the mitotic spindle in pre-anaphase cells. Consistent with these results, direct interaction of Sli15 with microtubules in vitro is greatly reduced either following phosphorylation by Ipl1 or when constitutive phosphorylation at the Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation sites is mimicked by aspartate or glutamate substitutions. Furthermore, we find that mimicking Ipl1 phosphorylation of Sli15 interferes with the 'tension checkpoint'--the CPC-dependent mechanism through which cells activate the spindle assembly checkpoint to delay anaphase in the absence of tension on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation of Sli15 therefore inhibits its association with microtubules both in vivo and in vitro and may negatively regulate the tension checkpoint mechanism.

  4. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...... with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications...

  5. Bacillus subtilis chromosome organization oscillates between two distinct patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xindan; Montero Llopis, Paula; Rudner, David Z.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, faithful and efficient DNA segregation is intimately linked to the spatial organization of the chromosome. Two distinct organization patterns have been described for bacterial chromosomes (ori-ter and left-ori-right) that appear to arise from distinct segregation mechanisms. Here, we show that the Bacillus subtilis chromosome oscillates between them during a replication–segregation cycle. Our data further suggest that the highly conserved condensin complex and the parABS partitio...

  6. Induced dicentric chromosome formation promotes genomic rearrangements and tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoigne, Karen E; Cheeseman, Iain M.

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can radically alter gene products and their function, driving tumor formation or progression. However, the molecular origins and evolution of such rearrangements are varied and poorly understood, with cancer cells often containing multiple, complex rearrangements. One mechanism that can lead to genomic rearrangements is the formation of a “dicentric” chromosome containing two functional centromeres. Indeed, such dicentric chromosomes have been observed in cancer cel...

  7. Transmission and recombination of homeologous Solanum sitiens chromosomes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuzé, Ricardo A; Ji, Yuanfu; Chetelat, Roger T

    2003-11-01

    The goal of the present experiments was to transfer the chromosomes of Solanum sitiens (syn. Solanum rickii) into cultivated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum). By crossing an allotetraploid L. esculentum x Solanum sitiens hybrid to sesquidiploid L. esculentum x S. lycopersicoides, a trigenomic hybrid (2n+14=38) was obtained. Analysis of the latter by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) indicated it contained a full set of 12 S. sitiens chromosomes, plus two extras from S. lycopersicoides. This and other complex hybrids were pollinated with Lycopersicon pennellii-derived bridging lines to overcome unilateral incompatibility. A total of 40 progeny were recovered by embryo rescue, including diploids and aneuploids (up to 2n+8). In order to determine the origin of chromosomes and the location of introgressed segments, progeny were genotyped with RFLP markers. S. sitiens-specific markers on all chromosomes, except 6 and 11, were detected in the progeny. Several S. sitiens chromosomes were transmitted intact, either through chromosome addition (i.e., trisomics) or substitution (i.e., disomics). Recombination between S. sitiens and L. esculentum was detected on most chromosomes, in both diploid and aneuploid progeny. A monosomic alien addition line for S. sitiens chromosome 8 was identified, and the extra chromosome was stably transmitted to approximately 13% of the backcross progeny. This study demonstrates the feasibility of gene transfer from S. sitiens to L. esculentum through chromosome addition, substitution, and recombination in the progeny of complex aneuploid hybrids.

  8. Induced dicentric chromosome formation promotes genomic rearrangements and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Karen E; Cheeseman, Iain M

    2013-07-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can radically alter gene products and their function, driving tumor formation or progression. However, the molecular origins and evolution of such rearrangements are varied and poorly understood, with cancer cells often containing multiple, complex rearrangements. One mechanism that can lead to genomic rearrangements is the formation of a "dicentric" chromosome containing two functional centromeres. Indeed, such dicentric chromosomes have been observed in cancer cells. Here, we tested the ability of a single dicentric chromosome to contribute to genomic instability and neoplastic conversion in vertebrate cells. We developed a system to transiently and reversibly induce dicentric chromosome formation on a single chromosome with high temporal control. We find that induced dicentric chromosomes are frequently damaged and mis-segregated during mitosis, and that this leads to extensive chromosomal rearrangements including translocations with other chromosomes. Populations of pre-neoplastic cells in which a single dicentric chromosome is induced acquire extensive genomic instability and display hallmarks of cellular transformation including anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Our results suggest that a single dicentric chromosome could contribute to tumor initiation.

  9. Mapping of the associated phenotype of an absent granular layer in ichthyosis vulgaris to the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, John G; DiGiovanna, John J; Johnston, Kay A; Fleckman, Philip; Bale, Sherri J

    2002-12-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is a mild to severe scaling disorder of uncertain etiology estimated to affect as many as 1 : 250 in the population. Family studies have shown that in many cases IV follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, but gene mapping studies have not been reported. To investigate the genetic basis for inherited IV, we have performed gene linkage studies in two multigenerational families where affected individuals have clinical features of IV but distinct histological features. The epidermis in this disorder characteristically displays non-specific orthohyperkeratosis. Notably, a subset of IV patients with a reduced or absent granular epidermal layer (AGL) have been reported, and decreased filaggrin levels have been described in others. The prominent role of profilaggrin in human keratohyalin suggests that defects in the gene for profilaggrin (FLG), its processing of profillagrin to filaggrin, or a gene involved in profilaggrin regulation may underlie or modify the pathology in IV. Family 1 had seven individuals with IV, severe heat intolerance and epidermis with 1-3 granular layers (consistent with normal epidermal histology). Ichthyosis vulgaris in this family did not segregate with FLG or other genes in the epidermal differentiation complex. In contrast, five of the six IV patients in Family 2, all siblings, had epidermis with no granular layer. Significant evidence was obtained for linkage of IV with the associated AGL phenotype to the epidermal differentiation complex (which includes FLG) assuming either a recessive (max Lod 3.4) or dominant (max Lod 3.6) inheritance model. Sequence analysis of FLG did not reveal a mutation in the amino or carboxyl terminal portions of the coding sequence adjacent to filaggrin repeats. The AGL may represent an endophenotype for IV, and the presence of a modifier of IV pathology at this locus is discussed.

  10. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously.

  11. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  12. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  13. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  14. A Complex Structural Variation on Chromosome 27 Leads to the Ectopic Expression of HOXB8 and the Muffs and Beard Phenotype in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Gu, Xiaorong; Sheng, Zheya; Wang, Yanqiang; Luo, Chenglong; Liu, Ranran; Qu, Hao; Shu, Dingming; Wen, Jie; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Carlborg, Örjan; Zhao, Yiqiang; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2016-06-01

    Muffs and beard (Mb) is a phenotype in chickens where groups of elongated feathers gather from both sides of the face (muffs) and below the beak (beard). It is an autosomal, incomplete dominant phenotype encoded by the Muffs and beard (Mb) locus. Here we use genome-wide association (GWA) analysis, linkage analysis, Identity-by-Descent (IBD) mapping, array-CGH, genome re-sequencing and expression analysis to show that the Mb allele causing the Mb phenotype is a derived allele where a complex structural variation (SV) on GGA27 leads to an altered expression of the gene HOXB8. This Mb allele was shown to be completely associated with the Mb phenotype in nine other independent Mb chicken breeds. The Mb allele differs from the wild-type mb allele by three duplications, one in tandem and two that are translocated to that of the tandem repeat around 1.70 Mb on GGA27. The duplications contain total seven annotated genes and their expression was tested during distinct stages of Mb morphogenesis. A continuous high ectopic expression of HOXB8 was found in the facial skin of Mb chickens, strongly suggesting that HOXB8 directs this regional feather-development. In conclusion, our results provide an interesting example of how genomic structural rearrangements alter the regulation of genes leading to novel phenotypes. Further, it again illustrates the value of utilizing derived phenotypes in domestic animals to dissect the genetic basis of developmental traits, herein providing novel insights into the likely role of HOXB8 in feather development and differentiation.

  15. Chromosomal phenotypes and submicroscopic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devriendt Koen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The finding, during the last decade, that several common, clinically delineated syndromes are caused by submicroscopic deletions or, more rarely, by duplications, has provided a powerful tool in the annotation of the human genome. Since most microdeletion/microduplication syndromes are defined by a common deleted/duplicated region, abnormal dosage of genes located within these regions can explain the phenotypic similarities among individuals with a specific syndrome. As such, they provide a unique resource towards the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes such as congenital heart defects, mental and growth retardation and abnormal behaviour. In addition, the study of phenotypic differences in individuals with the same microdeletion syndrome may also become a treasury for the identification of modifying factors for complex phenotypes. The molecular analysis of these chromosomal anomalies has led to a growing understanding of their mechanisms of origin. Novel tools to uncover additional submicroscopic chromosomal anomalies at a higher resolution and higher speed, as well as the novel tools at hand for deciphering the modifying factors and epistatic interactors, are 'on the doorstep' and will, besides their obvious diagnostic role, play a pivotal role in the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes.

  16. Utility of X-chromosome SNPs in relationship testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan Jose; Castro, J.A.;

    2008-01-01

    X-chromosome markers may complement the results obtained from other genetic markers in complex relationship cases. Until now, reports on relationship testing using X-chromosome markers have mainly included data of short tandem repeats (STRs) while little data on single nucleotide polymorphisms (S...

  17. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  18. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  19. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy. It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

  20. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  1. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  2. ASAR15, A cis-acting locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and stability of human chromosome 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Donley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along each mammalian chromosome at different times during each S phase, following a temporal replication program. We have used a Cre/loxP-based strategy to identify cis-acting elements that control this replication-timing program on individual human chromosomes. In this report, we show that rearrangements at a complex locus at chromosome 15q24.3 result in delayed replication and structural instability of human chromosome 15. Characterization of this locus identified long, RNA transcripts that are retained in the nucleus and form a "cloud" on one homolog of chromosome 15. We also found that this locus displays asynchronous replication that is coordinated with other random monoallelic genes on chromosome 15. We have named this locus ASynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 15, or ASAR15. Previously, we found that disruption of the ASAR6 lincRNA gene results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic condensation and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Previous studies in the mouse found that deletion of the Xist gene, from the X chromosome in adult somatic cells, results in a delayed replication and instability phenotype that is indistinguishable from the phenotype caused by disruption of either ASAR6 or ASAR15. In addition, delayed replication and chromosome instability were detected following structural rearrangement of many different human or mouse chromosomes. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain similar cis-acting loci. Thus, under this scenario, all mammalian chromosomes contain four distinct types of essential cis-acting elements: origins, telomeres, centromeres and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to promote proper replication, segregation and structural stability of each chromosome.

  3. Characteristics of complex chromosomal rearrangement in Chinese male carriers and its impact on male fertility%中国男性复杂染色体重排特征及携带者生育情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英剑; 张玮玮; 吴艳花; 孙晓明; 包慧; 胡成进

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨中国人群中男性复杂染色体重排(CCR)携带者CCR类型及特征,并分析其对男性生育的影响.方法:用G带技术对因生育问题就诊的患者外周血淋巴细胞进行核型分析.检索1984年1月至2013年11月CNKI以及万方数据库有关CCR的文献,对有生育信息的男性CCR携带者的CCR类型及生育情况进行统计、分析.结果:1 625对夫妇中共检出男性CCR 2例;数据库中检索到有生育信息的男性CCR携带者47例.49例CCR中有3方重排17例(34.7%),双重双向易位17例(34.7%),特殊CCR 15例(30.6%),3种类型的发生率无明显差别(P>0.05).对临床资料的分析发现19例(38.8%)男性CCR携带者表现无精或少精子症导致的不育,其余30例(61.2%)男性CCR携带者的妻子共妊娠87次,自然流产或胚胎停育66次,占75.9%,畸胎死胎、早夭畸形儿8次(9.2%),生育表型正常后代13个(14.9%).对CCR累及的染色体及断裂点分析发现,累及6、7、8、11和16号染色体的CCR多出现不良妊娠,而累及10和14号染色体的CCR主要表现为生精障碍;断裂点1p22,1q25,2q31,2q33,5p13,5q35,6q23,8q13和20p13出现3次以上,其中断裂点1p22主要见于生精障碍者,断裂点2q31,5q35,和8q13多见反复流产.结论:CCR非常少见,表型正常的男性CCR携带者多因存在生育问题而被发现.男性CCR携带者不育的机率高、妻子出现异常妊娠的风险高,生育正常孩子的机会很小.此外,CCR累及的染色体及断裂点位置影响携带者的生育能力,某些染色体断裂点位置可能在配子形成过程中起关键作用.%Objective:To analyze the characteristics of complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) in Chinese male carriers and its influence on male fertility.Methods:Using the G band technique,we conducted karyotype analysis on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 1 625 Chinese males with reproductive problems.We also searched CNKI and Wanfang database for CCR-related literature

  4. Cytogenetics in solid tumors: lessons from the Philadelphia Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoyo, Aru W; Hardi, Fransiska

    2011-01-01

    Although presently known as an environmentally-related disease and appears mostly sporadic, cancer is regarded as a genetic disease based on the presence of gene mutation as a consistent factor. The "Philadelphia Chromosome" found consistently among chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients was the first significant finding of a chromosomal abnormality specifically related to a particular disease. Starting from this point, cytogenetics as the study of chromosomes has become a valuable tool in the assessment of cancer - as an aid in diagnosis, thus guiding therapy, and as a prognostic marker. As is the nature of the proliferating marrow, chromosomal abnormalities were found mostly in hematologic malignancies, and the findings more pathognomonic. The situation is different in solid tumors, which when visible to the naked eye already will have complex chromosomal changes and thus pose technical difficulties to the cytogeneticist. However, scientists believe that the shift in chromosomal studies from conventional cytogenetics to molecular cytogenetics will provide further information regarding solid tumors.

  5. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  6. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  7. Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of Real-Time Mass Transport Vehicle Routing Problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. The solution of such a problem is relevant to future transportation options involving large scale real-time routing of shared-ride fleet transit vehicles. However, the g...

  8. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intercity passenger rail ridership growth. In the FY 2010 DOT Appropriations Act, Congress built upon the..., maintenance of equipment, transportation (train movement), passenger traffic and services (marketing... corridor program to promote economic development, including contributions to a sustainable...

  9. 78 FR 73876 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... about passengers and crew onboard inbound and outbound international flights before their arrival in or... Total Annual Burden Hours: 307,245. Estimated Costs: $68,361,719. Commercial Airline Passengers...

  10. 75 FR 22675 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    .... Terminal restroom design. Terminal restroom remodel. Terminal elevator upgrades. Terminal flight... passenger loading bridge. PFC consultation. Passenger terminal remodeling. Pavement management system.... Rehabilitation of taxilane K-1. Design and implement noise mitigation measures. Brief Description of...

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  12. [Sex chromosomes and meiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichaoua, M-R; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Tassistro, V; Ghalamoun-Slaimi, R; Perrin, J; Metzler-Guillemain, C

    2009-01-01

    Sex chromosome behaviour fundamentally differs between male and female meiosis. In oocyte, X chromosomes synapse giving a XX bivalent which is not recognizable in their morphology and behaviour from autosomal bivalents. In human male, X and Y chromosomes differ from one another in their morphology and their genetic content, leading to a limited pairing and preventing genetic recombination, excepted in homologous region PAR1. During pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase, X and Y chromosomes undergo a progressive condensation and form a transcriptionally silenced peripheral XY body. The condensation of the XY bivalent during pachytene stage led us to describe four pachytene substages and to localize the pachytene checkpoint between substages 2 and 3. We also defined the pachytene index (PI=P1+P2/P1+P2+P3+P4) which is always less than 0.50 in normal meiosis. XY body undergoes decondensation at diplotene stage, but transcriptional inactivation of the two sex chromosomes or Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI) persists through to the end of spermatogenesis. Sex chromosome inactivation involves several proteins, some of them were now identified. Two isoforms of the HP1 protein, HP1beta and HP1gamma, are involved in the facultative heterochromatinization of the XY body, but the initiation of this process involves the phosphorylation of the protein H2AX by the kinase ATR whose recruitment depends on BRCA1. Extensive researches on the inactivation of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis will allow to a better understanding of some male infertilities.

  13. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  14. Activation of X Chromosome Inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Maduro (Cheryl)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn mammals, males are the heterogametic sex having an X chromosome and a Y chromosome whereas females have two X chromosomes. Despite originating from an ancient homologous autosomal pair, the X and Y chromosome now differ greatly in size and gene content after ~180 MY of evolution.

  15. Chromosome painting reveals asynaptic full alignment of homologs and HIM-8-dependent remodeling of X chromosome territories during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nabeshima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During early meiotic prophase, a nucleus-wide reorganization leads to sorting of chromosomes into homologous pairs and to establishing associations between homologous chromosomes along their entire lengths. Here, we investigate global features of chromosome organization during this process, using a chromosome painting method in whole-mount Caenorhabditis elegans gonads that enables visualization of whole chromosomes along their entire lengths in the context of preserved 3D nuclear architecture. First, we show that neither spatial proximity of premeiotic chromosome territories nor chromosome-specific timing is a major factor driving homolog pairing. Second, we show that synaptonemal complex-independent associations can support full lengthwise juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes. Third, we reveal a prominent elongation of chromosome territories during meiotic prophase that initiates prior to homolog association and alignment. Mutant analysis indicates that chromosome movement mediated by association of chromosome pairing centers (PCs with mobile patches of the nuclear envelope (NE-spanning SUN-1/ZYG-12 protein complexes is not the primary driver of territory elongation. Moreover, we identify new roles for the X chromosome PC (X-PC and X-PC binding protein HIM-8 in promoting elongation of X chromosome territories, separable from their role(s in mediating local stabilization of pairing and association of X chromosomes with mobile SUN-1/ZYG-12 patches. Further, we present evidence that HIM-8 functions both at and outside of PCs to mediate chromosome territory elongation. These and other data support a model in which synapsis-independent elongation of chromosome territories, driven by PC binding proteins, enables lengthwise juxtaposition of chromosomes, thereby facilitating assessment of their suitability as potential pairing partners.

  16. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  17. Computerized prototypes of DAPI-stained chromosomes for FISH analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, A.; Smith, L.C.; Knapp, R.D. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    DAPI is fluorescent dye widely used in chromosome counterstaining for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. It produces a Q-banding pattern that allows chromosomes to be identified and permits molecular probes to be assigned to specific cytogenetic bands. Using a statistical procedure based on eigenanalysis, we have extracted features from digital images of DAPI-stained chromosomes and constructed prototypes of each of the 24 human chromosomes. The features of prototypes are directly proportional, in intensity profile and band location, to those of real chromosomes. The prototype`s intensity profile can be translated into cytogenetic bands to provide a computer-based strategy for chromosome mapping and analysis amenable to automation. Data have been obtained using images from the 24 human chromosomes and mouse X chromosome. Moreover, the same procedure is general and can be used for the analysis of chromosomes from other species, as well as with banding techniques other than those using DAPI. Images of hybridization patterns produced by complex probes are also suitable for this analysis. The speed and flexibility of the procedure opens the way to application so far unexplored, such as computer-assisted chromosome band assignment of probe; combined analysis of multiple, geometrically distorted chromosomes; and the direct comparison of raw data from different experiments. The applications will not be limited to mapping experiments but will include analysis of chromosome structure, variability and analysis of the pattern of chromosome distribution of repetitive sequences. The results from such analysis is suitable for objective statistical evaluation and, eventually, for autonomous machine interpretation.

  18. Complex chromosome rearrangement in a child with microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features and mosaicism for a terminal deletion del(18(q21.32-qter investigated by FISH and array-CGH: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokotas Haris

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 7 years and 4 months old Greek boy with mild microcephaly and dysmorphic facial features. He was a sociable child with maxillary hypoplasia, epicanthal folds, upslanting palpebral fissures with long eyelashes, and hypertelorism. His ears were prominent and dysmorphic, he had a long philtrum and a high arched palate. His weight was 17 kg (25th percentile and his height 120 cm (50th percentile. High resolution chromosome analysis identified in 50% of the cells a normal male karyotype, and in 50% of the cells one chromosome 18 showed a terminal deletion from 18q21.32. Molecular cytogenetic investigation confirmed a del(18(q21.32-qter in the one chromosome 18, but furthermore revealed the presence of a duplication in q21.2 in the other chromosome 18. The case is discussed concerning comparable previously reported cases and the possible mechanisms of formation.

  19. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities...

  20. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  1. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  2. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  4. Detection of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type XI Carrying Highly Divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr Genes in Human Clinical Isolates of Clonal Complex 130 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Anna C.; Deasy, Emily C.; Slickers, Peter; Brennan, Grainne; O'Connell, Brian; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; David C Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptib...

  5. Genome-wide detection of chromosomal rearrangements, indels, and mutations in circular chromosomes by short read sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Ole; Bak, Mads; Løbner-Olesen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    a combination of WGS and genome copy number analysis, for the identification of mutations that suppress the growth deficiency imposed by excessive initiations from the Escherichia coli origin of replication, oriC. The E. coli chromosome, like the majority of bacterial chromosomes, is circular, and DNA...... replication is initiated by assembling two replication complexes at the origin, oriC. These complexes then replicate the chromosome bidirectionally toward the terminus, ter. In a population of growing cells, this results in a copy number gradient, so that origin-proximal sequences are more frequent than...... origin-distal sequences. Major rearrangements in the chromosome are, therefore, readily identified by changes in copy number, i.e., certain sequences become over- or under-represented. Of the eight mutations analyzed in detail here, six were found to affect a single gene only, one was a large chromosomal...

  6. Allocation of Railway Rolling Stock for Passenger Trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.V. van den Berg (Bianca); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M. Salomon (Marc); E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFor a commercially operating railway company, providing a high level of service for the passengers is of utmost importance. The latter requires a high punctuality of the trains and an adequate rolling stock capacity. Unfortunately, the latter is currently (2002) one of the bottlenecks in

  7. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If certification with ditching provisions is requested, ditching emergency exits must be provided in accordance... shown through analysis, ditching demonstrations, or any other tests found necessary by the...

  8. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  9. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... receptacle fire extinguishers, and Halon 1211 extinguishers; Improving cabin interior flammability standards... air carriers to limit the size and amount of carry-on baggage that each passenger may bring onboard... spent by the substituting flightcrew member applies towards daily duty time limits and is...

  10. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-04-05

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed.

  11. EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Zyl, S. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission's White Paper. The requ

  12. Consumer preferences in the design of airport passenger areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and

  13. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  14. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Friday, No. 230 November 29, 2013 Part III Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 238 and 239 Passenger Train Emergency Systems II; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No....

  15. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The con

  16. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling s

  17. 19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Service or by a Customs officer acting on behalf of that agency. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of passengers. 122.156 Section 122.156 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Independent stratum formation on the avian sex chromosomes reveals inter-chromosomal gene conversion and predominance of purifying selection on the W chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

    2014-11-01

    We used a comparative approach spanning three species and 90 million years to study the evolutionary history of the avian sex chromosomes. Using whole transcriptomes, we assembled the largest cross-species dataset of W-linked coding content to date. Our results show that recombination suppression in large portions of the avian sex chromosomes has evolved independently, and that long-term sex chromosome divergence is consistent with repeated and independent inversions spreading progressively to restrict recombination. In contrast, over short-term periods we observe heterogeneous and locus-specific divergence. We also uncover four instances of gene conversion between both highly diverged and recently evolved gametologs, suggesting a complex mosaic of recombination suppression across the sex chromosomes. Lastly, evidence from 16 gametologs reveal that the W chromosome is evolving with a significant contribution of purifying selection, consistent with previous findings that W-linked genes play an important role in encoding sex-specific fitness.

  19. Are chromosomal imbalances important in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Raymond L

    2007-06-01

    Tumor-specific patterns of large-scale chromosomal imbalances characterize most forms of cancer. Based on evidence primarily from neuroblastomas, it can be argued that large-scale chromosomal imbalances are crucial for tumor pathogenesis and have an impact on the global transcriptional profile of cancer cells, and that some imbalances even initiate cancer. The genes and genetic pathways that have been dysregulated by such imbalances remain surprisingly elusive. Many genes are affected by the regions of gain and loss, and there are complex interactions and relationships that occur between these genes, hindering their identification. The study of untranslated RNA sequences, such as microRNAs, is in its infancy, and it is likely that such sequences are also dysregulated by chromosomal imbalance, contributing to pathogenesis.

  20. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  1. "Chromosome": a knowledge-based system for the chromosome classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, G; Bernadet, M

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome, a knowledge-based analysis system has been designed for the classification of human chromosomes. Its aim is to perform an optimal classification by driving a tool box containing the procedures of image processing, pattern recognition and classification. This paper presents the general architecture of Chromosome, based on a multiagent system generator. The image processing tool box is described from the met aphasic enhancement to the fine classification. Emphasis is then put on the knowledge base intended for the chromosome recognition. The global classification process is also presented, showing how Chromosome proceeds to classify a given chromosome. Finally, we discuss further extensions of the system for the karyotype building.

  2. Chromosome analysis and sorting using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Kubaláková, Marie; Cíhalíková, Jarmila; Suchánková, Pavla; Simková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome analysis and sorting using flow cytometry (flow cytogenetics) is an attractive tool for fractionating plant genomes to small parts. The reduction of complexity greatly simplifies genetics and genomics in plant species with large genomes. However, as flow cytometry requires liquid suspensions of particles, the lack of suitable protocols for preparation of solutions of intact chromosomes delayed the application of flow cytogenetics in plants. This chapter outlines a high-yielding procedure for preparation of solutions of intact mitotic chromosomes from root tips of young seedlings and for their analysis using flow cytometry and sorting. Root tips accumulated at metaphase are mildly fixed with formaldehyde, and solutions of intact chromosomes are prepared by mechanical homogenization. The advantages of the present approach include the use of seedlings, which are easy to handle, and the karyological stability of root meristems, which can be induced to high degree of metaphase synchrony. Chromosomes isolated according to this protocol have well-preserved morphology, withstand shearing forces during sorting, and their DNA is intact and suitable for a range of applications.

  3. Holocentric chromosomes: convergent evolution, meiotic adaptations, and genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melters, Daniël P; Paliulis, Leocadia V; Korf, Ian F; Chan, Simon W L

    2012-07-01

    In most eukaryotes, the kinetochore protein complex assembles at a single locus termed the centromere to attach chromosomes to spindle microtubules. Holocentric chromosomes have the unusual property of attaching to spindle microtubules along their entire length. Our mechanistic understanding of holocentric chromosome function is derived largely from studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, but holocentric chromosomes are found over a broad range of animal and plant species. In this review, we describe how holocentricity may be identified through cytological and molecular methods. By surveying the diversity of organisms with holocentric chromosomes, we estimate that the trait has arisen at least 13 independent times (four times in plants and at least nine times in animals). Holocentric chromosomes have inherent problems in meiosis because bivalents can attach to spindles in a random fashion. Interestingly, there are several solutions that have evolved to allow accurate meiotic segregation of holocentric chromosomes. Lastly, we describe how extensive genome sequencing and experiments in nonmodel organisms may allow holocentric chromosomes to shed light on general principles of chromosome segregation.

  4. Stocks, Flows, and Distribution of Critical Metals in Embedded Electronics in Passenger Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Eliette; Løvik, Amund N; Wäger, Patrick; Widmer, Rolf; Lonka, Radek; Müller, Daniel B

    2017-02-07

    One of the major applications of critical metals (CMs) is in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which is increasingly embedded in other products, notably passenger vehicles. However, recycling strategies for future CM quantities in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are poorly understood, mainly due to a limited understating of the complexity of automotive embedded EEE. We introduce a harmonization of the network structure of automotive electronics that enables a comprehensive quantification of CMs in all embedded EEE in a vehicle. This network is combined with a material flow analysis along the vehicle lifecycle in Switzerland to quantify the stocks and flows of Ag, Au, Pd, Ru, Dy, La, Nd, and Co in automotive embedded EEE. In vehicles in use, we calculated 5-2(+3) t precious metals in controllers embedded in all vehicle types and 220-60(+90) t rare earth elements (REE); found mainly in five electric motors: alternator, starter, radiator-fan and electronic power steering motor embedded in conventional passenger vehicles and drive motor/generator embedded in hybrid and electric vehicles. Dismantling these devices before ELV shredding, as well as postshredder treatment of automobile shredder residue may increase the recovery of CMs from ELVs. Environmental and economic implications of such recycling strategies must be considered.

  5. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  6. Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER J RIZZO

    2003-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a very large and diverse group of eukaryotic algae that play a major role in aquatic food webs of both fresh water and marine habitats. Moreover, the toxic members of this group pose a health threat in the form of red tides. Finally, dinoflagellates are of great evolutionary importance,because of their taxonomic position, and their unusual chromosome structure and composition. While the cytoplasm of dinoflagellates is typically eukaryotic, the nucleus is unique when compared to the nucleus of other eukaryotes. More specifically, while the chromosomes of all other eukaryotes contain histones,dinoflagellate chromosomes lack histones completely. There are no known exceptions to this observation: all dinoflagellates lack histones, and all other eukaryotes contain histones. Nevertheless, dinoflagellates remain a relatively unstudied group of eukaryotes.

  7. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  8. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  9. Chromosome banding and gene localizations support extensive conservation of chromosome structure between cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hediger, R; Ansari, H A; Stranzinger, G F

    1991-01-01

    By using three gene probes, one derived from the porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and two from bovine cytokeratin genes, type I (KRTA) and type II (KRTB), the hypothesis of conservation of genome structure in two members of the family Bovidae was examined. Gene mapping data revealed the MHC to be in chromosome region 23q15----q23 in cattle (BOLA) and 20q15----q23 in sheep (OLA). KRTA was localized to chromosome region 19q25----q29 in cattle and 11q25----q29 in sheep and KRTB to 5q14----q22 in cattle and 3q14----q22 in sheep. The banding patterns of the chromosome arms to which the loci were assigned were identical in both species. Moreover, the resemblances of GTG- or QFQ-banding patterns between the cattle and sheep karyotypes illustrated further chromosome homologies. These studies, based on gene mapping comparisons and comparative cytogenetics, document that within bovid chromosomes, homology of banding patterns corresponds to a homologous genetic structure. Hence, we propose that gene assignments on identified chromosomal segments in one species of the Bovidae can be extrapolated, in general, to other bovid species based on the banding homologies presented here.

  10. Human ring chromosomes and small supernumerary marker chromosomes-do they have telomeres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Klein, Elisabeth; Venner, Claudia; Hamid, Ahmed B; Bhatt, Samarth; Melaragno, Maria Isabel; Volleth, Marianne; Polityko, Anna; Kulpanovich, Anna; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Ring chromosomes and small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are enigmatic types of derivative chromosomes, in which the telomeres are thought to play a crucial role in their formation and stabilization. Considering that there are only a few studies that evaluate the presence of telomeric sequences in ring chromosomes and on sSMC, here, we analyzed 14 ring chromosomes and 29 sSMC for the presence of telomeric sequences through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed that ring chromosomes can actually fall into two groups: the ones with or without telomeres. Additionally, telomeric signals were detectable at both ends of centric and neocentric sSMC with inverted duplication shape, as well as in complex sSMC. Apart from that, generally both ring- and centric minute-shaped sSMC did not present telomeric sequences neither detectable by FISH nor by a second protein-directed immunohistochemical approach. However, the fact that telomeres are absent does not automatically mean that the sSMC has a ring shape, as often deduced in the previous literature. Overall, the results obtained by FISH studies directed against telomeres need to be checked carefully by other approaches.

  11. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerle Martine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+ translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5 were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2 from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases.

  12. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X–autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencin...

  13. Chromosome 10q tetrasomy: First reported case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackston, R.D.; May, K.M.; Jones, F.D. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    While there are several reports of trisomy 10q (at least 35), we are not aware of previous cases of 10q tetrasomy. We present what we believe to be the initial report of such a case. R.J. is a 6 1/2 year old white male who presented with multiple dysmorphic features, marked articulation problems, hyperactivity, and developmental delays. He is the product of a term uncomplicated pregnancy. There was a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery with a birth weight of 6 lbs. 4oz. and length was 19 1/2 inch. Dysmorphic features include small size, an asymmetrically small head, low set ears with overfolded helixes, bilateral ptosis, downslanting eyes, right eye esotropia, prominent nose, asymmetric facies, high palate, mild pectus excavatum deformity of chest, and hyperextensible elbow joints. The patient is in special needs classes for mildly mentally handicapped students. Chromosome analysis at a resolution of 800 bands revealed a complex rearrangement of chromosomes 10 and 11. The segment 10q25.3 to q16.3 appears to be inverted and duplicated within the long arm of chromosome 10 at band q25.3 and the same segment of chromosome 10 is present on the terminal end of the short arm of chromosome 11. There is no visible loss of material from chromosome 11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed with a chromosome 10 specific {open_quotes}paint{close_quotes} to confirm that all of the material on the abnormal 10 and the material on the terminal short arm of 11 was from chromosome 10. Thus, it appears that the segment 10q25.3 to q26.3 is present in four copies. Parental chromosome studies are normal. We compared findings which differ in that the case of 10q tetrasomy did not have prenatal growth deficiency, microphthalmia, cleft palate, digital anomalies, heart, or renal defects. Whereas most cases of 10q trisomy are said to have severe mental deficiency, our case of 10q tetrasomy was only mildly delayed. We report this first apparent cited case of 10q tetrasomy.

  14. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  15. Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, D.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

  16. CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION: NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISM AND REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pozgajova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A crucial feature of every healthy living organism is accurate segregation of chromosomes. Errors in this process may lead to aneuploidy, which is responsible for diverse genetic defects and diseases such as Down syndrome, miscarriages, cancer and others. Although, chromosome segregation has been studied intensively in the past, the exact mechanism of accurate chromosome segregation still remains unclear. Identification and characterization of proteins and protein complexes involved in this process is essential for understanding of processes that lead to chromosome missegregation. Basic molecular mechanism share common principles in animals, humans, plants and unicellular organisms; it is therefore possible to study these mechanisms in simple model organisms such as yeasts. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an excellent model organism to study the function and regulation of chromosome segregation in both mitosis and meiosis.

  17. Dicentric Chromosome Formation and Epigenetics of Centromere Formation in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhi Gao; James Birchler; Fangpu Han

    2012-01-01

    Plant centromeres are generally composed of tandem arrays of simple repeats that form a complex chromosome locus where the kinetochore forms and microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis.Each chromosome has one centromere region,which is essential for accurate division of the genetic material.Recently,chromosomes containing two centromere regions (called dicentric chromosomes)have been found in maize and wheat.Interestingly,some dicentric chromosomes are stable because only one centromere is active and the other one is inactivated.Because such arrays maintain their typical structure for both active and inactive centromeres,the specification of centromere activity has an epigenetic component independent of the DNA sequence.Under some circumstances,the inactive centromeres may recover centromere function,which is called centromere reactivation.Recent studies have highlighted the important changes,such as DNA methylation and histone modification,that occur during centromere inactivation and reactivation.

  18. Dicentric chromosome formation and epigenetics of centromere formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Gao, Zhi; Birchler, James; Han, Fangpu

    2012-03-20

    Plant centromeres are generally composed of tandem arrays of simple repeats that form a complex chromosome locus where the kinetochore forms and microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. Each chromosome has one centromere region, which is essential for accurate division of the genetic material. Recently, chromosomes containing two centromere regions (called dicentric chromosomes) have been found in maize and wheat. Interestingly, some dicentric chromosomes are stable because only one centromere is active and the other one is inactivated. Because such arrays maintain their typical structure for both active and inactive centromeres, the specification of centromere activity has an epigenetic component independent of the DNA sequence. Under some circumstances, the inactive centromeres may recover centromere function, which is called centromere reactivation. Recent studies have highlighted the important changes, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, that occur during centromere inactivation and reactivation.

  19. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B;

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  20. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-08-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

  1. The Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  2. Why Chromosome Palindromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Betrán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1 genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2 under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes.

  3. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  4. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  5. Implementation of a Real Time Passenger Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, K; Kuri, Joy; Dagale, Haresh; Sudhakar, G; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are gaining recognition in developing countries like India. This paper describes the various components of our prototype implementation of a Real-time Passenger Information System (RTPIS) for a public transport system like a fleet of buses. Vehicle-mounted units, bus station units and a server located at the transport company premises comprise the system. The vehicle unit reports the current position of the vehicle to a central server periodically via General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). An Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) algorithm running on the server predicts the arrival times of buses at their stops based on real-time observations of the buses' current Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. This information is displayed and announced to passengers at stops using station units, which periodically fetch the required ETA from the server via GPRS. Novel features of our prototype include: (a) a route creator utility which automatically creates new routes from scra...

  6. STUDY ON DYNAMIC CURVING BEHAVIOR OF TILTING PASSENGER CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using tilting carbodies, train can negotiate at a higher speed without reducing the passenger's ride quality.This is a good method to allow a significant increase in speed at existing track to improve the railway transportation capa-bility, and to enhance the competition ability of railways with other transportation systems. With the increase of the curvenegotiation speed, the wheel-rail lateral forces and wheel-rail wear of the tilting train will increase. The self-steering radialbogie is an effective way to solve the problem. The dynamic model of the tilting passenger car with self-steering bogies isestablished in detail, and the curving performance of the car is investigated.

  7. [Dicentric Y chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, N Bouayed; Amouri, A

    2005-01-01

    Dicentric Y chromosomes are the most common Y structural abnormalities and their influence on gonadal and somatic development is extremely variable. Here, we report the third comprehensive review of the literature concerning dicentric Y chromosomes reported since 1994. We find 78 new cases for which molecular studies (PCR or FISH) have been widely applied to investigate SRY (68% of cases), GBY, ZFY, RFS4Y, GCY and different genes at AZF region. For dic(Yq), all cases (n = 20) were mosaic for 45,X and 4 of them were also mosaic for a 46,XY cell line. When breakpoints were available (15/20 cases), they were in Yp11. 50% of cases were phenotypic female and 20% phenotypic male while 20% of cases were reported with gonadal dysgenesis. Gonadal histology was defined in 8 cases but only in one case, gonadal tissu was genetically investigated because of gonadoblastoma. For dic(Yp) (n = 55), mosaicism concerned only 45,X cell line and was found in 50 cases while the remainder five cases were homogeneous. When breakpoints were available, it was at Yq11 in 50 cases and at Yq12 in two cases. 54% of cases were phenotypic female, 26% were phenotypic male and 18% were associated with genitalia ambiguous. SRY was analyzed in 33 cases, sequenced in 9 cases and was muted in only one case. Gonads were histologically explored in 34 cases and genetically investigated in 8 cases. Gonadoblastoma was found in only two cases. Through this review, it seems that phenotype-genotype correlations are still not possible and that homogeneous studies of dic(Y) in more patients using molecular tools for structural characterization of the rearranged Y chromosome and assessment of mosaicism in many organs are necessary to clarify the basis of the phenotypic heterogeneity of dicentric Y chromosomes and then to help phenotypic prediction of such chromosome rearrangement.

  8. The X and Y chromosome in meiosis: how and why they keep silent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Godfried W van der Heijden; Maureen Eijpe; Willy M Baarends

    2011-01-01

    The XX/XY sex chromosomal system of mammals,including human,challenges the chromosome pairing mechanism during male meiosis.Pairing and subsequent separation of homologous chromosomes generates haploid cells from diploid cells during the meiotic divisions.One of the basic requirements for recognition between homologous chromosomes is DNA sequence identity.Since the X and Y chromosome share little homology,their quest for each other is difficult,and has special characteristics.During the lengthy meiotic prophase,all autosomal chromosomes synapse,by forming a special protein structure called the synaptonemal complex,which connects the chromosomal axes.In contrast,the X and Y chromosome synapse only in the short homologous pseudoautosomal regions,and form the so-called XY body.

  9. Dynamics of X Chromosome Inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Loos (Friedemann)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dosage compensation evolved to account for the difference in expression of sex chromosome-linked genes. In mammals dosage compensation is achieved by inactivation of one X chromosome during early female embryogenesis in a process called X chromosome inactivation (XCI).

  10. How Should Passenger Travel in Mexico City Be Priced?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical-simulation model to examine the optimal extent and welfare effects of pricing reforms for passenger transportation in Mexico City. The model incorporates travel by auto, microbus, public bus, and rail, plus externalities from local and global air pollution, traffic congestion, and road accidents. In our benchmark case, the optimal gasoline tax is $2.72 (29.6 pesos) per gallon, or 16 times the current tax. However, a per-mile toll would reduce traffic congestion, ...

  11. How Should Passenger Travel in Mexico City Be Priced?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical-simulation model to examine the optimal pricing of the passenger transportation system in Mexico City. The model incorporates travel by auto, microbus, public bus, and rail, as well as externalities from local and global air pollution, traffic congestion, and road accidents. In our benchmark case, the optimal gasoline tax is $2.72 per gallon, or 16 times the current tax. However, a per mile toll would reduce traffic congestion, the largest externality, more direc...

  12. Emission factors for passenger cars: application of instantaneous emission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Peter; Keller, Mario

    This paper discusses the use of 'instantaneous' high-resolution (1 Hz) emission data for the estimation of passenger car emissions during real-world driving. Extensive measurements of 20 EURO-I gasoline passenger cars have been used to predict emission factors for standard (i.e. legislative) as well as non-standard (i.e. real-world) driving patterns. It is shown that emission level predictions based upon chassis dynamometer tests over standard driving cycles significantly underestimate emission levels during real-world driving. The emission characteristics of modern passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalytic converter are a low, basic emission level on the one hand, and frequent emission 'peaks' on the other. For real-world driving, up to one-half of the entire emission can be emitted during these short-lasting peaks. Their frequency depends on various factors, including the level of 'dynamics' (speed variation) of the driving pattern. Because of this, the use of average speed as the only parameter to characterize emissions over a specific driving pattern is not sufficient. The instantaneous emissions approach uses an additional parameter representing engine load in order to resolve the differences between driving patterns with comparable average speeds but different levels of 'dynamics'. The paper includes an investigation of different statistical indicators and discusses methods to further improve the prediction capability of the instantaneous emission approach. The fundamental differences in emission-reduction strategies between different car manufacturers make the task of constructing a model valid for all catalyst passenger cars seemingly impossible, if the model is required to predict both fleet-averaged emission levels and emission factors for driving patterns of short duration for individual vehicles simultaneously.

  13. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  15. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis.

  16. Multiple forms of atypical rearrangements generating supernumerary derivative chromosome 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigman Marian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally-derived duplications that include the imprinted region on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 underlie a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, seizures and a substantial risk for autism spectrum disorders1. The duplications most often take the form of a supernumerary pseudodicentric derivative chromosome 15 [der(15] that has been called inverted duplication 15 or isodicentric 15 [idic(15], although interstitial rearrangements also occur. Similar to the deletions found in most cases of Angelman and Prader Willi syndrome, the duplications appear to be mediated by unequal homologous recombination involving low copy repeats (LCR that are found clustered in the region. Five recurrent breakpoints have been described in most cases of segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 15q11-q13 and previous studies have shown that most idic(15 chromosomes arise through BP3:BP3 or BP4:BP5 recombination events. Results Here we describe four duplication chromosomes that show evidence of atypical recombination events that involve regions outside the common breakpoints. Additionally, in one patient with a mosaic complex der(15, we examined homologous pairing of chromosome 15q11-q13 alleles by FISH in a region of frontal cortex, which identified mosaicism in this tissue and also demonstrated pairing of the signals from the der(15 and the normal homologues. Conclusion Involvement of atypical BP in the generation of idic(15 chromosomes can lead to considerable structural heterogeneity.

  17. The spindle checkpoint and chromosome segregation in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbsky, Gary J

    2015-07-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a key regulator of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Its function is to prevent precocious anaphase onset before chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment to the spindle. The spindle checkpoint comprises a complex set of signaling pathways that integrate microtubule dynamics, biomechanical forces at the kinetochores, and intricate regulation of protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Historically, many key observations that gave rise to the initial concepts of the spindle checkpoint were made in meiotic systems. In contrast with mitosis, the two distinct chromosome segregation events of meiosis present a special challenge for the regulation of checkpoint signaling. Preservation of fidelity in chromosome segregation in meiosis, controlled by the spindle checkpoint, also has a significant impact in human health. This review highlights the contributions from meiotic systems in understanding the spindle checkpoint as well as the role of checkpoint signaling in controlling the complex divisions of meiosis.

  18. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  19. A minimal number of MELT repeats supports all functions of KNL1 in chromosome segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gang; Lischetti, Tiziana; Nilsson, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The Bub1-Bub3 and BubR1-Bub3 checkpoint complexes, or the Bubs, contribute to the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis by promoting chromosome bi-orientation and halting exit from mitosis if this fails. The complexes associate with kinetochores during mitosis, which is required...

  20. Assessment of aneuploidy in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos by chromosome painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougier, N.; Viegas-Pequignot, E.; Plachot, M. [Hospital Necker, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The poor quality of chromosome preparations often observed after fixation of oocytes and embryos did not usually allow accurate identification of chromosomes involved in non-disjunctions. We, therefore, used chromosome painting to determine the incidence of abnormalities for chromosomes 1 and 7. A total of 50 oocytes inseminated for IVF and showing no signs of fertilization as well as 37 diploid embryos donated for research were fixed according to the Dyban`s technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was carried out using whole chromosome painting DNA probes specific for human chromosome 1 and 7. The incidence of aneuploidy was 28%, 10% and 60% for metaphase II, polar body and sperm chromosomes, respectively. The high incidence of aneuploidy observed in sperm prematurely condensed sperm chromosomes is due to the fact that usually far less than 23 sperm chromatids are observed, maybe as a consequence of incomplete chromosome condensation. Thirty seven embryos were analyzed with the same probes. 48% of early embryos were either monosomic 1 or 7 or mosaics comprising blastomeres with 1, 2 or 3 signals. Thus, 8 among the 11 abnormal embryos had hypodiploid cells (25 to 37 chromosomes) indicating either an artefactual loss of chromosomes or a complex anomaly of nuclear division (maltinucleated blastomeres, abnormal migration of chromosomes at anaphase). We therefore calculated a {open_quotes}corrected{close_quotes} incidence of aneuploidy for chromosomes 1 or 7 in early embryos: 18%. 86% of the blastocysts showed mosaicism 2n/3 or 4n as a consequence of the formation of the syncitiotrophoblast. To conclude, chromosome painting is an efficient method to accurately identify chromosomes involved in aneuploidy. This technique should allow us to evaluate the incidence of non-disjunction for all chromosome pairs. Our results confirm the high incidence of chromosome abnormalities occurring as a consequence of meiotic or mitotic non-disjunctions in human oocytes and embryos.

  1. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  2. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  3. Detection of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type XI Carrying Highly Divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr Genes in Human Clinical Isolates of Clonal Complex 130 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Anna C.; Deasy, Emily C.; Slickers, Peter; Brennan, Grainne; O'Connell, Brian; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon. PMID:21636525

  4. A Conceptual Model to Optimize Operating Cost of Passenger Ships in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-long Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate more convenient travel as the economy of Macau expands, the government of Macau has allowed shipping companies to add passenger ships and shipping lines. This paper demonstrates how shipping companies can reduce costs by optimizing passenger ships and crew size. It analyzes operating conditions for each shipping depot, including transit time, ships, and volume of passengers. A series of integer programming models is proposed. After a practical demonstration using Excel to solve the LP model, we show that the reduction in the number of passenger ships and crew size could reach 22.6% and 29.4%, respectively.

  5. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  6. Characterisation of the chromosome fusions in Oreochromis karongae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Velasco, Jose C; Ferreira, Irani Alves; Cioffi, Marcelo B; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Shirak, Andrey; Lee, Bo-Young; Martins, Cesar; Penman, David J

    2010-07-01

    Oreochromis karongae, one of the "chambo" tilapia species from Lake Malawi, has a karyotype of 2n = 38, making it one of the few species investigated to differ from the typical tilapia karyotype (2n = 44). The O. karongae karyotype consists of one large subtelocentric pair of chromosomes, four medium-sized pairs (three subtelocentric and one submetacentric) and 14 small pairs. The five largest pairs could be distinguished from each other on the basis of size, morphology and a series of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probes. The largest pair is easily distinguished on the basis of size and a chromosome 1 (linkage group 3) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) FISH probe from Oreochromis niloticus. BAC clones from O. niloticus chromosome 2 (linkage group 7) hybridised to one of the medium-sized subtelocentric chromosome pairs (no. 5) of O. karongae, distinguishing the ancestral medium-sized pair from the three other medium-sized chromosome pairs (nos. 2, 3 and 4) that appear to have resulted from fusions. SATA repetitive DNA hybridised to the centromeres of all 19 chromosome pairs and also revealed the locations of the relic centromeres in the three fused pairs. Telomeric (TTAGGG)(n) repeats were identified in the telomeres of all chromosomes, and an interstitial telomeric site (ITS) was identified in three chromosomal pairs (no. 2, 3 and 4). Additionally, two ITS sites were identified in the largest chromosome pair (pair 1), confirming the origin of this chromosome from three ancestral chromosomes. SATA and ITS sites allowed the orientation of the fusions in pairs 2, 3 and 4, which all appear to have been in different orientations (q-q, p-q and p-p, respectively). One of these fusions (O. karongae chromosome pair no. 2) involves a small chromosome (equivalent to linkage group 1), which in O. niloticus carries the main sex-determining gene. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenyloindole staining of the synaptonemal complex in male O. karongae revealed the presumptive

  7. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  8. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    for analysing flow cytometry data and marker frequency analysis, we show that the small chromosome II is replicated late in the C period of the cell cycle, where most of chromosome I has been replicated. Owing to the delay in initiation of chromosome II, the two chromosomes terminate replication...... at approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...... II may reduce the metabolic burden and complexity of chromosome replication by postponing DNA synthesis to the last part of the cell cycle and reducing the need for overlapping replication cycles during rapid proliferation...

  9. Measurement and Assessment of Noise Within Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARDY, A. E. J.

    2000-03-01

    Railways are becoming increasingly market-driven. Consequently, it is important that passengers are provided with a comfortable environment that reflects the operator's desired image for the service. A major factor in determining how passengers perceive the environment within trains is the level and nature of sound to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, the subject of noise within railway vehicles has had less attention in recent years, and is therefore less well developed, than external “environmental” noise. Two specific areas that merit investigation are methods for its quantification and assessment. A variety of criteria are used for assessing the noise environment within buildings, and may be considered appropriate for the quantification of internal train noise. These include “noise criteria” (NC), “preferred noise criteria” (PNC), “noise rating” (NR), and “room criterion” (RC). Recently, the automotive industry has also been using loudness level. Simple descriptors, such as the A-weighted sound level, have not been found to correlate well with perceived acoustic comfort. A complicating factor when considering internal rail vehicle noise is that its level and quality is not constant, with significant variability likely to occur over the duration of a journey. This difficulty is compounded by acoustic spatial variation within a vehicle. The paper considers the problems inherent in the quantification of noise within rail vehicles, and in the determination of the relationship between this noise and passenger response. Methods by which these problems may be overcome are discussed, drawing on real data and on long experience of study in this field.

  10. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  11. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  12. Transport illumination: health risks for personnel and passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic aspects of the transport illumination and the risks of the negative impact of LED lighting on the health of operators, drivers and passengers have been investigated. The transport illumination is a subject of the longitudinal research of the light effect of the beam and signal lights on driver’s reaction and dazzle. The study of the vehicles’ light effect on passengers’ health was not carried out because for the illuminating of the passenger compartments the incandescent bulbs were used, the characteristics of which are well known. Increasing of the duration of trips, their intensity and the replacement of incandescent lamps to LED lamps makes these studies more urgent. Particular attention is drawn on the fact that the transport system transports millions of passengers and children who are regularly exposed to excessive doses of blue light. The blue light time exposure is more than an hour per trip within the city and more than 5 hours during travel between the cities. The specialists of N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS have indicated that modern white LEDs have expressed emission band in blue spectrum 440-460 nm that is entirely attributable to the spectrum of action of retinal photochemical damage and its pigment epithelium. Such extensive emission poses a hazard to the eyes of children and adolescents, because their crystalline lenses are almost twice as transparent in the dark-blue and blue spectrum area than those in adults. Retinal photochemical damage develops in distant time and can cause gradual, irreversible visual impairment. The risks of negative impact especially increase in the application of blue LED for interior lighting passenger vehicles. It was demonstrated that at the retinal cells’ affection by the excessive dose of the blue light the consequences have delayed character. The results of the accelerated assessment of the retina damage in Japanese quils (Сoturnix japonica. The eyes of

  13. A 174 passenger aircraft pylon design and analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinicius Pirrho Loureiro

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is to verify the pylon design of a 174 passenger aircraft. This aircraft was studied by the fourth class of Embraer's Engineer Specialization Program (PEE 4). The engine of this aircraft is located below the wing and its model is GE CFM-56. The fan size was increased in order to reach a higher air passage ratio. This pylon concept presented here was studied and adopted by the group as the better option for this type of airplane. Due to the short time allowable to this st...

  14. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  15. Chromosome assortment in Saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, S M; Honeycutt, R J; Sobral, B W

    1994-12-01

    Recent work has revealed random chromosome pairing and assortment in Saccharum spontaneum L., the most widely distributed, and morphologically and cytologically variable of the species of Saccharum. This conclusion was based on the analysis of a segregating population from across between S. spontaneum 'SES 208' and a spontaneously-doubled haploid of itself, derived from anther culture. To determine whether polysomic inheritance is common in Saccharum and whether it is observed in a typical biparental cross, we studied chromosome pairing and assortment in 44 progeny of a cross between euploid, meiotically regular, 2n=80 forms of Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum ' Mol 5829'. Papuan 2n=80 forms of S. robustum have been suggested as the immediate progenitor species for cultivated sugarcane (S. officinarum). A total of 738 loci in LA Purple and 720 loci in Mol 5829 were amplified and typed in the progeny by arbitrarily primed PCR using 45 primers. Fifty and 33 single-dose polymorphisms were identified in the S. officinarum and S. robustum genomes, respectively (χ 2 at 98%). Linkage analysis of single-dose polymorphisms in both genomes revealed linkages in repulsion and coupling phases. In the S. officinarum genome, a map hypothesis gave 7 linkage groups with 17 linked and 33 unlinked markers. Four of 13 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase and 9 were in coupling phase. In the S. robustum genome, a map hypothesis gave 5 linkage groups, defined by 12 markers, with 21 markers unlinked, and 2 of 9 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase. Therefore, complete polysomic inheritance was not observed in either species, suggesting that chromosomal behavior is different from that observed by linkage analysis of over 500 markers in the S. spontaneum map. Implications of this finding for evolution and breeding are discussed.

  16. A dynamic, mitotic-like mechanism for bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Michael A; Waldor, Matthew K

    2006-12-01

    The mechanisms that mediate chromosome segregation in bacteria are poorly understood. Despite evidence of dynamic movement of chromosome regions, to date, mitotic-like mechanisms that act on the bacterial chromosome have not been demonstrated. Here we provide evidence that the Vibrio cholerae ParAI and ParBI proteins are components of an apparatus that pulls the origin region of the large V. cholerae chromosome to the cell pole and anchors it there. ParBI interacts with a conserved origin-proximal, centromere-like site (parSI) that, following chromosome replication, segregates asymmetrically from one pole to the other. While segregating, parSI stretches far away from neighboring chromosomal loci. ParAI forms a dynamic band that extends from the pole to the segregating ParBI/parSI complex. Movement of ParBI/parSI across the cell occurs in concert with ParAI retraction. Deletion of parAI disrupts proper origin localization and segregation dynamics, and parSI no longer separates from nearby regions. These data suggest that ParAI forms a dynamic structure that pulls the ParBI-bound chromosome to the pole in a process analogous to anaphase of eukaryotic mitosis.

  17. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  18. Abnormal dicentric chromosome with co-amplification of sequences from chromosomes 11 and 19: a novel rearrangement in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Heaps, L S; Sharma, P; Jarvis, A; Forsyth, C

    2001-10-01

    A 66-year-old man with a myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukemia showed a complex abnormal karyotype on bone marrow aspirate. An unbalanced dicentric translocation with a very long der(11) long arm-dic(11;19)(q25;p13.4)-was present. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies utilised paints for chromosomes 11 and 19 as well as the locus specific probe MLL, localised to 11q23. The abnormal chromosome 11q contained 6 copies of intact MLL and 6 copies of chromosome 19 (unidentified) sequences. To our knowledge, gene co-amplification of chromosomes 11 and 19 sequences has not been reported before.

  19. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space.

  20. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.

  1. Dynamics of Escherichia coli chromosome segregation during multifork replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik J; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G; Austin, Stuart

    2007-12-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division, the chromosomes contain multiple replication forks and must be segregated while this complex pattern of replication is still ongoing. Here, we show that replication and segregation continue in step, starting at the origin and progressing to the replication terminus. Thus, early-replicated markers on the multiple-branched chromosomes continue to separate soon after replication to form separate protonucleoids, even though they are not segregated into different daughter cells until later generations. The segregation pattern follows the pattern of chromosome replication and does not follow the cell division cycle. No extensive cohesion of sister DNA regions was seen at any growth rate. We conclude that segregation is driven by the progression of the replication forks.

  2. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation during Multifork Replication▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik J.; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.; Austin, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division, the chromosomes contain multiple replication forks and must be segregated while this complex pattern of replication is still ongoing. Here, we show that replication and segregation continue in step, starting at the origin and progressing to the replication terminus. Thus, early-replicated markers on the multiple-branched chromosomes continue to separate soon after replication to form separate protonucleoids, even though they are not segregated into different daughter cells until later generations. The segregation pattern follows the pattern of chromosome replication and does not follow the cell division cycle. No extensive cohesion of sister DNA regions was seen at any growth rate. We conclude that segregation is driven by the progression of the replication forks. PMID:17905986

  3. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  4. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2007-10-01

    Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X-autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Here, we report on the transcriptional down-regulation of genes within the unsynapsed region of the rearranged mouse chromosome 17, and on the subsequent disturbance of X chromosome inactivation. The partial transcriptional suppression of genes in the unsynapsed chromatin was most prominent prior to the mid-pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes. Later, during the mid-late pachytene, the rearranged autosomes colocalized with the XY body, and the X chromosome failed to undergo proper transcriptional silencing. Our findings provide direct evidence on the MSUC acting at the mRNA level, and implicate that autosomal asynapsis in meiosis may cause male sterility by interfering with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

  5. Passenger ride quality within a noise and vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Drezek, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subjective response to noise and vibration stimuli was studied in a ride quality simulator to determine their importance in the prediction of passenger ride quality. Subjects used category scales to rate noise discomfort, vibration discomfort, both noise and vibration discomfort, and overall discomfort in an effort to evaluate parametric arrangements of noise and vibration. The noise stimuli were composed of octave frequency bands centered at 125, 250, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, each presented at 70, 75, 80, and 85 dB(A). The vertical vibration stimuli were 5 Hz bandwidth random vibrations centered at 3, 5, 7, and 9 Hz, each presented at 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 grms. Analyses were directed at (1) a determination of the subject's ability to separate noise and vibration as contributors to discomfort, (2) an assessment of the physical characteristics of noise and vibration that are needed for prediction of ride quality in this type of multifactor environment, and (3) an evaluation of the relative contribution of noise and vibration to passenger ride quality.

  6. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  7. Seat inventory control methods for Chinese passenger railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云; 刘军; 马敏书; 孟令云

    2014-01-01

    Railway seat inventory control strategies play a crucial role in the growth of profit and train load factor. The railway passenger seat inventory control problem in China was addressed. Chinese passenger railway operation features and seat inventory control practice were analyzed firstly. A dynamic demand forecasting method was introduced to forecast the coming demand in a ticket booking period. By clustering, passengers’ historical ticket bookings were used to forecast the demand to come in a ticket booking period with least squares support vector machine. Three seat inventory control methods:non-nested booking limits, nested booking limits and bid-price control, were modeled under a single-fare class. Different seat inventory control methods were compared with the same demand based on ticket booking data of Train T15 from Beijing West to Guangzhou. The result shows that the dynamic non-nested booking limits control method performs the best, which gives railway operators evidence to adjust the remaining capacity in a ticket booking period.

  8. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  9. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  10. Attempted Depletion of Passenger Leukocytes by Irradiation in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chih Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft/xenograft rejection is associated with “passenger leukocyte” migration from the organ into recipient lymph nodes. In Study 1, we attempted to deplete leukocytes from potential kidney “donor” pigs, using two regimens of total body irradiation. A dose of 700 cGy was administered, followed by either 800 cGy (“low-dose” or 1,300 cGy (“high dose” with the kidneys shielded. Neither regimen was entirely successful in depleting all leukocytes, although remaining T and 8 cell numbers were negligible. Study 2 was aimed at providing an indication of whether near-complete depletion of leukocytes had any major impact on kidney allograft survival. In non-immunosuppressed recipient pigs, survival of a kidney from a donor that received high-dose irradiation was compared with that of a kidney taken from a non-irradiated donor. Kidney graft survival was 9 and 7 days, respectively, suggesting that depletion had little impact on graft survival. The lack of effect may have been related to (i inadequate depletion of passenger leukocytes, thus not preventing a direct T cell response, (ii the presence of dead or dying leukocytes (antigens, thus not preventing an indirect T cell response, or (iii constitutive expression of MHC class II and B7 molecules on the porcine vascular endothelium, activating recipient T cells.

  11. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  12. ANALYTICAL ESTIMATION OF MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM TIME EXPENDITURES OF PASSENGERS AT AN URBAN ROUTE STOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper deals with the problem related to the definition of average time spent by passengers while waiting for transport vehicles at urban stops as well as the results of analytical modeling of this value at traffic schedule unknown to the passengers and of two options of the vehicle traffic management on the given route.

  13. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  14. 49 CFR 238.303 - Exterior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section. (3) If a passenger care is also classified as a locomotive under part 229 of this chapter, the... wheel; or (xii) A weld. (9) No part or appliance of a passenger coach, except the wheels, is less than... following condition: (i) Each jumpers and cable connection between coaches, between locomotives, or...

  15. 19 CFR 4.68 - Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels. 4.68 Section 4.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... Clearances § 4.68 Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels. No vessel...

  16. 75 FR 11075 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Response to Requests To Extend Compliance Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections,'' published December 30, 2009, and effective April 29, 2010, that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites....

  17. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 244, 250, 253, 259 and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... certain requirements adopted in an April 25, 2011 final rule on enhancing airline passenger protections... boarding compensation airlines must pay to passengers bumped from flights, and the requirement to...

  18. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... date of the provision in its final rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections'' that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response...

  19. 46 CFR 178.310 - Applicability based on length and passenger capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability based on length and passenger capacity. 178.310 Section 178.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL....310 Applicability based on length and passenger capacity. (a) A vessel of not more than 19.8...

  20. Cosmic radiation during air travel: trends in exposure of aircrews and airline passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; LSO

    2004-01-01

    An unfavourable effect of flying is the enhanced exposure of both passengers and aircrew to cosmic radiation at high altitudes. On the basis of a detailed survey on passengers arriving at or departing from Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the 1988-1997 period, estimates of individual effective dose for

  1. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  2. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  3. 49 CFR 238.17 - Movement of passenger equipment with other than power brake defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the condition involves a running gear defect, the defective equipment is not used in passenger service and is moved in a non-revenue train; (2) If the condition involves a non-running gear defect, the defective equipment may be used in passenger service in a revenue train provided that a...

  4. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph;

    2016-01-01

    % for passengers of the contacts. Evacuations for passengers were mainly in the diagnostic groups: unspecific (A), digestive (D), cardiology (K), musculoskeletal (L) and neurology (N). The use of VHF, radio communications and fax machines have been greatly reduced while the use of e-mail and satellite phone...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  6. Motion induced passenger dislocations in life raft and life boat configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Andersen ,O.; Reinke, P.

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project SafeCrafts, dealing with the safe abandoning of ships, the dislocation of passengers aboard life boats and rafts has been considered to be a risk regarding passenger survival at sea. To get an idea about the risks and the affecting factors involved, we studied the effects

  7. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I... forms of information. Title: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form...

  8. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  9. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  10. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cutting out of secondary brake systems; (B) Inoperative or otherwise defective handbrakes or parking... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of passenger equipment with power brake... § 238.15 Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects. Beginning on January 1, 2002,...

  11. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  12. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  13. An integrated rolling stock planning model for the Copenhagen suburban passenger railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...

  14. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... Commission, under section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930, update its 2007 assessment with respect to...

  15. Dragonair- Year-on-Year Rises Continue For Passengers And Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Passenger numbers at Dragonair rose 13.2% while cargo volumes climbed 23.9%in April compared with the same month in 2004. The airline flew 431,860 passengers last month, 50,274 more than one year ago,and 7.3% up on March.

  16. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  17. 19 CFR 4.64 - Electronic passenger and crew member departure manifests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic passenger and crew member departure manifests. 4.64 Section 4.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Customs and Border Protection (CBP) an electronic passenger departure manifest and an electronic...

  18. PERFORMANCE SECURITY PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM SERVQUAL AND INTEGRATED EVALUATION OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the article essence of category is considered "consumer value" and structure of consumer values; given the model of SERVQUAL, adapted for the use in the field of railway passenger transportations; the location of indexes of safety is determined in the model of SERVQUAL and their meaningfulness in the estimation of competitiveness of passenger transport. 

  19. Mechanical Unfolding of an Autotransporter Passenger Protein Reveals the Secretion Starting Point and Processive Transport Intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baclayon, Marian; van Ulsen, Peter; Mouhib, Halima; Shabestari, Maryam Hashemi; Verzijden, Timo; Abeln, Sanne; Roos, Wouter H; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2016-01-01

    The backbone of secreted autotransporter passenger proteins generally attains a stable β-helical structure. The secretion of passengers across the outer membrane was proposed to be driven by sequential folding of this structure at the cell surface. This mechanism would require a relatively-stable in

  20. Disruption of a conserved CAP-D3 threonine alters condensin loading on mitotic chromosomes leading to chromosome hypercondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhrebah, Muhammed; Zhang, Tao; Mann, Jeff R; Kalitsis, Paul; Hudson, Damien F

    2015-03-06

    The condensin complex plays a key role in organizing mitotic chromosomes. In vertebrates, there are two condensin complexes that have independent and cooperative roles in folding mitotic chromosomes. In this study, we dissect the role of a putative Cdk1 site on the condensin II subunit CAP-D3 in chicken DT40 cells. This conserved site has been shown to activate condensin II during prophase in human cells, and facilitate further phosphorylation by polo-like kinase I. We examined the functional significance of this phosphorylation mark by mutating the orthologous site of CAP-D3 (CAP-D3(T1403A)) in chicken DT40 cells. We show that this mutation is a gain of function mutant in chicken cells; it disrupts prophase, results in a dramatic shortening of the mitotic chromosome axis, and leads to abnormal INCENP localization. Our results imply phosphorylation of CAP-D3 acts to limit condensin II binding onto mitotic chromosomes. We present the first in vivo example that alters the ratio of condensin I:II on mitotic chromosomes. Our results demonstrate this ratio is a critical determinant in shaping mitotic chromosomes.

  1. Stretching the rules: monocentric chromosomes with multiple centromere domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Pavel; Navrátilová, Alice; Schroeder-Reiter, Elizabeth; Koblížková, Andrea; Steinbauerová, Veronika; Chocholová, Eva; Novák, Petr; Wanner, Gerhard; Macas, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The centromere is a functional chromosome domain that is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during cell division and that can be reliably identified by the presence of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CenH3. In monocentric chromosomes, the centromere is characterized by a single CenH3-containing region within a morphologically distinct primary constriction. This region usually spans up to a few Mbp composed mainly of centromere-specific satellite DNA common to all chromosomes of a given species. In holocentric chromosomes, there is no primary constriction; the centromere is composed of many CenH3 loci distributed along the entire length of a chromosome. Using correlative fluorescence light microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy, we show that pea (Pisum sativum) chromosomes exhibit remarkably long primary constrictions that contain 3-5 explicit CenH3-containing regions, a novelty in centromere organization. In addition, we estimate that the size of the chromosome segment delimited by two outermost domains varies between 69 Mbp and 107 Mbp, several factors larger than any known centromere length. These domains are almost entirely composed of repetitive DNA sequences belonging to 13 distinct families of satellite DNA and one family of centromeric retrotransposons, all of which are unevenly distributed among pea chromosomes. We present the centromeres of Pisum as novel "meta-polycentric" functional domains. Our results demonstrate that the organization and DNA composition of functional centromere domains can be far more complex than previously thought, do not require single repetitive elements, and do not require single centromere domains in order to segregate properly. Based on these findings, we propose Pisum as a useful model for investigation of centromere architecture and the still poorly understood role of repetitive DNA in centromere evolution, determination, and function.

  2. AB048. X-chromosomal SNPs variation in populations of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Vadim; Vagaitseva, Kseniya; Kharkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    X-chromosome markers are informative tool for studying a genetic diversity in human populations and have become a useful in DNA identification when certain complex kinship cases need to be unravelled. In this work we present population genetic data on X-chromosome-wide SNPs in North Eurasian populations and report XSNP multiplex system for forensic genetics. A total of 2,867 X-chromosomal SNPs were genotyped in 12 populations using Illumina microarray platform. Twelve populations under study ...

  3. Chromosomal evolution of sibling species of the Drosophila willistoni group. I. Chromosomal arm IIR (Muller's element B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Claudia; Garcia, Ana Cristina Lauer; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Valente, Vera Lúcia S

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among nine entities of Drosophila belonging to the D. willistoni subgroup were investigated by establishing the homologous chromosomal segments of IIR chromosome, Muller's element B (equivalent to chromosome 2L of D. melanogaster). The sibling species of the D. willistoni group investigated include D. willistoni, D. tropicalis tropicalis, D. tropicalis cubana, D. equinoxialis, D. insularis and four semispecies of the D. paulistorum complex. The phylogenetic relationships were based on the existence of segments in different triads of species, which could only be produced by overlapping inversions. Polytene banding similarity maps and break points of inversions between species are presented. The implications of the chromosomal data for the phylogeny of the species and comparisons with molecular data are discussed. The aim of this study is to produce phylogenetic trees depicting accurately the sequence of natural events that have occurred in the evolution of these sibling species.

  4. Effect of Synthesized Propeller Vibration on Passenger Annoyance in a Turboprop Interior Noise Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of synthesized propeller vibration on passenger annoyance to aircraft noise was investigated in passenger ride quality apparatus. Passenger reactions of annoyance to a wide range of potential turboprop interior noise environments were obtained under three simulated vibration conditions: no vibration, armrest vibration, and armrest plus cabin vibration. The noises, ranging from 71 to 95 dB(A) consisted of a turbulent boundary layer with a factorial combination of five blade passage frequencies (50 to 200 Hz), two harmonic roll offs, and three tone to noise ratios. Results indicate that passenger annoyance to noise in the presence of armrest vibration did not significantly change. However, those passengers exposed to cabin plus armrest vibration while being exposed to noise lower rating for the combined cabin vibration and noise environment compared with the rating for the noise along environment. This result is predicted by the ride quality model.

  5. Self-propelled pedestrian dynamics model: Application to passenger movement and infection propagation in airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namilae, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Mubayi, A.; Scotch, M.; Pahle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  6. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  7. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model is established. The model aims at minimizing stop cost and maximizing passenger travel convenience. Several constraints are applied to the model establishment, including the number of stops made by individual trains, the frequency of train service received by each station, the operation section, and the 0-1 variable. A hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model. Both the model and the algorithm are validated through case study.

  8. Analysis of phage Mu DNA transposition by whole-genome Escherichia coli tiling arrays reveals a complex relationship to distribution of target selection protein B, transcription and chromosome architectural elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun Ge; Zheng Lou; Hong Cui; Lei Shang; Rasika M Harshey

    2011-09-01

    Of all known transposable elements, phage Mu exhibits the highest transposition efficiency and the lowest target specificity. In vitro, MuB protein is responsible for target choice. In this work, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the genome-wide distribution of MuB and its relationship to Mu target selection using high-resolution Escherichia coli tiling DNA arrays. We have also assessed how MuB binding and Mu transposition are influenced by chromosome-organizing elements such as AT-rich DNA signatures, or the binding of the nucleoid-associated protein Fis, or processes such as transcription. The results confirm and extend previous biochemical and lower resolution in vivo data. Despite the generally random nature of Mu transposition and MuB binding, there were hot and cold insertion sites and MuB binding sites in the genome, and differences between the hottest and coldest sites were large. The new data also suggest that MuB distribution and subsequent Mu integration is responsive to DNA sequences that contribute to the structural organization of the chromosome.

  9. D-Isonucleotide (isoNA) incorporation around cleavage site of passenger strand promotes the vibration of Ago2-PAZ domain and enhances in vitro potency of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Yichao; Sheng, Gang; Chen, Zhuo; Ma, Yuan; Chen, Yue; Peng, Yihong; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhenjun

    2015-11-28

    It has been demonstrated that passenger strand cleavage is important for the activation of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which is a crucial step for siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Herein, we report that isonucleotide (isoNA) modification around the cleavage site of the passenger strand would affect the in vitro potency of modified siRNAs by altering the motion pattern of the Ago2-PAZ domain. According to western blotting, q-PCR and antiviral test results, we proved that D-isonucleotide (isoNA) modification at the position 8 of the passenger strand (siMek1-S08D), which is adjacent to the cleavage site, markedly improved the in vitro potency of the modified siRNA, whereas siRNAs with D-isoNA incorporation at position 9 (siMek1-S09D) or L-isoNA incorporation at positions 8 and 9 (siMek1-S08L, siMek1-S09L) displayed lower activity compared to native siRNA. Kinetics evaluation of passenger strand cleavage induced by T. thermophilus Ago (Tt-Ago) showed that D-isoNA modification at position 8 of the passenger strand had no significant influence on the cleavage rate, but L-isoNA modification at position 8 slowed the cleavage rate markedly. Moreover, the results of molecular dynamics simulations showed that D-isoNA modification at position 8 affected the open-close motion of the PAZ domain in the Ago/siRNA complex, which may promote the loading of RISC and release of a passenger strand cleavage product, and consequently accelerate the activation of RISC and enhance silencing activity. However, D-isoNA modification at position 9 or L-isoNA modification at position 8 or 9 exerted opposite influences on the motion of the Ago-PAZ domain.

  10. Evaluation of the influence of velocity on dynamic passenger loads during a frontal minibus impact against an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochowski, L.; Dębowski, A.; Żuchowski, A.; Zielonka, K.

    2016-09-01

    The safety of people travelling by minibus is a very complex issue, in which the decisive role is played by load-bearing vehicle structure, passenger seats, and personal protection means. In order to maximize the number of people transported, the seats are spaced very closely to each other and this may pose a hazard to the passengers. Based on an analysis of experimental test results, a computer model representing a system composed of a minibus floor segment, seats, and dummies was built. For the analysis, seats integrated with seat belts were adopted. A seat of this type was based on a high-rigidity frame necessary to bear, inter alia, the strong force exerted (during a collision) by passenger's torso on the shoulder seat belt and transmitted to the upper seat belt anchorage point on the seat backrest. Within this work, the frontal minibus impact against an obstacle with velocities ranging from 20 km/h to 70 km/h was considered. The analysis covered the motion of, and dynamic loads on, a test dummy representing a 50th percentile adult male (Hybrid III dummy). Within the analysis, realizations of dynamic loads caused by inertial forces and reactions exerted by a three-point seat belt were taken into account. Special attention was paid to the extreme values of the loads that acted on dummy's head, neck, and torso when the head hit the backrest of the preceding seat in the culminating phase of the vehicle impact against an obstacle. The values of biomechanical indicators HIC, ThAC, Nij , and FAC and of the joint injury risk indicator were calculated.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Y chromosome infertility Y chromosome infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Y chromosome infertility is a condition that affects the production of ...

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  13. 78 FR 44621 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... BMW 760I passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal....- certified version of the 2004 BMW 760I passenger car) and they are capable of being readily altered...

  14. 78 FR 19364 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series Passenger Cars are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... that nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to... safety standards (the U.S.-certified version of the same 1992-1994 BMW 3- Series passenger cars) and...

  15. 78 FR 24463 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2005-2007 BMW 5 Series Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Nonconforming 2005-2007 BMW 5 Series Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1, 2006 are Eligible for... petition for a decision that nonconforming 2005-2007 BMW 5 Series passenger cars manufactured before...-2007 BMW 5 Series passenger cars) and they are capable of being readily altered to conform to...

  16. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  17. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  18. Higher order structure of chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, T A; Comings, D E

    1979-04-01

    Isolated Chinese hamster metaphase chromosomes were resuspended in 4 M ammonium acetate and spread on a surface of distilled water or 0.15 to 0.5 M ammonium acetate. The DNA was released in the form of a regular series of rosettes connected by interrossette DNA. The mean length of the rosette DNA was 14 micron, similar to the mean length of 10 micron for chromomere DNA of Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The mean interrosette DNA was 4.2 micron. SDS gel electrophoresis of the chromosomal nonhistone proteins showed them to be very similar to nuclear nonhistone proteins except for the presence of more actin and tubulin. Nuclear matrix proteins were present in the chromosomes and may play a role in forming the rosettes. Evidence that the rosette pattern is artifactual versus the possibility that it represents a real organizational substructure of the chromosomes is reviewed.

  19. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly 1 mm long, approximately 1,000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and the impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation.

  20. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Scott L; Hawley, R Scott

    2003-08-08

    The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

  1. Interspecific Y chromosome variation is sufficient to rescue hybrid male sterility and is influenced by the grandparental origin of the chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araripe, L O; Tao, Y; Lemos, B

    2016-06-01

    Y chromosomes display population variation within and between species. Co-evolution within populations is expected to produce adaptive interactions between Y chromosomes and the rest of the genome. One consequence is that Y chromosomes from disparate populations could disrupt harmonious interactions between co-evolved genetic elements and result in reduced male fertility, sterility or inviability. Here we address the contribution of 'heterospecific Y chromosomes' to fertility in hybrid males carrying a homozygous region of Drosophila mauritiana introgressed in the Drosophila simulans background. In order to detect Y chromosome-autosome interactions, which may go unnoticed in a single-species background of autosomes, we constructed hybrid genotypes involving three sister species: Drosophila simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia. These engineered strains varied due to: (i) species origin of the Y chromosome (D. simulans or D. sechellia); (ii) location of the introgressed D. mauritiana segment on the D. simulans third chromosome, and (iii) grandparental genomic background (three genotypes of D. simulans). We find complex interactions between the species origin of the Y chromosome, the identity of the D. mauritiana segment and the grandparental genetic background donating the chromosomes. Unexpectedly, the interaction of the Y chromosome and one segment of D. mauritiana drastically reduced fertility in the presence of Ysim, whereas the fertility is partially rescued by the Y chromosome of D. sechellia when it descends from a specific grandparental genotype. The restoration of fertility occurs in spite of an autosomal and X-linked genome that is mostly of D. simulans origin. These results illustrate the multifactorial basis of genetic interactions involving the Y chromosome. Our study supports the hypothesis that the Y chromosome can contribute significantly to the evolution of reproductive isolation and highlights the conditional manifestation of infertility in

  2. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  3. Organizing the bacterial chromosome for division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedersz, Chase

    2014-03-01

    The chromosome is highly organized in space in many bacteria, although the origin and function of this organization remain unclear. This organization is further complicated by the necessity for chromosome replication and segregation. Partitioning proteins of the ParABS system mediate chromosomal and plasmid segregation in a variety of bacteria. This segregation machinery includes a large ParB-DNA complex consisting of roughly 1000 ParB dimers, which localizes around one or a few centromere-like parS sites near the origin of replication. Despite the apparent simplicity of this segregation machinery as compared to eukaryotic segregations systems, puzzles remain: In particular, what is the nature of interactions among DNA-bound ParB proteins, and how do these determine the organizational and functional properties of the ParB-DNA partitioning complex? A crucial aspect of this question is whether ParB spreads along the DNA to form a filamentous protein-DNA complex with a 1D character, or rather assembles to form a 3D complex on the DNA. Furthermore, it remains unclear how the presence of only one or even a few parS sites can lead to robust formation and localization of such a large protein-DNA complex. We developed a simple model for interacting proteins on DNA, and found that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes the minimal model for condensation of a 3D ParB-DNA complex. These combined interactions provide an effective surface tension that prevents fragmentation of the ParB-DNA complex. Thus, ParB spreads to form multiple 1D domains on the DNA, connected in 3D by bridging interactions to assemble into a 3D ParB-DNA condensate. Importantly, this model accounts for recent experiments on ParB-induced gene-silencing and the effect of a DNA ``roadblock'' on ParB localization. Furthermore, our model provides a simple mechanism to explain how a single parS site is both necessary and sufficient for the formation and

  4. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  5. CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING IN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , CHROMOSOMES), (*CHROMOSOMES, MAPPING), NITROSO COMPOUNDS, GUANIDINES, GENETICS, MUTATIONS, DRUGS, TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), TEST METHODS, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, INHIBITION, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY).

  6. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  7. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  8. POF regulates the expression of genes on the fourth chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster by binding to nascent RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Allgardsson, Anders; Larsson, Jan

    2012-06-01

    In Drosophila, two chromosome-wide compensatory systems have been characterized: the dosage compensation system that acts on the male X chromosome and the chromosome-specific regulation of genes located on the heterochromatic fourth chromosome. Dosage compensation in Drosophila is accomplished by hypertranscription of the single male X chromosome mediated by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex. The mechanism of this compensation is suggested to involve enhanced transcriptional elongation mediated by the MSL complex, while the mechanism of compensation mediated by the painting of fourth (POF) protein on the fourth chromosome has remained elusive. Here, we show that POF binds to nascent RNA, and this binding is associated with increased transcription output from chromosome 4. We also show that genes located in heterochromatic regions spend less time in transition from the site of transcription to the nuclear envelope. These results provide useful insights into the means by which genes in heterochromatic regions can overcome the repressive influence of their hostile environment.

  9. Simulation of a Collision between Passenger Car and Child Pedestrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Schejbalová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Forensic Experts in Transportation at the Faculty of Transportation Sciences performed a second set of dynamic passive safety tests of a passenger car (M1 category - Škoda Octavia II in a child pedestrian collision. The initial and test conditions were similar to those of the first set of tests in September 2009 (Škoda Roomster. The deformations of the contact zones on the frontal vehicle surface were analyzed by a 3D scanning technology (3D handy scanner. Head, thorax and pelvic resultant acceleration, acceleration of knee joint in sagittal direction and contact force on the femoral structure of the dummy (P6 dummy, 1.17m; 22kg were measured. The aim of these tests is to provide a detailed description of pedestrian kinematics and comparison of primary and secondary impact seriousness.KEY WORDSpassenger car, child pedestrian, primary and secondary impact, dummy instrumentation, injury criteria, 3D scanning

  10. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  11. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...... of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... operations are becoming available. The use of advanced planning and recovery methods in the railway industry currently gains momentum. The current paper gives a short overview over the methods used for planning and disruption management in the airline industry. The situation regarding railway optimization...

  12. Biodosimetry of heavy ions by interphase chromosome painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; Kawata, T.; Nakano, T.; Yamada, S.; Tsujii, H.

    1998-11-01

    We report measurements of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes from cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. Patients with cervix or esophageal cancer were treated with 10 MV X-rays produced at a LINAC accelerator, or high-energy carbon ions produced at the HIMAC accelerator at the National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the radiation treatment. Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by incubation in calyculin A. Aberrations in chromosomes 2 and 4 were scored after fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole-chromosome probes. Pre-treatment samples were exposed in vitro to X-rays, individual dose-response curves for the induction of chromosomal aberrations were determined, and used as calibration curves to calculate the effective whole-body dose absorbed during the treatment. This calculated dose, based on the calibration curve relative to the induction of reciprocal exchanges, has a sharp increase after the first few fractions of the treatment, then saturates at high doses. Although carbon ions are 2-3 times more effective than X-rays in tumor sterilization, the effective dose was similar to that of X-ray treatment. However, the frequency of complex-type chromosomal exchanges was much higher for patients treated with carbon ions than X-ray.

  13. Micromechanical study of protein-DNA interactions and chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, John

    I will discuss micromechanics experiments that our group has used to analyze protein-DNA interactions and chromosome organization. In single-DNA experiments we have found that a feature of protein-DNA complexes is that their dissociation rates can depend strikingly on bulk solution concentrations of other proteins and DNA segments; I will describe experiments which demonstrate this effect, which can involve tens-fold changes in off-rates with submicromolar changes in solution concentrations. Second, I will discuss experiments aimed at analyzing large-scale human chromosome structure; we isolate metaphase chromosomes, which in their native form behave as remarkably elastic networks of chromatin. Exposure to DNA-cutting restriction enzymes completely eliminates this elasticity, indicating that there is not a mechanically contiguous protein ''scaffold'' from which the chromosome gains its stability. I will show results of siRNA experiments indicating that depletion of condensin proteins leads to destabilization of chromosome mechanics, indicating condensin's role as the major chromatin ''cross-linker'' in metaphase chromosomes. Finally I will discuss similar experiments on human G1 nuclei, where we use genetic and chemical modifications to separate the contributions of the nuclear lamina and chromatin to the mechanical stiffness of the nucleus as a whole. Supported by the NSF (DMR-1206868, MCB-1022117) and the NIH (GM105847, CA193419).

  14. Bacillus subtilis chromosome organization oscillates between two distinct patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xindan; Montero Llopis, Paula; Rudner, David Z

    2014-09-02

    Bacterial chromosomes have been found to possess one of two distinct patterns of spatial organization. In the first, called "ori-ter" and exemplified by Caulobacter crescentus, the chromosome arms lie side-by-side, with the replication origin and terminus at opposite cell poles. In the second, observed in slow-growing Escherichia coli ("left-ori-right"), the two chromosome arms reside in separate cell halves, on either side of a centrally located origin. These two patterns, rotated 90° relative to each other, appear to result from different segregation mechanisms. Here, we show that the Bacillus subtilis chromosome alternates between them. For most of the cell cycle, newly replicated origins are maintained at opposite poles with chromosome arms adjacent to each other, in an ori-ter configuration. Shortly after replication initiation, the duplicated origins move as a unit to midcell and the two unreplicated arms resolve into opposite cell halves, generating a left-ori-right pattern. The origins are then actively segregated toward opposite poles, resetting the cycle. Our data suggest that the condensin complex and the parABS partitioning system are the principal driving forces underlying this oscillatory cycle. We propose that the distinct organization patterns observed for bacterial chromosomes reflect a common organization-segregation mechanism, and that simple modifications to it underlie the unique patterns observed in different species.

  15. The influence of sex chromosome aneuploidy on brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Roozbeh; Daly, Eileen M; Cutter, William J; Murphy, Declan G M; Robertson, Dene M W; DeLisi, Lynn E; Mackay, Clare E; Barrick, Thomas R; Crow, Timothy J; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-05

    The cognitive deficits present in individuals with sex chromosome aneuploidies suggest that hemispheric differentiation of function is determined by an X-Y homologous gene [Crow (1993); Lancet 342:594-598]. In particular, females with Turner's syndrome (TS) who have only one X-chromosome exhibit deficits of spatial ability whereas males with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) who possess a supernumerary X-chromosome are delayed in acquiring words. Since spatial and verbal abilities are generally associated with right and left hemispheric function, such deficits may relate to anomalies of cerebral asymmetry. We therefore applied a novel image analysis technique to investigate the relationship between sex chromosome dosage and structural brain asymmetry. Specifically, we tested Crow's prediction that the magnitude of the brain torque (i.e., a combination of rightward frontal and leftward occipital asymmetry) would, as a function of sex chromosome dosage, be respectively decreased in TS women and increased in KS men, relative to genotypically normal controls. We found that brain torque was not significantly different in TS women and KS men, in comparison to controls. However, TS women exhibited significantly increased leftward brain asymmetry, restricted to the posterior of the brain and focused on the superior temporal and parietal-occipital association cortex, while KS men showed a trend for decreased brain asymmetry throughout the frontal lobes. The findings suggest that the number of sex chromosomes influences the development of brain asymmetry not simply to modify the torque but in a complex pattern along the antero-posterior axis.

  16. Sex Determination, Sex Chromosomes, and Karyotype Evolution in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Heath; Ross, Laura; Bachtrog, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Insects harbor a tremendous diversity of sex determining mechanisms both within and between groups. For example, in some orders such as Hymenoptera, all members are haplodiploid, whereas Diptera contain species with homomorphic as well as male and female heterogametic sex chromosome systems or paternal genome elimination. We have established a large database on karyotypes and sex chromosomes in insects, containing information on over 13000 species covering 29 orders of insects. This database constitutes a unique starting point to report phylogenetic patterns on the distribution of sex determination mechanisms, sex chromosomes, and karyotypes among insects and allows us to test general theories on the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes, sex chromosomes, and sex determination systems in a comparative framework. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that male heterogamety is the ancestral mode of sex determination in insects, and transitions to female heterogamety are extremely rare. Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains and losses of the sex-limited chromosome are frequent in some groups. Haplodiploidy originated several times within insects, and parthenogenesis is rare but evolves frequently. Providing a single source to electronically access data previously distributed among more than 500 articles and books will not only accelerate analyses of the assembled data, but also provide a unique resource to guide research on which taxa are likely to be informative to address specific questions, for example, for genome sequencing projects or large-scale comparative studies.

  17. Dicentric chromosomes: unique models to study centromere function and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Kaitlin M; Matheny, Justyne E; Sullivan, Beth A

    2012-07-01

    Dicentric chromosomes are products of genome rearrangement that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Depending on the organism, dicentric stability varies after formation. In humans, dicentrics occur naturally in a substantial portion of the population and usually segregate successfully in mitosis and meiosis. Their stability has been attributed to inactivation of one of the two centromeres, creating a functionally monocentric chromosome that can segregate normally during cell division. The molecular basis for centromere inactivation is not well understood, although studies in model organisms and in humans suggest that genomic and epigenetic mechanisms can be involved. Furthermore, constitutional dicentric chromosomes ascertained in patients presumably represent the most stable chromosomes, so the spectrum of dicentric fates, if it exists, is not entirely clear. Studies of engineered or induced dicentrics in budding yeast and plants have provided significant insight into the fate of dicentric chromosomes. And, more recently, studies have shown that dicentrics in humans can also undergo multiple fates after formation. Here, we discuss current experimental evidence from various organisms that has deepened our understanding of dicentric behavior and the intriguingly complex process of centromere inactivation.

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  19. Observation, simulation and optimization of the movement of passengers with baggage in railway station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2015-03-01

    To propose method that can optimize the movement efficiency of passengers in the railway station and then guarantee the personal security under emergency case, we did experimental and modeling research on the movement behavior and characteristics of the passengers in a railway station. Observation experiments were conducted to analyze the process of passengers catching trains and leaving the station, through which, the phenomena of lane changing and dislocation were found in a straight channel, and seven categories of baggage were also identified in the crowd. Analysis shows that personal speed would rise as the increasing size of the baggage. A modified lattice gas model focus on the passengers carrying baggage was further built to study passengers movement characteristics. Using this model, the effect of pause probability of passengers and the effect of channel width on movement efficiency were analyzed, according to which, a management strategy to promote the flow rate of crowd in railway station was proposed. This study may be useful to study on evacuation of the railway station, control of the passengers and formulate pre-proposal on emergency evacuation.

  20. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt.

  1. Optimal path choice in railway passenger travel network based on residual train capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Yan, Kai; Huang, Yakun; Wang, Li; Jia, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passenger's optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.

  2. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  3. Forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  4. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  5. Chromosomal location of the genes encoding complement components C5 and factor H in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eustachio, P; Kristensen, Torsten; Wetsel, R A;

    1986-01-01

    to chromosome 1 or chromosome 3. Following the inheritance of DNA restriction fragment-length polymorphisms revealed by the probes in recombinant inbred mouse strains allowed the factor H-associated fragments to be mapped to Sas-1 on chromosome 1, and the C5-associated fragments to be mapped to Hc. Analysis......Complementary DNA probes corresponding to the factor H and C5 polypeptides have been used to determine the chromosomal localizations of these two complement components. Both probes revealed complex and polymorphic arrays of DNA fragments in Southern blot analysis of mouse genomic DNA. Following...

  6. Chromosome segregation in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Jha, Jyoti; Chattoraj, Dhruba K

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation.

  7. Mechanisms of telomere loss and their consequences for chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko eMuraki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The ends of chromosomes in mammals, called telomeres, are composed of a 6 base pair repeat sequence, TTAGGG, which is added on by the enzyme telomerase. In combination with a protein complex called shelterin, these telomeric repeat sequences form a cap that protects the ends of chromosomes. Due to insufficient telomerase expression, telomeres shorten gradually with each cell division in human somatic cells, which limits the number of times they can divide. The extensive cell division involved in cancer cell progression therefore requires that cancer cells must acquire the ability to maintain telomeres, either through expression of telomerase, or through an alternative mechanism involving recombination. It is commonly thought that the source of many chromosome rearrangements in cancer cells is a result of the extensive telomere shortening that occurs prior to the expression of telomerase. However, despite the expression of telomerase, tumor cells can continue to show chromosome instability due to telomere loss. Dysfunctional telomeres in cancer cells can result from oncogene-induced replication stress, which results in double-strand breaks (DSBs at fragile sites, including telomeres. DSBs near telomeres are especially prone to chromosome rearrangements, because telomeric regions are deficient in DSB repair. The deficiency in DSB repair near telomeres is also an important mechanism for ionizing radiation-induced replicative senescence in normal human cells. In addition, DSBs near telomeres can result in chromosome instability in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that telomere loss can contribute to heritable chromosome rearrangements. Consistent with this possibility, telomeric regions in humans are highly heterogeneous, and chromosome rearrangements near telomeres are commonly involved in human genetic disease. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere loss will therefore provide important insights into both human cancer and genetic disease.

  8. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  9. The influence of the current intensity on the damping characteristics for a magneto-rheological damper of passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, A.; Andreescu, C. N.; Stan, C.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their simplicity and controllability, adaptive dampers became very popular in automotive engineering industry, especially in the passenger cars industry, in spite of technological obstacles inherent and the high cost of the magnetic fluid. “MagneRide” is the first technology which uses smart fluids in the shock absorbers of the vehicles adaptive suspensions. Since the discovery of the magneto-rheological effect there is a consistent progress regarding the control algorithms and hardware part itself. These magneto-rheological devices have a major potential which can be explored in various fields of applications. At present many companies make researches for the improvement of the response time and for obtaining a better response at low frequency and amplitude of the body car oscillations. The main objective of this paper is to determine the damping characteristic of a magnetorheological shock absorber of a passenger car. The authors aim to observe how to modify the damping characteristic by changing the intensity of the electric current. The experimental researches have being carried out on a complex and modern test bench especially built for testing shock absorbers, in order to compare the damping characteristic of the classical damper with the magneto-rheological damper.

  10. Hidden chromosome symmetry: in silico transformation reveals symmetry in 2D DNA walk trajectories of 671 chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Poptsova

    Full Text Available Maps of 2D DNA walk of 671 examined chromosomes show composition complexity change from symmetrical half-turn in bacteria to pseudo-random trajectories in archaea, fungi and humans. In silico transformation of gene order and strand position returns most of the analyzed chromosomes to a symmetrical bacterial-like state with one transition point. The transformed chromosomal sequences also reveal remarkable segmental compositional symmetry between regions from different strands located equidistantly from the transition point. Despite extensive chromosome rearrangement the relation of gene numbers on opposite strands for chromosomes of different taxa varies in narrow limits around unity with Pearson coefficient r = 0.98. Similar relation is observed for total genes' length (r = 0.86 and cumulative GC (r = 0.95 and AT (r = 0.97 skews. This is also true for human coding sequences (CDS, which comprise only several percent of the entire chromosome length. We found that frequency distributions of the length of gene clusters, continuously located on the same strand, have close values for both strands. Eukaryotic gene distribution is believed to be non-random. Contribution of different subsystems to the noted symmetries and distributions, and evolutionary aspects of symmetry are discussed.

  11. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Bhattacharyya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sterility (HS belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.

  12. Synchronized dial-a-ride transportation of disabled passengers at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. The problem of transporting these passengers is in some cases a multi-modal transportation problem with synchronization constraints. A description of the problem together with a mathematical...... model is presented. The objective is to schedule as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution...

  13. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair for transfer of disabled passengers at a large airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmert, W; Löwenthal, I; Rückert, A

    1990-01-01

    Transferring disabled passengers to the aircraft, both arriving and departing, is one passenger service at a big airport. We use different ergonomic research methods (registration of heart rate, AET job analysis as well as a standardized questionnaire) to evaluate the present wheelchair design. Due to e.g. the high wheelchair backrest, the forces needed to handle the chair and other facts, the current wheelchair causes a strain bottleneck. The results of the AET analysis and the rating of the perceived exertion confirm this finding. A redesigned wheelchair based on ergonomic principles, which reduces stress on the employees and offers more comfort to disabled passengers, is presented.

  14. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  15. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  16. Onshore catering increases the risk of diarrhoeal illness amongst cruise ship passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R E; Selvey, L; Crome, M; Beers, M

    2001-01-01

    Of 134 Queensland passengers on a cruise, 91 (67.9%) people reported various illnesses including 41 (30.6%) who reported diarrhoeal symptoms. Queensland passengers who ate while onshore at non-Australian ports were significantly more at risk of developing diarrhoeal symptoms than those who did not. Passengers were particularly at risk when they ate onshore while undertaking a tour compared with those who did not undertake this tour. Travellers should be warned of the possibility of contracting diarrhoeal illness from onshore catering.

  17. Multi-level Extensible Synthetic Evaluation of the Quality of Passenger Transport Service of High-speed Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes the evaluation index system of the quality of passenger transport service of highspeed rail based on the characteristics of passenger transport and determines the index weights with the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. In order to make up for the deficiencies of present quality evaluation method of passenger transport service of high-speed rail, this study develops the multi-level extensible synthetic evaluation model of the quality of passenger transport service of high-speed rail with the core of extension method based on the questionnaire survey to the passengers. This study tests the model with the data surveyed in a passenger station of high-speed rail, which can not only expand extension application areas, but also provide new ideas and means for the evaluation of the quality of passenger transport service of high-speed rail.

  18. Models that include supercoiling of topological domains reproduce several known features of interphase chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Dorier, Julien; Burnier, Yannis; Stasiak, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the structure of interphase chromosomes is essential to elucidate regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. During recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing expanded the power of chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods that provide information about reciprocal spatial proximity of chromosomal loci. Since 2012, it is known that entire chromatin in interphase chromosomes is organized into regions with strongly increased frequency of internal contacts. These regions, with the average size of ∼1 Mb, were named topological domains. More recent studies demonstrated presence of unconstrained supercoiling in interphase chromosomes. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show here that by including supercoiling into models of topological domains one can reproduce and thus provide possible explanations of several experimentally observed characteristics of interphase chromosomes, such as their complex contact maps.

  19. Tolerance of Whole-Genome Doubling Propagates Chromosomal Instability and Accelerates Cancer Genome Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewhurst, Sally M.; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A.;

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of whole-genome doubling to chromosomal instability (CIN) and tumor evolution is unclear. We use long-term culture of isogenic tetraploid cells from a stable diploid colon cancer progenitor to investigate how a genome-doubling event affects genome stability over time. Rare cells...... that survive genome doubling demonstrate increased tolerance to chromosome aberrations. Tetraploid cells do not exhibit increased frequencies of structural or numerical CIN per chromosome. However, the tolerant phenotype in tetraploid cells, coupled with a doubling of chromosome aberrations per cell, allows...... chromosome abnormalities to evolve specifically in tetraploids, recapitulating chromosomal changes in genomically complex colorectal tumors. Finally, a genome-doubling event is independently predictive of poor relapse-free survival in early-stage disease in two independent cohorts in multivariate analyses...

  20. Role of the Number of Microtubules in Chromosome Segregation during Cell Division

    CERN Document Server

    Bertalan, Zsolt; La Porta, Caterina A M; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of chromosomes between two spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated so that coherent chromosome motion emerges from a large collection of random and deterministic processes. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation during mitosis. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compa...

  1. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  2. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements associated with chromosome 3 and/or chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka; Kallioniemi, Anne; Sakamoto, Masaru

    2008-09-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  3. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements associated with chromosome 3 and/or chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W. (San Francisco, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Lafayette, CA); Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka (Turku, FI); Kallioniemi, Anne (Tampere, FI); Sakamoto, Masaru (Tokyo, JP)

    2009-10-06

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ .[.nudeic.]. .Iadd.nucleic .Iaddend.acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  4. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements associated with chromosome 3 and/or chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Kallioniemi, Olli-Pekka (Tampere, FI); Kallioniemi, Anne (Tampere, FI); Sakamoto, Masaru (Tokyo, JP)

    2002-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nudeic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  5. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J.; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae com...

  6. B chromosomes and sex in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, J P M; Schmid, M; Cabrero, J

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes are dispensable elements found in many eukaryote genomes in addition to standard (A) chromosomes. In many respects, B chromosomes resemble sex chromosomes, so that a common ancestry for them has frequently been suggested. For instance, B chromosomes in grasshoppers, and other insects, show a pycnotic cycle of condensation-decondensation during meiosis remarkably similar to that of the X chromosome. In some cases, B chromosome size is even very similar to that of the X chromosome. These resemblances have led to suggest the X as the B ancestor in many cases. In addition, sex chromosome origin from B chromosomes has also been suggested. In this article, we review the existing evidence for both evolutionary pathways, as well as sex differences for B frequency at adult and embryo progeny levels, B chromosome effects or B chromosome transmission. In addition, we review cases found in the literature showing sex-ratio distortion associated with B chromosome presence, the most extreme case being the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosomes in some Hymenoptera. We finally analyse the possibility of B chromosome regularisation within the host genome and, as a consequence of it, whether B chromosomes can become regular members of the host genome.

  7. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  8. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, Francis J; Sahin, Mustafa; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13. The clinical phenotypes resulting from mutations in either of the 2 genes are variable in each individual. Herein, advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis complex are reviewed, and current guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and management are summarized.

  9. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Both Chromosome Decondensation and Condensation Are Dependent on DNA Replication in C. elegans Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Remi; Craig, Gillian; Labib, Karim; Gartner, Anton; Blow, J Julian

    2015-07-21

    During cell division, chromatin alternates between a condensed state to facilitate chromosome segregation and a decondensed form when DNA replicates. In most tissues, S phase and mitosis are separated by defined G1 and G2 gap phases, but early embryogenesis involves rapid oscillations between replication and mitosis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos as a model system, we show that chromosome condensation and condensin II concentration on chromosomal axes require replicated DNA. In addition, we found that, during late telophase, replication initiates on condensed chromosomes and promotes the rapid decondensation of the chromatin. Upon replication initiation, the CDC-45-MCM-GINS (CMG) DNA helicase drives the release of condensin I complexes from chromatin and the activation or displacement of inactive MCM-2-7 complexes, which together with the nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS tethers condensed chromatin to the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting chromatin decondensation. Our results show how, in an early embryo, the chromosome-condensation cycle is functionally linked with DNA replication.

  11. Flow karyotyping and sorting of human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Peters, D.; Pinkel, D.; Trask, B.; van den Engh, G.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1986-07-16

    Flow cytometry and sorting are becoming increasingly useful as tools for chromosome classfication and for the detection of numerical and structural chromosome aberrations. Chromosomes of a single type can be purified with these tools to facilitate gene mapping or production of chromosome specific recombinant DNA libraries. For analysis of chromosomes with flow cytometry, the chromosomes are extracted from mitotic cells, stained with one or more fluorescent dyes and classified one-by-one according to their dye content(s). Thus, the flow approach is fundamentally different than conventional karyotyping where chromosomes are classified within the context of a metaphase spread. Flow sorting allows purification of chromosomes that can be distinguished flow cytometrically. The authors describe the basic principles of flow cytometric chromosome classification i.e. flow karyotyping, and chromosome sorting and describe several applications. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Application of Vibrational Power Flow to a Passenger Car for Reduction of Interior Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of structure-borne noise in the compartment of a car is an important task in automotive engineering. Transfer path analysis using the vibroacoustic reciprocity technique or multiple path decomposition method has generally been used for structure-borne noise path analysis. These methods are useful for solving a particular problem, but they do not quantify the effectiveness of vibration isolation of each isolator of a vehicle. To quantify the effectiveness of vibration isolation, vibrational power flow has been used for a simple isolation system or a laboratory-based isolation system. It is often difficult to apply the vibrational power flow technique to a complex isolation system like a car. In this paper, a simple equation is derived for calculation of the vibrational power flow of an isolation system with multiple isolators such as a car. It is successfully applied not only to quantifying the relative contributions of eighteen isolators, but also to reducing the structure-borne noise of a passenger car. According to the results, the main contributor of the eighteen isolators is the rear roll mount of an engine. The reduced structure-borne noise level is about 5dBA.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  14. 75 FR 79077 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... accounts for less than 1 percent of the total annual enplanements at Quad City International Airport. Brief... Hebert, Manager, Financial Analysis and Passenger Facility Charge Branch. BILLING CODE 4910-13-M...

  15. Ticket Pricing in Railway Passenger Transport:Bi-level Programming Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZiyouGao; JianhuaChen

    2004-01-01

    Besides of considering of the maximization of public interest, the benefit of passengers and railway enterprises are both considered and a bi-level programming approach is presented in order to seek the optimal railway passenger-ticket pricing strategy under the condition of competition among different intercity traffic modes. There are two bi-level programming problems. One bi-level problem is to determine a railway passenger-ticket average price strategy to meet .the objective of maximizing the consumer surplus under the condition of multi-modal transportation with elastic demand. The other bi-level problem is to determine the price of different kinds of the passenger trains to meet the objective of maximizing the railway revenue where the average price and the demand of the railway is determined. A heuristic algorithm for the two bi-level programming models is also proposed. Finally the applications of the model and its algorithm are illustrated with a numerical example.

  16. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... passenger weight estimations then underway by the Federal Aviation Administration and the United States... Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) (Pub. L. 112-141). Section 20014 of...

  17. 76 FR 70807 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... emergency radio dispatch system is used for both eligible (aircraft rescue and firefighting and aviation... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Monthly notice of PFC approvals...

  18. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... weight and 195 lb. winter weight passenger weight averages (See, Advisory Circular 120-27E, ``Aircraft... action is not expected to adversely affect any sector of the economy. In addition, these changes will...

  19. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... councils and planning organizations, neighboring States, railroads, transportation modal partners... proposals for Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects. SUMMARY... used for planning activities. The appropriations act permits the Secretary of Transportation to...

  20. 76 FR 43370 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ..., phase 3. Security system construction. Terminal lighting and ceiling rehabilitation. Terminal boiler.../rehabilitation. Terminal passenger services area improvements. Terminal Americans with Disabilities Act improvements. Install runway guard lights. North quadrant general aviation ramp. Taxiway G widening and...

  1. 77 FR 69539 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2007 Chevrolet Corvette Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...--Rearview Mirrors: Installation of a U.S.-model passenger side rearview mirror, or inscription of ] the required warning statement on the face of the existing mirror. Standard No. 208--Occupant Crash...

  2. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  3. Investigation of lateral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification method for fly-by-wire passenger airliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhao; Wang Lixin; Lin Jiaming; Ai Junqiang

    2014-01-01

    A new identification method is proposed to solve the problem of the influence on the loaded excitation signals brought by high feedback gain augmentation in lateral-directional aerody-namic parameters identification of fly-by-wire (FBW) passenger airliners. Taking for example an FBW passenger airliner model with directional relaxed-static-stability, through analysis of its signal energy distribution and airframe frequency response, a new method is proposed for signal type selec-tion, signal parameters design, and the appropriate frequency relationship between the aileron and rudder excitation signals. A simulation validation is presented of the FBW passenger airliner’s lat-eral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification. The validation result demonstrates that the designed signal can excite the lateral-directional motion mode of the FBW passenger airliner ade-quately and persistently. Meanwhile, the relative errors of aerodynamic parameters are less than 5%.

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. Modeling and simulation of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Cheng-Xuan; Xu Yan; Li Ke-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new formula of the real-time minimum safety headway based on the relative velocity of consecutive trains and present a dynamic model of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line based on the proposed formula of the minimum safety headway.Moreover,we provide the control strategies of the high-speed passenger train operations based on the proposed formula of the real-time minimum safety headway and the dynamic model of highspeed passenger train movements.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategies of the passenger train operations can greatly reduce the delay propagation in the high-speed rail line when a random delay occurs.

  6. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  7. ON PROBABILITY FUNCTION OF TRIP ROUTE CHOICE IN PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nefedof

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical processing of experimental research data in Kharkiv, aimed at determining the relation between the passenger trip choice probability and the actual vehicles waiting time at bus terminals are presented.

  8. Accidental decapitation: an unusual injury to a passenger in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, K; Yonemitsu, K; Honjyo, K; Tsunenari, S

    1999-01-01

    A case of decapitation of a vehicle passenger in an accident on a highway is reported. Evaluation of roadside evidence and the deceased's injuries revealed that the victim was partially ejected from a broken passenger-side window as the vehicle spun out of control, decapitation being due to the impact of his head against a barrier stanchion on the shoulder of the road. An unfastened seat-belt, high-speed driving and the construction of the road barrier were contributory factors.

  9. Estimation of Congestion Cost of Private Passenger Car Users in Malioboro, Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sutomo H.; Munawar A.; Malkhamah S.; Sugiyanto G.

    2010-01-01

    Congestion is the condition when the hourly traffic demand exceeds the maximum sustainable hourly throughout of the link. The aim of this research is to estimate the congestion cost of private passenger car users in central business district along the corridor of Malioboro, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The amount of the congestion cost is the difference between perceived and actual generalized cost in traffic jam condition. In this paper, only the congestion costs of private passenger car users are...

  10. 染色体14q+畸形胎儿的产前细胞遗传学研究%Cytogenetic analysis of a complex chromosomal imbalance 14q+ in a fetus featuring multiple congenital defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璃; 胡平; 许争峰; 周晓燕; 季修庆; 杨吟秋; 曹荔; 周静; 刘安; 成建; 刘邺

    2012-01-01

    目的 用微阵列比较基因组杂交技术(array-based comparative genomic hybridization,array-CGH)对1例染色体不平衡易位先天性缺陷胎儿进行检测,分析胎儿基因型和表型的相关性,确定其致病原因,并探讨array-CGH在产前遗传学诊断中的应用价值.方法 对超声显示先天性心脏畸形、侧脑室偏宽的1例胎儿进行羊水细胞及其父母外周血细胞G显带核型分析,发现胎儿核型为46,XY,-14,+der14 (q31)?,双亲核型正常;进一步应用array- CGH芯片对胎儿进行全基因组高分辨率扫描分析,确定染色体不平衡的来源、精确位置和大小.结果 Array-CGH结果显示胎儿核型为:46,XY,-14,+der(12;14)(p13;q32.33)del(14) (q32.33-qter).结论 del(14)(q32.33→qter)部分单体可能是胎儿心脏病发病的遗传学原因;array-CGH具有高分辨率和高准确性的优点,适用于产前遗传学诊断,从而为遗传咨询提供更详细的信息.%Objective To analyze chromosomal imbalance in a fetus presenting with congenital heart disease and mild lateral ventriculomegaly, and to investigate the correlation between genotype and phenotype.The etiology of the fetal congenital diseases was determined,and the feasibility of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) application in molecular cytogenetic diagnosis was evaluated. Methods Following conventional G-banding analysis, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was applied to delineate the precise location and size of genomic imbalance.Results A de novo 46,XY,- 14,+ der14 (q31)? karyotype was identified in the fetus by G-banding analysis.Array-CGH has verified the chromosomal imbalance to be 46,XY,- 14,+ der ( 12 ; 14) (p13 ;q32.33) del(14)(q32.33→qter).Conclusion del(14)(q32.33-qter) is probably the predominant cause of the fetal congenital disease.For its high resolution and accuracy,array-CGH has provided a powerful tool for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  11. Chromosome therapy. Correction of large chromosomal aberrations by inducing ring chromosomes in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Bershteyn, Marina; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of these large-scale aberrations affecting multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have so far been proposed. Our recent study (Bershteyn et al.) using patient-derived fibroblast lines containing ring chromosomes, found that cellular reprogramming of these fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resulted in the cell-autonomous correction of the ring chromosomal aberration via compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD). These observations have important implications for studying the mechanism of chromosomal number control and may lead to the development of effective therapies for other, more common, chromosomal aberrations.

  12. Meiotic recombination analyses of individual chromosomes in male domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frédéric; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes.

  13. Passenger Flow Prediction of Subway Transfer Stations Based on Nonparametric Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow is increasing dramatically with accomplishment of subway network system in big cities of China. As convergence nodes of subway lines, transfer stations need to assume more passengers due to amount transfer demand among different lines. Then, transfer facilities have to face great pressure such as pedestrian congestion or other abnormal situations. In order to avoid pedestrian congestion or warn the management before it occurs, it is very necessary to predict the transfer passenger flow to forecast pedestrian congestions. Thus, based on nonparametric regression theory, a transfer passenger flow prediction model was proposed. In order to test and illustrate the prediction model, data of transfer passenger flow for one month in XIDAN transfer station were used to calibrate and validate the model. By comparing with Kalman filter model and support vector machine regression model, the results show that the nonparametric regression model has the advantages of high accuracy and strong transplant ability and could predict transfer passenger flow accurately for different intervals.

  14. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment.

  15. Crystal Structure of the Passenger Domain of the Escherichia coli Autotransporter EspP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shekeb; Mian, Hira S.; Sandercock, Linda E.; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.; Pai, Emil F. (Toronto); (OCI)

    2013-03-07

    Autotransporters represent a large superfamily of known and putative virulence factors produced by Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of an N-terminal 'passenger domain' responsible for the specific effector functions of the molecule and a C-terminal '{beta}-domain' responsible for translocation of the passenger across the bacterial outer membrane. Here, we present the 2.5-{angstrom} crystal structure of the passenger domain of the extracellular serine protease EspP, produced by the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and a member of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs). Like the previously structurally characterized SPATE passenger domains, the EspP passenger domain contains an extended right-handed parallel {beta}-helix preceded by an N-terminal globular domain housing the catalytic function of the protease. Of note, however, is the absence of a second globular domain protruding from this {beta}-helix. We describe the structure of the EspP passenger domain in the context of previous results and provide an alternative hypothesis for the function of the {beta}-helix within SPATEs.

  16. Optimal Path Choice in Railway Passenger Travel Network Based on Residual Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger’s optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.

  17. Cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m) chromosomes of Triticum monococcum and the A chromosomes of Triticum aestivum using microsatellite DNA repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Mária; Mikó, Péter; Farkas, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Molnár, István

    2017-02-01

    The cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m)- and A-genome chromosomes facilitates the selection of wheat-Triticum monococcum introgression lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the commonly used DNA probes Afa family, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 showed that the more complex hybridisation pattern obtained in T. monococcum relative to bread wheat made it possible to differentiate the A(m) and A chromosomes within homoeologous groups 1, 4 and 5. In order to provide additional chromosomal landmarks to discriminate the A(m) and A chromosomes, the microsatellite repeats (GAA)n, (CAG)n, (CAC)n, (AAC)n, (AGG)n and (ACT)n were tested as FISH probes. These showed that T. monococcum chromosomes have fewer, generally weaker, simple sequence repeat (SSR) signals than the A-genome chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. A differential hybridisation pattern was observed on 6A(m) and 6A chromosomes with all the SSR probes tested except for the (ACT)n probe. The 2A(m) and 2A chromosomes were differentiated by the signals given by the (GAA)n, (CAG)n and (AAC)n repeats, while only (GAA)n discriminated the chromosomes 3A(m) and 3A. Chromosomes 7A(m) and 7A could be differentiated by the lack of (GAA)n and (AGG)n signals on 7A. As potential landmarks for identifying the A(m) chromosomes, SSR repeats will facilitate the introgression of T. monococcum chromatin into wheat.

  18. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  19. The Chromosomal Courtship Dance-homolog pairing in early meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutstein, Michael; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2014-02-01

    The intermingling of genomes that characterizes sexual reproduction requires haploid gametes in which parental homologs have recombined. For this, homologs must pair during meiosis. In a crowded nucleus where sequence homology is obscured by the enormous scale and packaging of the genome, partner alignment is no small task. Here we review the early stages of this process. Chromosomes first establish an initial docking site, usually at telomeres or centromeres. The acquisition of chromosome-specific patterns of binding factors facilitates homolog recognition. Chromosomes are then tethered to the nuclear envelope (NE) and subjected to nuclear movements that 'shake off' inappropriate contacts while consolidating homolog associations. Thereafter, homolog connections are stabilized by building the synaptonemal complex or its equivalent and creating genetic crossovers. Recent perspectives on the roles of these stages will be discussed.

  20. Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases: the X chromosome-nucleolus nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley H; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune